The “FarAboveAll” Translation of the Old Testament / Tanakh

Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther

Version 0.27, 3 November, 2017

Summary

We offer a freely copyable translation of the Old Testament / Tanakh based on the Masoretic Text. The translation follows the Masoretic text, ketiv or qeré (which will be indicated), and vowels (but we retain freedom regarding word grouping), except that the changes made by the Sopherim are reversed (see Companion Bible Appendices 32 and 33). Textual and explanatory remarks may be made in the notes. Our translation may be freely copied (see copyright notices below).

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The introduction, the English translation and notes (referred to as "this text" below) Copyright © 2009-2017 by Graham G Thomason.
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Introduction

Please see the separate introduction to this Hebrew / Aramaic text and translation.

VERSE HEBREW/ARAMAIC ENGLISH NOTES
Ruth 1:1 ‫וַיְהִ֗י בִּימֵי֙ שְׁפֹ֣ט הַשֹּׁפְטִ֔ים וַיְהִ֥י רָעָ֖ב בָּאָ֑רֶץ וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ אִ֜ישׁ מִבֵּ֧ית לֶ֣חֶם יְהוּדָ֗ה לָגוּר֙ בִּשְׂדֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב ה֥וּא וְאִשְׁתּ֖וֹ וּשְׁנֵ֥י בָנָֽיו׃‬ And it came to pass in the days when the judges were judging that there was a famine in the land, and a man went from Bethlehem-judah to live in the plains of Moab – he and his wife and his two sons. there was a famine: a famine came.

Bethlehem-judah: see Gn 35:19.
Ruth 1:2 ‫וְשֵׁ֣ם הָאִ֣ישׁ אֱ‍ֽלִימֶ֡לֶךְ וְשֵׁם֩ אִשְׁתּ֨וֹ נָעֳמִ֜י וְשֵׁ֥ם שְׁנֵֽי־בָנָ֣יו ׀ מַחְל֤וֹן וְכִלְיוֹן֙ אֶפְרָתִ֔ים מִבֵּ֥ית לֶ֖חֶם יְהוּדָ֑ה וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ שְׂדֵי־מוֹאָ֖ב וַיִּֽהְיוּ־שָֽׁם׃‬ Now the name of the man was Elimelech, and the name of his wife was Naomi, and the names of his two sons were Mahlon and Chilion, Ephrathites of Bethlehem-judah. And they came to the plains of Moab and stayed there. Bethlehem-judah: see Gn 35:19.

stayed ← were.
Ruth 1:3 ‫וַיָּ֥מָת אֱלִימֶ֖לֶךְ אִ֣ישׁ נָעֳמִ֑י וַתִּשָּׁאֵ֥ר הִ֖יא וּשְׁנֵ֥י בָנֶֽיהָ׃‬ Then Elimelech the husband of Naomi died, and she was left with her two sons. with ← and.
Ruth 1:4 ‫וַיִּשְׂא֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם נָשִׁים֙ מֹֽאֲבִיּ֔וֹת שֵׁ֤ם הָֽאַחַת֙ עָרְפָּ֔ה וְשֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית ר֑וּת וַיֵּ֥שְׁבוּ שָׁ֖ם כְּעֶ֥שֶׂר שָׁנִֽים׃‬ And they took Moabitess wives. The name of one was Orpah, and the name of the other was Ruth, and they dwelt there for about ten years. took ← took for themselves.
Ruth 1:5 ‫וַיָּמ֥וּתוּ גַם־שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם מַחְל֣וֹן וְכִלְי֑וֹן וַתִּשָּׁאֵר֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה מִשְּׁנֵ֥י יְלָדֶ֖יהָ וּמֵאִישָֽׁהּ׃‬ Then both Mahlon and Chilion died too, and the woman was left bereaved of her two children and her husband. both ← both of them.
Ruth 1:6 ‫וַתָּ֤קָם הִיא֙ וְכַלֹּתֶ֔יהָ וַתָּ֖שָׁב מִשְּׂדֵ֣י מוֹאָ֑ב כִּ֤י שָֽׁמְעָה֙ בִּשְׂדֵ֣ה מוֹאָ֔ב כִּֽי־פָקַ֤ד יְהוָה֙ אֶת־עַמּ֔וֹ לָתֵ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם לָֽחֶם׃‬ So she got up, she and her daughters-in-law, and returned from the plains of Moab, for she had heard in the plain of Moab that the Lord had visited his people by giving them bread. by giving: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Ruth 1:7 ‫וַתֵּצֵ֗א מִן־הַמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיְתָה־שָׁ֔מָּה וּשְׁתֵּ֥י כַלֹּתֶ֖יהָ עִמָּ֑הּ וַתֵּלַ֣כְנָה בַדֶּ֔רֶךְ לָשׁ֖וּב אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ יְהוּדָֽה׃‬ And she departed from the place where she had been, together with her two daughters-in-law, and they went on the way to return to the land of Judah.
Ruth 1:8 ‫וַתֹּ֤אמֶר נָעֳמִי֙ לִשְׁתֵּ֣י כַלֹּתֶ֔יהָ לֵ֣כְנָה שֹּׁ֔בְנָה אִשָּׁ֖ה לְבֵ֣ית אִמָּ֑הּ *יעשה **יַ֣עַשׂ יְהוָ֤ה עִמָּכֶם֙ חֶ֔סֶד כַּאֲשֶׁ֧ר עֲשִׂיתֶ֛ם עִם־הַמֵּתִ֖ים וְעִמָּדִֽי׃‬ Then Naomi said to her two daughters-in-law, “Go and return, each to your mother's house. May the Lord act kindly with you, as you have done with the dead and with me. may ... act: the qeré is an apocopated form of the ketiv, perhaps emphasizing the jussive force.

your ← her. Hebrew each takes the third person pronoun.
Ruth 1:9 ‫יִתֵּ֤ן יְהוָה֙ לָכֶ֔ם וּמְצֶ֣אןָ מְנוּחָ֔ה אִשָּׁ֖ה בֵּ֣ית אִישָׁ֑הּ וַתִּשַּׁ֣ק לָהֶ֔ן וַתִּשֶּׂ֥אנָה קוֹלָ֖ן וַתִּבְכֶּֽינָה׃‬ May the Lord grant that you find rest, each in your husband's house.” And she kissed them, and they raised their voice and wept. your ← her. See Ruth 1:8.
Ruth 1:10 ‫וַתֹּאמַ֖רְנָה־לָּ֑הּ כִּי־אִתָּ֥ךְ נָשׁ֖וּב לְעַמֵּֽךְ׃‬ But they said to her, “It is with you that we will return – to your people.” it is with you that: this brings out the mildly adversative ↴
Ruth 1:11 ‫וַתֹּ֤אמֶר נָעֳמִי֙ שֹׁ֣בְנָה בְנֹתַ֔י לָ֥מָּה תֵלַ֖כְנָה עִמִּ֑י הַֽעֽוֹד־לִ֤י בָנִים֙ בְּֽמֵעַ֔י וְהָי֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם לַאֲנָשִֽׁים׃‬ But Naomi said, “Go back, my daughters. Why should you go with me? Do I have any more sons in my womb, to be your husbands? ↳ force of כִּי, ki. Alternatively, ki is simply a marker of direct speech, like our inverted commas, with no translational import.
Ruth 1:12 ‫שֹׁ֤בְנָה בְנֹתַי֙ לֵ֔כְןָ כִּ֥י זָקַ֖נְתִּי מִהְי֣וֹת לְאִ֑ישׁ כִּ֤י אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ יֶשׁ־לִ֣י תִקְוָ֔ה גַּ֣ם הָיִ֤יתִי הַלַּ֙יְלָה֙ לְאִ֔ישׁ וְגַ֖ם יָלַ֥דְתִּי בָנִֽים׃‬ Go back, my daughters, go, for I am too old for a husband to have me, for I have said, ‘Is there hope for me, even if a husband had me tonight, and even if I gave birth to sons,
Ruth 1:13 ‫הֲלָהֵ֣ן ׀ תְּשַׂבֵּ֗רְנָה עַ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִגְדָּ֔לוּ הֲלָהֵן֙ תֵּֽעָגֵ֔נָה לְבִלְתִּ֖י הֱי֣וֹת לְאִ֑ישׁ אַ֣ל בְּנֹתַ֗י כִּֽי־מַר־לִ֤י מְאֹד֙ מִכֶּ֔ם כִּֽי־יָצְאָ֥ה בִ֖י יַד־יְהוָֽה׃‬ would you wait for them until they grew up? Would you refrain from belonging to another husband for them?’ No, my daughters. For it is much more bitter for me than you, because the hand of the Lord has gone out against me.” for them (2x): discordant in gender (but that is common in Hebrew), or alternatively, it is the Aramaic word for therefore – see [Ges-HG, §103f note 4]. Aramaic also in the ketiv of Ruth 3:3, Ruth 3:4, Ruth 4:5.
Ruth 1:14 ‫וַתִּשֶּׂ֣נָה קוֹלָ֔ן וַתִּבְכֶּ֖ינָה ע֑וֹד וַתִּשַּׁ֤ק עָרְפָּה֙ לַחֲמוֹתָ֔הּ וְר֖וּת דָּ֥בְקָה בָּֽהּ׃‬ And they raised their voice and wept again, and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth clung to her.
Ruth 1:15 ‫וַתֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּה֙ שָׁ֣בָה יְבִמְתֵּ֔ךְ אֶל־עַמָּ֖הּ וְאֶל־אֱלֹהֶ֑יהָ שׁ֖וּבִי אַחֲרֵ֥י יְבִמְתֵּֽךְ׃‬ Then she said, “Look, your sister-in-law has returned to her people, and to her gods. Go back after your sister-in-law.”
Ruth 1:16 ‫וַתֹּ֤אמֶר רוּת֙ אַל־תִּפְגְּעִי־בִ֔י לְעָזְבֵ֖ךְ לָשׁ֣וּב מֵאַחֲרָ֑יִךְ כִּ֠י אֶל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר תֵּלְכִ֜י אֵלֵ֗ךְ וּבַאֲשֶׁ֤ר תָּלִ֙ינִי֙ אָלִ֔ין עַמֵּ֣ךְ עַמִּ֔י וֵאלֹהַ֖יִךְ אֱלֹהָֽי׃‬ But Ruth said, “Do not press me into leaving you – into giving up following you – for wherever you go, I will go, and wherever you lodge, I will lodge. Your people are my people, and your God is my God.
Ruth 1:17 ‫בַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר תָּמ֙וּתִי֙ אָמ֔וּת וְשָׁ֖ם אֶקָּבֵ֑ר כֹּה֩ יַעֲשֶׂ֨ה יְהוָ֥ה לִי֙ וְכֹ֣ה יֹסִ֔יף כִּ֣י הַמָּ֔וֶת יַפְרִ֖יד בֵּינִ֥י וּבֵינֵֽךְ׃‬ Where you die, I will die, and that is where I will be buried. May the Lord so do to me and more still otherwise, for only death will separate you from me.” may the Lord so do to me: the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
Ruth 1:18 ‫וַתֵּ֕רֶא כִּֽי־מִתְאַמֶּ֥צֶת הִ֖יא לָלֶ֣כֶת אִתָּ֑הּ וַתֶּחְדַּ֖ל לְדַבֵּ֥ר אֵלֶֽיהָ׃‬ And she saw that she had resolved to go with her, and she stopped speaking to her.
Ruth 1:19 ‫וַתֵּלַ֣כְנָה שְׁתֵּיהֶ֔ם עַד־בֹּאָ֖נָה בֵּ֣ית לָ֑חֶם וַיְהִ֗י כְּבֹאָ֙נָה֙ בֵּ֣ית לֶ֔חֶם וַתֵּהֹ֤ם כָּל־הָעִיר֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ן וַתֹּאמַ֖רְנָה הֲזֹ֥את נָעֳמִֽי׃‬ And the two of them journeyed until they had come to Bethlehem, and it came to pass when they came to Bethlehem that the whole city went into commotion over them, and they said, “Is this Naomi?” Bethlehem (2x): see Gn 35:19.
Ruth 1:20 ‫וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֔ן אַל־תִּקְרֶ֥אנָה לִ֖י נָעֳמִ֑י קְרֶ֤אןָ לִי֙ מָרָ֔א כִּי־הֵמַ֥ר שַׁדַּ֛י לִ֖י מְאֹֽד׃‬ But she said to them, “Do not call me Naomi. Call me Mara, for the Almighty has dealt with me very bitterly.
Ruth 1:21 ‫אֲנִי֙ מְלֵאָ֣ה הָלַ֔כְתִּי וְרֵיקָ֖ם הֱשִׁיבַ֣נִי יְהוָ֑ה לָ֣מָּה תִקְרֶ֤אנָה לִי֙ נָעֳמִ֔י וַֽיהוָה֙ עָ֣נָה בִ֔י וְשַׁדַּ֖י הֵ֥רַֽע לִֽי׃‬ I went away full, but the Lord has brought me back empty. Why should you call me Naomi when the Lord has testified against me and the Almighty has brought harm on me.” has testified against me: the qal pointing (rather than piel), and the preposition בְּ militate against translating has afflicted me.
Ruth 1:22 ‫וַתָּ֣שָׁב נָעֳמִ֗י וְר֨וּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּ֤ה כַלָּתָהּ֙ עִמָּ֔הּ הַשָּׁ֖בָה מִשְּׂדֵ֣י מוֹאָ֑ב וְהֵ֗מָּה בָּ֚אוּ בֵּ֣ית לֶ֔חֶם בִּתְחִלַּ֖ת קְצִ֥יר שְׂעֹרִֽים׃‬ Then Naomi returned, Ruth the Moabitess her daughter-in-law being with her, having returned from the plains of Moab, and they arrived in Bethlehem at the start of the barley harvest. Bethlehem: see Gn 35:19.
Ruth 2:1 ‫וּֽלְנָעֳמִ֞י *מידע **מוֹדַ֣ע לְאִישָׁ֗הּ אִ֚ישׁ גִּבּ֣וֹר חַ֔יִל מִמִּשְׁפַּ֖חַת אֱלִימֶ֑לֶךְ וּשְׁמ֖וֹ בֹּֽעַז׃‬ Now Naomi had a kinsman through her husband, a man mighty in wealth, of Elimelech's family, and his name was Boaz. kinsman: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

through ← of.
Ruth 2:2 ‫וַתֹּאמֶר֩ ר֨וּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּ֜ה אֶֽל־נָעֳמִ֗י אֵֽלְכָה־נָּ֤א הַשָּׂדֶה֙ וַאֲלַקֳטָּ֣ה בַשִׁבֳּלִ֔ים אַחַ֕ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶמְצָא־חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינָ֑יו וַתֹּ֥אמֶר לָ֖הּ לְכִ֥י בִתִּֽי׃‬ And Ruth the Moabitess said to Naomi, “Let me go into the field and glean ears of corn after him in whoever's eyes I find grace.” And she said to her, “Go, my daughter.”
Ruth 2:3 ‫וַתֵּ֤לֶךְ וַתָּבוֹא֙ וַתְּלַקֵּ֣ט בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֖י הַקֹּצְרִ֑ים וַיִּ֣קֶר מִקְרֶ֔הָ חֶלְקַ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ לְבֹ֔עַז אֲשֶׁ֖ר מִמִּשְׁפַּ֥חַת אֱלִימֶֽלֶךְ׃‬ So she departed and came there and gleaned in the field after the reapers. And her venture happened to be in a part of a field of Boaz's, of the family of Elimelech.
Ruth 2:4 ‫וְהִנֵּה־בֹ֗עַז בָּ֚א מִבֵּ֣ית לֶ֔חֶם וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִ֖ים יְהוָ֣ה עִמָּכֶ֑ם וַיֹּ֥אמְרוּ ל֖וֹ יְבָרֶכְךָ֥ יְהוָֽה׃‬ And what should happen but Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, “The Lord be with you.” And they said to him, “The Lord bless you.” and what should happen but ← behold.

Bethlehem: see Gn 35:19.
Ruth 2:5 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר בֹּ֙עַז֙ לְנַעֲר֔וֹ הַנִּצָּ֖ב עַל־הַקּֽוֹצְרִ֑ים לְמִ֖י הַנַּעֲרָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ Then Boaz said to his servant who was in charge of the reapers, “To whom does this young woman belong?”
Ruth 2:6 ‫וַיַּ֗עַן הַנַּ֛עַר הַנִּצָּ֥ב עַל־הַקּוֹצְרִ֖ים וַיֹּאמַ֑ר נַעֲרָ֤ה מֽוֹאֲבִיָּה֙ הִ֔יא הַשָּׁ֥בָה עִֽם־נָעֳמִ֖י מִשְּׂדֵ֥ה מוֹאָֽב׃‬ And the servant in charge of the reapers replied and said, “She is a Moabitess, who came back with Naomi from the plain of Moab.
Ruth 2:7 ‫וַתֹּ֗אמֶר אֲלַקֳטָה־נָּא֙ וְאָסַפְתִּ֣י בָֽעֳמָרִ֔ים אַחֲרֵ֖י הַקּוֹצְרִ֑ים וַתָּב֣וֹא וַֽתַּעֲמ֗וֹד מֵאָ֤ז הַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ וְעַד־עַ֔תָּה זֶ֛ה שִׁבְתָּ֥הּ הַבַּ֖יִת מְעָֽט׃‬ And she said, ‘Let me glean and gather among the sheaves after the reapers’, and she came and has continued doing it from the morning until now. That leaves little rest for her at home.” that leaves little rest: not translated as AV.
Ruth 2:8 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ בֹּ֨עַז אֶל־ר֜וּת הֲל֧וֹא שָׁמַ֣עַתְּ בִּתִּ֗י אַל־תֵּלְכִי֙ לִלְקֹט֙ בְּשָׂדֶ֣ה אַחֵ֔ר וְגַ֛ם לֹ֥א תַעֲבוּרִ֖י מִזֶּ֑ה וְכֹ֥ה תִדְבָּקִ֖ין עִם־נַעֲרֹתָֽי׃‬ Then Boaz said to Ruth, “Did you not hear, my daughter? Do not go to glean in any other field, and do not move across from here, and in this way you will stay attached to my maidservants.
Ruth 2:9 ‫עֵינַ֜יִךְ בַּשָּׂדֶ֤ה אֲשֶׁר־יִקְצֹרוּן֙ וְהָלַ֣כְתִּ אַחֲרֵיהֶ֔ן הֲל֥וֹא צִוִּ֛יתִי אֶת־הַנְּעָרִ֖ים לְבִלְתִּ֣י נָגְעֵ֑ךְ וְצָמִ֗ת וְהָלַכְתְּ֙ אֶל־הַכֵּלִ֔ים וְשָׁתִ֕ית מֵאֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשְׁאֲב֖וּן הַנְּעָרִֽים׃‬ Your eyes will be on the field that they are reaping, and you will follow them. Have I not ordered my menservants not to touch you? If you are thirsty, go to the pots and drink from what the servants draw.” if: conditional use of the vav.
Ruth 2:10 ‫וַתִּפֹּל֙ עַל־פָּנֶ֔יהָ וַתִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ אָ֑רְצָה וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו מַדּוּעַ֩ מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֤ן בְּעֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ לְהַכִּירֵ֔נִי וְאָּנֹכִ֖י נָכְרִיָּֽה׃‬ Then she fell face down and bowed to the ground, and said to him, “Why have I found grace in your eyes, in that you have been concerned about me, when I am a stranger?” face down ← on her face.
Ruth 2:11 ‫וַיַּ֤עַן בֹּ֙עַז֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָ֔הּ הֻגֵּ֨ד הֻגַּ֜ד לִ֗י כֹּ֤ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂית֙ אֶת־חֲמוֹתֵ֔ךְ אַחֲרֵ֖י מ֣וֹת אִישֵׁ֑ךְ וַתַּֽעַזְבִ֞י אָּבִ֣יךְ וְאִמֵּ֗ךְ וְאֶ֙רֶץ֙ מֽוֹלַדְתֵּ֔ךְ וַתֵּ֣לְכִ֔י אֶל־עַ֕ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־יָדַ֖עַתְּ תְּמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֽׁוֹם׃‬ Then Boaz answered and said to her, “It has been told me in full – everything you have done with your mother-in-law after the death of your husband, and how you left your father and mother and the land of your birth, and went to a people which you did not know in times past. it has been told me in full: either an infinitive absolute in hophal, or a simple repetition.

in times past ← yesterday (and) the day before yesterday.
Ruth 2:12 ‫יְשַׁלֵּ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה פָּעֳלֵ֑ךְ וּתְהִ֨י מַשְׂכֻּרְתֵּ֜ךְ שְׁלֵמָ֗ה מֵעִ֤ם יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֖את לַחֲס֥וֹת תַּֽחַת־כְּנָפָֽיו׃‬ May the Lord reward your work, and may your recompense from the Lord God of Israel be in full, under whose wings you have come to trust.”
Ruth 2:13 ‫וַ֠תֹּאמֶר אֶמְצָא־חֵ֨ן בְּעֵינֶ֤יךָ אֲדֹנִי֙ כִּ֣י נִֽחַמְתָּ֔נִי וְכִ֥י דִבַּ֖רְתָּ עַל־לֵ֣ב שִׁפְחָתֶ֑ךָ וְאָנֹכִי֙ לֹ֣א אֶֽהְיֶ֔ה כְּאַחַ֖ת שִׁפְחֹתֶֽיךָ׃‬ And she said, “Let me find grace in your eyes, my lord, for you have shown compassion on me, and because you have spoken kindly to your maidservant, while I am not like any of your maidservants.” kindly ← to or at the heart.
Ruth 2:14 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ לָ֨ה בֹ֜עַז לְעֵ֣ת הָאֹ֗כֶל גֹּ֤שִֽׁי הֲלֹם֙ וְאָכַ֣לְתְּ מִן־הַלֶּ֔חֶם וְטָבַ֥לְתְּ פִּתֵּ֖ךְ בַּחֹ֑מֶץ וַתֵּ֙שֶׁב֙ מִצַּ֣ד הַקּֽוֹצְרִ֔ים וַיִּצְבָּט־לָ֣הּ קָלִ֔י וַתֹּ֥אכַל וַתִּשְׂבַּ֖ע וַתֹּתַֽר׃‬ Then Boaz said to her at the time of the meal, “Come here and you can eat some bread and dip your piece in the vinegar.” So she sat beside the reapers and he handed her roasted corn, and she ate, and was satisfied, and had some left over. Our direct speech covers less of the verse than the AV. The MT punctuation supports our stance (geresh, a weak disjunctive, on Boaz).
Ruth 2:15 ‫וַתָּ֖קָם לְלַקֵּ֑ט וַיְצַו֩ בֹּ֨עַז אֶת־נְעָרָ֜יו לֵאמֹ֗ר גַּ֣ם בֵּ֧ין הָֽעֳמָרִ֛ים תְּלַקֵּ֖ט וְלֹ֥א תַכְלִימֽוּהָ׃‬ Then she got up to go gleaning, and Boaz instructed his servants and said, “Let her glean between the sheaves too, and do not reproach her.
Ruth 2:16 ‫וְגַ֛ם שֹׁל־תָּשֹׁ֥לּוּ לָ֖הּ מִן־הַצְּבָתִ֑ים וַעֲזַבְתֶּ֥ם וְלִקְּטָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א תִגְעֲרוּ־בָֽהּ׃‬ And deliberately spill some from the sheaves for her too, and leave it, so she can glean it, and do not rebuke her.” deliberately spill: infinitive absolute.

sheaves: not the same word as in Ruth 2:15. Perhaps handfuls.
Ruth 2:17 ‫וַתְּלַקֵּ֥ט בַּשָּׂדֶ֖ה עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וַתַּחְבֹּט֙ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־לִקֵּ֔טָה וַיְהִ֖י כְּאֵיפָ֥ה שְׂעֹרִֽים׃‬ So she gleaned in the field until the evening, and she threshed what she had gleaned, and it amounted to about an ephah of barley. amounted to ← was.

ephah: about 6.4 gallons or 27 litres.
Ruth 2:18 ‫וַתִּשָּׂא֙ וַתָּב֣וֹא הָעִ֔יר וַתֵּ֥רֶא חֲמוֹתָ֖הּ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־לִקֵּ֑טָה וַתּוֹצֵא֙ וַתִּתֶּן־לָ֔הּ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־הוֹתִ֖רָה מִשָּׂבְעָֽהּ׃‬ And she took it and came to the city, and her mother-in-law saw what she had gleaned, and she emptied it out, and she gave her what she had left over, after taking what was enough for her.
Ruth 2:19 ‫וַתֹּאמֶר֩ לָ֨הּ חֲמוֹתָ֜הּ אֵיפֹ֨ה לִקַּ֤טְתְּ הַיּוֹם֙ וְאָ֣נָה עָשִׂ֔ית יְהִ֥י מַכִּירֵ֖ךְ בָּר֑וּךְ וַתַּגֵּ֣ד לַחֲמוֹתָ֗הּ אֵ֤ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשְׂתָה֙ עִמּ֔וֹ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר שֵׁ֤ם הָאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשִׂ֧יתִי עִמּ֛וֹ הַיּ֖וֹם בֹּֽעַז׃‬ And her mother-in-law said to her, “Where did you glean today, and where did you work? May he who is showing concern for you be blessed.” And she told her mother-in-law with whom she had worked, and she said, “The name of the man with whom I worked today is Boaz.”
Ruth 2:20 ‫וַתֹּ֨אמֶר נָעֳמִ֜י לְכַלָּתָ֗הּ בָּר֥וּךְ הוּא֙ לַיהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹא־עָזַ֣ב חַסְדּ֔וֹ אֶת־הַחַיִּ֖ים וְאֶת־הַמֵּתִ֑ים וַתֹּ֧אמֶר לָ֣הּ נָעֳמִ֗י קָר֥וֹב לָ֙נוּ֙ הָאִ֔ישׁ מִֽגֹּאֲלֵ֖נוּ הֽוּא׃‬ Then Naomi said to her daughter-in-law, “May he be blessed by the Lord, who has not abandoned his kindness to the living and the dead.” And Naomi said to her, “The man is a near relative of ours. He is one of our kinsman redeemers.”
Ruth 2:21 ‫וַתֹּ֖אמֶר ר֣וּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּ֑ה גַּ֣ם ׀ כִּי־אָמַ֣ר אֵלַ֗י עִם־הַנְּעָרִ֤ים אֲשֶׁר־לִי֙ תִּדְבָּקִ֔ין עַ֣ד אִם־כִּלּ֔וּ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַקָּצִ֖יר אֲשֶׁר־לִֽי׃‬ And Ruth the Moabitess said, “He also said to me, ‘You must stay attached to my servants, until they have finished the whole of my harvest.’ ”
Ruth 2:22 ‫וַתֹּ֥אמֶר נָעֳמִ֖י אֶל־ר֣וּת כַּלָּתָ֑הּ ט֣וֹב בִּתִּ֗י כִּ֤י תֵֽצְאִי֙ עִם־נַ֣עֲרוֹתָ֔יו וְלֹ֥א יִפְגְּעוּ־בָ֖ךְ בְּשָׂדֶ֥ה אַחֵֽר׃‬ Then Naomi said to Ruth her daughter-in-law, “It is a good thing, my daughter, that you go out with his maidservants, so that no-one will molest you in another field.”
Ruth 2:23 ‫וַתִּדְבַּ֞ק בְּנַעֲר֥וֹת בֹּ֙עַז֙ לְלַקֵּ֔ט עַד־כְּל֥וֹת קְצִֽיר־הַשְּׂעֹרִ֖ים וּקְצִ֣יר הַֽחִטִּ֑ים וַתֵּ֖שֶׁב אֶת־חֲמוֹתָֽהּ׃‬ So she stayed attached to Boaz's maidservants to glean until the end of the barley harvest, and the end of the wheat harvest, and she stayed with her mother-in law.
Ruth 3:1 ‫וַתֹּ֥אמֶר לָ֖הּ נָעֳמִ֣י חֲמוֹתָ֑הּ בִּתִּ֞י הֲלֹ֧א אֲבַקֶּשׁ־לָ֛ךְ מָנ֖וֹחַ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִֽיטַב־לָֽךְ׃‬ Then Naomi her mother-in-law said to her, “My daughter, will I not seek rest for you, so that it will go well for you?
Ruth 3:2 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה הֲלֹ֥א בֹ֙עַז֙ מֹֽדַעְתָּ֔נוּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיִ֖ית אֶת־נַעֲרוֹתָ֑יו הִנֵּה־ה֗וּא זֹרֶ֛ה אֶת־גֹּ֥רֶן הַשְּׂעֹרִ֖ים הַלָּֽיְלָה׃‬ Well now, is not Boaz, with whose maidservants you were, our relation? Look, he will be winnowing the barley in the threshing floor tonight. in ← with.
Ruth 3:3 ‫וְרָחַ֣צְתְּ ׀ וָסַ֗כְתְּ וְשַׂ֧מְתְּ *שמלתך **שִׂמְלֹתַ֛יִךְ עָלַ֖יִךְ *וירדתי **וְיָרַ֣דְתְּ הַגֹּ֑רֶן אַל־תִּוָּדְעִ֣י לָאִ֔ישׁ עַ֥ד כַּלֹּת֖וֹ לֶאֱכֹ֥ל וְלִשְׁתּֽוֹת׃‬ Now wash and anoint yourself and put your dress on and go down to the threshing floor. Do not make yourself known to the man until he has finished eating and drinking. dress: the qeré has a dual form whereas the ketiv is singular, perhaps indicating a two-piece or one-piece garment respectively.

go down: the ketiv is an Aramaic form. Compare Ruth 1:13.
Ruth 3:4 ‫וִיהִ֣י בְשָׁכְב֗וֹ וְיָדַ֙עַתְּ֙ אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשְׁכַּב־שָׁ֔ם וּבָ֛את וְגִלִּ֥ית מַרְגְּלֹתָ֖יו *ושכבתי **וְשָׁכָ֑בְתְּ וְהוּא֙ יַגִּ֣יד לָ֔ךְ אֵ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּעַשִֽׂין׃‬ And it will come to pass when he lies down that you must note the place where he lies, and you must go in and uncover his feet-end and lie down, and he will tell you what you must do.” lie down: the ketiv is an Aramaic form. Compare Ruth 1:13.

note ← know.
Ruth 3:5 ‫וַתֹּ֖אמֶר אֵלֶ֑יהָ כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאמְרִ֥י **אֵלַ֖י אֶֽעֱשֶֽׂה׃‬ And she said to her, “I will do everything you say {K: - } [Q: to me].”
Ruth 3:6 ‫וַתֵּ֖רֶד הַגֹּ֑רֶן וַתַּ֕עַשׂ כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוַּ֖תָּה חֲמוֹתָֽהּ׃‬ And she went down to the threshing floor, and she acted according to everything her mother-in-law had instructed her.
Ruth 3:7 ‫וַיֹּ֨אכַל בֹּ֤עַז וַיֵּשְׁתְּ֙ וַיִּיטַ֣ב לִבּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֕א לִשְׁכַּ֖ב בִּקְצֵ֣ה הָעֲרֵמָ֑ה וַתָּבֹ֣א בַלָּ֔ט וַתְּגַ֥ל מַרְגְּלֹתָ֖יו וַתִּשְׁכָּֽב׃‬ So Boaz ate, and drank, and his heart was merry, and he went to lie down at the end of the heap. Then she came secretly and uncovered his feet-end and lay down.
Ruth 3:8 ‫וַיְהִי֙ בַּחֲצִ֣י הַלַּ֔יְלָה וַיֶּחֱרַ֥ד הָאִ֖ישׁ וַיִּלָּפֵ֑ת וְהִנֵּ֣ה אִשָּׁ֔ה שֹׁכֶ֖בֶת מַרְגְּלֹתָֽיו׃‬ And it came to pass at midnight that the man had a shock and was seized with apprehension, and what he saw was that a woman was lying at his feet-end. what he saw was that ← behold.
Ruth 3:9 ‫וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מִי־אָ֑תּ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר אָנֹכִי֙ ר֣וּת אֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וּפָרַשְׂתָּ֤ כְנָפֶ֙ךָ֙ עַל־אֲמָ֣תְךָ֔ כִּ֥י גֹאֵ֖ל אָֽתָּה׃‬ And he said, “Who are you?” And she said, “I am Ruth your maidservant, so spread your wings over your maidservant, for you are a kinsman redeemer.”
Ruth 3:10 ‫וַיֹּ֗אמֶר בְּרוּכָ֨ה אַ֤תְּ לַֽיהוָה֙ בִּתִּ֔י הֵיטַ֛בְתְּ חַסְדֵּ֥ךְ הָאַחֲר֖וֹן מִן־הָרִאשׁ֑וֹן לְבִלְתִּי־לֶ֗כֶת אַחֲרֵי֙ הַבַּ֣חוּרִ֔ים אִם־דַּ֖ל וְאִם־עָשִֽׁיר׃‬ Then he said, “May you be blessed by the Lord, my daughter. You have shown more kindness of late than in the beginning, in not going after the young lads, whether poor or rich. in not going: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Ruth 3:11 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה בִּתִּי֙ אַל־תִּ֣ירְאִ֔י כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאמְרִ֖י אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּ֑ךְ כִּ֤י יוֹדֵ֙עַ֙ כָּל־שַׁ֣עַר עַמִּ֔י כִּ֛י אֵ֥שֶׁת חַ֖יִל אָֽתְּ׃‬ So now, my daughter, do not be afraid. Everything you say, I will do for you, because every gate of my people knows that you are a virtuous woman. gate: i.e. the place where people congregate.
Ruth 3:12 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ כִּ֣י אָמְנָ֔ם כִּ֥י *אם גֹאֵ֖ל אָנֹ֑כִי וְגַ֛ם יֵ֥שׁ גֹּאֵ֖ל קָר֥וֹב מִמֶּֽנִּי׃‬ And although it is true that {K: indeed} [Q: - ] I am a kinsman redeemer, yet there is a kinsman redeemer nearer than me. than me: or, if the reader prefers, than I.
Ruth 3:13 ‫לִ֣ינִי ׀ הַלַּ֗יְלָה וְהָיָ֤ה בַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ אִם־יִגְאָלֵ֥ךְ טוֹב֙ יִגְאָ֔ל וְאִם־לֹ֨א יַחְפֹּ֧ץ לְגָֽאֳלֵ֛ךְ וּגְאַלְתִּ֥יךְ אָנֹ֖כִי חַי־יְהוָ֑ה שִׁכְבִ֖י עַד־הַבֹּֽקֶר׃‬ Lodge tonight, and it will be the case in the morning, if he will redeem you, all right, let him redeem. But if he does not wish to redeem you, then I will redeem you, as the Lord lives. Lie down until the morning.”
Ruth 3:14 ‫וַתִּשְׁכַּ֤ב *מרגלתו **מַרְגְּלוֹתָיוֹ֙ עַד־הַבֹּ֔קֶר וַתָּ֕קָם *בטרום **בְּטֶ֛רֶם יַכִּ֥יר אִ֖ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַל־יִוָּדַ֔ע כִּי־בָ֥אָה הָאִשָּׁ֖ה הַגֹּֽרֶן׃‬ So she lay down at his feet-end until the morning, then she got up before anyone would recognize his neighbour, and he said, “Let it not be known that a woman came in to the threshing floor.” feet-end: the ketiv is, strictly speaking, has foot-end.

before: the ketiv has to be regarded as a variant form of the qeré.
Ruth 3:15 ‫וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הָ֠בִי הַמִּטְפַּ֧חַת אֲשֶׁר־עָלַ֛יִךְ וְאֶֽחֳזִי־בָ֖הּ וַתֹּ֣אחֶז בָּ֑הּ וַיָּ֤מָד שֵׁשׁ־שְׂעֹרִים֙ וַיָּ֣שֶׁת עָלֶ֔יהָ וַיָּבֹ֖א הָעִֽיר׃‬ And he said, “Take the gown which is on you and hold it out.” So she held it out, and he measured out six measures of barley, and he put it in it, then he went to the city. take ← give; set.

he went: AV= she went, not supported by the Hebrew.

in it: i.e. in the gown. AV= on her.
Ruth 3:16 ‫וַתָּבוֹא֙ אֶל־חֲמוֹתָ֔הּ וַתֹּ֖אמֶר מִי־אַ֣תְּ בִּתִּ֑י וַתַּ֨גֶּד־לָ֔הּ אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָֽשָׂה־לָ֖הּ הָאִֽישׁ׃‬ And she went to her mother-in-law, and she said, “Who are you, my daughter?” So she told her everything the man had done for her. We take the question literally; compare Ruth 3:9. Alternatively, there is an ↴
Ruth 3:17 ‫וַתֹּ֕אמֶר שֵׁשׁ־הַשְּׂעֹרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה נָ֣תַן לִ֑י כִּ֚י אָמַ֣ר **אֵלַ֔י אַל־תָּב֥וֹאִי רֵיקָ֖ם אֶל־חֲמוֹתֵֽךְ׃‬ And she said, “He gave me these six measures of barley, for he said {K: - } [Q: to me], ‘Do not go to your mother-in-law empty-handed.’ ” ↳ underlying elaboration, Who are you (in terms of marital prospects)?
Ruth 3:18 ‫וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ שְׁבִ֣י בִתִּ֔י עַ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּֽדְעִ֔ין אֵ֖יךְ יִפֹּ֣ל דָּבָ֑ר כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יִשְׁקֹט֙ הָאִ֔ישׁ כִּֽי־אִם־כִּלָּ֥ה הַדָּבָ֖ר הַיּֽוֹם׃‬ Then she said, “Stay, my daughter, until you know how the matter turns out, for the man will not rest unless he concludes the matter today.”
Ruth 4:1 ‫וּבֹ֨עַז עָלָ֣ה הַשַּׁעַר֮ וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב שָׁם֒ וְהִנֵּ֨ה הַגֹּאֵ֤ל עֹבֵר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּר־בֹּ֔עַז וַיֹּ֛אמֶר ס֥וּרָה שְׁבָה־פֹּ֖ה פְּלֹנִ֣י אַלְמֹנִ֑י וַיָּ֖סַר וַיֵּשֵֽׁב׃‬ Then Boaz went up to the gate and sat there, and what should happen but the kinsman redeemer of whom Boaz had spoken passed by. And Boaz said, “Turn aside and sit down here, my good sir.” And he turned aside and he sat down. and what should happen but ← behold.

my good sir: an expression is used which avoids naming the person. Perhaps the expression itself is not in the ↴
Ruth 4:2 ‫וַיִּקַּ֞ח עֲשָׂרָ֧ה אֲנָשִׁ֛ים מִזִּקְנֵ֥י הָעִ֖יר וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁבוּ־פֹ֑ה וַיֵּשֵֽׁבוּ׃‬ And he took ten men from the elders of the city and said, “Sit down here.” And they sat down. ↳ literal direct speech, but rather replaces the actual direct speech which did name the man. Compare Ezra 4:17.
Ruth 4:3 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לַגֹּאֵ֔ל חֶלְקַת֙ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְאָחִ֖ינוּ לֶאֱלִימֶ֑לֶךְ מָכְרָ֣ה נָעֳמִ֔י הַשָּׁ֖בָה מִשְּׂדֵ֥ה מוֹאָֽב׃‬ And he said to the kinsman redeemer, “Naomi, who has come back from the plain of Moab, is selling the parcel of land which belonged to our brother, Elimelech.
Ruth 4:4 ‫וַאֲנִ֨י אָמַ֜רְתִּי אֶגְלֶ֧ה אָזְנְךָ֣ לֵאמֹ֗ר קְ֠נֵה נֶ֥גֶד הַֽיֹּשְׁבִים֮ וְנֶ֣גֶד זִקְנֵ֣י עַמִּי֒ אִם־תִּגְאַל֙ גְּאָ֔ל וְאִם־לֹ֨א יִגְאַ֜ל הַגִּ֣ידָה לִּ֗י *ואדע **וְאֵֽדְעָה֙ כִּ֣י אֵ֤ין זוּלָֽתְךָ֙ לִגְא֔וֹל וְאָנֹכִ֖י אַחֲרֶ֑יךָ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָנֹכִ֥י אֶגְאָֽל׃‬ And I hereby declare, I am about to notify you as follows: you can buy it in the presence of the inhabitants and in the presence of the elders of my people. If you will redeem it, redeem it. But if you will not redeem it, tell me, so that I know, for there is no-one except you first in line to redeem it, and I am after you.” And he said, “I will redeem it.” I know: the qeré is nominally cohortative, but it acts simply as a mood for a purposive subordinate clause here.

I am about to notify you ← I will uncover your ear.

but if you ← but if he. Change of grammatical person; compare Lv 1:3, Nu 15:9.
Ruth 4:5 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר בֹּ֔עַז בְּיוֹם־קְנוֹתְךָ֥ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה מִיַּ֣ד נָעֳמִ֑י וּ֠מֵאֵת ר֣וּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּ֤ה אֵֽשֶׁת־הַמֵּת֙ *קניתי **קָנִ֔יתָה לְהָקִ֥ים שֵׁם־הַמֵּ֖ת עַל־נַחֲלָתֽוֹ׃‬ Then Boaz said, “On the day you purchase the field from Naomi, and from Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead, you also {K: buy her} [Q: buy her] to raise up the name of the deceased in his inheritance.” you ... buy: the ketiv is an Aramaic form. Compare Ruth 1:13.

from Naomi ... from Ruth ← from the hand of Naomi ... from with Ruth.

Our translation differs from the AV.
Ruth 4:6 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַגֹּאֵ֗ל לֹ֤א אוּכַל֙ *לגאול־**לִגְאָל־לִ֔י פֶּן־אַשְׁחִ֖ית אֶת־נַחֲלָתִ֑י גְּאַל־לְךָ֤ אַתָּה֙ אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתִ֔י כִּ֥י לֹא־אוּכַ֖ל לִגְאֹֽל׃‬ At this the kinsman redeemer said, “I cannot take this redemption on myself, lest I spoil my own inheritance. You redeem my inheritance, for I cannot redeem it.” take ... redemption: the ketiv and qeré are different spellings of the same word.
Ruth 4:7 ‫וְזֹאת֩ לְפָנִ֨ים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל עַל־הַגְּאוּלָּ֤ה וְעַל־הַתְּמוּרָה֙ לְקַיֵּ֣ם כָּל־דָּבָ֔ר שָׁלַ֥ף אִ֛ישׁ נַעֲל֖וֹ וְנָתַ֣ן לְרֵעֵ֑הוּ וְזֹ֥את הַתְּעוּדָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ Now this was the custom in early times in Israel concerning redemption and concerning exchange, so as to establish every transaction: a man would take off his shoe and give it to his contracting counterpart, and this was a testimony in Israel. take off his shoe: see Dt 25:9.

contracting counterpart ← friend; neighbour.
Ruth 4:8 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר הַגֹּאֵ֛ל לְבֹ֖עַז קְנֵה־לָ֑ךְ וַיִּשְׁלֹ֖ף נַעֲלֽוֹ׃‬ And the kinsman redeemer said to Boaz, “You buy it.” And he took off his shoe. buy ← buy for yourself.

he took off his shoe: by ↴
Ruth 4:9 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ בֹּ֨עַז לַזְּקֵנִ֜ים וְכָל־הָעָ֗ם עֵדִ֤ים אַתֶּם֙ הַיּ֔וֹם כִּ֤י קָנִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֶֽאֱלִימֶ֔לֶךְ וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְכִלְי֖וֹן וּמַחְל֑וֹן מִיַּ֖ד נָעֳמִֽי׃‬ And Boaz said to the elders and all the people, “You are witnesses today that I have purchased everything that was Elimelech's and everything that was Chilion's, and Mahlon's, from Naomi. ↳ analogy with Dt 25:9, Boaz took the kinsman redeemer's shoe off.

from Naomi ← from the hand of Naomi.
Ruth 4:10 ‫וְגַ֣ם אֶת־ר֣וּת הַמֹּאֲבִיָּה֩ אֵ֨שֶׁת מַחְל֜וֹן קָנִ֧יתִי לִ֣י לְאִשָּׁ֗ה לְהָקִ֤ים שֵׁם־הַמֵּת֙ עַל־נַ֣חֲלָת֔וֹ וְלֹא־יִכָּרֵ֧ת שֵׁם־הַמֵּ֛ת מֵעִ֥ם אֶחָ֖יו וּמִשַּׁ֣עַר מְקוֹמ֑וֹ עֵדִ֥ים אַתֶּ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם׃‬ And I have also purchased Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, to be my wife, to raise up the name of the deceased on his inheritance, so that the name of the deceased is not cut off from being with his brothers, or from the gate of his place. You are witnesses today.”
Ruth 4:11 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ כָּל־הָעָ֧ם אֲשֶׁר־בַּשַּׁ֛עַר וְהַזְּקֵנִ֖ים עֵדִ֑ים יִתֵּן֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֶֽת־הָאִשָּׁ֜ה הַבָּאָ֣ה אֶל־בֵּיתֶ֗ךָ כְּרָחֵ֤ל ׀ וּכְלֵאָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּנ֤וּ שְׁתֵּיהֶם֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַעֲשֵׂה־חַ֣יִל בְּאֶפְרָ֔תָה וּקְרָא־שֵׁ֖ם בְּבֵ֥ית לָֽחֶם׃‬ And all the people who were at the gate, and the elders, said, “We are witnesses. May the Lord grant the woman who has come to your household to be like Rachel and Leah, the two who built up the house of Israel. And you act virtuously in Ephrathah, and proclaim fame in Bethlehem. Ephrathah: AV= Ephratah, but elsewhere Ephrath, Ephrathite.

Bethlehem: see Gn 35:19.
Ruth 4:12 ‫וִיהִ֤י בֵֽיתְךָ֙ כְּבֵ֣ית פֶּ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יָלְדָ֥ה תָמָ֖ר לִֽיהוּדָ֑ה מִן־הַזֶּ֗רַע אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֤ן יְהוָה֙ לְךָ֔ מִן־הַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ And may your house be like the house of Pharez whom Tamar bore to Judah, from the seed which the Lord will give you, the house being built from this young woman.” Pharez: see Gn 38:29.
Ruth 4:13 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח בֹּ֤עַז אֶת־רוּת֙ וַתְּהִי־ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֖א אֵלֶ֑יהָ וַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהוָ֥ה לָ֛הּ הֵרָי֖וֹן וַתֵּ֥לֶד בֵּֽן׃‬ Then Boaz took Ruth, and she became his wife, and he went in to her, and the Lord gave her conception, and she bore a son.
Ruth 4:14 ‫וַתֹּאמַ֤רְנָה הַנָּשִׁים֙ אֶֽל־נָעֳמִ֔י בָּר֣וּךְ יְהוָ֔ה אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹ֣א הִשְׁבִּ֥ית לָ֛ךְ גֹּאֵ֖ל הַיּ֑וֹם וְיִקָּרֵ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And the women said to Naomi, “Blessed be the Lord who has not deprived you of a kinsman redeemer today, so that his fame may be proclaimed in Israel.
Ruth 4:15 ‫וְהָ֤יָה לָךְ֙ לְמֵשִׁ֣יב נֶ֔פֶשׁ וּלְכַלְכֵּ֖ל אֶת־שֵׂיבָתֵ֑ךְ כִּ֣י כַלָּתֵ֤ךְ אֲ‍ֽשֶׁר־אֲהֵבַ֙תֶךְ֙ יְלָדַ֔תּוּ אֲשֶׁר־הִיא֙ ט֣וֹבָה לָ֔ךְ מִשִּׁבְעָ֖ה בָּנִֽים׃‬ And he will be a restorer of your well-being, and one who sustains you in your old age, for your daughter-in-law who loves you, who is better for you than seven sons, has borne him.” well-being ← soul.
Ruth 4:16 ‫וַתִּקַּ֨ח נָעֳמִ֤י אֶת־הַיֶּ֙לֶד֙ וַתְּשִׁתֵ֣הוּ בְחֵיקָ֔הּ וַתְּהִי־ל֖וֹ לְאֹמֶֽנֶת׃‬ And Naomi took the child, and placed him in her bosom, and she became a nurse to him.
Ruth 4:17 ‫וַתִּקְרֶאנָה֩ ל֨וֹ הַשְּׁכֵנ֥וֹת שֵׁם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יֻלַּד־בֵּ֖ן לְנָעֳמִ֑י וַתִּקְרֶ֤אנָֽה שְׁמוֹ֙ עוֹבֵ֔ד ה֥וּא אֲבִי־יִשַׁ֖י אֲבִ֥י דָוִֽד׃ פ‬ And the neighbouring women proclaimed his fame and said, “A son has been born to Naomi.” And they called him Obed. He was the father of Jesse, the father of David. Acts 13:22.

Jesse ← Jishai, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.
Ruth 4:18 ‫וְאֵ֙לֶּה֙ תּוֹלְד֣וֹת פָּ֔רֶץ פֶּ֖רֶץ הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־חֶצְרֽוֹן׃‬ This is the genealogy of Pharez: Pharez begot Hezron, || Gn 46:12, 1 Chr 2:5.

Pharez (2x): see Gn 38:29.
Ruth 4:19 ‫וְחֶצְרוֹן֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־רָ֔ם וְרָ֖ם הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עַמִּֽינָדָֽב׃‬ and Hezron begot Ram, and Ram begot Amminadab, || 1 Chr 2:9, 1 Chr 2:10.
Ruth 4:20 ‫וְעַמִּֽינָדָב֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־נַחְשׁ֔וֹן וְנַחְשׁ֖וֹן הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־שַׂלְמָֽה׃‬ and Amminadab begot Nahshon, and Nahshon begot Salmon, || 1 Chr 2:10, 1 Chr 2:11.
Ruth 4:21 ‫וְשַׂלְמוֹן֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־בֹּ֔עַז וּבֹ֖עַז הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עוֹבֵֽד׃‬ and Salmon begot Boaz, and Boaz begot Obed, || 1 Chr 2:11, 1 Chr 2:12.
Ruth 4:22 ‫וְעֹבֵד֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־יִשָׁ֔י וְיִשַׁ֖י הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־דָּוִֽד׃‬ and Obed begot Jesse, and Jesse begot David. || 1 Sam 16:11, 1 Sam 16:12, 1 Sam 16:13, 1 Chr 2:12, 1 Chr 2:15.
Song 1:1 ‫שִׁ֥יר הַשִּׁירִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִשְׁלֹמֹֽה׃‬ Solomon's Song of Songs. We broadly follow the notes in [CB] on the speakers, and we separately enclose each speech in quotes.
Song 1:2 ‫יִשָּׁקֵ֙נִי֙ מִנְּשִׁיק֣וֹת פִּ֔יהוּ כִּֽי־טוֹבִ֥ים דֹּדֶ֖יךָ מִיָּֽיִן׃‬

“May he kiss me with kisses of his mouth.

For your love is better than wine.

The Shulamite, a beautiful lady from Shulem, speaks.

he ... your: a change of grammatical person like this is not uncommon in Hebrew. Compare Lv 1:3, Nu 15:9, Ps 91, Ruth 4:4, 1 Chr 17:21, 2 Chr 6:2, 2 Chr 7:20.
Song 1:3 ‫לְרֵ֙יחַ֙ שְׁמָנֶ֣יךָ טוֹבִ֔ים שֶׁ֖מֶן תּוּרַ֣ק שְׁמֶ֑ךָ עַל־כֵּ֖ן עֲלָמ֥וֹת אֲהֵבֽוּךָ׃‬

At the fragrance of your good oils, your name is as oil poured out,

Which is why the virgins love you.

virgins: distinct from queens and mistresses (all three terms are used in Song 6:8).
Song 1:4 ‫מָשְׁכֵ֖נִי אַחֲרֶ֣יךָ נָּר֑וּצָה הֱבִיאַ֨נִי הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ חֲדָרָ֗יו נָגִ֤ילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה֙ בָּ֔ךְ נַזְכִּ֤ירָה דֹדֶ֙יךָ֙ מִיַּ֔יִן מֵישָׁרִ֖ים אֲהֵבֽוּךָ׃ ס‬

Draw me after you; we will run away.

The king has brought me to his rooms.”

“We will rejoice and be glad with you;

We will remember your love more than wine.

Those who are upright love you.”

draw me after you: our word grouping is not as MT / AV, but it agrees with [CB].

Friends or family speak in support.
Song 1:5 ‫שְׁחוֹרָ֤ה אֲנִי֙ וְֽנָאוָ֔ה בְּנ֖וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם כְּאָהֳלֵ֣י קֵדָ֔ר כִּירִיע֖וֹת שְׁלֹמֹֽה׃‬

“I am swarthy and comely,

You daughters of Jerusalem,

Like the tents of Kedar,

Like Solomon's curtains.

The Shulamite speaks specifically to the court-ladies.
Song 1:6 ‫אַל־תִּרְא֙וּנִי֙ שֶׁאֲנִ֣י שְׁחַרְחֹ֔רֶת שֶׁשֱּׁזָפַ֖תְנִי הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ בְּנֵ֧י אִמִּ֣י נִֽחֲרוּ־בִ֗י שָׂמֻ֙נִי֙ נֹטֵרָ֣ה אֶת־הַכְּרָמִ֔ים כַּרְמִ֥י שֶׁלִּ֖י לֹ֥א נָטָֽרְתִּי׃‬

Do not look at me, because I am swarthy,

Because the sun had given me a tan.

The sons of my mother have become angry with me.

They appointed me as a guardian of their vineyards;

I have not guarded my own vineyard.

do not look: plural.
Song 1:7 ‫הַגִּ֣ידָה לִּ֗י שֶׁ֤אָהֲבָה֙ נַפְשִׁ֔י אֵיכָ֣ה תִרְעֶ֔ה אֵיכָ֖ה תַּרְבִּ֣יץ בַּֽצָּהֳרָ֑יִם שַׁלָּמָ֤ה אֶֽהְיֶה֙ כְּעֹ֣טְיָ֔ה עַ֖ל עֶדְרֵ֥י חֲבֵרֶֽיךָ׃‬

Tell me, you whom my being loves,

Where are you tending your flock?

Where do you make them lie down at noon?

For why should I be languishing

Alongside the flocks of your colleagues?”

being ← soul.

languishing ← as languishing.
Song 1:8 ‫אִם־לֹ֤א תֵדְעִי֙ לָ֔ךְ הַיָּפָ֖ה בַּנָּשִׁ֑ים צְֽאִי־לָ֞ךְ בְּעִקְבֵ֣י הַצֹּ֗אן וּרְעִי֙ אֶת־גְּדִיֹּתַ֔יִךְ עַ֖ל מִשְׁכְּנ֥וֹת הָרֹעִֽים׃ ס‬

“If you do not know,

O most beautiful among women,

Then go out along the tracks of the flock

And tend your goat-kids

By the tabernacles of the shepherds.”

The court-ladies answer ironically.

know ... go out ← know for yourself ... go out for yourself, ethic datives adding to the irony.

tabernacles: i.e. tents, but we translate this word concordantly.
Song 1:9 ‫לְסֻסָתִי֙ בְּרִכְבֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה דִּמִּיתִ֖יךְ רַעְיָתִֽי׃‬

“I have compared you to my mare

Among Pharaoh's chariots, my beloved.

Solomon speaks, trying to gain the Shulamite's affection.
Song 1:10 ‫נָאו֤וּ לְחָיַ֙יִךְ֙ בַּתֹּרִ֔ים צַוָּארֵ֖ךְ בַּחֲרוּזִֽים׃‬

How beautiful would be your cheeks

With rows of beads,

And your neck with strings of pearls!

Song 1:11 ‫תּוֹרֵ֤י זָהָב֙ נַעֲשֶׂה־לָּ֔ךְ עִ֖ם נְקֻדּ֥וֹת הַכָּֽסֶף׃‬

We will make you rows of golden beads

With studs of silver.”

Song 1:12 ‫עַד־שֶׁ֤הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ בִּמְסִבּ֔וֹ נִרְדִּ֖י נָתַ֥ן רֵיחֽוֹ׃‬

“While the king is on his couch,

My spikenard emits its fragrance.

The Shulamite speaks.
Song 1:13 ‫צְר֨וֹר הַמֹּ֤ר ׀ דּוֹדִי֙ לִ֔י בֵּ֥ין שָׁדַ֖י יָלִֽין׃‬

My lover is a bundle of myrrh to me.

He shall pass the night between my breasts.

he: others translate it, referring to the bundle of myrrh.
Song 1:14 ‫אֶשְׁכֹּ֨ל הַכֹּ֤פֶר ׀ דּוֹדִי֙ לִ֔י בְּכַרְמֵ֖י עֵ֥ין גֶּֽדִי׃ ס‬

My lover is a bunch of henna flowers to me,

In the vineyards of En-gedi.”

Song 1:15 ‫הִנָּ֤ךְ יָפָה֙ רַעְיָתִ֔י הִנָּ֥ךְ יָפָ֖ה עֵינַ֥יִךְ יוֹנִֽים׃‬

“Behold how beautiful you are, my beloved;

Behold how beautiful you are

With your eyes of a dove.”

The shepherd lover speaks.

a dove ← doves.
Song 1:16 ‫הִנְּךָ֨ יָפֶ֤ה דוֹדִי֙ אַ֣ף נָעִ֔ים אַף־עַרְשֵׂ֖נוּ רַעֲנָנָֽה׃‬

“Behold how handsome you are my lover

– Indeed delightful –

Moreover our couch is fresh.”

The Shulamite speaks.
Song 1:17 ‫קֹר֤וֹת בָּתֵּ֙ינוּ֙ אֲרָזִ֔ים *רחיטנו **רַהִיטֵ֖נוּ בְּרוֹתִֽים׃‬

“The joists of our house are cedars

And our wainscoting is of cypress.”

wainscoting: the ketiv has to be regarded as an dialectal equivalent to the qeré.

A joint statement by the Shulamite and the shepherd lover.
Song 2:1 ‫אֲנִי֙ חֲבַצֶּ֣לֶת הַשָּׁר֔וֹן שֽׁוֹשַׁנַּ֖ת הָעֲמָקִֽים׃‬

“I am a lily of Sharon

And a lily of the valley.”

The Shulamite speaks.

Sharon: the name of a plain.
Song 2:2 ‫כְּשֽׁוֹשַׁנָּה֙ בֵּ֣ין הַחוֹחִ֔ים כֵּ֥ן רַעְיָתִ֖י בֵּ֥ין הַבָּנֽוֹת׃‬

“Like a lily among the brambles,

So is my beloved among the daughters.”

The shepherd lover speaks.
Song 2:3 ‫כְּתַפּ֙וּחַ֙ בַּעֲצֵ֣י הַיַּ֔עַר כֵּ֥ן דּוֹדִ֖י בֵּ֣ין הַבָּנִ֑ים בְּצִלּוֹ֙ חִמַּ֣דְתִּי וְיָשַׁ֔בְתִּי וּפִרְי֖וֹ מָת֥וֹק לְחִכִּֽי׃‬

“Like an apple tree among the trees of the forest,

So is my lover among the sons.

In his shadow I delight and sit,

And his fruit is sweet to my taste.

The Shulamite speaks.

taste ← palate.
Song 2:4 ‫הֱבִיאַ֙נִי֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַיָּ֔יִן וְדִגְל֥וֹ עָלַ֖י אַהֲבָֽה׃‬

He brought me to the house of wine,

And the ensign over me was love.

Song 2:5 ‫סַמְּכ֙וּנִי֙ בָּֽאֲשִׁישׁ֔וֹת רַפְּד֖וּנִי בַּתַּפּוּחִ֑ים כִּי־חוֹלַ֥ת אַהֲבָ֖ה אָֽנִי׃‬

Sustain me with cake,

Refresh me with apples,

For I am lovesick.

sustain me: plural.
Song 2:6 ‫שְׂמֹאלוֹ֙ תַּ֣חַת לְרֹאשִׁ֔י וִימִינ֖וֹ תְּחַבְּקֵֽנִי׃‬

His left hand will be under my head,

And his right hand will embrace me.

Song 2:7 ‫הִשְׁבַּ֨עְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֜ם בְּנ֤וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ בִּצְבָא֔וֹת א֖וֹ בְּאַיְל֣וֹת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה אִם־תָּעִ֧ירוּ ׀ וְֽאִם־תְּעֽוֹרְר֛וּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָ֖ה עַ֥ד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּֽץ׃ ס‬

I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem,

By the wild roebucks and hinds,

Do not by any means awaken or arouse love,

Until it is willing.

A plea to the court-ladies (discordant in gender) not to incite affections for Solomon.

do not by any means: the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
Song 2:8 ‫ק֣וֹל דּוֹדִ֔י הִנֵּה־זֶ֖ה בָּ֑א מְדַלֵּג֙ עַל־הֶ֣הָרִ֔ים מְקַפֵּ֖ץ עַל־הַגְּבָעֽוֹת׃‬

The voice of my lover

– Behold he is coming –

Leaping over the mountains

And bounding over the hills.

Song 2:9 ‫דּוֹמֶ֤ה דוֹדִי֙ לִצְבִ֔י א֖וֹ לְעֹ֣פֶר הָֽאַיָּלִ֑ים הִנֵּה־זֶ֤ה עוֹמֵד֙ אַחַ֣ר כָּתְלֵ֔נוּ מַשְׁגִּ֙יחַ֙ מִן־הַֽחֲלֹּנ֔וֹת מֵצִ֖יץ מִן־הַֽחֲרַכִּֽים׃‬

My lover is like a roebuck or a deer fawn.

See how he is standing behind our wall

Gazing from the windows,

Glancing from the grille.

Song 2:10 ‫עָנָ֥ה דוֹדִ֖י וְאָ֣מַר לִ֑י ק֥וּמִי לָ֛ךְ רַעְיָתִ֥י יָפָתִ֖י וּלְכִי־לָֽךְ׃‬

My lover answered and said to me,

Get yourself up, my beloved, my beauty,

And get going.

The Shulamite quotes the shepherd lover.

get yourself up ... get going: ethic datives.
Song 2:11 ‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֥ה *הסתו **הַסְּתָ֖יו עָבָ֑ר הַגֶּ֕שֶׁם חָלַ֖ף הָלַ֥ךְ לֽוֹ׃‬

For behold, the winter has passed,

The rain has passed on

And gone its way.

winter: the ketiv and qeré are different spellings of the same word. The Modern Hebrew meaning is autumn.
Song 2:12 ‫הַנִּצָּנִים֙ נִרְא֣וּ בָאָ֔רֶץ עֵ֥ת הַזָּמִ֖יר הִגִּ֑יעַ וְק֥וֹל הַתּ֖וֹר נִשְׁמַ֥ע בְּאַרְצֵֽנוּ׃‬

The blossoms have appeared in the land,

The time of pruning has arrived

And the sound of the turtle-dove

Is heard in our land.

pruning: [AnLx]= pruning-time; [BDB], [GesHL]= pruning, trimming; [BDB] others, singing; [GesHL] others, time of the singing of birds. NH= pruning; nightingale. Nightingale would balance turtle-dove.
Song 2:13 ‫הַתְּאֵנָה֙ חָֽנְטָ֣ה פַגֶּ֔יהָ וְהַגְּפָנִ֥ים ׀ סְמָדַ֖ר נָ֣תְנוּ רֵ֑יחַ ק֥וּמִי *לכי **לָ֛ךְ רַעְיָתִ֥י יָפָתִ֖י וּלְכִי־לָֽךְ׃ ס‬

The fig tree has ripened its unripe figs,

And the vines with vine blossom have produced a fragrance.

{K: Arise, come} [Q: Arise, will you,] my beloved, my beauty,

And get moving.

Arise, will you (qeré)arise for yourself, taking the word in question as an ethic dative.

get moving ← go for yourself, an ethic dative.
Song 2:14 ‫יוֹנָתִ֞י בְּחַגְוֵ֣י הַסֶּ֗לַע בְּסֵ֙תֶר֙ הַמַּדְרֵגָ֔ה הַרְאִ֙ינִי֙ אֶתּ־מַרְאַ֔יִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִ֖ינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵ֑ךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵ֥ךְ עָרֵ֖ב וּמַרְאֵ֥יךְ נָאוֶֽה׃ ס‬

O dove in the clefts of the rock,

In the shelter of the precipice,

Show me what you look like,

And let me hear your voice,

For your voice is mellow

And your appearance is becoming.’

what you look like ← your appearance.
Song 2:15 ‫אֶֽחֱזוּ־לָ֙נוּ֙ שֽׁוּעָלִ֔ים שֽׁוּעָלִ֥ים קְטַנִּ֖ים מְחַבְּלִ֣ים כְּרָמִ֑ים וּכְרָמֵ֖ינוּ סְמָדַֽר׃‬

‘Catch the foxes for us,

The little foxes which spoil the vineyards,

For our vineyards are in blossom.’

The Shulamite quotes her brothers.

for: causal use of the vav.
Song 2:16 ‫דּוֹדִ֥י לִי֙ וַאֲנִ֣י ל֔וֹ הָרֹעֶ֖ה בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים׃‬

My lover is mine

And I am his –

The shepherd among the lilies.

The Shulamite speaks her own words.
Song 2:17 ‫עַ֤ד שֶׁיָּפ֙וּחַ֙ הַיּ֔וֹם וְנָ֖סוּ הַצְּלָלִ֑ים סֹב֩ דְּמֵה־לְךָ֨ דוֹדִ֜י לִצְבִ֗י א֛וֹ לְעֹ֥פֶר הָאַיָּלִ֖ים עַל־הָ֥רֵי בָֽתֶר׃ ס‬

Until the day grows cool,

And the shadows flee,

Turn, my beloved;

Be like a roebuck or a deer fawn

On the mountains of Bether.

Song 3:1 ‫עַל־מִשְׁכָּבִי֙ בַּלֵּיל֔וֹת בִּקַּ֕שְׁתִּי אֵ֥ת שֶׁאָהֲבָ֖ה נַפְשִׁ֑י בִּקַּשְׁתִּ֖יו וְלֹ֥א מְצָאתִֽיו׃‬

On my couch at night I sought him

Whom my whole being loves;

I sought him

But I did not find him.

being ← soul.
Song 3:2 ‫אָק֨וּמָה נָּ֜א וַאֲסוֹבְבָ֣ה בָעִ֗יר בַּשְּׁוָקִים֙ וּבָ֣רְחֹב֔וֹת אֲבַקְשָׁ֕ה אֵ֥ת שֶׁאָהֲבָ֖ה נַפְשִׁ֑י בִּקַּשְׁתִּ֖יו וְלֹ֥א מְצָאתִֽיו׃‬

Let me get up, then,

And I will go around the city;

In the squares and the streets

I will seek him

Whom my whole being loves.

I sought him,

But I did not find him.

being ← soul.
Song 3:3 ‫מְצָא֙וּנִי֙ הַשֹּׁ֣מְרִ֔ים הַסֹּבְבִ֖ים בָּעִ֑יר אֵ֛ת שֶׁאָהֲבָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֖י רְאִיתֶֽם׃‬

The watchmen who patrol the city found me.

I asked, ‘Have you seen the one

Whom my whole being loves?’

patrol ← go around in.

being ← soul.
Song 3:4 ‫כִּמְעַט֙ שֶׁעָבַ֣רְתִּי מֵהֶ֔ם עַ֣ד שֶֽׁמָּצָ֔אתִי אֵ֥ת שֶׁאָהֲבָ֖ה נַפְשִׁ֑י אֲחַזְתִּיו֙ וְלֹ֣א אַרְפֶּ֔נּוּ עַד־שֶׁ֤הֲבֵיאתִיו֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית אִמִּ֔י וְאֶל־חֶ֖דֶר הוֹרָתִֽי׃‬

I had hardly passed on from them

When I found him

Whom my whole being loves.

I held on to him

And would not let him go

Until I had brought him to my mother's house,

And to the room of her who conceived me.

being ← soul.
Song 3:5 ‫הִשְׁבַּ֨עְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֜ם בְּנ֤וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ בִּצְבָא֔וֹת א֖וֹ בְּאַיְל֣וֹת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה אִם־תָּעִ֧ירוּ ׀ וְֽאִם־תְּעֽוֹרְר֛וּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָ֖ה עַ֥ד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּֽץ׃ ס‬

I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem,

By the wild roebucks and hinds,

Do not by any means awaken or arouse love,

Until it is willing.”

A plea to the court-ladies (discordant in gender) not to incite affections for Solomon, as in Song 2:7.

do not by any means: the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
Song 3:6 ‫מִ֣י זֹ֗את עֹלָה֙ מִן־הַמִּדְבָּ֔ר כְּתִֽימֲר֖וֹת עָשָׁ֑ן מְקֻטֶּ֤רֶת מוֹר֙ וּלְבוֹנָ֔ה מִכֹּ֖ל אַבְקַ֥ת רוֹכֵֽל׃‬

“Who is this coming up from the desert

Like pillars of smoke,

Perfumed with myrrh and frankincense,

With all the aromatic powder of the merchant?”

A first inhabitant of Jerusalem speaks.

perfumed with: wider use of the construct state.
Song 3:7 ‫הִנֵּ֗ה מִטָּתוֹ֙ שֶׁלִּשְׁלֹמֹ֔ה שִׁשִּׁ֥ים גִּבֹּרִ֖ים סָבִ֣יב לָ֑הּ מִגִּבֹּרֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

“Behold Solomon's bed.

There are sixty warriors around it,

From the warriors of Israel.

A second inhabitant of Jerusalem speaks.
Song 3:8 ‫כֻּלָּם֙ אֲחֻ֣זֵי חֶ֔רֶב מְלֻמְּדֵ֖י מִלְחָמָ֑ה אִ֤ישׁ חַרְבּוֹ֙ עַל־יְרֵכ֔וֹ מִפַּ֖חַד בַּלֵּילּֽוֹת׃ ס‬

They are all wielding a sword,

And are trained in warfare.

Each has his sword on his thigh,

Because of fear at night.”

trained in: wider use of the construct state.
Song 3:9 ‫אַפִּרְי֗וֹן עָ֤שָׂה לוֹ֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה מֵעֲצֵ֖י הַלְּבָנֽוֹן׃‬

“King Solomon has made himself a litter

From the wood of Lebanon.

A third inhabitant of Jerusalem speaks.
Song 3:10 ‫עַמּוּדָיו֙ עָ֣שָׂה כֶ֔סֶף רְפִידָת֣וֹ זָהָ֔ב מֶרְכָּב֖וֹ אַרְגָּמָ֑ן תּוֹכוֹ֙ רָצ֣וּף אַהֲבָ֔ה מִבְּנ֖וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

He made its posts of silver,

And its backing of gold

And its seat of purple material.

Its inside is a mosaic of love themes

From the daughters of Jerusalem.”

Song 3:11 ‫צְאֶ֧ינָה ׀ וּֽרְאֶ֛ינָה בְּנ֥וֹת צִיּ֖וֹן בַּמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה בָּעֲטָרָ֗ה שֶׁעִטְּרָה־לּ֤וֹ אִמּוֹ֙ בְּי֣וֹם חֲתֻנָּת֔וֹ וּבְי֖וֹם שִׂמְחַ֥ת לִבּֽוֹ׃ ס‬

“Come out, O daughters of Zion,

And look at King Solomon

With the crown with which his mother crowned him

On his wedding day

And on the day of joy in his heart.”

A fourth inhabitant of Jerusalem speaks.

in his heart ← of his heart. Wider use of the construct state.
Song 4:1 ‫הִנָּ֨ךְ יָפָ֤ה רַעְיָתִי֙ הִנָּ֣ךְ יָפָ֔ה עֵינַ֣יִךְ יוֹנִ֔ים מִבַּ֖עַד לְצַמָּתֵ֑ךְ שַׂעְרֵךְ֙ כְּעֵ֣דֶר הָֽעִזִּ֔ים שֶׁגָּלְשׁ֖וּ מֵהַ֥ר גִּלְעָֽד׃‬

How beautiful you are, my beloved,

How beautiful you are!

Your eyes are those of doves through your veil.

Your hair is like a flock of goats

Which shine from Mount Gilead.

The shepherd lover speaks.

how beautiful you are (2x)behold you beautiful.

Gilead: see Gn 31:21.
Song 4:2 ‫שִׁנַּ֙יִךְ֙ כְּעֵ֣דֶר הַקְּצוּב֔וֹת שֶׁעָל֖וּ מִן־הָרַחְצָ֑ה שֶׁכֻּלָּם֙ מַתְאִימ֔וֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָ֖ה אֵ֥ין בָּהֶֽם׃‬

Your teeth are like a flock

Which has been shorn,

Which has come up from the washing place,

Which are all paired

And among which none is bereft of young.

bereft of young: by analogy a missing tooth in the row.
Song 4:3 ‫כְּח֤וּט הַשָּׁנִי֙ שִׂפְתֹתַ֔יִךְ וּמִדְבָּרֵ֖יךְ נָאוֶ֑ה כְּפֶ֤לַח הָֽרִמּוֹן֙ רַקָּתֵ֔ךְ מִבַּ֖עַד לְצַמָּתֵֽךְ׃‬

Your lips are like a scarlet thread,

And your speech is delightful.

Your cheek is like the segment of a pomegranate

Through your veil.

Song 4:4 ‫כְּמִגְדַּ֤ל דָּוִיד֙ צַוָּארֵ֔ךְ בָּנ֖וּי לְתַלְפִּיּ֑וֹת אֶ֤לֶף הַמָּגֵן֙ תָּל֣וּי עָלָ֔יו כֹּ֖ל שִׁלְטֵ֥י הַגִּבּוֹרִֽים׃‬

Your neck is like the Tower of David,

Built as an armoury.

A thousand bucklers hang from it –

All the shields of warriors.

Song 4:5 ‫שְׁנֵ֥י שָׁדַ֛יִךְ כִּשְׁנֵ֥י עֳפָרִ֖ים תְּאוֹמֵ֣י צְבִיָּ֑ה הָרוֹעִ֖ים בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים׃‬

Your two breasts are like two deer fawn twins

Of the gazelle hind,

Grazing among the lilies.

Song 4:6 ‫עַ֤ד שֶׁיָּפ֙וּחַ֙ הַיּ֔וֹם וְנָ֖סוּ הַצְּלָלִ֑ים אֵ֤לֶךְ לִי֙ אֶל־הַ֣ר הַמּ֔וֹר וְאֶל־גִּבְעַ֖ת הַלְּבוֹנָֽה׃‬

Until the day grows cool,

And the shadows flee,

I will betake myself

To the mountain of myrrh,

And to the hill of frankincense.

betake myself ← go for myself.
Song 4:7 ‫כֻּלָּ֤ךְ יָפָה֙ רַעְיָתִ֔י וּמ֖וּם אֵ֥ין בָּֽךְ׃ ס‬

You are beautiful all over, my beloved,

And there is no blemish on you.

you are beautiful all over ← all of you (is) beautiful.
Song 4:8 ‫אִתִּ֤י מִלְּבָנוֹן֙ כַּלָּ֔ה אִתִּ֖י מִלְּבָנ֣וֹן תָּב֑וֹאִי תָּשׁ֣וּרִי ׀ מֵרֹ֣אשׁ אֲמָנָ֗ה מֵרֹ֤אשׁ שְׂנִיר֙ וְחֶרְמ֔וֹן מִמְּעֹנ֣וֹת אֲרָי֔וֹת מֵֽהַרְרֵ֖י נְמֵרִֽים׃‬

Come with me from Lebanon, my bride,

With me from Lebanon.

Look from the peak of Amana,

From the peak of Shenir and Hermon,

From the dens of lions

And from the mountains of leopards.

Song 4:9 ‫לִבַּבְתִּ֖נִי אֲחֹתִ֣י כַלָּ֑ה לִבַּבְתִּ֙ינִי֙ *באחד **בְּאַחַ֣ת מֵעֵינַ֔יִךְ בְּאַחַ֥ד עֲנָ֖ק מִצַּוְּרֹנָֽיִךְ׃‬

You have given me heart, my sister, my bride,

You have given me heart

With one of your eyes,

With one necklace of your neck.

The ketiv is masculine, the qeré feminine (the usual gender for eye).
Song 4:10 ‫מַה־יָּפ֥וּ דֹדַ֖יִךְ אֲחֹתִ֣י כַלָּ֑ה מַה־טֹּ֤בוּ דֹדַ֙יִךְ֙ מִיַּ֔יִן וְרֵ֥יחַ שְׁמָנַ֖יִךְ מִכָּל־בְּשָׂמִֽים׃‬

How beautiful your love is, my sister, my bride!

How your love is better than wine,

And the fragrance of your oils than all the perfumes!

Song 4:11 ‫נֹ֛פֶת תִּטֹּ֥פְנָה שִׂפְתוֹתַ֖יִךְ כַּלָּ֑ה דְּבַ֤שׁ וְחָלָב֙ תַּ֣חַת לְשׁוֹנֵ֔ךְ וְרֵ֥יחַ שַׂלְמֹתַ֖יִךְ כְּרֵ֥יחַ לְבָנֽוֹן׃ ס‬

Your lips distil honey from the honeycomb, my bride.

Honey and milk are under your tongue,

And the fragrance of your clothes

Is like the fragrance of Lebanon.

Song 4:12 ‫גַּ֥ן ׀ נָע֖וּל אֲחֹתִ֣י כַלָּ֑ה גַּ֥ל נָע֖וּל מַעְיָ֥ן חָתֽוּם׃‬

My sister – my bride – is a locked garden,

A blocked spring, a sealed source.

Song 4:13 ‫שְׁלָחַ֙יִךְ֙ פַּרְדֵּ֣ס רִמּוֹנִ֔ים עִ֖ם פְּרִ֣י מְגָדִ֑ים כְּפָרִ֖ים עִם־נְרָדִֽים׃‬

Your shoots are a park of pomegranates,

With exquisite fruit,

Henna flowers with spikenards,

exquisite fruit ← fruit of exquisitenesses, a Hebraic genitive.
Song 4:14 ‫נֵ֣רְדְּ ׀ וְכַרְכֹּ֗ם קָנֶה֙ וְקִנָּמ֔וֹן עִ֖ם כָּל־עֲצֵ֣י לְבוֹנָ֑ה מֹ֚ר וַאֲהָל֔וֹת עִ֖ם כָּל־רָאשֵׁ֥י בְשָׂמִֽים׃‬

Spikenard and saffron,

Sweet cane and cinnamon,

With all kinds of frankincense trees,

Myrrh and aloes,

With all the prime sorts of perfumes,

Song 4:15 ‫מַעְיַ֣ן גַּנִּ֔ים בְּאֵ֖ר מַ֣יִם חַיִּ֑ים וְנֹזְלִ֖ים מִן־לְבָנֽוֹן׃‬

A source for gardens,

A well of living water,

And distillations from Lebanon.

Song 4:16 ‫ע֤וּרִי צָפוֹן֙ וּב֣וֹאִי תֵימָ֔ן הָפִ֥יחִי גַנִּ֖י יִזְּל֣וּ בְשָׂמָ֑יו יָבֹ֤א דוֹדִי֙ לְגַנּ֔וֹ וְיֹאכַ֖ל פְּרִ֥י מְגָדָֽיו׃‬

Awake, O North,

And come, O South,

Blow on my garden and let its perfumes distil.”

“Let my lover come to his garden,

And eat his exquisite fruit.”

The Shulamite interposes.

exquisite fruit: see Song 4:13.
Song 5:1 ‫בָּ֣אתִי לְגַנִּי֮ אֲחֹתִ֣י כַלָּה֒ אָרִ֤יתִי מוֹרִי֙ עִם־בְּשָׂמִ֔י אָכַ֤לְתִּי יַעְרִי֙ עִם־דִּבְשִׁ֔י שָׁתִ֥יתִי יֵינִ֖י עִם־חֲלָבִ֑י אִכְל֣וּ רֵעִ֔ים שְׁת֥וּ וְשִׁכְר֖וּ דּוֹדִֽים׃ ס‬

“I have come to my garden, my sister, my bride;

I have gathered my myrrh with my perfume,

I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey,

I have drunk my wine with my milk.”

“Eat, friends,

Drink, and imbibe strong drink,

You lovers.”

The shepherd lover speaks, then the court-ladies.
Song 5:2 ‫אֲנִ֥י יְשֵׁנָ֖ה וְלִבִּ֣י עֵ֑ר ק֣וֹל ׀ דּוֹדִ֣י דוֹפֵ֗ק פִּתְחִי־לִ֞י אֲחֹתִ֤י רַעְיָתִי֙ יוֹנָתִ֣י תַמָּתִ֔י שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי֙ נִמְלָא־טָ֔ל קְוֻּצּוֹתַ֖י רְסִ֥יסֵי לָֽיְלָה׃‬

“I am asleep, but my heart is awake;

The voice of my lover is knocking,

‘Open to me, my sister,

My beloved, my dove, my undefiled,

For my head is full of dew,

As are my locks of hair

With dewdrops of the night.

The Shulamite tells the court-ladies her dream, including the shepherd lover speaking in the dream.
Song 5:3 ‫פָּשַׁ֙טְתִּי֙ אֶת־כֻּתָּנְתִּ֔י אֵיכָ֖כָה אֶלְבָּשֶׁ֑נָּה רָחַ֥צְתִּי אֶת־רַגְלַ֖י אֵיכָ֥כָה אֲטַנְּפֵֽם׃‬

I have taken my tunic off;

How can I put it on again?

I have washed my feet;

How can I soil them again?’

Song 5:4 ‫דּוֹדִ֗י שָׁלַ֤ח יָדוֹ֙ מִן־הַחֹ֔ר וּמֵעַ֖י הָמ֥וּ עָלָֽיו׃‬

My lover stretched out his hand by the lock hole,

And I was moved inwardly because of him.

The Shulamite speaks her own words.

was moved inwardly ← my innards moved.
Song 5:5 ‫קַ֥מְתִּֽי אֲנִ֖י לִפְתֹּ֣חַ לְדוֹדִ֑י וְיָדַ֣י נָֽטְפוּ־מ֗וֹר וְאֶצְבְּעֹתַי֙ מ֣וֹר עֹבֵ֔ר עַ֖ל כַּפּ֥וֹת הַמַּנְעֽוּל׃‬

I arose to open to my lover,

And my hands exuded drops of myrrh,

And my fingers liquid myrrh

On the handles of the lock.

liquid ← passing across, overflowing.
Song 5:6 ‫פָּתַ֤חְתִּֽי אֲנִי֙ לְדוֹדִ֔י וְדוֹדִ֖י חָמַ֣ק עָבָ֑ר נַפְשִׁי֙ יָֽצְאָ֣ה בְדַבְּר֔וֹ בִּקַּשְׁתִּ֙יהוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א מְצָאתִ֔יהוּ קְרָאתִ֖יו וְלֹ֥א עָנָֽנִי׃‬

I opened to my lover,

But my lover withdrew and vanished.

My heart went out to him when he spoke.

I sought him,

But I did not find him;

I called to him,

But he did not answer me.

my heart ← my soul.
Song 5:7 ‫מְצָאֻ֧נִי הַשֹּׁמְרִ֛ים הַסֹּבְבִ֥ים בָּעִ֖יר הִכּ֣וּנִי פְצָע֑וּנִי נָשְׂא֤וּ אֶת־רְדִידִי֙ מֵֽעָלַ֔י שֹׁמְרֵ֖י הַחֹמֽוֹת׃‬

The watchmen who patrol in the city found me.

They struck me, they wounded me;

The guardians of the walls lifted my veil off me.

patrol ← go round in.
Song 5:8 ‫הִשְׁבַּ֥עְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֖ם בְּנ֣וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם אִֽם־תִּמְצְאוּ֙ אֶת־דּוֹדִ֔י מַה־תַּגִּ֣ידוּ ל֔וֹ שֶׁחוֹלַ֥ת אַהֲבָ֖ה אָֽנִי׃‬

I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem,

If you find my lover,

That you tell him

That I am lovesick.”

that you tell him ... that ← what you tell him (is) that.
Song 5:9 ‫מַה־דּוֹדֵ֣ךְ מִדּ֔וֹד הַיָּפָ֖ה בַּנָּשִׁ֑ים מַה־דּוֹדֵ֣ךְ מִדּ֔וֹד שֶׁכָּ֖כָה הִשְׁבַּעְתָּֽנוּ׃‬

In what way is your lover different

From any other lover,

O beautiful one among women?

In what way is your lover different

From any other lover,

That you should adjure us like this?”

The court-ladies speak.
Song 5:10 ‫דּוֹדִ֥י צַח֙ וְאָד֔וֹם דָּג֖וּל מֵרְבָבָֽה׃‬

“My lover (is) bright and red,

Conspicuous among ten thousand.

The Shulamite speaks.

among ← from.
Song 5:11 ‫רֹאשׁ֖וֹ כֶּ֣תֶם פָּ֑ז קְוּצּוֹתָיו֙ תַּלְתַּלִּ֔ים שְׁחֹר֖וֹת כָּעוֹרֵֽב׃‬

His head is pure gold;

His locks of hair are wavy

And black like a raven.

Song 5:12 ‫עֵינָ֕יו כְּיוֹנִ֖ים עַל־אֲפִ֣יקֵי מָ֑יִם רֹֽחֲצוֹת֙ בֶּֽחָלָ֔ב יֹשְׁב֖וֹת עַל־מִלֵּֽאת׃‬

His eyes are like a dove's

By the torrents of water,

Eyes washed in milk,

Set like a gemstone in a bezel.

like a dove's ← like doves.

set ← sitting.
Song 5:13 ‫לְחָיָו֙ כַּעֲרוּגַ֣ת הַבֹּ֔שֶׂם מִגְדְּל֖וֹת מֶרְקָחִ֑ים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו֙ שֽׁוֹשַׁנִּ֔ים נֹטְפ֖וֹת מ֥וֹר עֹבֵֽר׃‬

His cheeks are like a raised bed of balsam plants,

A high bed of aromatic herbs;

His lips are like lilies,

Exuding liquid myrrh.

balsam: or, aromatic plants in general.

liquid: see Song 5:5.
Song 5:14 ‫יָדָיו֙ גְּלִילֵ֣י זָהָ֔ב מְמֻלָּאִ֖ים בַּתַּרְשִׁ֑ישׁ מֵעָיו֙ עֶ֣שֶׁת שֵׁ֔ן מְעֻלֶּ֖פֶת סַפִּירִֽים׃‬

His forearms are cylinders of gold

Set with Tarshish gemstones;

His midriff is polished ivory,

Covered with sapphires.

forearms: the word includes the hands, and is often translated hands.
Song 5:15 ‫שׁוֹקָיו֙ עַמּ֣וּדֵי שֵׁ֔שׁ מְיֻסָּדִ֖ים עַל־אַדְנֵי־פָ֑ז מַרְאֵ֙הוּ֙ כַּלְּבָנ֔וֹן בָּח֖וּר כָּאֲרָזִֽים׃‬

His legs are pillars of marble,

Founded on socles of pure gold.

His appearance is as Lebanon –

He is a young man like the cedars.

Song 5:16 ‫חִכּוֹ֙ מַֽמְתַקִּ֔ים וְכֻלּ֖וֹ מַחֲּמַדִּ֑ים זֶ֤ה דוֹדִי֙ וְזֶ֣ה רֵעִ֔י בְּנ֖וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

His mouth is most sweet.

And all of him is most desirable.

This is my lover, this is my beloved,

O daughters of Jerusalem.”

mouth ← palate.
Song 6:1 ‫אָ֚נָה הָלַ֣ךְ דּוֹדֵ֔ךְ הַיָּפָ֖ה בַּנָּשִׁ֑ים אָ֚נָה פָּנָ֣ה דוֹדֵ֔ךְ וּנְבַקְשֶׁ֖נּוּ עִמָּֽךְ׃‬

“Where has your lover gone,

O most beautiful among women?

Which way has your lover turned?

Then let us look for him with you.”

The court-ladies speak.

which way ← to where.
Song 6:2 ‫דּוֹדִי֙ יָרַ֣ד לְגַנּ֔וֹ לַעֲרוּג֖וֹת הַבֹּ֑שֶׂם לִרְעוֹת֙ בַּגַּנִּ֔ים וְלִלְקֹ֖ט שֽׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים׃‬

“My lover went down to his garden,

To the raised beds of balsam

To feed in the gardens

And to gather lilies.

The Shulamite speaks.

balsam: see Song 5:13.
Song 6:3 ‫אֲנִ֤י לְדוֹדִי֙ וְדוֹדִ֣י לִ֔י הָרֹעֶ֖ה בַּשׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים׃ ס‬

I belong to my lover,

And my lover belongs to me,

The one feeding among the lilies.”

Song 6:4 ‫יָפָ֨ה אַ֤תְּ רַעְיָתִי֙ כְּתִרְצָ֔ה נָאוָ֖ה כִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם אֲיֻמָּ֖ה כַּנִּדְגָּלֽוֹת׃‬

“You are beautiful, my beloved, like Tirzah,

As delightful as Jerusalem,

As awe-inspiring as a display of banners.

Solomon speaks.

Tirzah: the royal residence.
Song 6:5 ‫הָסֵ֤בִּי עֵינַ֙יִךְ֙ מִנֶּגְדִּ֔י שֶׁ֥הֵ֖ם הִרְהִיבֻ֑נִי שַׂעְרֵךְ֙ כְּעֵ֣דֶר הָֽעִזִּ֔ים שֶׁגָּלְשׁ֖וּ מִן־הַגִּלְעָֽד׃‬

Turn your eyes away from me,

For they have excited me.

Your hair is like a flock of goats

Which shine from Gilead.

Gilead: see Gn 31:21.
Song 6:6 ‫שִׁנַּ֙יִךְ֙ כְּעֵ֣דֶר הָֽרְחֵלִ֔ים שֶׁעָל֖וּ מִן־הָרַחְצָ֑ה שֶׁכֻּלָּם֙ מַתְאִימ֔וֹת וְשַׁכֻּלָ֖ה אֵ֥ין בָּהֶֽם׃‬

Your teeth are like a flock of ewes,

Which have come up from the washing-place,

Which are all paired,

And among which none is bereft of young.

bereft of young: see Song 4:2.
Song 6:7 ‫כְּפֶ֤לַח הָרִמּוֹן֙ רַקָּתֵ֔ךְ מִבַּ֖עַד לְצַמָּתֵֽךְ׃‬

Your cheek is like the segment of a pomegranate

Through your veil.

Song 6:8 ‫שִׁשִּׁ֥ים הֵ֙מָּה֙ מְּלָכ֔וֹת וּשְׁמֹנִ֖ים פִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים וַעֲלָמ֖וֹת אֵ֥ין מִסְפָּֽר׃‬

There are sixty queens and eighty mistresses,

And virgins without number.

Song 6:9 ‫אַחַ֥ת הִיא֙ יוֹנָתִ֣י תַמָּתִ֔י אַחַ֥ת הִיא֙ לְאִמָּ֔הּ בָּרָ֥ה הִ֖יא לְיֽוֹלַדְתָּ֑הּ רָא֤וּהָ בָנוֹת֙ וַֽיְאַשְּׁר֔וּהָ מְלָכ֥וֹת וּפִֽילַגְשִׁ֖ים וַֽיְהַלְלֽוּהָ׃ ס‬

But there is just one of my dove,

My undefiled. She is the only one of her mother's;

She is the favourite of her who bore her.

The daughters saw her and blessed her,

And the queens and mistresses praised her,

And said,

Song 6:10 ‫מִי־זֹ֥את הַנִּשְׁקָפָ֖ה כְּמוֹ־שָׁ֑חַר יָפָ֣ה כַלְּבָנָ֗ה בָּרָה֙ כַּֽחַמָּ֔ה אֲיֻמָּ֖ה כַּנִּדְגָּלֽוֹת׃ ס‬

‘Who is this peeping out like the dawn,

As beautiful as the moon,

As clear as the sun,

As awesome as a display of banners?’

Solomon quotes the queens and mistresses.
Song 6:11 ‫אֶל־גִּנַּ֤ת אֱגוֹז֙ יָרַ֔דְתִּי לִרְא֖וֹת בְּאִבֵּ֣י הַנָּ֑חַל לִרְאוֹת֙ הֲפָֽרְחָ֣ה הַגֶּ֔פֶן הֵנֵ֖צוּ הָרִמֹּנִֽים׃‬

I went down to the nut garden,

To see the plant life of the valley,

To see if the vine was blossoming,

If the pomegranates were blooming.

The Shulamite speaks.

valley: or, torrent, but referring to the banks.
Song 6:12 ‫לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתִּי נַפְשִׁ֣י שָׂמַ֔תְנִי מַרְכְּב֖וֹת עַמִּי־נָדִֽיב׃‬

I don't know how I landed myself

In the chariots of my noble people.”

I landed myself ← my soul put me.

[CB] gives as the meaning that the Shulamite does not know how it happened that she ended up in the king's chariots (to be taken to Solomon as a potential mistress or wife).
Song 7:1
Song 6:13AV
‫שׁ֤וּבִי שׁ֙וּבִי֙ הַשּׁ֣וּלַמִּ֔ית שׁ֥וּבִי שׁ֖וּבִי וְנֶחֱזֶה־בָּ֑ךְ מַֽה־תֶּחֱזוּ֙ בַּשּׁ֣וּלַמִּ֔ית כִּמְחֹלַ֖ת הַֽמַּחֲנָֽיִם׃‬

“Come back, come back, O Shulamite, come back.

Come back, and let us look at you.”

“What do you see in the Shulamite?”

You are like the dance of Mahanaim.

Solomon speaks. The Shulamite answers. Then Solomon answers again.
Song 7:2
Song 7:1AV
‫מַה־יָּפ֧וּ פְעָמַ֛יִךְ בַּנְּעָלִ֖ים בַּת־נָדִ֑יב חַמּוּקֵ֣י יְרֵכַ֔יִךְ כְּמ֣וֹ חֲלָאִ֔ים מַעֲשֵׂ֖ה יְדֵ֥י אָמָּֽן׃‬

How beautiful your feet are in your shoes,

O daughter of a noble.

Your figure at your thighs is like necklaces –

Craftsmanship in the hands of an artist.

feet ← steps.
Song 7:3
Song 7:2AV
‫שָׁרְרֵךְ֙ אַגַּ֣ן הַסַּ֔הַר אַל־יֶחְסַ֖ר הַמָּ֑זֶג בִּטְנֵךְ֙ עֲרֵמַ֣ת חִטִּ֔ים סוּגָ֖ה בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים׃‬

Your navel is like a round bowl.

Let it not lack spiced wine.

Your stomach is a pile of wheat

Enclosed by lilies.

spiced ← mixed.
Song 7:4
Song 7:3AV
‫שְׁנֵ֥י שָׁדַ֛יִךְ כִּשְׁנֵ֥י עֳפָרִ֖ים תָּאֳמֵ֥י צְבִיָּֽה׃‬

Your two breasts are like two roebucks –

Twins of the hind.

Song 7:5
Song 7:4AV
‫צַוָּארֵ֖ךְ כְּמִגְדַּ֣ל הַשֵּׁ֑ן עֵינַ֜יִךְ בְּרֵכ֣וֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּ֗וֹן עַל־שַׁ֙עַר֙ בַּת־רַבִּ֔ים אַפֵּךְ֙ כְּמִגְדַּ֣ל הַלְּבָנ֔וֹן צוֹפֶ֖ה פְּנֵ֥י דַמָּֽשֶׂק׃‬

Your neck is like a tower of ivory.

Your eyes are pools in Heshbon

At the gate of Bath-rabbim.

Your nose is like the Tower of Lebanon

Which looks out towards Damascus.

Song 7:6
Song 7:5AV
‫רֹאשֵׁ֤ךְ עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ כַּכַּרְמֶ֔ל וְדַלַּ֥ת רֹאשֵׁ֖ךְ כָּאַרְגָּמָ֑ן מֶ֖לֶךְ אָס֥וּר בָּרְהָטִֽים׃‬

Your head rests on you like Carmel,

And the locks of your head are like purple material

The king is captivated by the shocks of hair.

Song 7:7
Song 7:6AV
‫מַה־יָּפִית֙ וּמַה־נָּעַ֔מְתְּ אַהֲבָ֖ה בַּתַּֽעֲנוּגִֽים׃‬

How beautiful you are and how delightful you are,

O love among the pleasures!

Song 7:8
Song 7:7AV
‫זֹ֤את קֽוֹמָתֵךְ֙ דָּֽמְתָ֣ה לְתָמָ֔ר וְשָׁדַ֖יִךְ לְאַשְׁכֹּלֽוֹת׃‬

This stature of yours is like a date palm,

And your breasts are like bunches of grapes.

Song 7:9
Song 7:8AV
‫אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ אֶעֱלֶ֣ה בְתָמָ֔ר אֹֽחֲזָ֖ה בְּסַנְסִנָּ֑יו וְיִֽהְיוּ־נָ֤א שָׁדַ֙יִךְ֙ כְּאֶשְׁכְּל֣וֹת הַגֶּ֔פֶן וְרֵ֥יחַ אַפֵּ֖ךְ כַּתַּפּוּחִֽים׃‬

I said, ‘I will go up to the date palm;

I will take hold of its palm-branches.’

And now may your breasts become like bunches of grapes of the vine,

And the smell of your nose like apples.

Song 7:10
Song 7:9AV
‫וְחִכֵּ֕ךְ כְּיֵ֥ין הַטּ֛וֹב הוֹלֵ֥ךְ לְדוֹדִ֖י לְמֵישָׁרִ֑ים דּוֹבֵ֖ב שִׂפְתֵ֥י יְשֵׁנִֽים׃‬

And your mouth is like good wine

Going straight to my beloved,

Flowing past the lips of the sleepy.”

mouth ← palate.
Song 7:11
Song 7:10AV
‫אֲנִ֣י לְדוֹדִ֔י וְעָלַ֖י תְּשׁוּקָתֽוֹ׃ ס‬

“I am my lover's,

And his desire is for me.

The Shulamite refuses Solomon's advances.
Song 7:12
Song 7:11AV
‫לְכָ֤ה דוֹדִי֙ נֵצֵ֣א הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה נָלִ֖ינָה בַּכְּפָרִֽים׃‬

Come, my lover, let us go out into the countryside;

Let us lodge in the villages.

Song 7:13
Song 7:12AV
‫נַשְׁכִּ֙ימָה֙ לַכְּרָמִ֔ים נִרְאֶ֞ה אִם פָּֽרְחָ֤ה הַגֶּ֙פֶן֙ פִּתַּ֣ח הַסְּמָדַ֔ר הֵנֵ֖צוּ הָרִמּוֹנִ֑ים שָׁ֛ם אֶתֵּ֥ן אֶת־דֹּדַ֖י לָֽךְ׃‬

Let us get up early to go to the vineyards,

Let us see whether the vine is blossoming,

Whether the vine blossom has opened,

Whether the pomegranates have flourished.

There I will give you my love.

Song 7:14
Song 7:13AV
‫הַֽדּוּדָאִ֣ים נָֽתְנוּ־רֵ֗יחַ וְעַל־פְּתָחֵ֙ינוּ֙ כָּל־מְגָדִ֔ים חֲדָשִׁ֖ים גַּם־יְשָׁנִ֑ים דּוֹדִ֖י צָפַ֥נְתִּי לָֽךְ׃‬

The mandrakes give a fragrance,

And at our gates are all kinds of exquisite fruit,

Both new and old, my lover,

Which I have stowed away for you.

both new and old: the emphasis comes from the word גַּם, gam.
Song 8:1 ‫מִ֤י יִתֶּנְךָ֙ כְּאָ֣ח לִ֔י יוֹנֵ֖ק שְׁדֵ֣י אִמִּ֑י אֶֽמְצָאֲךָ֤ בַחוּץ֙ אֶשָׁ֣קְךָ֔ גַּ֖ם לֹא־יָב֥וּזוּ לִֽי׃‬

If only you were as my brother,

Who sucked my mother's breasts.

I would find you outdoors;

I would kiss you,

And I would not be despised.

if only ← who will give?

I would not be despised ← they would not despise me. Avoidance of the passive.
Song 8:2 ‫אֶנְהָֽגֲךָ֗ אֲבִֽיאֲךָ֛ אֶל־בֵּ֥ית אִמִּ֖י תְּלַמְּדֵ֑נִי אַשְׁקְךָ֙ מִיַּ֣יִן הָרֶ֔קַח מֵעֲסִ֖יס רִמֹּנִֽי׃‬

I would lead you

And bring you to my mother's house.

She would teach me.

I would give you some spiced wine to drink

Made from my pomegranate must.

she: or, you.
Song 8:3 ‫שְׂמֹאלוֹ֙ תַּ֣חַת רֹאשִׁ֔י וִֽימִינ֖וֹ תְּחַבְּקֵֽנִי׃‬

Let his left hand be under my head

And his right hand embrace me.

Song 8:4 ‫הִשְׁבַּ֥עְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֖ם בְּנ֣וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם מַה־תָּעִ֧ירוּ ׀ וּֽמַה־תְּעֹֽרְר֛וּ אֶת־הָאַהֲבָ֖ה עַ֥ד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּֽץ׃ ס‬

I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem,

Why awaken or why arouse love

Before it is willing?”

before ← until, but in a negative context (here implicit) also before.
Song 8:5 ‫מִ֣י זֹ֗את עֹלָה֙ מִן־הַמִּדְבָּ֔ר מִתְרַפֶּ֖קֶת עַל־דּוֹדָ֑הּ תַּ֤חַת הַתַּפּ֙וּחַ֙ עֽוֹרַרְתִּ֔יךָ שָׁ֚מָּה חִבְּלַ֣תְךָ אִמֶּ֔ךָ שָׁ֖מָּה חִבְּלָ֥ה יְלָדַֽתְךָ׃‬

“Who is this coming up from the desert,

Leaning on her lover?”

“I aroused you under the apple tree.

Your mother bore you there.

She who gave birth to you

Bore you there.

The shepherd's companions speak. Then the Shulamite answers.

bore (2x)was in labour pain.
Song 8:6 ‫שִׂימֵ֨נִי כַֽחוֹתָ֜ם עַל־לִבֶּ֗ךָ כַּֽחוֹתָם֙ עַל־זְרוֹעֶ֔ךָ כִּֽי־עַזָּ֤ה כַמָּ֙וֶת֙ אַהֲבָ֔ה קָשָׁ֥ה כִשְׁא֖וֹל קִנְאָ֑ה רְשָׁפֶ֕יהָ רִשְׁפֵּ֕י אֵ֖שׁ שַׁלְהֶ֥בֶתְיָֽה׃‬

Place me like a seal on your heart,

Like a seal on your arm,

For love is as strong as death

And jealousy is as harsh as the grave;

Its flames are fiery flames –

An intense blaze.

an intense blaze ← a blaze of the Lord, but written as one word; an idiom using Jah, (the Lord), for an extreme quality. Compare Gn 23:6, Gn 30:8, Ex 9:28, Job 1:16, Jonah 3:3. In the NT similarly at Acts 7:20, 2 Cor 10:4, 2 Cor 11:2.
Song 8:7 ‫מַ֣יִם רַבִּ֗ים לֹ֤א יֽוּכְלוּ֙ לְכַבּ֣וֹת אֶת־הָֽאַהֲבָ֔ה וּנְהָר֖וֹת לֹ֣א יִשְׁטְפ֑וּהָ אִם־יִתֵּ֨ן אִ֜ישׁ אֶת־כָּל־ה֤וֹן בֵּיתוֹ֙ בָּאַהֲבָ֔ה בּ֖וֹז יָב֥וּזוּ לֽוֹ׃ ס‬

Even much water cannot quench love,

Nor can rivers wash it away.

If a man were to give all the wealth of his household for love,

It would be utterly contemptible of him.”

Perhaps the shepherd lover speaks here.

it would be utterly contemptible of him ← they would despising despise him. Infinitive absolute.
Song 8:8 ‫אָח֥וֹת לָ֙נוּ֙ קְטַנָּ֔ה וְשָׁדַ֖יִם אֵ֣ין לָ֑הּ מַֽה־נַּעֲשֶׂה֙ לַאֲחֹתֵ֔נוּ בַּיּ֖וֹם שֶׁיְּדֻבַּר־בָּֽהּ׃‬

“We have a little sister,

Who does not yet have breasts.

What should we do with our sister

On the day when she is proposed to?”

One of the Shulamite's brothers speaks.
Song 8:9 ‫אִם־חוֹמָ֣ה הִ֔יא נִבְנֶ֥ה עָלֶ֖יהָ טִ֣ירַת כָּ֑סֶף וְאִם־דֶּ֣לֶת הִ֔יא נָצ֥וּר עָלֶ֖יהָ ל֥וּחַ אָֽרֶז׃‬

“If she is a wall,

We will build silver castellations on her.

And if she is a door,

We will enclose her with panels of cedar.”

Another brother speaks.
Song 8:10 ‫אֲנִ֣י חוֹמָ֔ה וְשָׁדַ֖י כַּמִּגְדָּל֑וֹת אָ֛ז הָיִ֥יתִי בְעֵינָ֖יו כְּמוֹצְאֵ֥ת שָׁלֽוֹם׃ פ‬

“I am a wall

And my breasts are like towers.

Then in his eyes I was the one

Who found peace in his sight.

The Shulamite speaks.
Song 8:11 ‫כֶּ֣רֶם הָיָ֤ה לִשְׁלֹמֹה֙ בְּבַ֣עַל הָמ֔וֹן נָתַ֥ן אֶת־הַכֶּ֖רֶם לַנֹּטְרִ֑ים אִ֛ישׁ יָבִ֥א בְּפִרְי֖וֹ אֶ֥לֶף כָּֽסֶף׃‬

Solomon had a vineyard in Baal-hamon.

He let the vineyard out to tenants.

Each one was to bring one thousand pieces of silver

For his fruit.

let the vineyard out to tenants ← gave the vineyard to the keepers.

his: or, its.
Song 8:12 ‫כָּרְמִ֥י שֶׁלִּ֖י לְפָנָ֑י הָאֶ֤לֶף לְךָ֙ שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה וּמָאתַ֖יִם לְנֹטְרִ֥ים אֶת־פִּרְיֽוֹ׃‬

My own vineyard is in front of me.

You can have your thousand, Solomon,

And you who keep its fruit, your two hundred.”

Song 8:13 ‫הַיוֹשֶׁ֣בֶת בַּגַּנִּ֗ים חֲבֵרִ֛ים מַקְשִׁיבִ֥ים לְקוֹלֵ֖ךְ הַשְׁמִיעִֽינִי׃‬

You garden-dweller,

My companions can hear your voice.

Let me hear it too.”

The shepherd lover speaks.

you garden-dweller: feminine singular.
Song 8:14 ‫בְּרַ֣ח ׀ דּוֹדִ֗י וּֽדְמֵה־לְךָ֤ לִצְבִי֙ א֚וֹ לְעֹ֣פֶר הָֽאַיָּלִ֔ים עַ֖ל הָרֵ֥י בְשָׂמִֽים׃‬

Hasten, my lover,

And be like a gazelle or a fawn of the deer

On the mountains of balsam.”

The Shulamite speaks.

hasten ← flee, bolt.
Eccl 1:1 ‫דִּבְרֵי֙ קֹהֶ֣לֶת בֶּן־דָּוִ֔ד מֶ֖לֶךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ The words of the convener, the son of David, the king in Jerusalem.
Eccl 1:2 ‫הֲבֵ֤ל הֲבָלִים֙ אָמַ֣ר קֹהֶ֔לֶת הֲבֵ֥ל הֲבָלִ֖ים הַכֹּ֥ל הָֽבֶל׃‬

“Vanity of vanities”,

Says the convener,

“Vanity of vanities,

All is vanity.

Eccl 1:3 ‫מַה־יִּתְר֖וֹן לָֽאָדָ֑ם בְּכָל־עֲמָל֔וֹ שֶֽׁיַּעֲמֹ֖ל תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬

What is the benefit to a man

Of all his toil which he toils at

Under the sun?

Eccl 1:4 ‫דּ֤וֹר הֹלֵךְ֙ וְד֣וֹר בָּ֔א וְהָאָ֖רֶץ לְעוֹלָ֥ם עֹמָֽדֶת׃‬

A generation comes and a generation goes,

But the world stands age-abidingly.

Eccl 1:5 ‫וְזָרַ֥ח הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ וּבָ֣א הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ וְאֶ֨ל־מְקוֹמ֔וֹ שׁוֹאֵ֛ף זוֹרֵ֥חַֽ ה֖וּא שָֽׁם׃‬

And the sun rises, and the sun sets,

Then it draws towards its place

Where it rises again.

Eccl 1:6 ‫הוֹלֵךְ֙ אֶל־דָּר֔וֹם וְסוֹבֵ֖ב אֶל־צָפ֑וֹן סוֹבֵ֤ב ׀ סֹבֵב֙ הוֹלֵ֣ךְ הָר֔וּחַ וְעַל־סְבִיבֹתָ֖יו שָׁ֥ב הָרֽוּחַ׃‬

It goes to the south, and it turns to the north,

Turning and turning, the wind goes,

And by round trips

The wind returns.

Eccl 1:7 ‫כָּל־הַנְּחָלִים֙ הֹלְכִ֣ים אֶל־הַיָּ֔ם וְהַיָּ֖ם אֵינֶ֣נּוּ מָלֵ֑א אֶל־מְק֗וֹם שֶׁ֤הַנְּחָלִים֙ הֹֽלְכִ֔ים שָׁ֛ם הֵ֥ם שָׁבִ֖ים לָלָֽכֶת׃‬

All the streams go to the sea,

But the sea is not full.

To the place where the streams flow –

There they return to flow again.

flow (2x)go.
Eccl 1:8 ‫כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים יְגֵעִ֔ים לֹא־יוּכַ֥ל אִ֖ישׁ לְדַבֵּ֑ר לֹא־תִשְׂבַּ֥ע עַ֙יִן֙ לִרְא֔וֹת וְלֹא־תִמָּלֵ֥א אֹ֖זֶן מִשְּׁמֹֽעַ׃‬

Everything is wearisome,

No-one can utter it.

The eye is not satisfied with seeing,

And the ear is not filled with hearing.

Eccl 1:9 ‫מַה־שֶּֽׁהָיָה֙ ה֣וּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶ֔ה וּמַה־שֶׁנַּֽעֲשָׂ֔ה ה֖וּא שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂ֑ה וְאֵ֥ין כָּל־חָדָ֖שׁ תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬

What has been is what will be,

And what has been done is what will be done,

And there is nothing new under the sun.

Eccl 1:10 ‫יֵ֥שׁ דָּבָ֛ר שֶׁיֹּאמַ֥ר רְאֵה־זֶ֖ה חָדָ֣שׁ ה֑וּא כְּבָר֙ הָיָ֣ה לְעֹֽלָמִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיָ֖ה מִלְּפָנֵֽנוּ׃‬

Is there anything of which it can be said,

‘Look, this is new’?

It was already in existence in ancient times –

Something which existed before us.

in ancient times ← of the ages.
Eccl 1:11 ‫אֵ֥ין זִכְר֖וֹן לָרִאשֹׁנִ֑ים וְגַ֨ם לָאַחֲרֹנִ֜ים שֶׁיִּהְי֗וּ לֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֤ה לָהֶם֙ זִכָּר֔וֹן עִ֥ם שֶׁיִּהְי֖וּ לָאַחֲרֹנָֽה׃ פ‬

There is no remembrance of the former things,

Nor will there be any remembrance of the latter things which will be,

With those who will be in existence

In the latter time.

Eccl 1:12 ‫אֲנִ֣י קֹהֶ֗לֶת הָיִ֥יתִי מֶ֛לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ I the convener was king over Israel in Jerusalem,
Eccl 1:13 ‫וְנָתַ֣תִּי אֶת־לִבִּ֗י לִדְר֤וֹשׁ וְלָתוּר֙ בַּֽחָכְמָ֔ה עַ֛ל כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר נַעֲשָׂ֖ה תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם ה֣וּא ׀ עִנְיַ֣ן רָ֗ע נָתַ֧ן אֱלֹהִ֛ים לִבְנֵ֥י הָאָדָ֖ם לַעֲנ֥וֹת בּֽוֹ׃‬ and I decided to seek and investigate by means of wisdom everything that has been done under heaven. It is a troublesome matter that God has given the sons of Adam to be afflicted by. decided ← gave / put my heart.

everything ← concerning everything.
Eccl 1:14 ‫רָאִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַֽמַּעֲשִׂ֔ים שֶֽׁנַּעֲשׂ֖וּ תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ וְהִנֵּ֥ה הַכֹּ֛ל הֶ֖בֶל וּרְע֥וּת רֽוּחַ׃‬ I have seen all the works which are done under the sun, and look, everything is vanity and idle pursuit. idle pursuit ← feeding on wind.
Eccl 1:15 ‫מְעֻוָּ֖ת לֹא־יוּכַ֣ל לִתְקֹ֑ן וְחֶסְר֖וֹן לֹא־יוּכַ֥ל לְהִמָּנֽוֹת׃‬

That which is crooked

Cannot be made straight,

And that which is lacking

Cannot be counted.

Eccl 1:16 ‫דִּבַּ֨רְתִּי אֲנִ֤י עִם־לִבִּי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אֲנִ֗י הִנֵּ֨ה הִגְדַּ֤לְתִּי וְהוֹסַ֙פְתִּי֙ חָכְמָ֔ה עַ֛ל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־הָיָ֥ה לְפָנַ֖י עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְלִבִּ֛י רָאָ֥ה הַרְבֵּ֖ה חָכְמָ֥ה וָדָֽעַת׃‬ I spoke to myself deep down and said, ‘Here I am, I have become great and I have increased in wisdom more than everyone who was before me in Jerusalem, and my heart has seen much wisdom and knowledge.’ deep down ← in my heart.

here I amI, behold.
Eccl 1:17 ‫וָאֶתְּנָ֤ה לִבִּי֙ לָדַ֣עַת חָכְמָ֔ה וְדַ֥עַת הוֹלֵל֖וֹת וְשִׂכְל֑וּת יָדַ֕עְתִּי שֶׁגַּם־זֶ֥ה ה֖וּא רַעְי֥וֹן רֽוּחַ׃‬ And I devoted my heart to knowing wisdom, and to knowledge of folly and foolishness, and I came to know that this too is idle pursuit. devoted ← gave.

idle pursuit: see Eccl 1:14.
Eccl 1:18 ‫כִּ֛י בְּרֹ֥ב חָכְמָ֖ה רָב־כָּ֑עַס וְיוֹסִ֥יף דַּ֖עַת יוֹסִ֥יף מַכְאֽוֹב׃‬

For in much wisdom there is much annoyance,

And he who increases knowledge,

Increases sorrow.

Eccl 2:1 ‫אָמַ֤רְתִּֽי אֲנִי֙ בְּלִבִּ֔י לְכָה־נָּ֛א אֲנַסְּכָ֛ה בְשִׂמְחָ֖ה וּרְאֵ֣ה בְט֑וֹב וְהִנֵּ֥ה גַם־ה֖וּא הָֽבֶל׃‬ I said in my heart, ‘Go now, I will test you with joy. And rejoice in what is good. But behold, this is also vanity.’ rejoice in ← look on, but with some emotion (delight, grief etc.).
Eccl 2:2 ‫לִשְׂח֖וֹק אָמַ֣רְתִּי מְהוֹלָ֑ל וּלְשִׂמְחָ֖ה מַה־זֹּ֥ה עֹשָֽׂה׃‬ To laughter I said, ‘It is foolish’, and to joy, ‘What is it doing?’
Eccl 2:3 ‫תַּ֣רְתִּי בְלִבִּ֔י לִמְשׁ֥וֹךְ בַּיַּ֖יִן אֶת־בְּשָׂרִ֑י וְלִבִּ֞י נֹהֵ֤ג בַּֽחָכְמָה֙ וְלֶאֱחֹ֣ז בְּסִכְל֔וּת עַ֣ד אֲשֶׁר־אֶרְאֶ֗ה אֵי־זֶ֨ה ט֜וֹב לִבְנֵ֤י הָאָדָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַעֲשׂוּ֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם מִסְפַּ֖ר יְמֵ֥י חַיֵּיהֶֽם׃‬ I purposed in my heart to invigorate my body with wine, yet familiarizing my heart with wisdom, and to lay hold of foolishness until I had seen whether this was good for the sons of Adam, for them to do under heaven for the number of the days of their life. body ← flesh.
Eccl 2:4 ‫הִגְדַּ֖לְתִּי מַעֲשָׂ֑י בָּנִ֤יתִי לִי֙ בָּתִּ֔ים נָטַ֥עְתִּי לִ֖י כְּרָמִֽים׃‬ I was great in my works – I built myself houses, I planted myself vineyards. was great ← did great (things).
Eccl 2:5 ‫עָשִׂ֣יתִי לִ֔י גַּנּ֖וֹת וּפַרְדֵּסִ֑ים וְנָטַ֥עְתִּי בָהֶ֖ם עֵ֥ץ כָּל־פֶּֽרִי׃‬ I made gardens for myself, and parks, and I planted all kinds of fruit trees in them. all kinds of fruit trees ← trees of all kinds of fruit.
Eccl 2:6 ‫עָשִׂ֥יתִי לִ֖י בְּרֵכ֣וֹת מָ֑יִם לְהַשְׁק֣וֹת מֵהֶ֔ם יַ֖עַר צוֹמֵ֥חַ עֵצִֽים׃‬ I made pools of water for myself, with which to irrigate the orchard where the trees were growing. the orchard where the trees were growing ← the growing orchard / forest (of) trees.
Eccl 2:7 ‫קָנִ֙יתִי֙ עֲבָדִ֣ים וּשְׁפָח֔וֹת וּבְנֵי־בַ֖יִת הָ֣יָה לִ֑י גַּ֣ם מִקְנֶה֩ בָקָ֨ר וָצֹ֤אן הַרְבֵּה֙ הָ֣יָה לִ֔י מִכֹּ֛ל שֶֽׁהָי֥וּ לְפָנַ֖י בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ I acquired menservants and maidservants, and I had servants born in the household; also I had much livestock – oxen and sheep – more than anything there had been in Jerusalem before me. anything ← everything.
Eccl 2:8 ‫כָּנַ֤סְתִּי לִי֙ גַּם־כֶּ֣סֶף וְזָהָ֔ב וּסְגֻלַּ֥ת מְלָכִ֖ים וְהַמְּדִינ֑וֹת עָשִׂ֨יתִי לִ֜י שָׁרִ֣ים וְשָׁר֗וֹת וְתַעֲנוּגֹ֛ת בְּנֵ֥י הָאָדָ֖ם שִׁדָּ֥ה וְשִׁדּֽוֹת׃‬ I also collected for myself silver and gold and what is particular to kings and states. I acquired for myself men singers and women singers and the delights of the sons of Adam, and mistresses one after another. mistresses one after another ← a mistress, mistresses.
Eccl 2:9 ‫וְגָדַ֣לְתִּי וְהוֹסַ֔פְתִּי מִכֹּ֛ל שֶׁהָיָ֥ה לְפָנַ֖י בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם אַ֥ף חָכְמָתִ֖י עָ֥מְדָה לִּֽי׃‬ And I became great and surpassed everyone who was before me in Jerusalem, and my wisdom stood me in good stead.
Eccl 2:10 ‫וְכֹל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָֽׁאֲל֣וּ עֵינַ֔י לֹ֥א אָצַ֖לְתִּי מֵהֶ֑ם לֹֽא־מָנַ֨עְתִּי אֶת־לִבִּ֜י מִכָּל־שִׂמְחָ֗ה כִּֽי־לִבִּ֤י שָׂמֵ֙חַ֙ מִכָּל־עֲמָלִ֔י וְזֶֽה־הָיָ֥ה חֶלְקִ֖י מִכָּל־עֲמָלִֽי׃‬

And I did not deny my eyes anything they asked for –

I did not refuse my heart any pleasure,

For my heart was more joyful in all my toil,

And this was my portion of all my toil.

anything ... any ← everything ... everything ... everything.
Eccl 2:11 ‫וּפָנִ֣יתִֽי אֲנִ֗י בְּכָל־מַעֲשַׂי֙ שֶֽׁעָשׂ֣וּ יָדַ֔י וּבֶֽעָמָ֖ל שֶׁעָמַ֣לְתִּי לַעֲשׂ֑וֹת וְהִנֵּ֨ה הַכֹּ֥ל הֶ֙בֶל֙ וּרְע֣וּת ר֔וּחַ וְאֵ֥ין יִתְר֖וֹן תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬

And I turned to all my works

Which my hands had made,

And to the toil which I had toiled at by working,

And behold, it was all vanity and idle pursuit,

And there was no benefit under the sun.

by working: gerundial use of the infinitive.

idle pursuit: see Eccl 1:3.
Eccl 2:12 ‫וּפָנִ֤יתִֽי אֲנִי֙ לִרְא֣וֹת חָכְמָ֔ה וְהוֹלֵל֖וֹת וְסִכְל֑וּת כִּ֣י ׀ מֶ֣ה הָאָדָ֗ם שֶׁיָּבוֹא֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־כְּבָ֖ר עָשֽׂוּהוּ׃‬

And I turned to look into wisdom,

And folly and foolishness,

For what will the man who comes after the king do?

Something that they have already done.

Eccl 2:13 ‫וְרָאִ֣יתִי אָ֔נִי שֶׁיֵּ֥שׁ יִתְר֛וֹן לַֽחָכְמָ֖ה מִן־הַסִּכְל֑וּת כִּֽיתְר֥וֹן הָא֖וֹר מִן־הַחֹֽשֶׁךְ׃‬

And I saw that wisdom has more benefit than foolishness,

As light has more benefit than darkness.

Eccl 2:14 ‫הֶֽחָכָם֙ עֵינָ֣יו בְּרֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְהַכְּסִ֖יל בַּחֹ֣שֶׁךְ הוֹלֵ֑ךְ וְיָדַ֣עְתִּי גַם־אָ֔נִי שֶׁמִּקְרֶ֥ה אֶחָ֖ד יִקְרֶ֥ה אֶת־כֻּלָּֽם׃‬

The wise man has his eyes in his head,

But the fool walks in darkness.

And I myself know that one event

Takes place with all of them.

Eccl 2:15 ‫וְאָמַ֨רְתִּֽי אֲנִ֜י בְּלִבִּ֗י כְּמִקְרֵ֤ה הַכְּסִיל֙ גַּם־אֲנִ֣י יִקְרֵ֔נִי וְלָ֧מָּה חָכַ֛מְתִּי אֲנִ֖י אָ֣ז יוֹתֵ֑ר וְדִבַּ֣רְתִּי בְלִבִּ֔י שֶׁגַּם־זֶ֖ה הָֽבֶל׃‬

And I said in my heart,

‘As is the event with the fool,

So it will happen to me too.

So why then should I become wiser still?’

And I concluded

That this too was vanity.

concluded ← said in my heart.
Eccl 2:16 ‫כִּי֩ אֵ֨ין זִכְר֧וֹן לֶחָכָ֛ם עִֽם־הַכְּסִ֖יל לְעוֹלָ֑ם בְּשֶׁכְּבָ֞ר הַיָּמִ֤ים הַבָּאִים֙ הַכֹּ֣ל נִשְׁכָּ֔ח וְאֵ֛יךְ יָמ֥וּת הֶחָכָ֖ם עִֽם־הַכְּסִֽיל׃‬

For there is no age-abiding remembrance of the wise

Any more than of the fool,

In that the days are already coming

When everything will be forgotten.

And how will the wise man die?

With the fool.

any more than of ← with.
Eccl 2:17 ‫וְשָׂנֵ֙אתִי֙ אֶת־הַ֣חַיִּ֔ים כִּ֣י רַ֤ע עָלַי֙ הַֽמַּעֲשֶׂ֔ה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂ֖ה תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ כִּֽי־הַכֹּ֥ל הֶ֖בֶל וּרְע֥וּת רֽוּחַ׃‬ And I hated life. For the matter which was done under the sun was baneful to me, because everything is vanity and idle pursuit. idle pursuit: see Eccl 1:14.
Eccl 2:18 ‫וְשָׂנֵ֤אתִֽי אֲנִי֙ אֶת־כָּל־עֲמָלִ֔י שֶׁאֲנִ֥י עָמֵ֖ל תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ שֶׁ֣אַנִּיחֶ֔נּוּ לָאָדָ֖ם שֶׁיִּהְיֶ֥ה אַחֲרָֽי׃‬ And I hated all my toil which I had toiled at under the sun, which I will leave to the man who comes after me. comes ← will be.
Eccl 2:19 ‫וּמִ֣י יוֹדֵ֗עַ הֶֽחָכָ֤ם יִהְיֶה֙ א֣וֹ סָכָ֔ל וְיִשְׁלַט֙ בְּכָל־עֲמָלִ֔י שֶֽׁעָמַ֥לְתִּי וְשֶׁחָכַ֖מְתִּי תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ גַּם־זֶ֖ה הָֽבֶל׃‬ And who knows whether he will be a wise man or a fool when he rules over all my toil which I have toiled at, and which I was wise in under the sun? This too is vanity.
Eccl 2:20 ‫וְסַבּ֥וֹתִֽי אֲנִ֖י לְיַאֵ֣שׁ אֶת־לִבִּ֑י עַ֚ל כָּל־הֶ֣עָמָ֔ל שֶׁעָמַ֖לְתִּי תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬ Then I had reason to let my heart despair of all the toil which I had toiled at under the sun. I had reason ← I turned.
Eccl 2:21 ‫כִּי־יֵ֣שׁ אָדָ֗ם שֶׁעֲמָל֛וֹ בְּחָכְמָ֥ה וּבְדַ֖עַת וּבְכִשְׁר֑וֹן וּלְאָדָ֞ם שֶׁלֹּ֤א עָֽמַל־בּוֹ֙ יִתְּנֶ֣נּוּ חֶלְק֔וֹ גַּם־זֶ֥ה הֶ֖בֶל וְרָעָ֥ה רַבָּֽה׃‬ For there is one man whose toil is in wisdom and knowledge and skill, but to another who has not toiled for it he will give his share. This too is vanity and a great evil.
Eccl 2:22 ‫כִּ֠י מֶֽה־הֹוֶ֤ה לָֽאָדָם֙ בְּכָל־עֲמָל֔וֹ וּבְרַעְי֖וֹן לִבּ֑וֹ שֶׁה֥וּא עָמֵ֖ל תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬ For what accrues to a man in all his toil and in his pursuit of his heart's desire at which he toils under the sun?
Eccl 2:23 ‫כִּ֧י כָל־יָמָ֣יו מַכְאֹבִ֗ים וָכַ֙עַס֙ עִנְיָנ֔וֹ גַּם־בַּלַּ֖יְלָה לֹא־שָׁכַ֣ב לִבּ֑ו גַּם־זֶ֖ה הֶ֥בֶל הֽוּא׃‬ For all his days are sorrows, and his affairs are an irritation. Moreover his heart does not rest. This too is vanity. rest ← lie down.
Eccl 2:24 ‫אֵֽין־ט֤וֹב בָּאָדָם֙ שֶׁיֹּאכַ֣ל וְשָׁתָ֔ה וְהֶרְאָ֧ה אֶת־נַפְשׁ֛וֹ ט֖וֹב בַּעֲמָל֑וֹ גַּם־זֹה֙ רָאִ֣יתִי אָ֔נִי כִּ֛י מִיַּ֥ד הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים הִֽיא׃‬ There is nothing good in the fact that a man eats and drinks and provides himself with good things in his toil. I have seen this too – that it is from the hand of God. good in the fact: others have better than, but there is no mark of a comparative (unlike Eccl 5:4, with a mem). [BDB] proposes, with others, adding a mem to the text, reading מִשֶּיֺאכַל, which we do not accept.

himself ← his soul.
Eccl 2:25 ‫כִּ֣י מִ֥י יֹאכַ֛ל וּמִ֥י יָח֖וּשׁ ח֥וּץ מִמֶּֽנִּי׃‬ For who eats and experiences pleasure more than me? than me: or, if the reader prefers, than I.

The suggestion is that even with all his pleasures, Solomon finds nothing good in the situation.
Eccl 2:26 ‫כִּ֤י לְאָדָם֙ שֶׁטּ֣וֹב לְפָנָ֔יו נָתַ֛ן חָכְמָ֥ה וְדַ֖עַת וְשִׂמְחָ֑ה וְלַחוֹטֶא֩ נָתַ֨ן עִנְיָ֜ן לֶאֱס֣וֹף וְלִכְנ֗וֹס לָתֵת֙ לְטוֹב֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים גַּם־זֶ֥ה הֶ֖בֶל וּרְע֥וּת רֽוּחַ׃‬ For he gives a man who is good in his sight wisdom and knowledge and joy, but to the sinner he gives a task of gathering and collecting things, to give a good man before God. This too is vanity and idle pursuit. in his sight ← before him.

of gathering and collecting: gerundial use of the infinitives.

idle pursuit: see Eccl 1:14.
Eccl 3:1 ‫לַכֹּ֖ל זְמָ֑ן וְעֵ֥ת לְכָל־חֵ֖פֶץ תַּ֥חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃ ס‬

There is a time for everything,

And a season for every concern under heaven.

concern: or, delight.
Eccl 3:2 ‫עֵ֥ת לָלֶ֖דֶת וְעֵ֣ת לָמ֑וּת עֵ֣ת לָטַ֔עַת וְעֵ֖ת לַעֲק֥וֹר נָטֽוּעַ׃‬

A time to bear children,

And a time to die;

A time to plant,

And a time to uproot that which has been planted.

to bear children: many others, to be born, but the verb (in qal) is always transitive.
Eccl 3:3 ‫עֵ֤ת לַהֲרוֹג֙ וְעֵ֣ת לִרְפּ֔וֹא עֵ֥ת לִפְר֖וֹץ וְעֵ֥ת לִבְנֽוֹת׃‬

A time to kill,

And a time to heal;

A time to demolish,

And a time to build.

Eccl 3:4 ‫עֵ֤ת לִבְכּוֹת֙ וְעֵ֣ת לִשְׂח֔וֹק עֵ֥ת סְפ֖וֹד וְעֵ֥ת רְקֽוֹד׃‬

A time to weep,

And a time to laugh;

A time to mourn,

And a time to dance.

Eccl 3:5 ‫עֵ֚ת לְהַשְׁלִ֣יךְ אֲבָנִ֔ים וְעֵ֖ת כְּנ֣וֹס אֲבָנִ֑ים עֵ֣ת לַחֲב֔וֹק וְעֵ֖ת לִרְחֹ֥ק מֵחַבֵּֽק׃‬

A time to throw stones,

And a time to gather stones;

A time to embrace,

And a time to be far from embracing.

Eccl 3:6 ‫עֵ֤ת לְבַקֵּשׁ֙ וְעֵ֣ת לְאַבֵּ֔ד עֵ֥ת לִשְׁמ֖וֹר וְעֵ֥ת לְהַשְׁלִֽיךְ׃‬

A time to demand,

And a time to forego;

A time to keep,

And a time to throw away.

Eccl 3:7 ‫עֵ֤ת לִקְר֙וֹעַ֙ וְעֵ֣ת לִתְפּ֔וֹר עֵ֥ת לַחֲשׁ֖וֹת וְעֵ֥ת לְדַבֵּֽר׃‬

A time to tear,

And a time to sew;

A time to be silent,

And a time to speak.

Eccl 3:8 ‫עֵ֤ת לֶֽאֱהֹב֙ וְעֵ֣ת לִשְׂנֹ֔א עֵ֥ת מִלְחָמָ֖ה וְעֵ֥ת שָׁלֽוֹם׃ ס‬

A time to love,

And a time to hate;

A time for war,

And a time for peace.

Eccl 3:9 ‫מַה־יִּתְרוֹן֙ הָֽעוֹשֶׂ֔ה בַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר ה֥וּא עָמֵֽל׃‬ What is the benefit to the maker of what he toils at?
Eccl 3:10 ‫רָאִ֣יתִי אֶת־הָֽעִנְיָ֗ן אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֧ן אֱלֹהִ֛ים לִבְנֵ֥י הָאָדָ֖ם לַעֲנ֥וֹת בּֽוֹ׃‬ I have seen the task which God has given to the sons of Adam to be exercised by.
Eccl 3:11 ‫אֶת־הַכֹּ֥ל עָשָׂ֖ה יָפֶ֣ה בְעִתּ֑וֹ גַּ֤ם אֶת־הָעֹלָם֙ נָתַ֣ן בְּלִבָּ֔ם מִבְּלִ֞י אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹא־יִמְצָ֣א הָאָדָ֗ם אֶת־הַֽמַּעֲשֶׂ֛ה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים מֵרֹ֥אשׁ וְעַד־סֽוֹף׃‬ He has made everything beautiful in its season; he has also put the world into their heart, because of man's failure to find the work which God has done from the beginning to the end. world ← age.

because of man's failure ← for lack of that man has not found (implicit double negative, lack ... not).
Eccl 3:12 ‫יָדַ֕עְתִּי כִּ֛י אֵ֥ין ט֖וֹב בָּ֑ם כִּ֣י אִם־לִשְׂמ֔וֹחַ וְלַעֲשׂ֥וֹת ט֖וֹב בְּחַיָּֽיו׃‬ I know that there is no good in them, except to rejoice and to do good in one's life.
Eccl 3:13 ‫וְגַ֤ם כָּל־הָאָדָם֙ שֶׁיֹּאכַ֣ל וְשָׁתָ֔ה וְרָאָ֥ה ט֖וֹב בְּכָל־עֲמָל֑וֹ מַתַּ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים הִֽיא׃‬ And also for every man to eat and drink and to see the good in all his toil – it is the gift of God.
Eccl 3:14 ‫יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּ֠י כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַעֲשֶׂ֤ה הָאֱלֹהִים֙ ה֚וּא יִהְיֶ֣ה לְעוֹלָ֔ם עָלָיו֙ אֵ֣ין לְהוֹסִ֔יף וּמִמֶּ֖נּוּ אֵ֣ין לִגְרֹ֑עַ וְהָאֱלֹהִ֣ים עָשָׂ֔ה שֶׁיִּֽרְא֖וּ מִלְּפָנָֽיו׃‬ I know that everything that God does will be age-abiding. There is nothing to add to it and there is nothing to take away from it, and God made it so that men should fear in his presence.
Eccl 3:15 ‫מַה־שֶּֽׁהָיָה֙ כְּבָ֣ר ה֔וּא וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר לִהְי֖וֹת כְּבָ֣ר הָיָ֑ה וְהָאֱלֹהִ֖ים יְבַקֵּ֥שׁ אֶת־נִרְדָּֽף׃‬

That which has been is still here,

And that which is to be has already been.

And God demands an account

Of what has been pursued.

Eccl 3:16 ‫וְע֥וֹד רָאִ֖יתִי תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ מְק֤וֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט֙ שָׁ֣מָּה הָרֶ֔שַׁע וּמְק֥וֹם הַצֶּ֖דֶק שָׁ֥מָּה הָרָֽשַׁע׃‬ And I saw more under the sun,

In the place of justice,

There there was wickedness,

And in the place of righteousness,

There there was wickedness.

there there was wickedness (2x): otiose, but see Gn 12:5.
Eccl 3:17 ‫אָמַ֤רְתִּֽי אֲנִי֙ בְּלִבִּ֔י אֶת־הַצַּדִּיק֙ וְאֶת־הָ֣רָשָׁ֔ע יִשְׁפֹּ֖ט הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים כִּי־עֵ֣ת לְכָל־חֵ֔פֶץ וְעַ֥ל כָּל־הַֽמַּעֲשֶׂ֖ה שָֽׁם׃‬ I said in my heart,

‘God will judge the righteous and the wicked.

For there is a time for every concern,

And for every work there.’

concern: see Eccl 3:1.
Eccl 3:18 ‫אָמַ֤רְתִּֽי אֲנִי֙ בְּלִבִּ֔י עַל־דִּבְרַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י הָאָדָ֔ם לְבָרָ֖ם הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְלִרְא֕וֹת שְׁהֶם־בְּהֵמָ֥ה הֵ֖מָּה לָהֶֽם׃‬ I said in my heart, ‘It is because of the behaviour of the sons of Adam, that God will examine them and see whether they are beasts towards each other.’ towards each other ← they to them.
Eccl 3:19 ‫כִּי֩ מִקְרֶ֨ה בְֽנֵי־הָאָדָ֜ם וּמִקְרֶ֣ה הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה וּמִקְרֶ֤ה אֶחָד֙ לָהֶ֔ם כְּמ֥וֹת זֶה֙ כֵּ֣ן מ֣וֹת זֶ֔ה וְר֥וּחַ אֶחָ֖ד לַכֹּ֑ל וּמוֹתַ֨ר הָאָדָ֤ם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ אָ֔יִן כִּ֥י הַכֹּ֖ל הָֽבֶל׃‬ Because the sons of Adam are subject to an event, and cattle are subject to an event, and they share one event. As is the death of one, so is the death of the other, and all have one breath, and there is no superiority of man over the cattle, for everything is vanity.
Eccl 3:20 ‫הַכֹּ֥ל הוֹלֵ֖ךְ אֶל־מָק֣וֹם אֶחָ֑ד הַכֹּל֙ הָיָ֣ה מִן־הֶֽעָפָ֔ר וְהַכֹּ֖ל שָׁ֥ב אֶל־הֶעָפָֽר׃‬ All go to one place, all came from the dust and all return to the dust.
Eccl 3:21 ‫מִ֣י יוֹדֵ֗עַ ר֚וּחַ בְּנֵ֣י הָאָדָ֔ם הָעֹלָ֥ה הִ֖יא לְמָ֑עְלָה וְר֙וּחַ֙ הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה הַיֹּרֶ֥דֶת הִ֖יא לְמַ֥טָּה לָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ Who knows the spirit of the sons of Adam, which goes up, and the spirit of cattle which goes down to the earth? which goes up ... which goes down: a possible amendment by the Sopherim, but, [CB], not in the official list. We do not reverse this alleged change. See [CB, at the verse and App. 33]. MT points ↴
Eccl 3:22 ‫וְרָאִ֗יתִי כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין טוֹב֙ מֵאֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׂמַ֤ח הָאָדָם֙ בְּֽמַעֲשָׂ֔יו כִּי־ה֖וּא חֶלְק֑וֹ כִּ֣י מִ֤י יְבִיאֶ֙נּוּ֙ לִרְא֔וֹת בְּמֶ֖ה שֶׁיִּהְיֶ֥ה אַחֲרָֽיו׃‬ And I saw that there is nothing better than that man should rejoice in his works, for that is his apportionment. For who can bring him to look at what will take place after him? ↳ as the Hebrew article, הַ; the claim is that the original was as the interrogative particle, הֲ, so reading whether it goes up ... whether it goes down.
Eccl 4:1 ‫וְשַׁ֣בְתִּֽי אֲנִ֗י וָאֶרְאֶה֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָ֣עֲשֻׁקִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר נַעֲשִׂ֖ים תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ וְהִנֵּ֣ה ׀ דִּמְעַ֣ת הָעֲשֻׁקִ֗ים וְאֵ֤ין לָהֶם֙ מְנַחֵ֔ם וּמִיַּ֤ד עֹֽשְׁקֵיהֶם֙ כֹּ֔חַ וְאֵ֥ין לָהֶ֖ם מְנַחֵֽם׃‬ So I returned, and I saw all the oppressions which are perpetrated under the sun.

And what I saw was the tear of the oppressed,

Who have no comforter,

While from the hand of those who oppress them comes force.

And they have no comforter.

what I saw wasbehold.
Eccl 4:2 ‫וְשַׁבֵּ֧חַ אֲנִ֛י אֶת־הַמֵּתִ֖ים שֶׁכְּבָ֣ר מֵ֑תוּ מִן־הַ֣חַיִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֛ר הֵ֥מָּה חַיִּ֖ים עֲדֶֽנָה׃‬

Then I praised the dead,

Who have already died,

More than the living,

Who are still alive.

Eccl 4:3 ‫וְטוֹב֙ מִשְּׁנֵיהֶ֔ם אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־עֲדֶ֖ן לֹ֣א הָיָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־רָאָה֙ אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה הָרָ֔ע אֲשֶׁ֥ר נַעֲשָׂ֖ה תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬

Yet better than both is he

Who has not yet come into being,

Who has not seen the wicked work

Which has been done under the sun.

Eccl 4:4 ‫וְרָאִ֨יתִֽי אֲנִ֜י אֶת־כָּל־עָמָ֗ל וְאֵת֙ כָּל־כִּשְׁר֣וֹן הַֽמַּעֲשֶׂ֔ה כִּ֛י הִ֥יא קִנְאַת־אִ֖ישׁ מֵרֵעֵ֑הוּ גַּם־זֶ֥ה הֶ֖בֶל וּרְע֥וּת רֽוּחַ׃‬ And I saw all the toil and all the skill applied to the work, for it is a man's rivalry with his neighbour. This too is vanity and idle pursuit. rivalry ← zeal.

idle pursuit: see Eccl 1:14.
Eccl 4:5 ‫הַכְּסִיל֙ חֹבֵ֣ק אֶת־יָדָ֔יו וְאֹכֵ֖ל אֶת־בְּשָׂרֽוֹ׃‬

The fool folds his arms

And eats his own flesh.

folds his arms ← embraces his hands.
Eccl 4:6 ‫ט֕וֹב מְלֹ֥א כַ֖ף נָ֑חַת מִמְּלֹ֥א חָפְנַ֛יִם עָמָ֖ל וּרְע֥וּת רֽוּחַ׃‬

A handful in quiet is better

Than two fistfuls in toil and idle pursuit.

idle pursuit: see Eccl 1:14.
Eccl 4:7 ‫וְשַׁ֧בְתִּי אֲנִ֛י וָאֶרְאֶ֥ה הֶ֖בֶל תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬ Then I returned and saw vanity under the sun.
Eccl 4:8 ‫יֵ֣שׁ אֶחָד֩ וְאֵ֨ין שֵׁנִ֜י גַּ֣ם בֵּ֧ן וָאָ֣ח אֵֽין־ל֗וֹ וְאֵ֥ין קֵץ֙ לְכָל־עֲמָל֔וֹ גַּם־*עיניו **עֵינ֖וֹ לֹא־תִשְׂבַּ֣ע עֹ֑שֶׁר וּלְמִ֣י ׀ אֲנִ֣י עָמֵ֗ל וּמְחַסֵּ֤ר אֶת־נַפְשִׁי֙ מִטּוֹבָ֔ה גַּם־זֶ֥ה הֶ֛בֶל וְעִנְיַ֥ן רָ֖ע הֽוּא׃‬

There is a certain man and there is no-one in his company,

Neither does he have son or brother,

And there is no end to all his toil.

Nor is his eye satisfied with riches.

And he says, ‘For whom do I toil,

And deprive myself of goodness?’

This too is vanity

And it is a bad state of affairs.

is his eye: the ketiv has eyes, but with a singular verb.

a certain ← one.

no-one in his company ← no second.

myself ← my soul.
Eccl 4:9 ‫טוֹבִ֥ים הַשְּׁנַ֖יִם מִן־הָאֶחָ֑ד אֲשֶׁ֧ר יֵשׁ־לָהֶ֛ם שָׂכָ֥ר ט֖וֹב בַּעֲמָלָֽם׃‬

Two are better than one,

In that they have good wages for their toil.

Eccl 4:10 ‫כִּ֣י אִם־יִפֹּ֔לוּ הָאֶחָ֖ד יָקִ֣ים אֶת־חֲבֵר֑וֹ וְאִ֣יל֗וֹ הָֽאֶחָד֙ שֶׁיִּפּ֔וֹל וְאֵ֥ין שֵׁנִ֖י לַהֲקִימֽוֹ׃‬

For if they fall

One will get his colleague up.

But woe to one on his own who falls

When there is no other to get him up.

other ← second.
Eccl 4:11 ‫גַּ֛ם אִם־יִשְׁכְּב֥וּ שְׁנַ֖יִם וְחַ֣ם לָהֶ֑ם וּלְאֶחָ֖ד אֵ֥יךְ יֵחָֽם׃‬

Also if two lie down together

Then they have warmth.

But how will one on his own

Become warm?

Eccl 4:12 ‫וְאִֽם־יִתְקְפוֹ֙ הָאֶחָ֔ד הַשְּׁנַ֖יִם יַעַמְד֣וּ נֶגְדּ֑וֹ וְהַחוּט֙ הַֽמְשֻׁלָּ֔שׁ לֹ֥א בִמְהֵרָ֖ה יִנָּתֵֽק׃‬

If anyone would overpower the one,

Two will stand against him.

And a triple thread

Is not quickly broken.

Eccl 4:13 ‫ט֛וֹב יֶ֥לֶד מִסְכֵּ֖ן וְחָכָ֑ם מִמֶּ֤לֶךְ זָקֵן֙ וּכְסִ֔יל אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יָדַ֥ע לְהִזָּהֵ֖ר עֽוֹד׃‬

It is better to be a poor but wise child,

Than an old and foolish king,

Who no longer knows how to receive admonition.

Eccl 4:14 ‫כִּֽי־מִבֵּ֥ית הָסוּרִ֖ים יָצָ֣א לִמְלֹ֑ךְ כִּ֛י גַּ֥ם בְּמַלְכוּת֖וֹ נוֹלַ֥ד רָֽשׁ׃‬

For he comes out of prison to reign,

But also in his kingdom

A poor man is born.

Eccl 4:15 ‫רָאִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַ֣חַיִּ֔ים הַֽמְהַלְּכִ֖ים תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ עִ֚ם הַיֶּ֣לֶד הַשֵּׁנִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַעֲמֹ֖ד תַּחְתָּֽיו׃‬

I have seen all who are alive,

Walking under the sun,

With the heir apparent

Who will succeed him.

heir apparent ← second child.

succeed ← stand instead of.
Eccl 4:16 ‫אֵֽין־קֵ֣ץ לְכָל־הָעָ֗ם לְכֹ֤ל אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה֙ לִפְנֵיהֶ֔ם גַּ֥ם הָאַחֲרוֹנִ֖ים לֹ֣א יִשְׂמְחוּ־ב֑וֹ כִּֽי־גַם־זֶ֥ה הֶ֖בֶל וְרַעְי֥וֹן רֽוּחַ׃‬

There is no end to all the people

– To all who were before them –

Neither will the latter ones rejoice in him,

For this too is vanity and idle pursuit.

idle pursuit: see Eccl 1:14.
Eccl 4:17
Eccl 5:1AV
‫שְׁמֹ֣ר *רגליך **רַגְלְךָ֗ כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר תֵּלֵךְ֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וְקָר֣וֹב לִשְׁמֹ֔עַ מִתֵּ֥ת הַכְּסִילִ֖ים זָ֑בַח כִּֽי־אֵינָ֥ם יוֹדְעִ֖ים לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת רָֽע׃‬ Mind your {K: feet} [Q: foot] when you go into the house of God, and be near so as to hear, rather than to let fools give sacrifice, for they do not know anything other than doing wrong. doing: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Eccl 5:1
Eccl 5:2AV
‫אַל־תְּבַהֵ֨ל עַל־פִּ֜יךָ וְלִבְּךָ֧ אַל־יְמַהֵ֛ר לְהוֹצִ֥יא דָבָ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים כִּ֣י הָאֱלֹהִ֤ים בַּשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְאַתָּ֣ה עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ עַֽל־כֵּ֛ן יִהְי֥וּ דְבָרֶ֖יךָ מְעַטִּֽים׃‬

Do not be rash with your mouth,

And do not let your heart be hasty in uttering a word in God's presence,

For God is in heaven,

But you are on the earth,

So let your words be few.

in uttering: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Eccl 5:2
Eccl 5:3AV
‫כִּ֛י בָּ֥א הַחֲל֖וֹם בְּרֹ֣ב עִנְיָ֑ן וְק֥וֹל כְּסִ֖יל בְּרֹ֥ב דְּבָרִֽים׃‬

For a dream comes with much to occupy one,

But the voice of the fool

Comes with many words.

to occupy oneoccupation.
Eccl 5:3
Eccl 5:4AV
‫כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ תִּדֹּ֨ר נֶ֜דֶר לֵֽאלֹהִ֗ים אַל־תְּאַחֵר֙ לְשַׁלְּמ֔וֹ כִּ֛י אֵ֥ין חֵ֖פֶץ בַּכְּסִילִ֑ים אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־תִּדֹּ֖ר שַׁלֵּֽם׃‬

When you make a vow to God,

Do not be late in fulfilling it,

For there is no pleasure in fools.

What you have vowed, fulfil!

make a vow ← vow a vow.

in fulfilling: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Eccl 5:4
Eccl 5:5AV
‫ט֖וֹב אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־תִדֹּ֑ר מִשֶׁתִּדּ֖וֹר וְלֹ֥א תְשַׁלֵּֽם׃‬

It is better for you not to make a vow

Than to vow but not fulfil.

Eccl 5:5
Eccl 5:6AV
‫אַל־תִּתֵּ֤ן אֶת־פִּ֙יךָ֙ לַחֲטִ֣יא אֶת־בְּשָׂרֶ֔ךָ וְאַל־תֹּאמַר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמַּלְאָ֔ךְ כִּ֥י שְׁגָגָ֖ה הִ֑יא לָ֣מָּה יִקְצֹ֤ף הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ עַל־קוֹלֶ֔ךָ וְחִבֵּ֖ל אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדֶֽיךָ׃‬ Do not let your mouth cause you to commit carnal sin, and do not say in the presence of an angel that it was a sin through ignorance. Why should God become angry at your utterance and destroy the work of your hands? cause you to commit carnal sin ← cause your flesh to sin.

utterance ← voice.
Eccl 5:6
Eccl 5:7AV
‫כִּ֣י בְרֹ֤ב חֲלֹמוֹת֙ וַהֲבָלִ֔ים וּדְבָרִ֖ים הַרְבֵּ֑ה כִּ֥י אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים יְרָֽא׃‬ For in many dreams there are both many vain things and many words. But fear God.
Eccl 5:7
Eccl 5:8AV
‫אִם־עֹ֣שֶׁק רָ֠שׁ וְגֵ֨זֶל מִשְׁפָּ֤ט וָצֶ֙דֶק֙ תִּרְאֶ֣ה בַמְּדִינָ֔ה אַל־תִּתְמַ֖הּ עַל־הַחֵ֑פֶץ כִּ֣י גָבֹ֜הַּ מֵעַ֤ל גָּבֹ֙הַ֙ שֹׁמֵ֔ר וּגְבֹהִ֖ים עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ If you see oppression of the impoverished, and wresting of justice and righteousness in a state, do not be surprised at the matter, for there is high rank watching over high rank, and higher ranks above them. surprised ← amazed.

watching ← guarding.

higher ← high.
Eccl 5:8
Eccl 5:9AV
‫וְיִתְר֥וֹן אֶ֖רֶץ בַּכֹּ֣ל *היא **ה֑וּא מֶ֥לֶךְ לְשָׂדֶ֖ה נֶעֱבָֽד׃‬ And the benefit of the earth is for all. The king is served by the field. is: the word is represented by a feminine pronoun in the ketiv, and a masculine one in the qeré.
Eccl 5:9
Eccl 5:10AV
‫אֹהֵ֥ב כֶּ֙סֶף֙ לֹא־יִשְׂבַּ֣ע כֶּ֔סֶף וּמִֽי־אֹהֵ֥ב בֶּהָמ֖וֹן לֹ֣א תְבוּאָ֑ה גַּם־זֶ֖ה הָֽבֶל׃‬

He who loves money

Will never be satisfied with money,

Nor will he who loves wealth be with profit.

This too is vanity.

money (2x): or silver, but when not associated with gold, it is likely to mean money, which in any case involved silver coins. The repetition is otiose, but see Gn 12:5.
Eccl 5:10
Eccl 5:11AV
‫בִּרְבוֹת֙ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה רַבּ֖וּ אוֹכְלֶ֑יהָ וּמַה־כִּשְׁרוֹן֙ לִבְעָלֶ֔יהָ כִּ֖י אִם־*ראית **רְא֥וּת עֵינָֽיו׃‬

With an increase in good things

Comes an increase in those that eat them,

So what is the advantage to their owner,

Except a sight for his eyes?

a sight: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.
Eccl 5:11
Eccl 5:12AV
‫מְתוּקָה֙ שְׁנַ֣ת הָעֹבֵ֔ד אִם־מְעַ֥ט וְאִם־הַרְבֵּ֖ה יֹאכֵ֑ל וְהַשָּׂבָע֙ לֶֽעָשִׁ֔יר אֵינֶ֛נּוּ מַנִּ֥יחַֽ ל֖וֹ לִישֽׁוֹן׃‬

The workman's sleep is sweet

Whether he eats little or much,

But the abundance of the rich man

Does not permit him to sleep.

Eccl 5:12
Eccl 5:13AV
‫יֵ֚שׁ רָעָ֣ה חוֹלָ֔ה רָאִ֖יתִי תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ עֹ֛שֶׁר שָׁמ֥וּר לִבְעָלָ֖יו לְרָעָתֽוֹ׃‬

There is a grievous injustice

That I have seen under the sun:

Riches kept by their owner

To his detriment.

grievous injustice ← sick evil.
Eccl 5:13
Eccl 5:14AV
‫וְאָבַ֛ד הָעֹ֥שֶׁר הַה֖וּא בְּעִנְיַ֣ן רָ֑ע וְהוֹלִ֣יד בֵּ֔ן וְאֵ֥ין בְּיָד֖וֹ מְאֽוּמָה׃‬

Then those riches are lost

In a calamitous affair,

And he begets a son

But has nothing in his hand.

Eccl 5:14
Eccl 5:15AV
‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר יָצָא֙ מִבֶּ֣טֶן אִמּ֔וֹ עָר֛וֹם יָשׁ֥וּב לָלֶ֖כֶת כְּשֶׁבָּ֑א וּמְא֙וּמָה֙ לֹא־יִשָּׂ֣א בַעֲמָל֔וֹ שֶׁיֹּלֵ֖ךְ בְּיָדֽוֹ׃‬

As when he came out of his mother's womb

– Naked – so he will return,

Going as he came,

And he will not take any of his toil with him

Which he might take in his hand.

Compare the verse to Job 1:21.
Eccl 5:15
Eccl 5:16AV
‫וְגַם־זֹה֙ רָעָ֣ה חוֹלָ֔ה כָּל־עֻמַּ֥ת שֶׁבָּ֖א כֵּ֣ן יֵלֵ֑ךְ וּמַה־יִּתְר֣וֹן ל֔וֹ שֶֽׁיַּעֲמֹ֖ל לָרֽוּחַ׃‬

And this too is a grievous injustice:

In exactly the same way that he comes, so he goes.

So what benefit does he have

By toiling for the wind?

grievous injustice: see Eccl 5:12 (Eccl 5:13AV).

in exactly the same way that ← all over against (how) that.
Eccl 5:16
Eccl 5:17AV
‫גַּ֥ם כָּל־יָמָ֖יו בַּחֹ֣שֶׁךְ יֹאכֵ֑ל וְכָעַ֥ס הַרְבֵּ֖ה וְחָלְי֥וֹ וָקָֽצֶף׃‬

Moreover all his days he eats in darkness

And is much grieved and is sick and angry.

Eccl 5:17
Eccl 5:18AV
‫הִנֵּ֞ה אֲשֶׁר־רָאִ֣יתִי אָ֗נִי ט֣וֹב אֲשֶׁר־יָפֶ֣ה לֶֽאֶכוֹל־וְ֠לִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִרְא֨וֹת טוֹבָ֜ה בְּכָל־עֲמָל֣וֹ ׀ שֶׁיַּעֲמֹ֣ל תַּֽחַת־הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ מִסְפַּ֧ר יְמֵי־*חיו **חַיָּ֛יו אֲשֶׁר־נָֽתַן־ל֥וֹ הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־ה֥וּא חֶלְקֽוֹ׃‬ Behold what I have seen. It is right that it is pleasant to eat and drink and to see goodness in all one's toil which one toils at under the sun for the number of days of one's life which God gives him, for that is his apportionment. life: the ketiv is a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.
Eccl 5:18
Eccl 5:19AV
‫גַּ֣ם כָּֽל־הָאָדָ֡ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָֽתַן־ל֣וֹ הָאֱלֹהִים֩ עֹ֨שֶׁר וּנְכָסִ֜ים וְהִשְׁלִיט֨וֹ לֶאֱכֹ֤ל מִמֶּ֙נּוּ֙ וְלָשֵׂ֣את אֶת־חֶלְק֔וֹ וְלִשְׂמֹ֖חַ בַּעֲמָל֑וֹ זֹ֕ה מַתַּ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים הִֽיא׃‬ Also as regards every man to whom God has given riches and property, and has given permission to eat from them, and to take his portion, and to rejoice in his toil – this is a gift of God. permission ← rule.
Eccl 5:19
Eccl 5:20AV
‫כִּ֚י לֹ֣א הַרְבֵּ֔ה יִזְכֹּ֖ר אֶת־יְמֵ֣י חַיָּ֑יו כִּ֧י הָאֱלֹהִ֛ים מַעֲנֶ֖ה בְּשִׂמְחַ֥ת לִבּֽוֹ׃‬ For one will not remember the days of his life much, for it is God who causes a response in the joy of his heart.
Eccl 6:1 ‫יֵ֣שׁ רָעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר רָאִ֖יתִי תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ וְרַבָּ֥ה הִ֖יא עַל־הָאָדָֽם׃‬ There is an injustice which I have seen under the sun, and it is severe among mankind, severe among ← great at.
Eccl 6:2 ‫אִ֣ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִתֶּן־ל֣וֹ הָאֱלֹהִ֡ים עֹשֶׁר֩ וּנְכָסִ֨ים וְכָב֜וֹד וְֽאֵינֶ֨נּוּ חָסֵ֥ר לְנַפְשׁ֣וֹ ׀ מִכֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁר־יִתְאַוֶּ֗ה וְלֹֽא־יַשְׁלִיטֶ֤נּוּ הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ לֶאֱכֹ֣ל מִמֶּ֔נּוּ כִּ֛י אִ֥ישׁ נָכְרִ֖י יֹֽאכֲלֶ֑נּוּ זֶ֥ה הֶ֛בֶל וָחֳלִ֥י רָ֖ע הֽוּא׃‬ about a man to whom God has given riches and property and honour, and whose heart does not lack anything he could wish for, but God does not allow him to eat from it, but a stranger eats it: this is vanity and a grievous injustice. heart ← soul.

anything ← everything.
Eccl 6:3 ‫אִם־יוֹלִ֣יד אִ֣ישׁ מֵאָ֡ה וְשָׁנִים֩ רַבּ֨וֹת יִֽחְיֶ֜ה וְרַ֣ב ׀ שֶׁיִּהְי֣וּ יְמֵֽי־שָׁנָ֗יו וְנַפְשׁוֹ֙ לֹא־תִשְׂבַּ֣ע מִן־הַטּוֹבָ֔ה וְגַם־קְבוּרָ֖ה לֹא־הָ֣יְתָה לּ֑וֹ אָמַ֕רְתִּי ט֥וֹב מִמֶּ֖נּוּ הַנָּֽפֶל׃‬ If a man begets a hundred children and lives for many years, and many are the days of his years, but his heart is not satisfied with the goodness, and also if he does not have a burial, I say that a miscarriage would have been better than that. heart ← soul.

than that ← than it / he.
Eccl 6:4 ‫כִּֽי־בַהֶ֥בֶל בָּ֖א וּבַחֹ֣שֶׁךְ יֵלֵ֑ךְ וּבַחֹ֖שֶׁךְ שְׁמ֥וֹ יְכֻסֶּֽה׃‬ For he comes in vanity and departs in darkness, and in darkness his name is covered. darkness ... darkness: otiose, but see Gn 12:5.
Eccl 6:5 ‫גַּם־שֶׁ֥מֶשׁ לֹא־רָאָ֖ה וְלֹ֣א יָדָ֑ע נַ֥חַת לָזֶ֖ה מִזֶּֽה׃‬ And he did not see the sun, or know about it. This man has more rest than the former. this ... the former ← this ... this.
Eccl 6:6 ‫וְאִלּ֣וּ חָיָ֗ה אֶ֤לֶף שָׁנִים֙ פַּעֲמַ֔יִם וְטוֹבָ֖ה לֹ֣א רָאָ֑ה הֲלֹ֛א אֶל־מָק֥וֹם אֶחָ֖ד הַכֹּ֥ל הוֹלֵֽךְ׃‬ And even if he were to live a thousand years twice over, but did not see goodness, is it not still the case that all go to the same place? the same ← one.
Eccl 6:7 ‫כָּל־עֲמַ֥ל הָאָדָ֖ם לְפִ֑יהוּ וְגַם־הַנֶּ֖פֶשׁ לֹ֥א תִמָּלֵֽא׃‬

All man's toil is for his mouth,

But his heart is nevertheless not fulfilled.

heart ← soul.

nevertheless ← also, but the word can be adversative; compare 2 Sam 12:13.
Eccl 6:8 ‫כִּ֛י מַה־יּוֹתֵ֥ר לֶחָכָ֖ם מִֽן־הַכְּסִ֑יל מַה־לֶּעָנִ֣י יוֹדֵ֔עַ לַהֲלֹ֖ךְ נֶ֥גֶד הַחַיִּֽים׃‬

For what does a wise man have

More than a fool?

And what advantage does a poor man have,

Knowing how to walk before the living?

Eccl 6:9 ‫ט֛וֹב מַרְאֵ֥ה עֵינַ֖יִם מֵֽהֲלָךְ־נָ֑פֶשׁ גַּם־זֶ֥ה הֶ֖בֶל וּרְע֥וּת רֽוּחַ׃‬

A sight seen by the eyes is better

Than a wandering mind.

This too is vanity and idle pursuit.

mind ← soul.

idle pursuit: see Eccl 1:14.
Eccl 6:10 ‫מַה־שֶּֽׁהָיָ֗ה כְּבָר֙ נִקְרָ֣א שְׁמ֔וֹ וְנוֹדָ֖ע אֲשֶׁר־ה֣וּא אָדָ֑ם וְלֹא־יוּכַ֣ל לָדִ֔ין עִ֥ם *שהתקיף **שֶׁתַּקִּ֖יף מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃‬

What has taken place

Has already been called by its name.

And it is known that it is Adam,

And that he cannot contend

With him who is more powerful than he.

him who is more powerful: the ketiv has a double relative, or can be read (him) who (is) the more powerful.
Eccl 6:11 ‫כִּ֛י יֵשׁ־דְּבָרִ֥ים הַרְבֵּ֖ה מַרְבִּ֣ים הָ֑בֶל מַה־יֹּתֵ֖ר לָאָדָֽם׃‬

For there are many things that increase vanity,

But what is the advantage to man?

Eccl 6:12 ‫כִּ֣י מִֽי־יוֹדֵעַ֩ מַה־טּ֨וֹב לָֽאָדָ֜ם בַּֽחַיִּ֗ים מִסְפַּ֛ר יְמֵי־חַיֵּ֥י הֶבְל֖וֹ וְיַעֲשֵׂ֣ם כַּצֵּ֑ל אֲשֶׁר֙ מִֽי־יַגִּ֣יד לָֽאָדָ֔ם מַה־יִּהְיֶ֥ה אַחֲרָ֖יו תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬ For who knows what is good for man in life in the number of the days of his vain life which he spends like a shadow? Who can tell a man what will take place after him under the sun? his vain life ← the life of his vanity, a Hebraic genitive.
Eccl 7:1 ‫ט֥וֹב שֵׁ֖ם מִשֶּׁ֣מֶן ט֑וֹב וְי֣וֹם הַמָּ֔וֶת מִיּ֖וֹם הִוָּלְדֽוֹ׃‬

A reputation is better than fine oil,

And the day of death than the day of one's birth.

Eccl 7:2 ‫ט֞וֹב לָלֶ֣כֶת אֶל־בֵּֽית־אֵ֗בֶל מִלֶּ֙כֶת֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה בַּאֲשֶׁ֕ר ה֖וּא ס֣וֹף כָּל־הָאָדָ֑ם וְהַחַ֖י יִתֵּ֥ן אֶל־לִבּֽוֹ׃‬

It is better to go to the house of mourning

Than to go to a house of banqueting,

For that is the end of every man.

And may he who is alive lay it to his heart.

banqueting: or, drinking.
Eccl 7:3 ‫ט֥וֹב כַּ֖עַס מִשְּׂחֹ֑ק כִּֽי־בְרֹ֥עַ פָּנִ֖ים יִ֥יטַב לֵֽב׃‬

Grief is better than laughter,

For in a sad expression the heart is benefited.

expression ← face.
Eccl 7:4 ‫לֵ֤ב חֲכָמִים֙ בְּבֵ֣ית אֵ֔בֶל וְלֵ֥ב כְּסִילִ֖ים בְּבֵ֥ית שִׂמְחָֽה׃‬

The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning,

Whereas the heart of fools

Is in the house of rejoicing.

Eccl 7:5 ‫ט֕וֹב לִשְׁמֹ֖עַ גַּעֲרַ֣ת חָכָ֑ם מֵאִ֕ישׁ שֹׁמֵ֖עַ שִׁ֥יר כְּסִילִֽים׃‬

It is better to hear the rebuke of a wise man,

Than for a man to hear the song of fools.

Eccl 7:6 ‫כִּ֣י כְק֤וֹל הַסִּירִים֙ תַּ֣חַת הַסִּ֔יר כֵּ֖ן שְׂחֹ֣ק הַכְּסִ֑יל וְגַם־זֶ֖ה הָֽבֶל׃‬

For as is the sound of the thorns under the pot,

So is the laughter of the fool.

And this too is vanity.

Eccl 7:7 ‫כִּ֥י הָעֹ֖שֶׁק יְהוֹלֵ֣ל חָכָ֑ם וִֽיאַבֵּ֥ד אֶת־לֵ֖ב מַתָּנָֽה׃‬

For unjust gain shames the wise,

And a bribe makes the heart stray.

unjust gain ← oppression.

makes ... stray: or, destroys.
Eccl 7:8 ‫ט֛וֹב אַחֲרִ֥ית דָּבָ֖ר מֵֽרֵאשִׁית֑וֹ ט֥וֹב אֶֽרֶךְ־ר֖וּחַ מִגְּבַהּ־רֽוּחַ׃‬

The end of a matter is better than its beginning,

And longsuffering is better than arrogance.

arrogance ← high of spirit, or, with alternative pointing, (גֹּבַהּ), height of spirit.
Eccl 7:9 ‫אַל־תְּבַהֵ֥ל בְּרֽוּחֲךָ֖ לִכְע֑וֹס כִּ֣י כַ֔עַס בְּחֵ֥יק כְּסִילִ֖ים יָנֽוּחַ׃‬

Do not be quick in your spirit to become angry,

For anger lodges in the heart of fools.

Eccl 7:10 ‫אַל־תֹּאמַר֙ מֶ֣ה הָיָ֔ה שֶׁ֤הַיָּמִים֙ הָרִ֣אשֹׁנִ֔ים הָי֥וּ טוֹבִ֖ים מֵאֵ֑לֶּה כִּ֛י לֹ֥א מֵחָכְמָ֖ה שָׁאַ֥לְתָּ עַל־זֶֽה׃‬

Do not say, ‘What has taken place?

Because the first days were better than these.’

For you would not be asking wisely about this.

Eccl 7:11 ‫טוֹבָ֥ה חָכְמָ֖ה עִֽם־נַחֲלָ֑ה וְיֹתֵ֖ר לְרֹאֵ֥י הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬

Wisdom with an inheritance is good,

And is advantageous to those who see the sun.

Eccl 7:12 ‫כִּ֛י בְּצֵ֥ל הַֽחָכְמָ֖ה בְּצֵ֣ל הַכָּ֑סֶף וְיִתְר֣וֹן דַּ֔עַת הַֽחָכְמָ֖ה תְּחַיֶּ֥ה בְעָלֶֽיהָ׃‬

For one may be under the protection of wisdom,

Or under the protection of money,

But the advantage of knowledge

Is that wisdom gives life to its owners.

Eccl 7:13 ‫רְאֵ֖ה אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂ֣ה הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים כִּ֣י מִ֤י יוּכַל֙ לְתַקֵּ֔ן אֵ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עִוְּתֽוֹ׃‬

Look at the work of God,

For who can straighten

That which he has made bent?

Eccl 7:14 ‫בְּי֤וֹם טוֹבָה֙ הֱיֵ֣ה בְט֔וֹב וּבְי֥וֹם רָעָ֖ה רְאֵ֑ה גַּ֣ם אֶת־זֶ֤ה לְעֻמַּת־זֶה֙ עָשָׂ֣ה הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים עַל־דִּבְרַ֗ת שֶׁלֹּ֨א יִמְצָ֧א הָֽאָדָ֛ם אַחֲרָ֖יו מְאֽוּמָה׃‬

On a day of prosperity enjoy the success,

But on a day of adversity, observe;

God has made both one thing and another,

In order that man should not find out

About anything coming after him

enjoy ← be in.

both ... and ← also ... even as.
Eccl 7:15 ‫אֶת־הַכֹּ֥ל רָאִ֖יתִי בִּימֵ֣י הֶבְלִ֑י יֵ֤שׁ צַדִּיק֙ אֹבֵ֣ד בְּצִדְק֔וֹ וְיֵ֣שׁ רָשָׁ֔ע מַאֲרִ֖יךְ בְּרָעָתֽוֹ׃‬

I have seen everything in my vain days.

There is a righteous man who perishes in his righteousness,

And there is a wicked man

Who lives a long time in his wickedness.

in my vain days ← in the days of my vanity, a Hebraic genitive.
Eccl 7:16 ‫אַל־תְּהִ֤י צַדִּיק֙ הַרְבֵּ֔ה וְאַל־תִּתְחַכַּ֖ם יוֹתֵ֑ר לָ֖מָּה תִּשּׁוֹמֵֽם׃‬

Do not be over-righteous

And do not make yourself too wise.

Why should you destroy yourself?

over-righteous ← very righteous.

too wise ← more wise.
Eccl 7:17 ‫אַל־תִּרְשַׁ֥ע הַרְבֵּ֖ה וְאַל־תְּהִ֣י סָכָ֑ל לָ֥מָּה תָמ֖וּת בְּלֹ֥א עִתֶּֽךָ׃‬

Do not do much wrong

And do not be foolish.

Why should you die

When it is not your time?

Eccl 7:18 ‫ט֚וֹב אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֶּאֱחֹ֣ז בָּזֶ֔ה וְגַם־מִזֶּ֖ה אַל־תַּנַּ֣ח אֶת־יָדֶ֑ךָ כִּֽי־יְרֵ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים יֵצֵ֥א אֶת־כֻּלָּֽם׃‬

It is good if you hold on to this,

And do not let your hands drop this either,

For he who fears God

Will leave with everyone else.

leave ← go out.

with everyone else ← with all of them.
Eccl 7:19 ‫הַֽחָכְמָ֖ה תָּעֹ֣ז לֶחָכָ֑ם מֵֽעֲשָׂרָה֙ שַׁלִּיטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָי֖וּ בָּעִֽיר׃‬

Wisdom will strengthen the wise man

More than ten rulers

Who are in the city.

Eccl 7:20 ‫כִּ֣י אָדָ֔ם אֵ֥ין צַדִּ֖יק בָּאָ֑רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַעֲשֶׂה־טּ֖וֹב וְלֹ֥א יֶחֱטָֽא׃‬

For there is not a just man on the earth

Who does good and does not sin.

Rm 3:10.
Eccl 7:21 ‫גַּ֤ם לְכָל־הַדְּבָרִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְדַבֵּ֔רוּ אַל־תִּתֵּ֖ן לִבֶּ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־תִשְׁמַ֥ע אֶֽת־עַבְדְּךָ֖ מְקַלְלֶֽךָ׃‬

Moreover do not concern yourself

With everything spoken,

So that you do not hear

Your servant cursing you.

concern yourself with ← put your heart to.

spoken ← they speak. Avoidance of the passive.
Eccl 7:22 ‫כִּ֛י גַּם־פְּעָמִ֥ים רַבּ֖וֹת יָדַ֣ע לִבֶּ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר גַּם־*את **אַתָּ֖ה קִלַּ֥לְתָּ אֲחֵרִֽים׃‬

For also your heart knows

That you have also cursed others

Many times.

you: the ketiv is perhaps a form under Aramaic influence (אַנְתְּ). Otherwise, it is feminine.
Eccl 7:23 ‫כָּל־זֹ֖ה נִסִּ֣יתִי בַֽחָכְמָ֑ה אָמַ֣רְתִּי אֶחְכָּ֔מָה וְהִ֖יא רְחוֹקָ֥ה מִמֶּֽנִּי׃‬

I have tested all this with wisdom.

I said, ‘I will be wise’,

But it was far from me.

Eccl 7:24 ‫רָח֖וֹק מַה־שֶּׁהָיָ֑ה וְעָמֹ֥ק ׀ עָמֹ֖ק מִ֥י יִמְצָאֶֽנּוּ׃‬

Who can find what is distant

And very deep?

Eccl 7:25 ‫סַבּ֨וֹתִֽי אֲנִ֤י וְלִבִּי֙ לָדַ֣עַת וְלָת֔וּר וּבַקֵּ֥שׁ חָכְמָ֖ה וְחֶשְׁבּ֑וֹן וְלָדַ֙עַת֙ רֶ֣שַׁע כֶּ֔סֶל וְהַסִּכְל֖וּת הוֹלֵלֽוֹת׃‬

Then I applied my heart

To know and to investigate and to seek wisdom,

And an explanation of things,

And to know the wickedness of foolhardiness,

And foolishness and folly.

Eccl 7:26 ‫וּמוֹצֶ֨א אֲנִ֜י מַ֣ר מִמָּ֗וֶת אֶת־הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ אֲשֶׁר־הִ֨יא מְצוֹדִ֧ים וַחֲרָמִ֛ים לִבָּ֖הּ אֲסוּרִ֣ים יָדֶ֑יהָ ט֞וֹב לִפְנֵ֤י הָאֱלֹהִים֙ יִמָּלֵ֣ט מִמֶּ֔נָּה וְחוֹטֵ֖א יִלָּ֥כֶד בָּֽהּ׃‬

And I found more bitter than death

The woman who is out to catch,

And whose heart is set on enticements,

Whose hands are bonds.

It is good in God's sight that one should escape from her,

But the sinner will be caught by her.

Eccl 7:27 ‫רְאֵה֙ זֶ֣ה מָצָ֔אתִי אָמְרָ֖ה קֹהֶ֑לֶת אַחַ֥ת לְאַחַ֖ת לִמְצֹ֥א חֶשְׁבּֽוֹן׃‬

‘See what I have found’,

Says the convener,

Putting one thing and another together

To find the result.’

what ← this, but also a relative pronoun; compare Ps 74:2, Ps 104:8.
Eccl 7:28 ‫אֲשֶׁ֛ר עוֹד־בִּקְשָׁ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֖י וְלֹ֣א מָצָ֑אתִי אָדָ֞ם אֶחָ֤ד מֵאֶ֙לֶף֙ מָצָ֔אתִי וְאִשָּׁ֥ה בְכָל־אֵ֖לֶּה לֹ֥א מָצָֽאתִי׃‬

So my mind is still seeking

And I have not found it.

I have found one man in a thousand,

But I have not found such a woman among all these.

mind ← soul.
Eccl 7:29 ‫לְבַד֙ רְאֵה־זֶ֣ה מָצָ֔אתִי אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֧ה הָאֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָאָדָ֖ם יָשָׁ֑ר וְהֵ֥מָּה בִקְשׁ֖וּ חִשְּׁבֹנ֥וֹת רַבִּֽים׃‬

Just look at this that I have found,

That God made man upright,

Yet they seek all sorts of schemes.

all sorts of ← many.
Eccl 8:1 ‫מִ֚י כְּהֶ֣חָכָ֔ם וּמִ֥י יוֹדֵ֖עַ פֵּ֣שֶׁר דָּבָ֑ר חָכְמַ֤ת אָדָם֙ תָּאִ֣יר פָּנָ֔יו וְעֹ֥ז פָּנָ֖יו יְשֻׁנֶּֽא׃‬

Who is like the wise man?

And who knows the interpretation of a matter?

A man's wisdom enlightens his face,

And the harshness of his face is changed.”

his face ... his face: otiose, but see Gn 12:5.
Eccl 8:2 ‫אֲנִי֙ פִּי־מֶ֣לֶךְ שְׁמ֔וֹר וְעַ֕ל דִּבְרַ֖ת שְׁבוּעַ֥ת אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬ I say, “Keep the king's commandment, and do so on account of God's oath. commandment ← mouth.
Eccl 8:3 ‫אַל־תִּבָּהֵ֤ל מִפָּנָיו֙ תֵּלֵ֔ךְ אַֽל־תַּעֲמֹ֖ד בְּדָבָ֣ר רָ֑ע כִּ֛י כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַחְפֹּ֖ץ יַעֲשֶֽׂה׃‬ Do not hasten away from his presence, but walk. Do not defend an evil matter, for he will do whatever he pleases. defend ← stand in.
Eccl 8:4 ‫בַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר דְּבַר־מֶ֖לֶךְ שִׁלְט֑וֹן וּמִ֥י יֹֽאמַר־ל֖וֹ מַֽה־תַּעֲשֶֽׂה׃‬

Where the word of the king is,

There is authority.

And who will say to him,

‘What are you doing?’

Eccl 8:5 ‫שׁוֹמֵ֣ר מִצְוָ֔ה לֹ֥א יֵדַ֖ע דָּבָ֣ר רָ֑ע וְעֵ֣ת וּמִשְׁפָּ֔ט יֵדַ֖ע לֵ֥ב חָכָֽם׃‬

He who keeps the commandment

Will not experience any harmful thing,

And a wise heart will know

Both time and custom.

experience ← know.

custom: or, judgment.
Eccl 8:6 ‫כִּ֣י לְכָל־חֵ֔פֶץ יֵ֖שׁ עֵ֣ת וּמִשְׁפָּ֑ט כִּֽי־רָעַ֥ת הָאָדָ֖ם רַבָּ֥ה עָלָֽיו׃‬

Because for every matter there is a time and a custom,

For the wickedness of man

Is heavily against him.

custom: or, judgment.
Eccl 8:7 ‫כִּֽי־אֵינֶ֥נּוּ יֹדֵ֖עַ מַה־שֶּׁיִּֽהְיֶ֑ה כִּ֚י כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יִֽהְיֶ֔ה מִ֖י יַגִּ֥יד לֽוֹ׃‬

For he does not know what will come to pass,

For who can tell him when it will come to pass?

come to pass ... come to pass: otiose, but see Gn 12:5.
Eccl 8:8 ‫אֵ֣ין אָדָ֞ם שַׁלִּ֤יט בָּר֙וּחַ֙ לִכְל֣וֹא אֶת־הָר֔וּחַ וְאֵ֤ין שִׁלְטוֹן֙ בְּי֣וֹם הַמָּ֔וֶת וְאֵ֥ין מִשְׁלַ֖חַת בַּמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וְלֹֽא־יְמַלֵּ֥ט רֶ֖שַׁע אֶת־בְּעָלָֽיו׃‬

There is no man with power over the wind,

To restrain the wind,

And no-one has power over the day of death.

And there is no leave of absence in war,

Nor will wickedness save those who practise it.

the wind ... the wind: otiose, but see Gn 12:5.

those who practise it ← its owners.
Eccl 8:9 ‫אֶת־כָּל־זֶ֤ה רָאִ֙יתִי֙ וְנָת֣וֹן אֶת־לִבִּ֔י לְכָֽל־מַעֲשֶׂ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נַעֲשָׂ֖ה תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ עֵ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר שָׁלַ֧ט הָאָדָ֛ם בְּאָדָ֖ם לְרַ֥ע לֽוֹ׃‬ I have seen all this, and I have applied my heart to every kind of occupation which is practised under the sun. It is a time when one man rules over another man to his detriment. I have applied: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.
Eccl 8:10 ‫וּבְכֵ֡ן רָאִיתִי֩ רְשָׁעִ֨ים קְבֻרִ֜ים וָבָ֗אוּ וּמִמְּק֤וֹם קָדוֹשׁ֙ יְהַלֵּ֔כוּ וְיִֽשְׁתַּכְּח֥וּ בָעִ֖יר אֲשֶׁ֣ר כֵּן־עָשׂ֑וּ גַּם־זֶ֖ה הָֽבֶל׃‬ And so I looked at the wicked who were buried, who had come to, and who had departed from, the holy place, and who were forgotten in the city where they had done this. This too is vanity. done this ← done thus.
Eccl 8:11 ‫אֲשֶׁר֙ אֵין־נַעֲשָׂ֣ה פִתְגָ֔ם מַעֲשֵׂ֥ה הָרָעָ֖ה מְהֵרָ֑ה עַל־כֵּ֡ן מָלֵ֞א לֵ֧ב בְּֽנֵי־הָאָדָ֛ם בָּהֶ֖ם לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת רָֽע׃‬ Where sentence is not executed, the work of the wicked is prompt, which is why the heart of the sons of men is full of boldness in them to do evil.
Eccl 8:12 ‫אֲשֶׁ֣ר חֹטֶ֗א עֹשֶׂ֥ה רָ֛ע מְאַ֖ת וּמַאֲרִ֣יךְ ל֑וֹ כִּ֚י גַּם־יוֹדֵ֣עַ אָ֔נִי אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִהְיֶה־טּוֹב֙ לְיִרְאֵ֣י הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִֽירְא֖וּ מִלְּפָנָֽיו׃‬ Even if a sinner does wrong a hundred times, and lives long, yet I also know that it will go well with those who fear God, who fear in his presence. go well ← be well.
Eccl 8:13 ‫וְטוֹב֙ לֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֣ה לָֽרָשָׁ֔ע וְלֹֽא־יַאֲרִ֥יךְ יָמִ֖ים כַּצֵּ֑ל אֲשֶׁ֛ר אֵינֶ֥נּוּ יָרֵ֖א מִלִּפְנֵ֥י אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬ But it will not go well with the wicked man, and he will not live long, being as a shadow, because he does not fear in God's presence. go well ← be well.

live long ← prolong days.
Eccl 8:14 ‫יֶשׁ־הֶבֶל֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נַעֲשָׂ֣ה עַל־הָאָרֶץ֒ אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ יֵ֣שׁ צַדִּיקִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר מַגִּ֤יעַ אֲלֵהֶם֙ כְּמַעֲשֵׂ֣ה הָרְשָׁעִ֔ים וְיֵ֣שׁ רְשָׁעִ֔ים שֶׁמַּגִּ֥יעַ אֲלֵהֶ֖ם כְּמַעֲשֵׂ֣ה הַצַּדִּיקִ֑ים אָמַ֕רְתִּי שֶׁגַּם־זֶ֖ה הָֽבֶל׃‬ There is a vanity which is committed on the earth, whereby there are righteous men upon whom the work of the wicked comes, and there are wicked men upon whom the work of the righteous comes. I say that this also is vanity. the work (2x)as the work.

comes (2x)arrives.
Eccl 8:15 ‫וְשִׁבַּ֤חְתִּֽי אֲנִי֙ אֶת־הַשִּׂמְחָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵֽין־ט֤וֹב לָֽאָדָם֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ כִּ֛י אִם־לֶאֱכ֥וֹל וְלִשְׁתּ֖וֹת וְלִשְׂמ֑וֹחַ וְה֞וּא יִלְוֶ֣נּוּ בַעֲמָל֗וֹ יְמֵ֥י חַיָּ֛יו אֲשֶׁר־נָֽתַן־ל֥וֹ הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬ And I praised joy, because man has nothing good under the sun other than to eat and drink and be merry, and that will accompany him in his toil for the days of his life which God has given him under the sun.
Eccl 8:16 ‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֤תִּי אֶת־לִבִּי֙ לָדַ֣עַת חָכְמָ֔ה וְלִרְאוֹת֙ אֶת־הָ֣עִנְיָ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֥ר נַעֲשָׂ֖ה עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּ֣י גַ֤ם בַּיּוֹם֙ וּבַלַּ֔יְלָה שֵׁנָ֕ה בְּעֵינָ֖יו אֵינֶ֥נּוּ רֹאֶֽה׃‬ When I applied my heart to know wisdom and to look into the matter which is being done on the earth – for it neither by day nor by night sees sleep in its eyes –
Eccl 8:17 ‫וְרָאִיתִי֮ אֶת־כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂ֣ה הָאֱלֹהִים֒ כִּי֩ לֹ֨א יוּכַ֜ל הָאָדָ֗ם לִמְצוֹא֙ אֶת־הַֽמַּעֲשֶׂה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נַעֲשָׂ֣ה תַֽחַת־הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ בְּ֠שֶׁל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַעֲמֹ֧ל הָאָדָ֛ם לְבַקֵּ֖שׁ וְלֹ֣א יִמְצָ֑א וְגַ֨ם אִם־יֹאמַ֤ר הֶֽחָכָם֙ לָדַ֔עַת לֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִמְצֹֽא׃‬ I saw the whole of God's work. For man cannot discover the work which is done under the sun, because man toils to seek it out, but does not discover it, and even if a wise man says he knows it, he cannot discover it.
Eccl 9:1 ‫כִּ֣י אֶת־כָּל־זֶ֞ה נָתַ֤תִּי אֶל־לִבִּי֙ וְלָב֣וּר אֶת־כָּל־זֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר הַצַּדִּיקִ֧ים וְהַחֲכָמִ֛ים וַעֲבָדֵיהֶ֖ם בְּיַ֣ד הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים גַּֽם־אַהֲבָ֣ה גַם־שִׂנְאָ֗ה אֵ֤ין יוֹדֵ֙עַ֙ הָֽאָדָ֔ם הַכֹּ֖ל לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃‬ For I applied my heart to all this, to examine all this, the fact that the righteous and the wise and their works are in the hand of God. Mankind does not know whether either love or hatred will come – everything lies in front of them. I applied my heart to all this ← I applied all this to my heart.
Eccl 9:2 ‫הַכֹּ֞ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר לַכֹּ֗ל מִקְרֶ֨ה אֶחָ֜ד לַצַּדִּ֤יק וְלָרָשָׁע֙ לַטּוֹב֙ וְלַטָּה֣וֹר וְלַטָּמֵ֔א וְלַזֹּבֵ֔חַ וְלַאֲשֶׁ֖ר אֵינֶ֣נּוּ זֹבֵ֑חַ כַּטּוֹב֙ כַּֽחֹטֶ֔א הַנִּשְׁבָּ֕ע כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר שְׁבוּעָ֥ה יָרֵֽא׃‬ Everything happens similarly to everyone. There is one result for the righteous and for the wicked, for the good and for the clean and for the unclean, and for him who sacrifices and for him who does not sacrifice.

As for the good,

So for the sinner,

As for him who swears an oath,

So for him who fears an oath.

everything happens similarly to everyone ← everything (is) as to all.
Eccl 9:3 ‫זֶ֣ה ׀ רָ֗ע בְּכֹ֤ל אֲשֶֽׁר־נַעֲשָׂה֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ כִּֽי־מִקְרֶ֥ה אֶחָ֖ד לַכֹּ֑ל וְגַ֣ם לֵ֣ב בְּֽנֵי־הָ֠אָדָם מָלֵא־רָ֨ע וְהוֹלֵל֤וֹת בִּלְבָבָם֙ בְּחַיֵּיהֶ֔ם וְאַחֲרָ֖יו אֶל־הַמֵּתִֽים׃‬ This is an evil thing among everything that has been done under the sun, for there is one result for all, and also the heart of the sons of Adam is full of evil. And folly is in their heart during their life, and afterwards they proceed to the dead.
Eccl 9:4 ‫כִּי־מִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר *יבחר **יְחֻבַּ֔ר אֶ֥ל כָּל־הַחַיִּ֖ים יֵ֣שׁ בִּטָּח֑וֹן כִּֽי־לְכֶ֤לֶב חַי֙ ה֣וּא ט֔וֹב מִן־הָאַרְיֵ֖ה הַמֵּֽת׃‬ For whoever {Q: is joined} [K: is chosen] to all the living has confidence. For

A living dog is better than a dead lion.

Eccl 9:5 ‫כִּ֧י הַֽחַיִּ֛ים יוֹדְעִ֖ים שֶׁיָּמֻ֑תוּ וְהַמֵּתִ֞ים אֵינָ֧ם יוֹדְעִ֣ים מְא֗וּמָה וְאֵֽין־ע֤וֹד לָהֶם֙ שָׂכָ֔ר כִּ֥י נִשְׁכַּ֖ח זִכְרָֽם׃‬

Yet the living know that they will die,

But the dead don't know anything,

Nor do they have a reward any more,

For memory of them is forgotten.

Eccl 9:6 ‫גַּ֣ם אַהֲבָתָ֧ם גַּם־שִׂנְאָתָ֛ם גַּם־קִנְאָתָ֖ם כְּבָ֣ר אָבָ֑דָה וְחֵ֨לֶק אֵין־לָהֶ֥ם עוֹד֙ לְעוֹלָ֔ם בְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶֽׁר־נַעֲשָׂ֖ה תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬

Also their love and their hatred,

And their jealousy has already passed away.

And they age-abidingly no longer have a portion

In anything that has been done under the sun.

passed away ← perished.

anything ← everything.
Eccl 9:7 ‫לֵ֣ךְ אֱכֹ֤ל בְּשִׂמְחָה֙ לַחְמֶ֔ךָ וּֽשֲׁתֵ֥ה בְלֶב־ט֖וֹב יֵינֶ֑ךָ כִּ֣י כְבָ֔ר רָצָ֥ה הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶֽת־מַעֲשֶֽׂיךָ׃‬

Go and eat your bread with joy,

And drink your wine with a merry heart,

For God has already accepted your works.

bread: standing for all kinds of food.

merry ← good.
Eccl 9:8 ‫בְּכָל־עֵ֕ת יִהְי֥וּ בְגָדֶ֖יךָ לְבָנִ֑ים וְשֶׁ֖מֶן עַל־רֹאשְׁךָ֥ אַל־יֶחְסָֽר׃‬

Let your clothes be white at all times,

And let not oil be lacking on your head.

let not oil be lacking on your head ← let your oil on your head not be lacking.
Eccl 9:9 ‫רְאֵ֨ה חַיִּ֜ים עִם־אִשָּׁ֣ה אֲשֶׁר־אָהַ֗בְתָּ כָּל־יְמֵי֙ חַיֵּ֣י הֶבְלֶ֔ךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָֽתַן־לְךָ֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י הֶבְלֶ֑ךָ כִּ֣י ה֤וּא חֶלְקְךָ֙ בַּֽחַיִּ֔ים וּבַעֲמָ֣לְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה עָמֵ֖ל תַּ֥חַת הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬ Spend life with the woman you love all the days of your vain life which he has given you under the sun – all the days of your vanity – for that is your portion in life and in your toil at which you toil under the sun. spend ← see.

your vain life ← the life of your vanity, a Hebraic genitive.
Eccl 9:10 ‫כֹּ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּמְצָ֧א יָֽדְךָ֛ לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת בְּכֹחֲךָ֖ עֲשֵׂ֑ה כִּי֩ אֵ֨ין מַעֲשֶׂ֤ה וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן֙ וְדַ֣עַת וְחָכְמָ֔ה בִּשְׁא֕וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה הֹלֵ֥ךְ שָֽׁמָּה׃ ס‬ Do with your strength whatever your hand finds to do, for there is no occupation or explanation or knowledge or wisdom in the underworld to which you are going. underworld: or, grave. The place of the dead.
Eccl 9:11 ‫שַׁ֜בְתִּי וְרָאֹ֣ה תַֽחַת־הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ כִּ֣י לֹא֩ לַקַּלִּ֨ים הַמֵּר֜וֹץ וְלֹ֧א לַגִּבּוֹרִ֣ים הַמִּלְחָמָ֗ה וְ֠גַם לֹ֣א לַחֲכָמִ֥ים לֶ֙חֶם֙ וְגַ֨ם לֹ֤א לַנְּבֹנִים֙ עֹ֔שֶׁר וְגַ֛ם לֹ֥א לַיֹּדְעִ֖ים חֵ֑ן כִּי־עֵ֥ת וָפֶ֖גַע יִקְרֶ֥ה אֶת־כֻּלָּֽם׃‬ I again saw under the sun that

The race is not for the swift,

And war is not for the valiant,

Nor is bread for the wise,

Nor is wealth for the prudent,

Nor is grace for those who have knowledge,

For an occasion and an incident befall them all.

saw: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.

befall ← befalls, suggesting that occasion and incident are in apposition.
Eccl 9:12 ‫כִּ֡י גַּם֩ לֹֽא־יֵדַ֨ע הָאָדָ֜ם אֶת־עִתּ֗וֹ כַּדָּגִים֙ שֶׁנֶּֽאֱחָזִים֙ בִּמְצוֹדָ֣ה רָעָ֔ה וְכַ֨צִּפֳּרִ֔ים הָאֲחֻז֖וֹת בַּפָּ֑ח כָּהֵ֗ם יֽוּקָשִׁים֙ בְּנֵ֣י הָֽאָדָ֔ם לְעֵ֣ת רָעָ֔ה כְּשֶׁתִּפּ֥וֹל עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם פִּתְאֹֽם׃‬

For man does not know his time either;

He is like a fish caught in a nasty net,

Or like birds caught in a snare.

The sons of Adam are ensnared like them,

In an evil hour,

When it suddenly falls on them.

hour ← time.
Eccl 9:13 ‫גַּם־זֹ֛ה רָאִ֥יתִי חָכְמָ֖ה תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ וּגְדוֹלָ֥ה הִ֖יא אֵלָֽי׃‬ I have also seen this wisdom under the sun, and it seems to me to be great:
Eccl 9:14 ‫עִ֣יר קְטַנָּ֔ה וַאֲנָשִׁ֥ים בָּ֖הּ מְעָ֑ט וּבָֽא־אֵלֶ֜יהָ מֶ֤לֶךְ גָּדוֹל֙ וְסָבַ֣ב אֹתָ֔הּ וּבָנָ֥ה עָלֶ֖יהָ מְצוֹדִ֥ים גְּדֹלִֽים׃‬ there was a small town, with few people in it, and a great king came against it, and surrounded it, and built great siegeworks against it.
Eccl 9:15 ‫וּמָ֣צָא בָ֗הּ אִ֤ישׁ מִסְכֵּן֙ חָכָ֔ם וּמִלַּט־ה֥וּא אֶת־הָעִ֖יר בְּחָכְמָת֑וֹ וְאָדָם֙ לֹ֣א זָכַ֔ר אֶת־הָאִ֥ישׁ הַמִּסְכֵּ֖ן הַהּֽוּא׃‬ But in it was found a poor man, but wise, and he delivered the city by his wisdom. Yet no man remembered that poor man.” was found ← one / he found.
Eccl 9:16 ‫וְאָמַ֣רְתִּי אָ֔נִי טוֹבָ֥ה חָכְמָ֖ה מִגְּבוּרָ֑ה וְחָכְמַ֤ת הַמִּסְכֵּן֙ בְּזוּיָ֔ה וּדְבָרָ֖יו אֵינָ֥ם נִשְׁמָעִֽים׃‬ And I said,

“Wisdom is better than valour,

But the wisdom of the poor man is despised,

And his words are not heard.

Eccl 9:17 ‫דִּבְרֵ֣י חֲכָמִ֔ים בְּנַ֖חַת נִשְׁמָעִ֑ים מִזַּעֲקַ֥ת מוֹשֵׁ֖ל בַּכְּסִילִֽים׃‬

The words of the wise are heard in quiet

More than the shout of a ruler among fools.

Eccl 9:18 ‫טוֹבָ֥ה חָכְמָ֖ה מִכְּלֵ֣י קְרָ֑ב וְחוֹטֶ֣א אֶחָ֔ד יְאַבֵּ֥ד טוֹבָ֥ה הַרְבֵּֽה׃‬

Wisdom is better than equipment for battle,

But one sinner can ruin much good.

Eccl 10:1 ‫זְב֣וּבֵי מָ֔וֶת יַבְאִ֥ישׁ יַבִּ֖יעַ שֶׁ֣מֶן רוֹקֵ֑חַ יָקָ֛ר מֵחָכְמָ֥ה מִכָּב֖וֹד סִכְל֥וּת מְעָֽט׃‬

As dead flies make the pharmacist's oil stink and go putrid,

So does a little foolishness with him who is esteemed with wisdom and with honour.

Eccl 10:2 ‫לֵ֤ב חָכָם֙ לִֽימִינ֔וֹ וְלֵ֥ב כְּסִ֖יל לִשְׂמֹאלֽוֹ׃‬

The heart of a wise man

Is on his right,

But the heart of a fool

Is on his left.

Eccl 10:3 ‫וְגַם־בַּדֶּ֛רֶךְ *כשהסכל **כְּשֶׁסָּכָ֥ל הֹלֵ֖ךְ לִבּ֣וֹ חָסֵ֑ר וְאָמַ֥ר לַכֹּ֖ל סָכָ֥ל הֽוּא׃‬

And also when {Q: a fool} [K: the fool] is walking along a road,

His heart fails him

And he says to everyone

That he is a fool.

The ketiv could also be translated a fool. See Gn 22:9.
Eccl 10:4 ‫אִם־ר֤וּחַ הַמּוֹשֵׁל֙ תַּעֲלֶ֣ה עָלֶ֔יךָ מְקוֹמְךָ֖ אַל־תַּנַּ֑ח כִּ֣י מַרְפֵּ֔א יַנִּ֖יחַ חֲטָאִ֥ים גְּדוֹלִֽים׃‬

If the spirit of the ruler rises against you,

Do not leave your place,

For calmness bears with great sins.

Eccl 10:5 ‫יֵ֣שׁ רָעָ֔ה רָאִ֖יתִי תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ כִּשְׁגָגָ֕ה שֶׁיֹּצָ֖א מִלִּפְנֵ֥י הַשַּׁלִּֽיט׃‬

There is an evil thing which I have seen under the sun,

A sin through ignorance,

Which proceeds from the ruler.

a sin ← as a sin.

from ← from before.
Eccl 10:6 ‫נִתַּ֣ן הַסֶּ֔כֶל בַּמְּרוֹמִ֖ים רַבִּ֑ים וַעֲשִׁירִ֖ים בַּשֵּׁ֥פֶל יֵשֵֽׁבוּ׃‬

Foolishness is instituted in many high places,

But the rich will sit in a low place.

Eccl 10:7 ‫רָאִ֥יתִי עֲבָדִ֖ים עַל־סוּסִ֑ים וְשָׂרִ֛ים הֹלְכִ֥ים כַּעֲבָדִ֖ים עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

I have seen servants on horses,

And princes walking like servants on the ground.

Eccl 10:8 ‫חֹפֵ֥ר גּוּמָּ֖ץ בּ֣וֹ יִפּ֑וֹל וּפֹרֵ֥ץ גָּדֵ֖ר יִשְּׁכֶ֥נּוּ נָחָֽשׁ׃‬

He who digs a pit will fall into it,

And as for him who demolishes a wall,

A serpent will bite him.

Eccl 10:9 ‫מַסִּ֣יעַ אֲבָנִ֔ים יֵעָצֵ֖ב בָּהֶ֑ם בּוֹקֵ֥עַ עֵצִ֖ים יִסָּ֥כֶן בָּֽם׃‬

He who quarries stones

Will be hurt by them,

And he who chops wood

Will be endangered by it.

will be hurt ... will be endangered: one could translate may be hurt ... may be endangered, but compare the previous verse, where will seems more appropriate.
Eccl 10:10 ‫אִם־קֵהָ֣ה הַבַּרְזֶ֗ל וְהוּא֙ לֹא־פָנִ֣ים קִלְקַ֔ל וַחֲיָלִ֖ים יְגַבֵּ֑ר וְיִתְר֥וֹן *הכשיר **הַכְשֵׁ֖ר חָכְמָֽה׃‬

If the iron implement is blunt,

And he does not sharpen its edge,

Then he must use more force.

But wisdom has the benefit of bringing success.

of bringing success: the ketiv is an infinitive construct, used gerundially; the qeré an infinitive absolute or finite form.

use more force ← increase force.
Eccl 10:11 ‫אִם־יִשֹּׁ֥ךְ הַנָּחָ֖שׁ בְּלוֹא־לָ֑חַשׁ וְאֵ֣ין יִתְר֔וֹן לְבַ֖עַל הַלָּשֽׁוֹן׃‬

If a serpent bites,

It is because it has not been charmed,

So the talkative man

Has nothing illustrious.

a serpent ← the serpent. An unexpected definite article; compare Gn 22:9.

talkative ← owner of a tongue.
Eccl 10:12 ‫דִּבְרֵ֥י פִי־חָכָ֖ם חֵ֑ן וְשִׂפְת֥וֹת כְּסִ֖יל תְּבַלְּעֶֽנּוּ׃‬

The words of a wise man's mouth are gracious,

But the lips of a fool

Will swallow him up.

gracious ← grace.
Eccl 10:13 ‫תְּחִלַּ֥ת דִּבְרֵי־פִ֖יהוּ סִכְל֑וּת וְאַחֲרִ֣ית פִּ֔יהוּ הוֹלֵל֖וּת רָעָֽה׃‬

The beginning of the words of his mouth is foolishness,

And the end of his speech is calamitous folly.

mouth ... speech ← mouth ... mouth. Otiose, but see Gn 12:5.
Eccl 10:14 ‫וְהַסָּכָ֖ל יַרְבֶּ֣ה דְבָרִ֑ים לֹא־יֵדַ֤ע הָאָדָם֙ מַה־שֶׁיִּֽהְיֶ֔ה וַאֲשֶׁ֤ר יִֽהְיֶה֙ מֵֽאַחֲרָ֔יו מִ֖י יַגִּ֥יד לֽוֹ׃‬

And the fool is very talkative.

But man does not know what will come to pass,

And who can tell him

What will come to pass after him?

is very talkative ← increases words.

will come to pass ... will come to pass: otiose, but see Gn 12:5.
Eccl 10:15 ‫עֲמַ֥ל הַכְּסִילִ֖ים תְּיַגְּעֶ֑נּוּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יָדַ֖ע לָלֶ֥כֶת אֶל־עִֽיר׃‬

The fool's toil will weary him

Because he does not know how

To go the city.

fool's ← fools', but followed by a singular suffix of the verb.
Eccl 10:16 ‫אִֽי־לָ֣ךְ אֶ֔רֶץ שֶׁמַּלְכֵּ֖ךְ נָ֑עַר וְשָׂרַ֖יִךְ בַּבֹּ֥קֶר יֹאכֵֽלוּ׃‬

Woe to you, O land

Where your king is a boy,

And your princes eat in the morning.

Eccl 10:17 ‫אַשְׁרֵ֣יךְ אֶ֔רֶץ שֶׁמַּלְכֵּ֖ךְ בֶּן־חוֹרִ֑ים וְשָׂרַ֙יִךְ֙ בָּעֵ֣ת יֹאכֵ֔לוּ בִּגְבוּרָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א בַשְּׁתִֽי׃‬

Blessed are you, O land

Where your king is a nobleman,

And your princes eat in season,

In valour and not in drinking.

Eccl 10:18 ‫בַּעֲצַלְתַּ֖יִם יִמַּ֣ךְ הַמְּקָרֶ֑ה וּבְשִׁפְל֥וּת יָדַ֖יִם יִדְלֹ֥ף הַבָּֽיִת׃‬

Through slackness the rafter-work decays,

And through idleness in maintenance

The house leaks.

maintenance ← hands, French les mains, giving English maintenance.
Eccl 10:19 ‫לִשְׂחוֹק֙ עֹשִׂ֣ים לֶ֔חֶם וְיַ֖יִן יְשַׂמַּ֣ח חַיִּ֑ים וְהַכֶּ֖סֶף יַעֲנֶ֥ה אֶת־הַכֹּֽל׃‬

A meal is made for entertainment,

And wine makes life merry,

But money answers everything.

a meal ← bread.

is made ← they make. Avoidance of the passive.

entertainment ← laughter.
Eccl 10:20 ‫גַּ֣ם בְּמַדָּֽעֲךָ֗ מֶ֚לֶךְ אַל־תְּקַלֵּ֔ל וּבְחַדְרֵי֙ מִשְׁכָּ֣בְךָ֔ אַל־תְּקַלֵּ֖ל עָשִׁ֑יר כִּ֣י ע֤וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ יוֹלִ֣יךְ אֶת־הַקּ֔וֹל וּבַ֥עַל *הכנפים **כְּנָפַ֖יִם יַגֵּ֥יד דָּבָֽר׃‬

And do not curse the king in your mind,

And do not curse the rich in your bedrooms,

For a bird of the sky will carry your voice,

And the winged one will divulge the matter.

Winged one ← owner of wings, the ketiv strictly reading owner of the wings.

bird ... winged one: an example where the Hebrew is not otiose.
Eccl 11:1 ‫שַׁלַּ֥ח לַחְמְךָ֖ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַמָּ֑יִם כִּֽי־בְרֹ֥ב הַיָּמִ֖ים תִּמְצָאֶֽנּוּ׃‬

Cast seed for your bread alongside water,

For then after many days

You will find it.

alongside: compare Gn 16:12, Gn 25:18, Ex 20:3 (beside), Nu 3:4, Nu 21:11, Dt 5:7, 2 Sam 15:18, 2 Chr 3:17.
Eccl 11:2 ‫תֶּן־חֵ֥לֶק לְשִׁבְעָ֖ה וְגַ֣ם לִשְׁמוֹנָ֑ה כִּ֚י לֹ֣א תֵדַ֔ע מַה־יִּהְיֶ֥ה רָעָ֖ה עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

Give a part to seven,

And also to eight,

For you do not know

What will become a calamity on the earth.

Eccl 11:3 ‫אִם־יִמָּלְא֨וּ הֶעָבִ֥ים גֶּ֙שֶׁם֙ עַל־הָאָ֣רֶץ יָרִ֔יקוּ וְאִם־יִפּ֥וֹל עֵ֛ץ בַּדָּר֖וֹם וְאִ֣ם בַּצָּפ֑וֹן מְק֛וֹם שֶׁיִּפּ֥וֹל הָעֵ֖ץ שָׁ֥ם יְהֽוּא׃‬

If the thick clouds are full of rain,

They will empty it on the land,

And whether a tree falls to the south or to the north,

In the place where the tree falls,

There it remains.

remains ← will be.
Eccl 11:4 ‫שֹׁמֵ֥ר ר֖וּחַ לֹ֣א יִזְרָ֑ע וְרֹאֶ֥ה בֶעָבִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִקְצֽוֹר׃‬

He who takes note of the wind will not sow,

And he who observes the clouds will not reap.

Eccl 11:5 ‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵֽינְךָ֤ יוֹדֵ֙עַ֙ מַה־דֶּ֣רֶךְ הָר֔וּחַ כַּעֲצָמִ֖ים בְּבֶ֣טֶן הַמְּלֵאָ֑ה כָּ֗כָה לֹ֤א תֵדַע֙ אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂ֣ה הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַעֲשֶׂ֖ה אֶת־הַכֹּֽל׃‬

Just as you do not know the route of the wind,

Nor the way of the bones of the womb of her that is pregnant,

So you do not know the work of God,

Who makes everything.

Eccl 11:6 ‫בַּבֹּ֙קֶר֙ זְרַ֣ע אֶת־זַרְעֶ֔ךָ וְלָעֶ֖רֶב אַל־תַּנַּ֣ח יָדֶ֑ךָ כִּי֩ אֵֽינְךָ֨ יוֹדֵ֜ע אֵ֣י זֶ֤ה יִכְשָׁר֙ הֲזֶ֣ה אוֹ־זֶ֔ה וְאִם־שְׁנֵיהֶ֥ם כְּאֶחָ֖ד טוֹבִֽים׃‬

Sow your seed in the morning,

And do not rest your hand in the evening,

Because you do not know whether this or that will give success,

Or whether both alike will be good.

Eccl 11:7 ‫וּמָת֖וֹק הָא֑וֹר וְט֥וֹב לַֽעֵינַ֖יִם לִרְא֥וֹת אֶת־הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬

Light is sweet,

And it is good for the eyes

To see the sunlight.

Be aware that it is harmful to the eyes to stare at the sun. This verse is metaphorical about being alive.
Eccl 11:8 ‫כִּ֣י אִם־שָׁנִ֥ים הַרְבֵּ֛ה יִחְיֶ֥ה הָאָדָ֖ם בְּכֻלָּ֣ם יִשְׂמָ֑ח וְיִזְכֹּר֙ אֶת־יְמֵ֣י הַחֹ֔שֶׁךְ כִּֽי־הַרְבֵּ֥ה יִהְי֖וּ כָּל־שֶׁבָּ֥א הָֽבֶל׃‬

For if a man lives for many years

May he rejoice in them all,

But may he remember the days of darkness,

For they will be many.

Everything that comes is vanity.

Eccl 11:9 ‫שְׂמַ֧ח בָּח֣וּר בְּיַלְדוּתֶ֗יךָ וִֽיטִֽיבְךָ֤ לִבְּךָ֙ בִּימֵ֣י בְחוּרוֹתֶ֔ךָ וְהַלֵּךְ֙ בְּדַרְכֵ֣י לִבְּךָ֔ וּבְמַרְאֵ֖י עֵינֶ֑יךָ וְדָ֕ע כִּ֧י עַל־כָּל־אֵ֛לֶּה יְבִֽיאֲךָ֥ הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים בַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט׃‬

Rejoice, O young man in your youth,

And let your heart make you cheerful in your youthful days,

And walk in the ways of your heart,

And the sight of your eyes,

But know that concerning all these things

God will bring you into judgment.

your youthful days ← days of your youth, a Hebraic genitive.
Eccl 11:10 ‫וְהָסֵ֥ר כַּ֙עַס֙ מִלִּבֶּ֔ךָ וְהַעֲבֵ֥ר רָעָ֖ה מִבְּשָׂרֶ֑ךָ כִּֽי־הַיַּלְד֥וּת וְהַֽשַּׁחֲר֖וּת הָֽבֶל׃‬

Put away anger from your heart,

And remove evil from your flesh,

For childhood and tender age are vanity.

Eccl 12:1 ‫וּזְכֹר֙ אֶת־בּ֣וֹרְאֶ֔יךָ בִּימֵ֖י בְּחוּרֹתֶ֑יךָ עַ֣ד אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹא־יָבֹ֙אוּ֙ יְמֵ֣י הָֽרָעָ֔ה וְהִגִּ֣יעוּ שָׁנִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֹּאמַ֔ר אֵֽין־לִ֥י בָהֶ֖ם חֵֽפֶץ׃‬

And remember your creator in the days of your youth,

While the bad days have not yet come,

Nor have the years arrived of which you will say,

‘I have no pleasure in them.’

creator: plural, like Elohim (God).

bad days ← days of badness, a Hebraic genitive.
Eccl 12:2 ‫עַ֠ד אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־תֶחְשַׁ֤ךְ הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ וְהָא֔וֹר וְהַיָּרֵ֖חַ וְהַכּוֹכָבִ֑ים וְשָׁ֥בוּ הֶעָבִ֖ים אַחַ֥ר הַגָּֽשֶׁם׃‬

While the sun has not gone dark,

Nor the light, nor the moon and the stars,

Nor have the thick clouds returned

After the rain.

Eccl 12:3 ‫בַּיּ֗וֹם שֶׁיָּזֻ֙עוּ֙ שֹׁמְרֵ֣י הַבַּ֔יִת וְהִֽתְעַוְּת֖וּ אַנְשֵׁ֣י הֶחָ֑יִל וּבָטְל֤וּ הַטֹּֽחֲנוֹת֙ כִּ֣י מִעֵ֔טוּ וְחָשְׁכ֥וּ הָרֹא֖וֹת בָּאֲרֻבּֽוֹת׃‬

On the day when the guardians of the house shake,

And the strong men have become bowed,

And the grinders have become unserviceable,

Because they are few,

And the lookers out of the window have become dark,

The verse depicts the hands, legs, teeth and eyes.

strong men ← men of strength, a Hebraic genitive.
Eccl 12:4 ‫וְסֻגְּר֤וּ דְלָתַ֙יִם֙ בַּשּׁ֔וּק בִּשְׁפַ֖ל ק֣וֹל הַֽטַּחֲנָ֑ה וְיָקוּם֙ לְק֣וֹל הַצִּפּ֔וֹר וְיִשַּׁ֖חוּ כָּל־בְּנ֥וֹת הַשִּֽׁיר׃‬

And the doors have closed in the street,

When the sound of the mill is low,

And one rises at the sound of a bird,

And all the daughters of song are faint.

The verse depicts the mouth and the ears, and insomnia and inability to appreciate song and music.

a bird ← the bird. An unexpected definite article; compare Gn 22:9.
Eccl 12:5 ‫גַּ֣ם מִגָּבֹ֤הַּ יִרָ֙אוּ֙ וְחַתְחַתִּ֣ים בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְיָנֵ֤אץ הַשָּׁקֵד֙ וְיִסְתַּבֵּ֣ל הֶֽחָגָ֔ב וְתָפֵ֖ר הָֽאֲבִיּוֹנָ֑ה כִּֽי־הֹלֵ֤ךְ הָאָדָם֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית עוֹלָמ֔וֹ וְסָבְב֥וּ בָשּׁ֖וּק הַסֹּפְדִֽים׃‬

Moreover they are afraid of heights

With trepidation on the road,

And the almond tree sheds its foliage,

And the locust is a burden,

And the caperberry fails.

For man goes to his age-abiding house,

And mourners circulate in the street.

The verse depicts fear of falling, grey hair falling out, difficulty in carrying a weight, lack of libido, and death and mourning.
Eccl 12:6 ‫עַ֣ד אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־*ירחק **יֵרָתֵק֙ חֶ֣בֶל הַכֶּ֔סֶף וְתָרֻ֖ץ גֻּלַּ֣ת הַזָּהָ֑ב וְתִשָּׁ֤בֶר כַּד֙ עַל־הַמַּבּ֔וּעַ וְנָרֹ֥ץ הַגַּלְגַּ֖ל אֶל־הַבּֽוֹר׃‬

While the silver cord is not {Q: constrained} [K: removed],

And the golden bowl is not crushed,

And the pitcher is not broken at the fountain,

And the wheel is not broken at the cistern.

The verse depicts the spinal cord (compressed by herniating disks?), the skull (containing the brain), the heart, and poor circulation.
Eccl 12:7 ‫וְיָשֹׁ֧ב הֶעָפָ֛ר עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָ֑ה וְהָר֣וּחַ תָּשׁ֔וּב אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר נְתָנָֽהּ׃‬

Then dust will return onto the earth,

As it was,

And the spirit will return to God

Who gave it.”

Eccl 12:8 ‫הֲבֵ֧ל הֲבָלִ֛ים אָמַ֥ר הַקּוֹהֶ֖לֶת הַכֹּ֥ל הָֽבֶל׃‬

“Vanity of vanities”

Says the convener,

“Everything is vanity.”

Eccl 12:9 ‫וְיֹתֵ֕ר שֶׁהָיָ֥ה קֹהֶ֖לֶת חָכָ֑ם ע֗וֹד לִמַּד־דַּ֙עַת֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וְאִזֵּ֣ן וְחִקֵּ֔ר תִּקֵּ֖ן מְשָׁלִ֥ים הַרְבֵּֽה׃‬ And the more that the convener was wise, the more he taught the people knowledge, and weighed it up, and sought it out, and composed many proverbs.
Eccl 12:10 ‫בִּקֵּ֣שׁ קֹהֶ֔לֶת לִמְצֹ֖א דִּבְרֵי־חֵ֑פֶץ וְכָת֥וּב יֹ֖שֶׁר דִּבְרֵ֥י אֱמֶֽת׃‬ The convener set out to find pleasing words, honest writing, words of truth. set out ← sought.

pleasing words ... honest writing ← words of pleasure ... writing of honesty, Hebraic genitives.
Eccl 12:11 ‫דִּבְרֵ֤י חֲכָמִים֙ כַּדָּ֣רְבֹנ֔וֹת וּֽכְמַשְׂמְר֥וֹת נְטוּעִ֖ים בַּעֲלֵ֣י אֲסֻפּ֑וֹת נִתְּנ֖וּ מֵרֹעֶ֥ה אֶחָֽד׃‬ The words of the wise are like goads and like nails driven in. They are masters of gatherings, given by one shepherd. driven in ← planted.

one shepherd: i.e., [CB], the Inspirer.
Eccl 12:12 ‫וְיֹתֵ֥ר מֵהֵ֖מָּה בְּנִ֣י הִזָּהֵ֑ר עֲשׂ֨וֹת סְפָרִ֤ים הַרְבֵּה֙ אֵ֣ין קֵ֔ץ וְלַ֥הַג הַרְבֵּ֖ה יְגִעַ֥ת בָּשָֽׂר׃‬ And, my son, be warned of anything more than these. There is no end of making many books, and much study is weariness to the flesh.
Eccl 12:13 ‫ס֥וֹף דָּבָ֖ר הַכֹּ֣ל נִשְׁמָ֑ע אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִ֤ים יְרָא֙ וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתָ֣יו שְׁמ֔וֹר כִּי־זֶ֖ה כָּל־הָאָדָֽם׃‬ We will hear the whole conclusion of the matter:

Fear God and keep his commandments,

For this is the whole duty of man.

Eccl 12:14 ‫כִּ֤י אֶת־כָּל־מַֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה הָאֱלֹהִ֛ים יָבִ֥א בְמִשְׁפָּ֖ט עַ֣ל כָּל־נֶעְלָ֑ם אִם־ט֖וֹב וְאִם־רָֽע׃‬

For God will bring every deed into judgment,

With every hidden thing,

Whether good or bad.

Lam 1:1 ‫אֵיכָ֣ה ׀ יָשְׁבָ֣ה בָדָ֗ד הָעִיר֙ רַבָּ֣תִי עָ֔ם הָיְתָ֖ה כְּאַלְמָנָ֑ה רַּבָּ֣תִי בַגּוֹיִ֗ם שָׂרָ֙תִי֙ בַּמְּדִינ֔וֹת הָיְתָ֖ה לָמַֽס׃ ס‬

How the city which was so populous

Remains alone and has become like a widow!

She who was great among the nations

– A princess among the states –

Has become tribute-paying.

The chapters are acrostics of the Hebrew alphabet, with irregularities. This verse is starts with an aleph.

populous ← numerous of people.
Lam 1:2 ‫בָּכ֨וֹ תִבְכֶּ֜ה בַּלַּ֗יְלָה וְדִמְעָתָהּ֙ עַ֣ל לֶֽחֱיָ֔הּ אֵֽין־לָ֥הּ מְנַחֵ֖ם מִכָּל־אֹהֲבֶ֑יהָ כָּל־רֵעֶ֙יהָ֙ בָּ֣גְדוּ בָ֔הּ הָ֥יוּ לָ֖הּ לְאֹיְבִֽים׃ ס‬

She weeps and weeps at night,

And her tears are on her cheeks.

She has no-one comforting her among all her lovers.

All her friends have betrayed her;

They have become her enemies.

weeps and weeps: infinitive absolute.

cheeks ← cheek.
Lam 1:3 ‫גָּֽלְתָ֨ה יְהוּדָ֤ה מֵעֹ֙נִי֙ וּמֵרֹ֣ב עֲבֹדָ֔ה הִ֚יא יָשְׁבָ֣ה בַגּוֹיִ֔ם לֹ֥א מָצְאָ֖ה מָנ֑וֹחַ כָּל־רֹדְפֶ֥יהָ הִשִּׂיג֖וּהָ בֵּ֥ין הַמְּצָרִֽים׃ ס‬

Judah has gone into exile

In affliction and in severe enslavement.

She dwells among the Gentiles,

She has not found rest.

All those who pursue her have caught up with her,

Putting her in straits.

in affliction ... in severe enslavement ← from affliction ... from much enslavement.

in straits ← between straits.
Lam 1:4 ‫דַּרְכֵ֨י צִיּ֜וֹן אֲבֵל֗וֹת מִבְּלִי֙ בָּאֵ֣י מוֹעֵ֔ד כָּל־שְׁעָרֶ֙יהָ֙ שֽׁוֹמֵמִ֔ין כֹּהֲנֶ֖יהָ נֶאֱנָחִ֑ים בְּתוּלֹתֶ֥יהָ נּוּג֖וֹת וְהִ֥יא מַר־לָֽהּ׃ ס‬

The roads of Zion mourn

For want of any coming to the festival.

All her gates are desolate,

Her priests sigh, her virgins grieve,

And it is bitter to her.

Lam 1:5 ‫הָי֨וּ צָרֶ֤יהָ לְרֹאשׁ֙ אֹיְבֶ֣יהָ שָׁל֔וּ כִּֽי־יְהוָ֥ה הוֹגָ֖הּ עַ֣ל רֹב־פְּשָׁעֶ֑יהָ עוֹלָלֶ֛יהָ הָלְכ֥וּ שְׁבִ֖י לִפְנֵי־צָֽר׃ ס‬

Her adversaries have become the head,

Her enemies prosper,

For the Lord has afflicted her

Because of the large number of her transgressions.

Her young children have gone into captivity

In front of the adversary.

head: head and tail stand for holding power and being ruled over. Compare Dt 28:13.
Lam 1:6 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֥א *מן־*בת־**מִבַּת־צִיּ֖וֹן כָּל־הֲדָרָ֑הּ הָי֣וּ שָׂרֶ֗יהָ כְּאַיָּלִים֙ לֹא־מָצְא֣וּ מִרְעֶ֔ה וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ בְלֹא־כֹ֖חַ לִפְנֵ֥י רוֹדֵֽף׃ ס‬

And all her splendour has departed from the daughter of Zion,

And her princes who were like harts

Did not find pasture,

And they went powerlessly in front of the pursuer.

from: the ketiv and qeré are the separable and inseparable forms of the pronoun respectively.
Lam 1:7 ‫זָֽכְרָ֣ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם יְמֵ֤י עָנְיָהּ֙ וּמְרוּדֶ֔יהָ כֹּ֚ל מַחֲמֻדֶ֔יהָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָי֖וּ מִ֣ימֵי קֶ֑דֶם בִּנְפֹ֧ל עַמָּ֣הּ בְּיַד־צָ֗ר וְאֵ֤ין עוֹזֵר֙ לָ֔הּ רָא֣וּהָ צָרִ֔ים שָׂחֲק֖וּ עַ֥ל מִשְׁבַּתֶּֽהָ׃ ס‬

Jerusalem remembered in the days of her affliction and her wanderings

All her valuable objects,

Which she had in the old days,

When her people fell into the hand of the adversary,

And there was no-one to help her.

The adversaries saw her

And mocked her Sabbaths.

valuable ← desirable.
Lam 1:8 ‫חֵ֤טְא חָֽטְאָה֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם עַל־כֵּ֖ן לְנִידָ֣ה הָיָ֑תָה כָּֽל־מְכַבְּדֶ֤יהָ הִזִּיל֙וּהָ֙ כִּי־רָא֣וּ עֶרְוָתָ֔הּ גַּם־הִ֥יא נֶאֶנְחָ֖ה וַתָּ֥שָׁב אָחֽוֹר׃ ס‬

Jerusalem has committed a sin,

Which is why she has become displaced.

All those who honoured her disparage her,

For they have seen her nakedness,

As she herself sighs and turns back.

committed ← sinned.

displaced ← (from root נוד) wandering, or, (from root נדד) menstrually unclean.
Lam 1:9 ‫טֻמְאָתָ֣הּ בְּשׁוּלֶ֗יהָ לֹ֤א זָֽכְרָה֙ אַחֲרִיתָ֔הּ וַתֵּ֣רֶד פְּלָאִ֔ים אֵ֥ין מְנַחֵ֖ם לָ֑הּ רְאֵ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אֶת־עָנְיִ֔י כִּ֥י הִגְדִּ֖יל אוֹיֵֽב׃ ס‬

Her uncleanness is in her skirts,

She is not mindful of her final state,

And she has plummeted amazingly.

There is no-one comforting her.

O Lord, look at my affliction,

For the enemy has become powerful.

skirts ← hems (of skirts).

plummeted ← descended, but emphasized by the word amazingly.
Lam 1:10 ‫יָדוֹ֙ פָּ֣רַשׂ צָ֔ר עַ֖ל כָּל־מַחֲמַדֶּ֑יהָ כִּֽי־רָאֲתָ֤ה גוֹיִם֙ בָּ֣אוּ מִקְדָּשָׁ֔הּ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּ֔יתָה לֹא־יָבֹ֥אוּ בַקָּהָ֖ל לָֽךְ׃ ס‬

The adversary has spread his hand over all her valuable objects,

For she has seen how the Gentiles have entered her sanctuary,

Whereas you commanded that they should not come

Into your convocation.

valuable ← desirable.
Lam 1:11 ‫כָּל־עַמָּ֤הּ נֶאֱנָחִים֙ מְבַקְּשִׁ֣ים לֶ֔חֶם נָתְנ֧וּ *מחמודיהם **מַחֲמַדֵּיהֶ֛ם בְּאֹ֖כֶל לְהָשִׁ֣יב נָ֑פֶשׁ רְאֵ֤ה יְהוָה֙ וְֽהַבִּ֔יטָה כִּ֥י הָיִ֖יתִי זוֹלֵלָֽה׃ ס‬

All her people sigh and seek bread.

They have given their desirable objects in exchange for food

To refresh themselves.

O Lord, look and see,

For I have become contemptible.

their desirable objects: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

themselves ← the soul.
Lam 1:12 ‫ל֣וֹא אֲלֵיכֶם֮ כָּל־עֹ֣בְרֵי דֶרֶךְ֒ הַבִּ֣יטוּ וּרְא֗וּ אִם־יֵ֤שׁ מַכְאוֹב֙ כְּמַכְאֹבִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר עוֹלַ֖ל לִ֑י אֲשֶׁר֙ הוֹגָ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה בְּי֖וֹם חֲר֥וֹן אַפּֽוֹ׃ ס‬

Is it not of concern to you,

All you who pass by the way?

Look and see if there is any grief like my grief,

Which has been dealt out to me,

Because the Lord has afflicted me

On the day of his furious anger.

furious anger ← the fury of his anger, a Hebraic genitive, here translated with the nomen regens as the adjective.
Lam 1:13 ‫מִמָּר֛וֹם שָֽׁלַח־אֵ֥שׁ בְּעַצְמֹתַ֖י וַיִּרְדֶּ֑נָּה פָּרַ֨שׂ רֶ֤שֶׁת לְרַגְלַי֙ הֱשִׁיבַ֣נִי אָח֔וֹר נְתָנַ֙נִי֙ שֹֽׁמֵמָ֔ה כָּל־הַיּ֖וֹם דָּוָֽה׃ ס‬

He has sent fire into my bones from above,

And it has subdued them.

He has spread a net for my feet,

He has turned me back,

He has made me desolate and ailing

All day long.

them ← it.
Lam 1:14 ‫נִשְׂקַד֩ עֹ֨ל פְּשָׁעַ֜י בְּיָד֗וֹ יִשְׂתָּֽרְג֛וּ עָל֥וּ עַל־צַוָּארִ֖י הִכְשִׁ֣יל כֹּחִ֑י נְתָנַ֣נִי אֲדֹנָ֔י בִּידֵ֖י לֹא־אוּכַ֥ל קֽוּם׃ ס‬

The yoke of my transgressions has been fastened by his hand.

They are intertwined, they have come on my neck,

He has made my strength falter,

The Lord* has delivered me into the hands

Of those from whom I cannot get up.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].
Lam 1:15 ‫סִלָּ֨ה כָל־אַבִּירַ֤י ׀ אֲדֹנָי֙ בְּקִרְבִּ֔י קָרָ֥א עָלַ֛י מוֹעֵ֖ד לִשְׁבֹּ֣ר בַּחוּרָ֑י גַּ֚ת דָּרַ֣ךְ אֲדֹנָ֔י לִבְתוּלַ֖ת בַּת־יְהוּדָֽה׃ ס‬

The Lord* has removed all my valiant men within my confines.

He has called an assembly against me,

To crush my youths.

The Lord* has trodden the wine press

Which is the virgin daughter of Judah.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].

removed ← raised, but also carried away.

within my confines ← in my midst.

which is: לְ acting as a relative; compare 1 Chr 5:26.
Lam 1:16 ‫עַל־אֵ֣לֶּה ׀ אֲנִ֣י בוֹכִיָּ֗ה עֵינִ֤י ׀ עֵינִי֙ יֹ֣רְדָה מַּ֔יִם כִּֽי־רָחַ֥ק מִמֶּ֛נִּי מְנַחֵ֖ם מֵשִׁ֣יב נַפְשִׁ֑י הָי֤וּ בָנַי֙ שֽׁוֹמֵמִ֔ים כִּ֥י גָבַ֖ר אוֹיֵֽב׃ ס‬

Over these things I weep.

My eye, my eye is running with water,

For the comforter is far from me,

Who would refresh my soul.

My sons have become devastated,

For the enemy has prevailed.

running ← descending.
Lam 1:17 ‫פֵּֽרְשָׂ֨ה צִיּ֜וֹן בְּיָדֶ֗יהָ אֵ֤ין מְנַחֵם֙ לָ֔הּ צִוָּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה לְיַעֲקֹ֖ב סְבִיבָ֣יו צָרָ֑יו הָיְתָ֧ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֛ם לְנִדָּ֖ה בֵּינֵיהֶֽם׃ ס‬

Zion has spread out her hands,

She has no comforter.

The Lord has commanded concerning Jacob,

“Let his enemies be round about him”,

And Jerusalem has become an unclean woman among them.

Lam 1:18 ‫צַדִּ֥יק ה֛וּא יְהוָ֖ה כִּ֣י פִ֣יהוּ מָרִ֑יתִי שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֣א כָל־*עמים **הָֽעַמִּ֗ים וּרְאוּ֙ מַכְאֹבִ֔י בְּתוּלֹתַ֥י וּבַחוּרַ֖י הָלְכ֥וּ בַשֶּֽׁבִי׃ ס‬

The Lord is righteous,

For I have rebelled against his word.

Hear now, all you nations,

And look at my grief – 

My virgins and my young men have gone into captivity.

you nations: the qeré adds the definite article, which acts as a vocative.

word ← mouth.
Lam 1:19 ‫קָרָ֤אתִי לַֽמְאַהֲבַי֙ הֵ֣מָּה רִמּ֔וּנִי כֹּהֲנַ֥י וּזְקֵנַ֖י בָּעִ֣יר גָּוָ֑עוּ כִּֽי־בִקְשׁ֥וּ אֹ֙כֶל֙ לָ֔מוֹ וְיָשִׁ֖יבוּ אֶת־נַפְשָֽׁם׃ ס‬

I called on my lovers,

But they have been treacherous to me.

My priests and my elders in the city have expired,

For they sought food for themselves

To revive themselves.

revive themselves ← restore their souls.
Lam 1:20 ‫רְאֵ֨ה יְהוָ֤ה כִּֽי־צַר־לִי֙ מֵעַ֣י חֳמַרְמָ֔רוּ נֶהְפַּ֤ךְ לִבִּי֙ בְּקִרְבִּ֔י כִּ֥י מָר֖וֹ מָרִ֑יתִי מִח֥וּץ שִׁכְּלָה־חֶ֖רֶב בַּבַּ֥יִת כַּמָּֽוֶת׃ ס‬

O Lord, see how I am in straits,

My innards are turbulent,

My heart is overturned inside me,

For I have rebelled badly.

Outside the sword has bereaved me;

Inside it is deathly.

rebelled badly: infinitive absolute.
Lam 1:21 ‫שָׁמְע֞וּ כִּ֧י נֶאֱנָחָ֣ה אָ֗נִי אֵ֤ין מְנַחֵם֙ לִ֔י כָּל־אֹ֨יְבַ֜י שָׁמְע֤וּ רָֽעָתִי֙ שָׂ֔שׂוּ כִּ֥י אַתָּ֖ה עָשִׂ֑יתָ הֵבֵ֥אתָ יוֹם־קָרָ֖אתָ וְיִֽהְי֥וּ כָמֽוֹנִי׃ ס‬

They have heard that I am sighing,

That I have no comforter.

All my enemies have heard of my misfortune,

They rejoice because you have done this,

But you will bring about the day which you have proclaimed,

And they will become like me.

Lam 1:22 ‫תָּבֹ֨א כָל־רָעָתָ֤ם לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ וְעוֹלֵ֣ל לָ֔מוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עוֹלַ֛לְתָּ לִ֖י עַ֣ל כָּל־פְּשָׁעָ֑י כִּֽי־רַבּ֥וֹת אַנְחֹתַ֖י וְלִבִּ֥י דַוָּֽי׃ פ‬

Let all their wickedness come before you,

And treat them as you have treated me

For all my transgressions.

For my sighs are many,

And my heart is ailing.

Lam 2:1 ‫אֵיכָה֩ יָעִ֨יב בְּאַפּ֤וֹ ׀ אֲדֹנָי֙ אֶת־בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן הִשְׁלִ֤יךְ מִשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ אֶ֔רֶץ תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹא־זָכַ֥ר הֲדֹם־רַגְלָ֖יו בְּי֥וֹם אַפּֽוֹ׃ ס‬

How the Lord* has covered the daughter of Zion in darkness in his anger.

He has cast the splendour of Israel

Down from heaven to the earth.

And he did not remember his footstool

On the day of his anger.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].
Lam 2:2 ‫בִּלַּ֨ע אֲדֹנָ֜י *לא **וְלֹ֣א חָמַ֗ל אֵ֚ת כָּל־נְא֣וֹת יַעֲקֹ֔ב הָרַ֧ס בְּעֶבְרָת֛וֹ מִבְצְרֵ֥י בַת־יְהוּדָ֖ה הִגִּ֣יעַ לָאָ֑רֶץ חִלֵּ֥ל מַמְלָכָ֖ה וְשָׂרֶֽיהָ׃ ס‬

The Lord* has swallowed up all the settlements of Jacob,

{K: And} [Q: And] has not had compassion.

In his ire he has demolished the fortifications of the daughter of Judah,

He has cast them to the ground,

He has profaned the kingdom and its princes.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].
Lam 2:3 ‫גָּדַ֣ע בָּֽחֳרִי אַ֗ף כֹּ֚ל קֶ֣רֶן יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הֵשִׁ֥יב אָח֛וֹר יְמִינ֖וֹ מִפְּנֵ֣י אוֹיֵ֑ב וַיִּבְעַ֤ר בְּיַעֲקֹב֙ כְּאֵ֣שׁ לֶֽהָבָ֔ה אָכְלָ֖ה סָבִֽיב׃ ס‬

In his furious anger

He has cut every horn of Israel off,

He has drawn his right hand back from the presence of the enemy,

And he has burned in Jacob as if with blazing fire,

Which has consumed the land all around.

Jacob: see Gn 32:29 (Gn 32:28AV).

as if with blazing fire ← as fire of a blaze.
Lam 2:4 ‫דָּרַ֨ךְ קַשְׁתּ֜וֹ כְּאוֹיֵ֗ב נִצָּ֤ב יְמִינוֹ֙ כְּצָ֔ר וַֽיַּהֲרֹ֔ג כֹּ֖ל מַחֲמַדֵּי־עָ֑יִן בְּאֹ֙הֶל֙ בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן שָׁפַ֥ךְ כָּאֵ֖שׁ חֲמָתֽוֹ׃ ס‬

He drew his bow like an enemy,

His right hand stood like an adversary,

And he killed all who were pleasing to the eye

In the tent of the daughter of Zion.

He poured out his fury like fire.

Lam 2:5 ‫הָיָ֨ה אֲדֹנָ֤י ׀ כְּאוֹיֵב֙ בִּלַּ֣ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בִּלַּע֙ כָּל־אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֔יהָ שִׁחֵ֖ת מִבְצָרָ֑יו וַיֶּ֙רֶב֙ בְּבַת־יְהוּדָ֔ה תַּאֲנִיָּ֖ה וַאֲנִיָּֽה׃ ס‬

The Lord* was like an enemy,

He swallowed up Israel,

He swallowed up all her palaces,

He brought her fortifications to ruin

And increased mourning and lamentation

In the daughter of Judah.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].
Lam 2:6 ‫וַיַּחְמֹ֤ס כַּגַּן֙ שֻׂכּ֔וֹ שִׁחֵ֖ת מוֹעֲד֑וֹ שִׁכַּ֨ח יְהוָ֤ה ׀ בְּצִיּוֹן֙ מוֹעֵ֣ד וְשַׁבָּ֔ת וַיִּנְאַ֥ץ בְּזַֽעַם־אַפּ֖וֹ מֶ֥לֶךְ וְכֹהֵֽן׃ ס‬

And he did violence to his booth like a garden,

And he ravaged his assembly.

The Lord has caused the assembly and the Sabbath to be forgotten in Zion,

And he has rejected king and priest

In the indignation of his anger.

booth: or, tabernacle, as in Lv 23:34.
Lam 2:7 ‫זָנַ֨ח אֲדֹנָ֤י ׀ מִזְבְּחוֹ֙ נִאֵ֣ר מִקְדָּשׁ֔וֹ הִסְגִּיר֙ בְּיַד־אוֹיֵ֔ב חוֹמֹ֖ת אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֑יהָ ק֛וֹל נָתְנ֥וּ בְּבֵית־יְהוָ֖ה כְּי֥וֹם מוֹעֵֽד׃ ס‬

The Lord* has repudiated his altar,

He has abhorred his sanctuary.

He has delivered the walls of her palaces into the hand of the enemy.

They have uttered a sound in the house of the Lord

As on a day of the assembly.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].
Lam 2:8 ‫חָשַׁ֨ב יְהוָ֤ה ׀ לְהַשְׁחִית֙ חוֹמַ֣ת בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן נָ֣טָה קָ֔ו לֹא־הֵשִׁ֥יב יָד֖וֹ מִבַּלֵּ֑עַ וַיַּֽאֲבֶל־חֵ֥ל וְחוֹמָ֖ה יַחְדָּ֥ו אֻמְלָֽלוּ׃ ס‬

The Lord decided to bring the wall of the daughter of Zion to ruin.

He has stretched out a line,

He will not withdraw his hand from swallowing it up,

And he will bring mourning on fortification and wall –

They will languish together.

decided ← thought.
Lam 2:9 ‫טָבְע֤וּ בָאָ֙רֶץ֙ שְׁעָרֶ֔יהָ אִבַּ֥ד וְשִׁבַּ֖ר בְּרִיחֶ֑יהָ מַלְכָּ֨הּ וְשָׂרֶ֤יהָ בַגּוֹיִם֙ אֵ֣ין תּוֹרָ֔ה גַּם־נְבִיאֶ֕יהָ לֹא־מָצְא֥וּ חָז֖וֹן מֵיְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

Her gates have sunk into the ground,

He has wrecked and shattered her bolts.

Her king and her princes

Are among the Gentiles.

There is no book of the law,

Her prophets do not find any vision from the Lord either.

Lam 2:10 ‫יֵשְׁב֨וּ לָאָ֤רֶץ יִדְּמוּ֙ זִקְנֵ֣י בַת־צִיּ֔וֹן הֶֽעֱל֤וּ עָפָר֙ עַל־רֹאשָׁ֔ם חָגְר֖וּ שַׂקִּ֑ים הוֹרִ֤ידוּ לָאָ֙רֶץ֙ רֹאשָׁ֔ן בְּתוּלֹ֖ת יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ ס‬

The elders of the daughters of Zion are sitting on the ground

And are silent.

They have put dust on their heads,

They have girded themselves with sackcloth,

The virgins of Jerusalem have lowered their heads to the ground.

put ← raised.

heads (2x)head.
Lam 2:11 ‫כָּל֨וּ בַדְּמָע֤וֹת עֵינַי֙ חֳמַרְמְר֣וּ מֵעַ֔י נִשְׁפַּ֤ךְ לָאָ֙רֶץ֙ כְּבֵדִ֔י עַל־שֶׁ֖בֶר בַּת־עַמִּ֑י בֵּֽעָטֵ֤ף עוֹלֵל֙ וְיוֹנֵ֔ק בִּרְחֹב֖וֹת קִרְיָֽה׃ ס‬

My eyes are exhausted with tears,

My innards are turbulent,

My liver is poured out on the ground

Over the devastation of the daughter of my people

At the fainting of the child and baby,

In the streets of the city.

Lam 2:12 ‫לְאִמֹּתָם֙ יֹֽאמְר֔וּ אַיֵּ֖ה דָּגָ֣ן וָיָ֑יִן בְּהִֽתְעַטְּפָ֤ם כֶּֽחָלָל֙ בִּרְחֹב֣וֹת עִ֔יר בְּהִשְׁתַּפֵּ֣ךְ נַפְשָׁ֔ם אֶל־חֵ֖יק אִמֹּתָֽם׃ ס‬

To their mothers they say,

“Where is the corn and the wine?”

As they faint like a wounded soldier in the streets of the city,

As their heart is poured out

In their mothers' bosom.

heart ← soul.
Lam 2:13 ‫מָֽה־אֲעִידֵ֞ךְ מָ֣ה אֲדַמֶּה־לָּ֗ךְ הַבַּת֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם מָ֤ה אַשְׁוֶה־לָּךְ֙ וַאֲנַֽחֲמֵ֔ךְ בְּתוּלַ֖ת בַּת־צִיּ֑וֹן כִּֽי־גָד֥וֹל כַּיָּ֛ם שִׁבְרֵ֖ךְ מִ֥י יִרְפָּא־לָֽךְ׃ ס‬

What can I testify to you,

To what can I liken you, O daughter of Jerusalem?

To what can I compare you,

So as to comfort you, O virgin daughter of Zion?

For your devastation is as great as the sea.

Who can heal you?

to what can I liken you ... to what can I compare you ← what (can) I liken to you ... what (can) I compare to you.
Lam 2:14 ‫נְבִיאַ֗יִךְ חָ֤זוּ לָךְ֙ שָׁ֣וְא וְתָפֵ֔ל וְלֹֽא־גִלּ֥וּ עַל־עֲוֺנֵ֖ךְ לְהָשִׁ֣יב *שביתך **שְׁבוּתֵ֑ךְ וַיֶּ֣חֱזוּ לָ֔ךְ מַשְׂא֥וֹת שָׁ֖וְא וּמַדּוּחִֽים׃ ס‬

Your prophets had visions for you

Which were false and deluded,

And they did not reveal your iniquity,

Which would have restored you from your captivity,

But they have had visions for you

Of false prophecies and seductions.

your captivity: the ketiv / qeré issue is as in Jer 29:14.
Lam 2:15 ‫סָֽפְק֨וּ עָלַ֤יִךְ כַּפַּ֙יִם֙ כָּל־עֹ֣בְרֵי דֶ֔רֶךְ שָֽׁרְקוּ֙ וַיָּנִ֣עוּ רֹאשָׁ֔ם עַל־בַּ֖ת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הֲזֹ֣את הָעִ֗יר שֶׁיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ כְּלִ֣ילַת יֹ֔פִי מָשׂ֖וֹשׂ לְכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃ ס‬

All who pass by the way

Clap their hands at you.

They whistle and shake their head

At the daughter of Jerusalem,

And say, “Is this the city of which they say,

It is the perfection of beauty,

The joy of all the earth’?”

Lam 2:16 ‫פָּצ֨וּ עָלַ֤יִךְ פִּיהֶם֙ כָּל־א֣וֹיְבַ֔יִךְ שָֽׁרְקוּ֙ וַיַּֽחַרְקוּ־שֵׁ֔ן אָמְר֖וּ בִּלָּ֑עְנוּ אַ֣ךְ זֶ֥ה הַיּ֛וֹם שֶׁקִּוִּינֻ֖הוּ מָצָ֥אנוּ רָאִֽינוּ׃ ס‬

All your enemies gape at you,

They whistle and gnash their teeth.

They say, “We have swallowed her up.

Indeed this is the very day which we have hoped for.

We have arrived at it, we have seen it.”

Lam 2:17 ‫עָשָׂ֨ה יְהוָ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר זָמָ֗ם בִּצַּ֤ע אֶמְרָתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה מִֽימֵי־קֶ֔דֶם הָרַ֖ס וְלֹ֣א חָמָ֑ל וַיְשַׂמַּ֤ח עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ אוֹיֵ֔ב הֵרִ֖ים קֶ֥רֶן צָרָֽיִךְ׃ ס‬

The Lord has done what he devised,

He has carried out his word

Which he appointed in days of old.

He has demolished,

And did not show pity.

And he has given the enemy reason to rejoice over you,

He has raised the horn of your adversaries.

in days of old ← since days of old.
Lam 2:18 ‫צָעַ֥ק לִבָּ֖ם אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֑י חוֹמַ֣ת בַּת־צִ֠יּוֹן הוֹרִ֨ידִי כַנַּ֤חַל דִּמְעָה֙ יוֹמָ֣ם וָלַ֔יְלָה אַֽל־תִּתְּנִ֤י פוּגַת֙ לָ֔ךְ אַל־תִּדֹּ֖ם בַּת־עֵינֵֽךְ׃ ס‬

Their heart cried out to the Lord*.

O wall of the daughter of Zion,

Let tears run down like a torrent day and night,

Do not give yourself respite,

Do not let the pupil of your eye rest.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].

tears ← a tear. Collective usage.
Lam 2:19 ‫ק֣וּמִי ׀ רֹ֣נִּי *בליל **בַלַּ֗יְלָה לְרֹאשׁ֙ אַשְׁמֻר֔וֹת שִׁפְכִ֤י כַמַּ֙יִם֙ לִבֵּ֔ךְ נֹ֖כַח פְּנֵ֣י אֲדֹנָ֑י שְׂאִ֧י אֵלָ֣יו כַּפַּ֗יִךְ עַל־נֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ עֽוֹלָלַ֔יִךְ הָעֲטוּפִ֥ים בְּרָעָ֖ב בְּרֹ֥אשׁ כָּל־חוּצֽוֹת׃ ס‬

Arise, shout out in the night at the start of the watches,

Pour out your heart like water in the presence of the Lord*,

Lift up your hands to him for the life of your small children

Who are fainting with hunger

At the head of all the streets.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].

life ← soul.
Lam 2:20 ‫רְאֵ֤ה יְהוָה֙ וְֽהַבִּ֔יטָה לְמִ֖י עוֹלַ֣לְתָּ כֹּ֑ה אִם־תֹּאכַ֨לְנָה נָשִׁ֤ים פִּרְיָם֙ עֹלֲלֵ֣י טִפֻּחִ֔ים אִם־יֵהָרֵ֛ג בְּמִקְדַּ֥שׁ אֲדֹנָ֖י כֹּהֵ֥ן וְנָבִֽיא׃ ס‬

Look, O Lord, and see to whom you have done this.

Will women eat their own fruit –

Infants who are nursed?

Will priest and prophet be killed

In the sanctuary of the Lord*?

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].

this ← thus.

nursed: the AV translates differently.
Lam 2:21 ‫שָׁכְב֨וּ לָאָ֤רֶץ חוּצוֹת֙ נַ֣עַר וְזָקֵ֔ן בְּתוּלֹתַ֥י וּבַחוּרַ֖י נָפְל֣וּ בֶחָ֑רֶב הָרַ֙גְתָּ֙ בְּי֣וֹם אַפֶּ֔ךָ טָבַ֖חְתָּ לֹ֥א חָמָֽלְתָּ׃ ס‬

The youth and the old man lie on the ground on the streets.

My virgins and my young men have fallen by the sword.

You have killed them on the day of your anger,

You have slaughtered them

And not shown pity.

Lam 2:22 ‫תִּקְרָא֩ כְי֨וֹם מוֹעֵ֤ד מְגוּרַי֙ מִסָּבִ֔יב וְלֹ֥א הָיָ֛ה בְּי֥וֹם אַף־יְהוָ֖ה פָּלִ֣יט וְשָׂרִ֑יד אֲשֶׁר־טִפַּ֥חְתִּי וְרִבִּ֖יתִי אֹיְבִ֥י כִלָּֽם׃ פ‬

You have publicized my fears round about,

As on the day of an assembly.

But on the day of the Lord's anger

There was no-one who had escaped or survived.

Those whom I nursed and brought up,

The enemy has finished off.

Lam 3:1 ‫אֲנִ֤י הַגֶּ֙בֶר֙ רָאָ֣ה עֳנִ֔י בְּשֵׁ֖בֶט עֶבְרָתֽוֹ׃‬

I am the man who has seen affliction

By the rod of his wrath.

Lam 3:2 ‫אוֹתִ֥י נָהַ֛ג וַיֹּלַ֖ךְ חֹ֥שֶׁךְ וְלֹא־אֽוֹר׃‬

He has driven me and removed me

Into darkness, and not light.

Lam 3:3 ‫אַ֣ךְ בִּ֥י יָשֻׁ֛ב יַהֲפֹ֥ךְ יָד֖וֹ כָּל־הַיּֽוֹם׃ ס‬

Surely he has turned against me;

His hand is adverse to me

All day long.

Lam 3:4 ‫בִּלָּ֤ה בְשָׂרִי֙ וְעוֹרִ֔י שִׁבַּ֖ר עַצְמוֹתָֽי׃‬

He has caused my flesh and my skin to waste away,

He has shattered my bones.

Lam 3:5 ‫בָּנָ֥ה עָלַ֛י וַיַּקַּ֖ף רֹ֥אשׁ וּתְלָאָֽה׃‬

He has built the case against me,

And surrounded me with noxiousness and weariness.

Lam 3:6 ‫בְּמַחֲשַׁכִּ֥ים הוֹשִׁיבַ֖נִי כְּמֵתֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם׃ ס‬

He has made me sit in darkness

Like the age-abidingly dead.

Lam 3:7 ‫גָּדַ֧ר בַּעֲדִ֛י וְלֹ֥א אֵצֵ֖א הִכְבִּ֥יד נְחָשְׁתִּֽי׃‬

He has fenced me in

And I cannot go out.

He has made my fetter heavy.

fenced me in ← fenced around me.
Lam 3:8 ‫גַּ֣ם כִּ֤י אֶזְעַק֙ וַאֲשַׁוֵּ֔עַ שָׂתַ֖ם תְּפִלָּתִֽי׃‬

Although I cry out and shout

He shuts out my prayer.

Lam 3:9 ‫גָּדַ֤ר דְּרָכַי֙ בְּגָזִ֔ית נְתִיבֹתַ֖י עִוָּֽה׃ ס‬

He has blocked my ways with hewn stones,

He has overturned my paths.

blocked ← fenced.

overturned ← twisted, made crooked. Compare Ps 146:9.
Lam 3:10 ‫דֹּ֣ב אֹרֵ֥ב הוּא֙ לִ֔י *אריה **אֲרִ֖י בְּמִסְתָּרִֽים׃‬

He is a bear in ambush to me –

A lion in a covert place.

lion: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.
Lam 3:11 ‫דְּרָכַ֥י סוֹרֵ֛ר וַֽיְפַשְּׁחֵ֖נִי שָׂמַ֥נִי שֹׁמֵֽם׃‬

He has deflected me from my ways,

And torn me to pieces;

He has made me desolate.

Lam 3:12 ‫דָּרַ֤ךְ קַשְׁתוֹ֙ וַיַּצִּיבֵ֔נִי כַּמַּטָּרָ֖א לַחֵֽץ׃ ס‬

He has drawn his bow and set me

As a target for the arrow.

Lam 3:13 ‫הֵבִיא֙ בְּכִלְיוֹתָ֔י בְּנֵ֖י אַשְׁפָּתֽוֹ׃‬

He has shot the contents of his quiver

Into my kidneys.

shot ← brought.

contents ← sons.
Lam 3:14 ‫הָיִ֤יתִי שְּׂחֹק֙ לְכָל־עַמִּ֔י נְגִינָתָ֖ם כָּל־הַיּֽוֹם׃‬

I have become a laughing stock to all my people,

In their song all day long.

Lam 3:15 ‫הִשְׂבִּיעַ֥נִי בַמְּרוֹרִ֖ים הִרְוַ֥נִי לַעֲנָֽה׃ ס‬

He has filled me with bitter herbs,

He has given me absinthe to drink.

filled ← satiated.
Lam 3:16 ‫וַיַּגְרֵ֤ס בֶּֽחָצָץ֙ שִׁנָּ֔י הִכְפִּישַׁ֖נִי בָּאֵֽפֶר׃‬

And he has crushed my teeth with gravel,

He has covered me with ash.

Lam 3:17 ‫וַתִּזְנַ֧ח מִשָּׁל֛וֹם נַפְשִׁ֖י נָשִׁ֥יתִי טוֹבָֽה׃‬

And you have been averse to my well-being;

I have forgotten what goodness is.

my well-being ← the peace of my soul.
Lam 3:18 ‫וָאֹמַר֙ אָבַ֣ד נִצְחִ֔י וְתוֹחַלְתִּ֖י מֵיְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

And I said, “My endurance and my hope in the Lord

Have faded away.”

in the Lord ... have faded away ← are lost from the Lord.
Lam 3:19 ‫זְכָר־עָנְיִ֥י וּמְרוּדִ֖י לַעֲנָ֥ה וָרֹֽאשׁ׃‬

Remember my affliction and wandering,

The absinthe and the venom.

Lam 3:20 ‫זָכ֣וֹר תִּזְכּ֔וֹר *ותשיח **וְתָשׁ֥וֹחַ עָלַ֖י נַפְשִֽׁי׃‬

O do remember,

And may {P: your soul} [M: my soul] sink down onto me.

An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB, App. 33]. P= נַפְשֶֽׁךָ.

sink down: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning. [CB] interprets as mourn for.

O do remember: infinitive absolute. Our translation is unlike AV, but in agreement with the reversal of the amendment.
Lam 3:21 ‫זֹ֛את אָשִׁ֥יב אֶל־לִבִּ֖י עַל־כֵּ֥ן אוֹחִֽיל׃ ס‬

I will lay this to heart,

This is why I will be in expectation:

to heart ← to my heart.
Lam 3:22 ‫חַֽסְדֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ כִּ֣י לֹא־תָ֔מְנוּ כִּ֥י לֹא־כָל֖וּ רַחֲמָֽיו׃‬

The Lord's kind deeds are such

That we are not finished –

That his mercies have not come to an end.

Lam 3:23 ‫חֲדָשִׁים֙ לַבְּקָרִ֔ים רַבָּ֖ה אֱמוּנָתֶֽךָ׃‬

The mornings bring these anew;

Great is your faithfulness.

Lam 3:24 ‫חֶלְקִ֤י יְהוָה֙ אָמְרָ֣ה נַפְשִׁ֔י עַל־כֵּ֖ן אוֹחִ֥יל לֽוֹ׃ ס‬

“My portion is the Lord”,

My inner being has said,

“Which is why I will await him.”

inner being ← soul.
Lam 3:25 ‫ט֤וֹב יְהוָה֙ לְקוָֹ֔ו לְנֶ֖פֶשׁ תִּדְרְשֶֽׁנּוּ׃‬

The Lord is good to those who put their hope in him –

To the person who seeks him.

person ← soul.
Lam 3:26 ‫ט֤וֹב וְיָחִיל֙ וְדוּמָ֔ם לִתְשׁוּעַ֖ת יְהוָֽה׃‬

It is good to be in expectation and quiet

For the Lord's salvation.

Lam 3:27 ‫ט֣וֹב לַגֶּ֔בֶר כִּֽי־יִשָּׂ֥א עֹ֖ל בִּנְעוּרָֽיו׃ ס‬

It is good for a man that he bears

His yoke in his youth.

Lam 3:28 ‫יֵשֵׁ֤ב בָּדָד֙ וְיִדֹּ֔ם כִּ֥י נָטַ֖ל עָלָֽיו׃‬

He sits alone and is silent

For he laid it on him.

Lam 3:29 ‫יִתֵּ֤ן בֶּֽעָפָר֙ פִּ֔יהוּ אוּלַ֖י יֵ֥שׁ תִּקְוָֽה׃‬

He puts his mouth in the dust

And says,

“Perhaps there is hope.”

Lam 3:30 ‫יִתֵּ֧ן לְמַכֵּ֛הוּ לֶ֖חִי יִשְׂבַּ֥ע בְּחֶרְפָּֽה׃ ס‬

He gives his cheek to him who strikes him,

He is steeped in reproach.

Lam 3:31 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֥א יִזְנַ֛ח לְעוֹלָ֖ם אֲדֹנָֽי׃‬

For the Lord* will not repudiate us

Age-abidingly.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].
Lam 3:32 ‫כִּ֣י אִם־הוֹגָ֔ה וְרִחַ֖ם כְּרֹ֥ב *חסדו **חֲסָדָֽיו׃‬

Although he causes grief,

Yet he shows mercy

According to the abundance of his {K: kindness} [Q: kind deeds].

Lam 3:33 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֤א עִנָּה֙ מִלִּבּ֔וֹ וַיַּגֶּ֖ה בְנֵי־אִֽישׁ׃ ס‬

For he does not afflict wholeheartedly,

Nor so grieve the sons of men.

wholeheartedly ← from his heart.
Lam 3:34 ‫לְדַכֵּא֙ תַּ֣חַת רַגְלָ֔יו כֹּ֖ל אֲסִ֥ירֵי אָֽרֶץ׃‬

Neither on crushing all the prisoners of the earth

Under one's feet,

Neither: the negation comes from Lam 3:36.
Lam 3:35 ‫לְהַטּוֹת֙ מִשְׁפַּט־גָּ֔בֶר נֶ֖גֶד פְּנֵ֥י עֶלְיֽוֹן׃‬

Nor on perverting the course of justice

Of a man

Against the intention of the Most High,

intention ← face.
Lam 3:36 ‫לְעַוֵּ֤ת אָדָם֙ בְּרִיב֔וֹ אֲדֹנָ֖י לֹ֥א רָאָֽה׃ ס‬

Nor on doing violence to a man's contention

Does the Lord* look favourably.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].

doing violence to a man's contention ← perverting a man in his contention.
Lam 3:37 ‫מִ֣י זֶ֤ה אָמַר֙ וַתֶּ֔הִי אֲדֹנָ֖י לֹ֥א צִוָּֽה׃‬

Who is it who spoke, and it came to pass,

If the Lord* did not command it?

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].
Lam 3:38 ‫מִפִּ֤י עֶלְיוֹן֙ לֹ֣א תֵצֵ֔א הָרָע֖וֹת וְהַטּֽוֹב׃‬

Do not bad things and good

Issue from the mouth of the Most High?

Lam 3:39 ‫מַה־יִּתְאוֹנֵן֙ אָדָ֣ם חָ֔י גֶּ֖בֶר עַל־*חטאו **חֲטָאָֽיו׃ ס‬

How a man who is alive complains!

– A man confronted by his {K: sin} [Q: sins].

confronted by ← at / against.
Lam 3:40 ‫נַחְפְּשָׂ֤ה דְרָכֵ֙ינוּ֙ וְֽנַחְקֹ֔רָה וְנָשׁ֖וּבָה עַד־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Let us search our ways and investigate,

And return to the Lord.

Lam 3:41 ‫נִשָּׂ֤א לְבָבֵ֙נוּ֙ אֶל־כַּפָּ֔יִם אֶל־אֵ֖ל בַּשָּׁמָֽיִם׃‬

Let us lift up our hearts on our hands

To God in the heavens.

hearts ← heart.
Lam 3:42 ‫נַ֤חְנוּ פָשַׁ֙עְנוּ֙ וּמָרִ֔ינוּ אַתָּ֖ה לֹ֥א סָלָֽחְתָּ׃ ס‬

We have transgressed and rebelled,

And you have not forgiven us.

Lam 3:43 ‫סַכֹּ֤תָה בָאַף֙ וַֽתִּרְדְּפֵ֔נוּ הָרַ֖גְתָּ לֹ֥א חָמָֽלְתָּ׃‬

You have covered us with anger and pursued us.

You have killed us and not shown pity.

Lam 3:44 ‫סַכּ֤וֹתָה בֶֽעָנָן֙ לָ֔ךְ מֵעֲב֖וֹר תְּפִלָּֽה׃‬

You have covered yourself with a cloud,

So that a prayer cannot pass through.

Lam 3:45 ‫סְחִ֧י וּמָא֛וֹס תְּשִׂימֵ֖נוּ בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָעַמִּֽים׃ ס‬

You have made us an offscouring

And a reject in the company of the nations.

company ← midst.
Lam 3:46 ‫פָּצ֥וּ עָלֵ֛ינוּ פִּיהֶ֖ם כָּל־אֹיְבֵֽינוּ׃‬

All our enemies gape at us.

Lam 3:47 ‫פַּ֧חַד וָפַ֛חַת הָ֥יָה לָ֖נוּ הַשֵּׁ֥את וְהַשָּֽׁבֶר׃‬

Fear and ruin are our lot

With desolation and devastation.

Lam 3:48 ‫פַּלְגֵי־מַ֙יִם֙ תֵּרַ֣ד עֵינִ֔י עַל־שֶׁ֖בֶר בַּת־עַמִּֽי׃ ס‬

Streams of water run down my eye

At the devastation of the daughter of my people.

streams of water run down my eye ← my eye runs down (as) streams of water.
Lam 3:49 ‫עֵינִ֧י נִגְּרָ֛ה וְלֹ֥א תִדְמֶ֖ה מֵאֵ֥ין הֲפֻגֽוֹת׃‬

My eye is flowing and will not become quiet,

With no respite,

Lam 3:50 ‫עַד־יַשְׁקִ֣יף וְיֵ֔רֶא יְהוָ֖ה מִשָּׁמָֽיִם׃‬

Until the Lord peers down

And looks from heaven.

Lam 3:51 ‫עֵינִי֙ עֽוֹלְלָ֣ה לְנַפְשִׁ֔י מִכֹּ֖ל בְּנ֥וֹת עִירִֽי׃ ס‬

My eye is wearing on my spiritual condition

Because of all the daughters of the city.

spiritual condition ← soul.
Lam 3:52 ‫צ֥וֹד צָד֛וּנִי כַּצִּפּ֖וֹר אֹיְבַ֥י חִנָּֽם׃‬

My enemies have relentlessly hunted me,

Gratuitously, like a bird.

relentlessly hunted: infinitive absolute.
Lam 3:53 ‫צָֽמְת֤וּ בַבּוֹר֙ חַיָּ֔י וַיַּדּוּ־אֶ֖בֶן בִּֽי׃‬

They have knocked my life down into the pit,

They have thrown stones at me.

stones ← stone. Collective usage.
Lam 3:54 ‫צָֽפוּ־מַ֥יִם עַל־רֹאשִׁ֖י אָמַ֥רְתִּי נִגְזָֽרְתִּי׃ ס‬

Waters overwhelmed me above my head.

I said, “I have been cut off.”

Lam 3:55 ‫קָרָ֤אתִי שִׁמְךָ֙ יְהוָ֔ה מִבּ֖וֹר תַּחְתִּיּֽוֹת׃‬

I called on your name, O Lord

From the lowest pit.

Lam 3:56 ‫קוֹלִ֖י שָׁמָ֑עְתָּ אַל־תַּעְלֵ֧ם אָזְנְךָ֛ לְרַוְחָתִ֖י לְשַׁוְעָתִֽי׃‬

You have heard my voice.

Do not turn a deaf ear

To relieving me at my cry.

turn a deaf ear ← hide your ear.

relieving me ← my relief.
Lam 3:57 ‫קָרַ֙בְתָּ֙ בְּי֣וֹם אֶקְרָאֶ֔ךָּ אָמַ֖רְתָּ אַל־תִּירָֽא׃ ס‬

You drew near on the day

When I called on you,

And you said,

“Do not fear.”

Lam 3:58 ‫רַ֧בְתָּ אֲדֹנָ֛י רִיבֵ֥י נַפְשִׁ֖י גָּאַ֥לְתָּ חַיָּֽי׃‬

You, O Lord*, have defended the indictments against my person,

You have redeemed my life.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhwh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gn 18:3 and [CB, App. 32].

against my person ← of my soul. Objective genitive.
Lam 3:59 ‫רָאִ֤יתָה יְהוָה֙ עַוָּ֣תָתִ֔י שָׁפְטָ֖ה מִשְׁפָּטִֽי׃‬

O Lord, you have seen my oppression;

Do defend my case.

defend my case ← judge my judgment.
Lam 3:60 ‫רָאִ֙יתָה֙ כָּל־נִקְמָתָ֔ם כָּל־מַחְשְׁבֹתָ֖ם לִֽי׃ ס‬

You have seen all their vengeance

– All their thoughts concerning me.

Lam 3:61 ‫שָׁמַ֤עְתָּ חֶרְפָּתָם֙ יְהוָ֔ה כָּל־מַחְשְׁבֹתָ֖ם עָלָֽי׃‬

You have heard their reproach,

O Lord – all their thoughts against me.

their reproach: subjective genitive.
Lam 3:62 ‫שִׂפְתֵ֤י קָמַי֙ וְהֶגְיוֹנָ֔ם עָלַ֖י כָּל־הַיּֽוֹם׃‬

The lips of those who rise up against me

And their meditation,

Are against me all day long.

Lam 3:63 ‫שִׁבְתָּ֤ם וְקִֽימָתָם֙ הַבִּ֔יטָה אֲנִ֖י מַנְגִּינָתָֽם׃ ס‬

Observe their sitting down and their rising up;

I am their derisive song.

their sitting down and their rising up: standing for their behaviour. Compare Ps 139:2.
Lam 3:64 ‫תָּשִׁ֨יב לָהֶ֥ם גְּמ֛וּל יְהוָ֖ה כְּמַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יְדֵיהֶֽם׃‬

You will bring retribution on them, O Lord,

According to the work of their hands.

Lam 3:65 ‫תִּתֵּ֤ן לָהֶם֙ מְגִנַּת־לֵ֔ב תַּאֲלָֽתְךָ֖ לָהֶֽם׃‬

You will give them a veiled heart

– Your curse on them.

Lam 3:66 ‫תִּרְדֹּ֤ף בְּאַף֙ וְתַשְׁמִידֵ֔ם מִתַּ֖חַת שְׁמֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬

You will pursue them in anger,

And destroy them,

Under the heavens of the Lord.

Lam 4:1 ‫אֵיכָה֙ יוּעַ֣ם זָהָ֔ב יִשְׁנֶ֖א הַכֶּ֣תֶם הַטּ֑וֹב תִּשְׁתַּפֵּ֙כְנָה֙ אַבְנֵי־קֹ֔דֶשׁ בְּרֹ֖אשׁ כָּל־חוּצֽוֹת׃ ס‬

How gold has become dull,

And the fine gold has changed!

The holy gemstones are poured out

At the head of all the streets.

Lam 4:2 ‫בְּנֵ֤י צִיּוֹן֙ הַיְקָרִ֔ים הַמְסֻלָּאִ֖ים בַּפָּ֑ז אֵיכָ֤ה נֶחְשְׁבוּ֙ לְנִבְלֵי־חֶ֔רֶשׂ מַעֲשֵׂ֖ה יְדֵ֥י יוֹצֵֽר׃ ס‬

The precious sons of Zion

Who were weighed against fine gold,

How they are considered as earthen jars –

The work of the hands of the potter!

Lam 4:3 ‫גַּם־*תנין **תַּנִּים֙ חָ֣לְצוּ שַׁ֔ד הֵינִ֖יקוּ גּוּרֵיהֶ֑ן בַּת־עַמִּ֣י לְאַכְזָ֔ר *כי *ענים **כַּיְעֵנִ֖ים בַּמִּדְבָּֽר׃ ס‬

Even the jackals present a breast,

They suckle their cubs.

The daughter of my people is prey to the cruel one,

{K: For they are distressed} [Q: Like the ostriches] in the desert.

The qeré does not use the usual word for ostriches, and perhaps יָעֵן is a lexical invention specifically for this verse.

the jackals: the ketiv has an Aramaic plural.
Lam 4:4 ‫דָּבַ֨ק לְשׁ֥וֹן יוֹנֵ֛ק אֶל־חכּ֖וֹ בַּצָּמָ֑א עֽוֹלָלִים֙ שָׁ֣אֲלוּ לֶ֔חֶם פֹּרֵ֖שׂ אֵ֥ין לָהֶֽם׃ ס‬

The baby's tongue cleaves

To the roof of his mouth with thirst.

Children ask for bread,

But there is no-one to break any for them.

baby's ← suckling's.

to break ← breaking.
Lam 4:5 ‫הָאֹֽכְלִים֙ לְמַ֣עֲדַנִּ֔ים נָשַׁ֖מּוּ בַּחוּצ֑וֹת הָאֱמֻנִים֙ עֲלֵ֣י תוֹלָ֔ע חִבְּק֖וּ אַשְׁפַּתּֽוֹת׃ ס‬

Those who used to eat delicacies

Are desolate in the streets.

Those brought up in scarlet

Embrace the rubbish dumps.

Lam 4:6 ‫וַיִּגְדַּל֙ עֲוֺ֣ן בַּת־עַמִּ֔י מֵֽחַטַּ֖את סְדֹ֑ם הַֽהֲפוּכָ֣ה כְמוֹ־רָ֔גַע וְלֹא־חָ֥לוּ בָ֖הּ יָדָֽיִם׃ ס‬

And the punishment for the iniquity of the daughter of my people

Is greater than the punishment for the sin of Sodom,

Which was overthrown in a moment,

And no hands in it endured.

Lam 4:7 ‫זַכּ֤וּ נְזִירֶ֙יהָ֙ מִשֶּׁ֔לֶג צַח֖וּ מֵחָלָ֑ב אָ֤דְמוּ עֶ֙צֶם֙ מִפְּנִינִ֔ים סַפִּ֖יר גִּזְרָתָֽם׃ ס‬

Her Nazarites were purer than snow,

They were brighter than milk,

They were redder in body than red corals,

Their features were as of a sapphire.

features ← facet.
Lam 4:8 ‫חָשַׁ֤ךְ מִשְּׁחוֹר֙ תָּֽאֳרָ֔ם לֹ֥א נִכְּר֖וּ בַּחוּצ֑וֹת צָפַ֤ד עוֹרָם֙ עַל־עַצְמָ֔ם יָבֵ֖שׁ הָיָ֥ה כָעֵֽץ׃ ס‬

Their appearance has become darker than blackness,

They are not recognized in the streets,

Their skin cleaves to their bones –

It has become dry like wood.

Lam 4:9 ‫טוֹבִ֤ים הָיוּ֙ חַלְלֵי־חֶ֔רֶב מֵֽחַלְלֵ֖י רָעָ֑ב שֶׁ֣הֵ֤ם יָז֙וּבוּ֙ מְדֻקָּרִ֔ים מִתְּנוּבֹ֖ת שָׂדָֽי׃ ס‬

Those who fell by the sword were better off

Than those who died of hunger,

For they bled to death when pierced,

Rather than dying for lack of the produce of the field.

Lam 4:10 ‫יְדֵ֗י נָשִׁים֙ רַחֲמָ֣נִיּ֔וֹת בִּשְּׁל֖וּ יַלְדֵיהֶ֑ן הָי֤וּ לְבָרוֹת֙ לָ֔מוֹ בְּשֶׁ֖בֶר בַּת־עַמִּֽי׃ ס‬

The hands of compassionate women

Have cooked their own children.

They were food to them

In the devastation of the daughter of my people.

Lam 4:11 ‫כִּלָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אֶת־חֲמָת֔וֹ שָׁפַ֖ךְ חֲר֣וֹן אַפּ֑וֹ וַיַּצֶּת־אֵ֣שׁ בְּצִיּ֔וֹן וַתֹּ֖אכַל יְסוֹדֹתֶֽיהָ׃ ס‬

The Lord has discharged his wrath,

He has poured out his furious anger,

And he has kindled a fire in Zion,

And it has consumed its foundations.

his furious anger ← the fury of his anger. See Lam 1:12.
Lam 4:12 ‫לֹ֤א הֶאֱמִ֙ינוּ֙ מַלְכֵי־אֶ֔רֶץ *וכל **כֹּ֖ל יֹשְׁבֵ֣י תֵבֵ֑ל כִּ֤י יָבֹא֙ צַ֣ר וְאוֹיֵ֔ב בְּשַׁעֲרֵ֖י יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ ס‬

The kings of the earth

{K: And} [Q: And] all the inhabitants of the world,

Did not believe that an adversary and an enemy

Would enter the gates of Jerusalem.

Lam 4:13 ‫מֵֽחַטֹּ֣את נְבִיאֶ֔יהָ עֲוֺנ֖וֹת כֹּהֲנֶ֑יהָ הַשֹּׁפְכִ֥ים בְּקִרְבָּ֖הּ דַּ֥ם צַדִּיקִֽים׃ ס‬

Because of the sins of her prophets,

And the iniquities of her priests

Who shed the blood of the righteous

In her precincts,

precincts ← midst.
Lam 4:14 ‫נָע֤וּ עִוְרִים֙ בַּֽחוּצ֔וֹת נְגֹֽאֲל֖וּ בַּדָּ֑ם בְּלֹ֣א יֽוּכְל֔וּ יִגְּע֖וּ בִּלְבֻשֵׁיהֶֽם׃ ס‬

They stagger along in blindness in the streets.

They are stained with blood,

In their powerlessness

They strike their clothes.

blindness ← blind.

AV differs.
Lam 4:15 ‫ס֣וּרוּ טָמֵ֞א קָ֣רְאוּ לָ֗מוֹ ס֤וּרוּ ס֙וּרוּ֙ אַל־תִּגָּ֔עוּ כִּ֥י נָצ֖וּ גַּם־נָ֑עוּ אָֽמְרוּ֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֖יפוּ לָגֽוּר׃ ס‬

Go away, you unclean person”,

They call out to them,

“Go away, go away. Do not touch.”

For they fled and wandered.

Among the Gentiles they said,

“They will not dwell there any more.”

go away ... unclean: plural ... singular.
Lam 4:16 ‫פְּנֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ חִלְּקָ֔ם לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֖יף לְהַבִּיטָ֑ם פְּנֵ֤י כֹהֲנִים֙ לֹ֣א נָשָׂ֔אוּ *זקנים **וּזְקֵנִ֖ים לֹ֥א חָנָֽנוּ׃ ס‬

The presence of the Lord has divided them,

He no longer watches over them.

The priests do not show respect,

{K: Nor} [Q: Nor] do the elders show compassion.

presence ← face.

the priests ... the elders: we take them as the subject of the verb (unlike AV). The leaders rather than the people seem to be ultimately responsible for the problems; see Lam 4:13. The AV's interpretation is also possible.
Lam 4:17 ‫*עודינה **עוֹדֵ֙ינוּ֙ תִּכְלֶ֣ינָה עֵינֵ֔ינוּ אֶל־עֶזְרָתֵ֖נוּ הָ֑בֶל בְּצִפִּיָּתֵ֣נוּ צִפִּ֔ינוּ אֶל־גּ֖וֹי לֹ֥א יוֹשִֽׁעַ׃ ס‬

Our eyes still fail us

At the worthlessness of the help we had,

When in our expectation we awaited a people,

But they could not save us.

still: the ketiv is singular, the qeré plural, agreeing with eyes.
Lam 4:18 ‫צָד֣וּ צְעָדֵ֔ינוּ מִלֶּ֖כֶת בִּרְחֹבֹתֵ֑ינוּ קָרַ֥ב קִצֵּ֛ינוּ מָלְא֥וּ יָמֵ֖ינוּ כִּי־בָ֥א קִצֵּֽינוּ׃ ס‬

They hounded us at our steps,

So that we could not walk on our streets.

Our end came near,

Our days were fulfilled,

For our end had come.

hounded ← hunted.
Lam 4:19 ‫קַלִּ֤ים הָיוּ֙ רֹדְפֵ֔ינוּ מִנִּשְׁרֵ֖י שָׁמָ֑יִם עַל־הֶהָרִ֣ים דְּלָקֻ֔נוּ בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר אָ֥רְבוּ לָֽנוּ׃ ס‬

Our pursuers were swifter than eagles of the sky,

They ardently pursued us on the mountains,

In the desert they ambushed us.

Lam 4:20 ‫ר֤וּחַ אַפֵּ֙ינוּ֙ מְשִׁ֣יחַ יְהוָ֔ה נִלְכַּ֖ד בִּשְׁחִיתוֹתָ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֔רְנוּ בְּצִלּ֖וֹ נִֽחְיֶ֥ה בַגּוֹיִֽם׃ ס‬

The breath of our nostrils,

The Lord's anointed,

Was caught in their snares,

Of whom we said,

“We will live in his shadow among the Gentiles.”

the Lord's anointed: referring to Zedekiah [CB].
Lam 4:21 ‫שִׂ֤ישִׂי וְשִׂמְחִי֙ בַּת־אֱד֔וֹם *יושבתי **יוֹשֶׁ֖בֶת בְּאֶ֣רֶץ ע֑וּץ גַּם־עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ תַּעֲבָר־כּ֔וֹס תִּשְׁכְּרִ֖י וְתִתְעָרִֽי׃ ס‬

Exult and be joyful, O daughter of Edom,

You who live in the land of Uz.

The cup will pass over you too,

And you will become drunk,

And make yourself naked.

live: the ketiv is an unusual variant form of the qeré.
Lam 4:22 ‫תַּם־עֲוֺנֵךְ֙ בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֖יף לְהַגְלוֹתֵ֑ךְ פָּקַ֤ד עֲוֺנֵךְ֙ בַּת־אֱד֔וֹם גִּלָּ֖ה עַל־חַטֹּאתָֽיִךְ׃ פ‬

Your iniquity has ended,

O daughter of Zion;

He will not send you into exile any more,

He has punished your iniquity.

O daughter of Edom,

He has exposed your sins.

has punished: MT and AV arrange the words differently, the AV referring punished to the future.
Lam 5:1 ‫זְכֹ֤ר יְהוָה֙ מֶֽה־הָ֣יָה לָ֔נוּ *הביט **הַבִּ֖יטָה וּרְאֵ֥ה אֶת־חֶרְפָּתֵֽנוּ׃‬

Remember, O Lord

What has come upon us,

{K: Look} [Q: Do look] and see

Our reproach.

our reproach: objective genitive.
Lam 5:2 ‫נַחֲלָתֵ֙נוּ֙ נֶֽהֶפְכָ֣ה לְזָרִ֔ים בָּתֵּ֖ינוּ לְנָכְרִֽים׃‬

Our inheritance has been turned over to foreigners

– Our houses to strangers.

Lam 5:3 ‫יְתוֹמִ֤ים הָיִ֙ינוּ֙ *אין **וְאֵ֣ין אָ֔ב אִמֹּתֵ֖ינוּ כְּאַלְמָנֽוֹת׃‬

We have become {K: orphans;} [Q: orphans,]

{K: We have no} [Q: And we have no] father.

Our mothers are like widows.

Lam 5:4 ‫מֵימֵ֙ינוּ֙ בְּכֶ֣סֶף שָׁתִ֔ינוּ עֵצֵ֖ינוּ בִּמְחִ֥יר יָבֹֽאוּ׃‬

We have drunk our water against payment,

Our wood comes at a price.

against payment ← for money.
Lam 5:5 ‫עַ֤ל צַוָּארֵ֙נוּ֙ נִרְדָּ֔פְנוּ יָגַ֖עְנוּ *לא **וְלֹ֥א הֽוּנַ֖ח לָֽנוּ׃‬

We are pursued at our necks,

We are {K: weary,} [Q: weary,]

{K: We} [Q: And we] are not given rest.

Lam 5:6 ‫מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ נָתַ֣נּוּ יָ֔ד אַשּׁ֖וּר לִשְׂבֹּ֥עַֽ לָֽחֶם׃‬

We offered a hand to Egypt,

We gave Assyria bread to be satiated with.

offered ← gave.
Lam 5:7 ‫אֲבֹתֵ֤ינוּ חָֽטְאוּ֙ *אינם **וְאֵינָ֔ם *אנחנו **וַאֲנַ֖חְנוּ עֲוֺנֹתֵיהֶ֥ם סָבָֽלְנוּ׃‬

Our fathers have {K: sinned,} [Q: sinned,]

{K: They} [Q: And they] are not {K: here.} [Q: here.]

{K: We} [Q: And we] are suffering

For their iniquities.

Lam 5:8 ‫עֲבָדִים֙ מָ֣שְׁלוּ בָ֔נוּ פֹּרֵ֖ק אֵ֥ין מִיָּדָֽם׃‬

Servants have ruled over us,

No-one breaks away from their grip.

grip ← hand.
Lam 5:9 ‫בְּנַפְשֵׁ֙נוּ֙ נָבִ֣יא לַחְמֵ֔נוּ מִפְּנֵ֖י חֶ֥רֶב הַמִּדְבָּֽר׃‬

We fetch our bread at the risk of our lives,

Because of the sword in the desert.

lives ← souls.
Lam 5:10 ‫עוֹרֵ֙נוּ֙ כְּתַנּ֣וּר נִכְמָ֔רוּ מִפְּנֵ֖י זַלְעֲפ֥וֹת רָעָֽב׃‬

Our skin is as black as an oven,

Because of the scorching famine.

scorching ← violent heats of.
Lam 5:11 ‫נָשִׁים֙ בְּצִיּ֣וֹן עִנּ֔וּ בְּתֻלֹ֖ת בְּעָרֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה׃‬

They raped the women in Zion,

And the virgins in the cities of Judah.

Lam 5:12 ‫שָׂרִים֙ בְּיָדָ֣ם נִתְל֔וּ פְּנֵ֥י זְקֵנִ֖ים לֹ֥א נֶהְדָּֽרוּ׃‬

Princes were hanged at their behest,

The standing of the elderly was not respected.

behest ← hand, but also dominion (1 Chr 18:3) and authority / charge (2 Sam 18:2).

standing ← face.
Lam 5:13 ‫בַּחוּרִים֙ טְח֣וֹן נָשָׂ֔אוּ וּנְעָרִ֖ים בָּעֵ֥ץ כָּשָֽׁלוּ׃‬

They took young men to do grinding,

And youths staggered with wood.

Lam 5:14 ‫זְקֵנִים֙ מִשַּׁ֣עַר שָׁבָ֔תוּ בַּחוּרִ֖ים מִנְּגִינָתָֽם׃‬

Old men cease to be at the gate,

And young men playing music.

Lam 5:15 ‫שָׁבַת֙ מְשׂ֣וֹשׂ לִבֵּ֔נוּ נֶהְפַּ֥ךְ לְאֵ֖בֶל מְחֹלֵֽנוּ׃‬

The joy of our heart has ceased,

Our dancing has turned into mourning.

Lam 5:16 ‫נָֽפְלָה֙ עֲטֶ֣רֶת רֹאשֵׁ֔נוּ אֽוֹי־נָ֥א לָ֖נוּ כִּ֥י חָטָֽאנוּ׃‬

The crown on our head has fallen off.

Oh woe to us,

For we have sinned!

crown on ← crown of. Wider use of the construct state.
Lam 5:17 ‫עַל־זֶ֗ה הָיָ֤ה דָוֶה֙ לִבֵּ֔נוּ עַל־אֵ֖לֶּה חָשְׁכ֥וּ עֵינֵֽינוּ׃‬

For this reason our heart has become sick,

On these grounds our eyes have become dark.

Lam 5:18 ‫עַ֤ל הַר־צִיּוֹן֙ שֶׁשָּׁמֵ֔ם שׁוּעָלִ֖ים הִלְּכוּ־בֽוֹ׃ פ‬

On Mount Zion,

Which is desolate,

Foxes roam.

Lam 5:19 ‫אַתָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לְעוֹלָ֣ם תֵּשֵׁ֔ב כִּסְאֲךָ֖ לְדֹ֥ר וָדֽוֹר׃‬

You O Lord, remain age-abidingly,

Your throne is from generation to generation.

Lam 5:20 ‫לָ֤מָּה לָנֶ֙צַח֙ תִּשְׁכָּחֵ֔נוּ תַּֽעַזְבֵ֖נוּ לְאֹ֥רֶךְ יָמִֽים׃‬

Why should you forget us forever –

Abandon us for the length of days?

Lam 5:21 ‫הֲשִׁיבֵ֨נוּ יְהוָ֤ה ׀ אֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ *ונשוב **וְֽנָשׁ֔וּבָה חַדֵּ֥שׁ יָמֵ֖ינוּ כְּקֶֽדֶם׃‬

Restore us, O Lord to yourself,

{K: And we will return} [Q: And let us return].

Renew our days

As of old.

Lam 5:22 ‫כִּ֚י אִם־מָאֹ֣ס מְאַסְתָּ֔נוּ קָצַ֥פְתָּ עָלֵ֖ינוּ עַד־מְאֹֽד׃‬

For you have utterly rejected us,

You have been angry with us

In great measure.

utterly rejected: infinitive absolute.

in great measureup to much.
Esth 1:1 ‫וַיְהִ֖י בִּימֵ֣י אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ ה֣וּא אֲחַשְׁוֵר֗וֹשׁ הַמֹּלֵךְ֙ מֵהֹ֣דּוּ וְעַד־כּ֔וּשׁ שֶׁ֛בַע וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים וּמֵאָ֖ה מְדִינָֽה׃‬ And it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus – that is Ahasuerus who was reigning from India to Ethiopia, over one hundred and twenty-seven provinces – Ahasuerus ← Ahashverosh, but we but we retain the AV / traditional English name. The Greek name is Xerxes.
Esth 1:2 ‫בַּיָּמִ֖ים הָהֵ֑ם כְּשֶׁ֣בֶת ׀ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֗וֹשׁ עַ֚ל כִּסֵּ֣א מַלְכוּת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּשׁוּשַׁ֥ן הַבִּירָֽה׃‬ in those days, when King Ahasuerus was sitting on the throne of his kingdom, which was in the citadel of Shushan,
Esth 1:3 ‫בִּשְׁנַ֤ת שָׁלוֹשׁ֙ לְמָלְכ֔וֹ עָשָׂ֣ה מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה לְכָל־שָׂרָ֖יו וַעֲבָדָ֑יו חֵ֣יל ׀ פָּרַ֣ס וּמָדַ֗י הַֽפַּרְתְּמִ֛ים וְשָׂרֵ֥י הַמְּדִינ֖וֹת לְפָנָֽיו׃‬ in the third year of his reign, that he held a banquet for all his officials and his servants – from the forces in Persia and Media, the nobles and the officials of the provinces – in his presence, forces in ← force of. Wider use of the construct state.
Esth 1:4 ‫בְּהַרְאֹת֗וֹ אֶת־עֹ֙שֶׁר֙ כְּב֣וֹד מַלְכוּת֔וֹ וְאֶ֨ת־יְקָ֔ר תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת גְּדוּלָּת֑וֹ יָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים שְׁמוֹנִ֥ים וּמְאַ֖ת יֽוֹם׃‬ when he exhibited the riches of his glorious kingdom, and the extravagance of his majestic magnificence, for many days – for one hundred and eighty days. his glorious kingdom ← the glory of his kingdom. The regular Hebraic genitive transformation would give his “kingdomly” glory. Compare below.

his majestic magnificence ← the magnificence of his majesty / greatness. A Hebraic genitive, with the absolute noun translated as an adjective.
Esth 1:5 ‫וּבִמְל֣וֹאת ׀ הַיָּמִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה עָשָׂ֣ה הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ לְכָל־הָעָ֣ם הַנִּמְצְאִים֩ בְּשׁוּשַׁ֨ן הַבִּירָ֜ה לְמִגָּ֧דוֹל וְעַד־קָטָ֛ן מִשְׁתֶּ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בַּחֲצַ֕ר גִּנַּ֥ת בִּיתַ֖ן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And at the conclusion of those days, the king held a feast for all the people present in the citadel of Shushan, for both great and small, for seven days, in the court of the garden of the king's mansion, conclusion ← completion, fulfilment.

both great and small ← from great and up to small, but the expression does not always admit a range, as in Gn 6:7.
Esth 1:6 ‫ח֣וּר ׀ כַּרְפַּ֣ס וּתְכֵ֗לֶת אָחוּז֙ בְּחַבְלֵי־ב֣וּץ וְאַרְגָּמָ֔ן עַל־גְּלִ֥ילֵי כֶ֖סֶף וְעַמּ֣וּדֵי שֵׁ֑שׁ מִטּ֣וֹת ׀ זָהָ֣ב וָכֶ֗סֶף עַ֛ל רִֽצְפַ֥ת בַּהַט־וָשֵׁ֖שׁ וְדַ֥ר וְסֹחָֽרֶת׃‬ where there was linen and fine cotton and blue material, fastened with fine linen cords, and purple material on silver rings, and columns of white marble, and beds of gold and silver on a floor of porphyry and marble, with pearl and black marble,
Esth 1:7 ‫וְהַשְׁקוֹת֙ בִּכְלֵ֣י זָהָ֔ב וְכֵלִ֖ים מִכֵּלִ֣ים שׁוֹנִ֑ים וְיֵ֥ין מַלְכ֛וּת רָ֖ב כְּיַ֥ד הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ and where they served drink in vessels of gold, the vessels differing from one another, with royal wine in abundance according to the means of the king. means ← hand.
Esth 1:8 ‫וְהַשְּׁתִיָּ֥ה כַדָּ֖ת אֵ֣ין אֹנֵ֑ס כִּי־כֵ֣ן ׀ יִסַּ֣ד הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ עַ֚ל כָּל־רַ֣ב בֵּית֔וֹ לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת כִּרְצ֥וֹן אִישׁ־וָאִֽישׁ׃‬ And drinking was according to the law: no-one compelled anyone, for so the king had decreed to every dignitary of his house, so that everyone should do as he pleased.
Esth 1:9 ‫גַּ֚ם וַשְׁתִּ֣י הַמַּלְכָּ֔ה עָשְׂתָ֖ה מִשְׁתֵּ֣ה נָשִׁ֑ים בֵּ֚ית הַמַּלְכ֔וּת אֲשֶׁ֖ר לַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֽוֹשׁ׃ ס‬ Vashti the queen also held a banquet for the women in King Ahasuerus's royal house.
Esth 1:10 ‫בַּיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י כְּט֥וֹב לֵב־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ בַּיָּ֑יִן אָמַ֡ר לִ֠מְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָ֨א חַרְבוֹנָ֜א בִּגְתָ֤א וַאֲבַגְתָא֙ זֵתַ֣ר וְכַרְכַּ֔ס שִׁבְעַת֙ הַסָּ֣רִיסִ֔ים הַמְשָׁ֣רְתִ֔ים אֶת־פְּנֵ֖י הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֽוֹשׁ׃‬ On the seventh day, when the king's heart was merry with wine, he told Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha and Abagtha, Zethar and Carcas – seven eunuchs serving in the presence of Ahasuerus –
Esth 1:11 ‫לְ֠הָבִיא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּ֧י הַמַּלְכָּ֛ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ בְּכֶ֣תֶר מַלְכ֑וּת לְהַרְא֨וֹת הָֽעַמִּ֤ים וְהַשָּׂרִים֙ אֶת־יָפְיָ֔הּ כִּֽי־טוֹבַ֥ת מַרְאֶ֖ה הִֽיא׃‬ to bring Vashti the queen before the king, with the royal diadem, to show the peoples and the officers her beauty, for she was fair in appearance.
Esth 1:12 ‫וַתְּמָאֵ֞ן הַמַּלְכָּ֣ה וַשְׁתִּ֗י לָבוֹא֙ בִּדְבַ֣ר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּיַ֣ד הַסָּרִיסִ֑ים וַיִּקְצֹ֤ף הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ מְאֹ֔ד וַחֲמָת֖וֹ בָּעֲרָ֥ה בֽוֹ׃‬ But Vashti the queen refused to come at the king's bidding, which was conveyed by his eunuchs, and the king became very angry and his fury burned in him. by ← by the hand of.
Esth 1:13 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לַחֲכָמִ֖ים יֹדְעֵ֣י הָֽעִתִּ֑ים כִּי־כֵן֙ דְּבַ֣ר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לִפְנֵ֕י כָּל־יֹדְעֵ֖י דָּ֥ת וָדִֽין׃‬ And the king said to the wise men, who knew the times, for so was the word of the king before all those that knew the law and judicial system,
Esth 1:14 ‫וְהַקָּרֹ֣ב אֵלָ֗יו כַּרְשְׁנָ֤א שֵׁתָר֙ אַדְמָ֣תָא תַרְשִׁ֔ישׁ מֶ֥רֶס מַרְסְנָ֖א מְמוּכָ֑ן שִׁבְעַ֞ת שָׂרֵ֣י ׀ פָּרַ֣ס וּמָדַ֗י רֹאֵי֙ פְּנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הַיֹּשְׁבִ֥ים רִאשֹׁנָ֖ה בַּמַּלְכֽוּת׃‬ with those near him being Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena and Memucan, seven officials of Persia and Media, who saw the king's face, and who were pre-eminent in the kingdom, Tarshish ← Tharshish, according to AV's usual rules, but we retain the AV / traditional English name as used here.

were pre-eminent ← sat first.
Esth 1:15 ‫כְּדָת֙ מַֽה־לַּעֲשׂ֔וֹת בַּמַּלְכָּ֖ה וַשְׁתִּ֑י עַ֣ל ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־עָשְׂתָ֗ה אֶֽת־מַאֲמַר֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ בְּיַ֖ד הַסָּרִיסִֽים׃ ס‬ “According to law, what should be done with Vashti the queen, for not doing the bidding of King Ahasuerus conveyed by his eunuchs?” should be done ← (is) to do.

by ← by the hand of.
Esth 1:16 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר *מומכן **מְמוּכָ֗ן לִפְנֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְהַשָּׂרִ֔ים לֹ֤א עַל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְבַדּ֔וֹ עָוְתָ֖ה וַשְׁתִּ֣י הַמַּלְכָּ֑ה כִּ֤י עַל־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִים֙ וְעַל־כָּל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֕ר בְּכָל־מְדִינ֖וֹת הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֽוֹשׁ׃‬ And {Q: Memucan} [K: Mumcan] said in the presence of the king and the officials, “Vashti the queen has not done wrong to the king alone, but to all the officials and all the peoples who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus.
Esth 1:17 ‫כִּֽי־יֵצֵ֤א דְבַר־הַמַּלְכָּה֙ עַל־כָּל־הַנָּשִׁ֔ים לְהַבְז֥וֹת בַּעְלֵיהֶ֖ן בְּעֵינֵיהֶ֑ן בְּאָמְרָ֗ם הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֡וֹשׁ אָמַ֞ר לְהָבִ֨יא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּ֧י הַמַּלְכָּ֛ה לְפָנָ֖יו וְלֹא־בָֽאָה׃‬ For the matter of the queen will go out to all the women, to despise their husbands in their eyes, when it is said, ‘King Ahasuerus gave orders to bring Vashti the queen before him, but she did not come.’ when it is said ← when they (masculine, impersonal) sayin them saying. Avoidance of the passive.
Esth 1:18 ‫וְֽהַיּ֨וֹם הַזֶּ֜ה תֹּאמַ֣רְנָה ׀ שָׂר֣וֹת פָּֽרַס־וּמָדַ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר שָֽׁמְעוּ֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל שָׂרֵ֣י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וּכְדַ֖י בִּזָּי֥וֹן וָקָֽצֶף׃‬ And on this day, the official consorts of Persia and Media who hear the matter of the queen will say likewise to all the king's officials, and there will be plenty of contempt and anger.
Esth 1:19 ‫אִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֗וֹב יֵצֵ֤א דְבַר־מַלְכוּת֙ מִלְּפָנָ֔יו וְיִכָּתֵ֛ב בְּדָתֵ֥י פָֽרַס־וּמָדַ֖י וְלֹ֣א יַעֲב֑וֹר אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־תָב֜וֹא וַשְׁתִּ֗י לִפְנֵי֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ וּמַלְכוּתָהּ֙ יִתֵּ֣ן הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לִרְעוּתָ֖הּ הַטּוֹבָ֥ה מִמֶּֽנָּה׃‬ If the king approves, let a royal decree go out from him, and let it be written in the laws of Persia and Media, which shall not lapse, that Vashti should not come before King Ahasuerus, and that the king shall give her royal estate to another better than she. approves ← (it is) good to.

lapse ← pass (over, by).

another ← a fellow woman of hers.
Esth 1:20 ‫וְנִשְׁמַע֩ פִּתְגָ֨ם הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ אֲשֶֽׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה֙ בְּכָל־מַלְכוּת֔וֹ כִּ֥י רַבָּ֖ה הִ֑יא וְכָל־הַנָּשִׁ֗ים יִתְּנ֤וּ יְקָר֙ לְבַעְלֵיהֶ֔ן לְמִגָּד֖וֹל וְעַד־קָטָֽן׃‬ And the king's decree which he will make will be heard in all the kingdom, for it is great, that all wives should give honour to their husbands, to both great and small.” all wives should give: the first acrostic: הִ֑יא וְכָל־הַנָּשִׁ֗ים יִתְּנ֤וּ, where the first letter of each word, taken in reverse order, yields the divine name יהוה, YHWH / Jehovah, the Lord.

both great and small ← from great and to small, but the expression does not always admit a range, as in Gn 6:7.
Esth 1:21 ‫וַיִּיטַב֙ הַדָּבָ֔ר בְּעֵינֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וְהַשָּׂרִ֑ים וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ כִּדְבַ֥ר מְמוּכָֽן׃‬ And the wording pleased the king and the officials, and the king acted according to the word of Memucan. wording: or, matter.
Esth 1:22 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח סְפָרִים֙ אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינ֣וֹת הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֶל־מְדִינָ֤ה וּמְדִינָה֙ כִּכְתָבָ֔הּ וְאֶל־עַ֥ם וָעָ֖ם כִּלְשׁוֹנ֑וֹ לִהְי֤וֹת כָּל־אִישׁ֙ שֹׂרֵ֣ר בְּבֵית֔וֹ וּמְדַבֵּ֖ר כִּלְשׁ֥וֹן עַמּֽוֹ׃ פ‬ And he sent letters to all the king's provinces, to each individual province according to its script, and to each individual people according to their language, that every man should rule in his house, so declaring it in each language of his people. in each language ← according to the language.
Esth 2:1 ‫אַחַר֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה כְּשֹׁ֕ךְ חֲמַ֖ת הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ זָכַ֤ר אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי֙ וְאֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֔תָה וְאֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־נִגְזַ֖ר עָלֶֽיהָ׃‬ After these things, when King Ahasuerus's anger had abated, he remembered Vashti and what she had done, and what had been decreed against her.
Esth 2:2 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ נַעֲרֵֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מְשָׁרְתָ֑יו יְבַקְשׁ֥וּ לַמֶּ֛לֶךְ נְעָר֥וֹת בְּתוּל֖וֹת טוֹב֥וֹת מַרְאֶֽה׃‬ Then the king's servants who ministered to him, said, “Let virgin girls of fair appearance be sought for the king. let ... be sought ← let them seek. Avoidance of the passive.
Esth 2:3 ‫וְיַפְקֵ֨ד הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ פְּקִידִים֮ בְּכָל־מְדִינ֣וֹת מַלְכוּתוֹ֒ וְיִקְבְּצ֣וּ אֶת־כָּל־נַעֲרָֽה־בְ֠תוּלָה טוֹבַ֨ת מַרְאֶ֜ה אֶל־שׁוּשַׁ֤ן הַבִּירָה֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַנָּשִׁ֔ים אֶל־יַ֥ד הֵגֶ֛א סְרִ֥יס הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַנָּשִׁ֑ים וְנָת֖וֹן תַּמְרוּקֵיהֶֽן׃‬ And let the king appoint overseers in all the provinces of his kingdom, and let them gather every virgin girl of fair appearance, to the citadel of Shushan, to the women's quarters, under the care of Hegai the king's eunuch who is keeper of the women. And let them be given their toiletries for purification. care ← hand.

Hegai ← Hege here, in MT pointing, which could be re-pointed to Hegai, but elsewhere Hegai, with a different consonantal spelling.

let them be given ← give (infinitive absolute taking a jussive role). Avoidance of the passive.
Esth 2:4 ‫וְהַֽנַּעֲרָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּיטַב֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ תִּמְלֹ֖ךְ תַּ֣חַת וַשְׁתִּ֑י וַיִּיטַ֧ב הַדָּבָ֛ר בְּעֵינֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וַיַּ֥עַשׂ כֵּֽן׃ ס‬ And let the girl who pleases the king reign instead of Vashti.” And the matter pleased the king, and he did so. pleases ... pleased ← is ... was good in the eyes of.
Esth 2:5 ‫אִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדִ֔י הָיָ֖ה בְּשׁוּשַׁ֣ן הַבִּירָ֑ה וּשְׁמ֣וֹ מָרְדֳּכַ֗י בֶּ֣ן יָאִ֧יר בֶּן־שִׁמְעִ֛י בֶּן־קִ֖ישׁ אִ֥ישׁ יְמִינִֽי׃‬ There was a certain Jew in the citadel of Shushan, and his name was Mordecai the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjaminite, Mordecai ← Mordocai, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.

Shimei: see 2 Sam 16:5.
Esth 2:6 ‫אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָגְלָה֙ מִיר֣וּשָׁלַ֔יִם עִם־הַגֹּלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָגְלְתָ֔ה עִ֖ם יְכָנְיָ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶגְלָ֔ה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּ֖ר מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶֽל׃‬ who had been deported from Jerusalem with the deportees who were deported with Jeconiah the king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had deported.
Esth 2:7 ‫וַיְהִ֨י אֹמֵ֜ן אֶת־הֲדַסָּ֗ה הִ֤יא אֶסְתֵּר֙ בַּת־דֹּד֔וֹ כִּ֛י אֵ֥ין לָ֖הּ אָ֣ב וָאֵ֑ם וְהַנַּעֲרָ֤ה יְפַת־תֹּ֙אַר֙ וְטוֹבַ֣ת מַרְאֶ֔ה וּבְמ֤וֹת אָבִ֙יהָ֙ וְאִמָּ֔הּ לְקָחָ֧הּ מָרְדֳּכַ֛י ל֖וֹ לְבַֽת׃‬ And he brought up Hadassah, that is Esther, the daughter of his uncle, for she had no father or mother. And the girl was beautiful in figure and fair in appearance, and when her father and mother died, Mordecai took charge of her as a daughter. took charge oftook to himself.
Esth 2:8 ‫וַיְהִ֗י בְּהִשָּׁמַ֤ע דְּבַר־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְדָת֔וֹ וּֽבְהִקָּבֵ֞ץ נְעָר֥וֹת רַבּ֛וֹת אֶל־שׁוּשַׁ֥ן הַבִּירָ֖ה אֶל־יַ֣ד הֵגָ֑י וַתִּלָּקַ֤ח אֶסְתֵּר֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֶל־יַ֥ד הֵגַ֖י שֹׁמֵ֥ר הַנָּשִֽׁים׃‬ And it came to pass when the matter of the king and his decree were heard, and when many girls were gathered in the citadel of Shushan, in the care of Hegai, that Esther was taken to the king's house under the care of Hegai, the keeper of the women. gathered in ← gathered to.

in the care ← to the hand.

Hegai (2x): see Esth 2:3.
Esth 2:9 ‫וַתִּיטַ֨ב הַנַּעֲרָ֣ה בְעֵינָיו֮ וַתִּשָּׂ֣א חֶ֣סֶד לְפָנָיו֒ וַ֠יְבַהֵל אֶת־תַּמְרוּקֶ֤יהָ וְאֶת־מָנוֹתֶ֙הָ֙ לָתֵ֣ת לָ֔הּ וְאֵת֙ שֶׁ֣בַע הַנְּעָר֔וֹת הָרְאֻי֥וֹת לָֽתֶת־לָ֖הּ מִבֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיְשַׁנֶּ֧הָ וְאֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶ֛יהָ לְט֖וֹב בֵּ֥ית הַנָּשִֽׁים׃‬ And the girl pleased the king, and she won his favour, and he hastened to give her toiletries for her purification, and her belongings, and to give her seven distinguished servant-girls from the king's house. And he transferred her and her servant-girls to the best place in the women's quarters. pleased: see Esth 2:14.

the kinghim.

won his favour ← carried kindness before him.

seven distinguished servant-girls ← the seven etc. An unexpected definite article; compare Gn 22:9.

transferred ← changed.
Esth 2:10 ‫לֹא־הִגִּ֣ידָה אֶסְתֵּ֔ר אֶת־עַמָּ֖הּ וְאֶת־מֽוֹלַדְתָּ֑הּ כִּ֧י מָרְדֳּכַ֛י צִוָּ֥ה עָלֶ֖יהָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תַגִּֽיד׃‬ Esther did not declare her nationality or her race, for Mordecai had charged her not to declare them. or: disjunctive use of the vav.
Esth 2:11 ‫וּבְכָל־י֣וֹם וָי֔וֹם מָרְדֳּכַי֙ מִתְהַלֵּ֔ךְ לִפְנֵ֖י חֲצַ֣ר בֵּית־הַנָּשִׁ֑ים לָדַ֙עַת֙ אֶת־שְׁל֣וֹם אֶסְתֵּ֔ר וּמַה־יֵּעָשֶׂ֖ה בָּֽהּ׃‬ And every day Mordecai walked around in front of the court of the women's quarters, in order to know how Esther was and what was happening to her. how Esther wasEsther's peace.

was happening to ← was being done with.
Esth 2:12 ‫וּבְהַגִּ֡יעַ תֹּר֩ נַעֲרָ֨ה וְנַעֲרָ֜ה לָב֣וֹא ׀ אֶל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֗וֹשׁ מִקֵּץ֩ הֱי֨וֹת לָ֜הּ כְּדָ֤ת הַנָּשִׁים֙ שְׁנֵ֣ים עָשָׂ֣ר חֹ֔דֶשׁ כִּ֛י כֵּ֥ן יִמְלְא֖וּ יְמֵ֣י מְרוּקֵיהֶ֑ן שִׁשָּׁ֤ה חֳדָשִׁים֙ בְּשֶׁ֣מֶן הַמֹּ֔ר וְשִׁשָּׁ֤ה חֳדָשִׁים֙ בַּבְּשָׂמִ֔ים וּבְתַמְרוּקֵ֖י הַנָּשִֽׁים׃‬ And when the turn came for each girl to go to King Ahasuerus at the end of her twelve months, as was the custom of women, for so were the days of her purification fulfilled – six months with oil of myrrh and six months with fragrances and toiletries for purification of women – fragrances ← balsams. Perfumes can be obtained from balsam plants.
Esth 2:13 ‫וּבָזֶ֕ה הַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ה בָּאָ֣ה אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ אֵת֩ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר תֹּאמַ֜ר יִנָּ֤תֵֽן לָהּ֙ לָב֣וֹא עִמָּ֔הּ מִבֵּ֥ית הַנָּשִׁ֖ים עַד־בֵּ֥ית הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ the girl would then go to the king. Everything she said would be given to her to go with her from the women's quarters to the king's house.
Esth 2:14 ‫בָּעֶ֣רֶב ׀ הִ֣יא בָאָ֗ה וּ֠בַבֹּקֶר הִ֣יא שָׁבָ֞ה אֶל־בֵּ֤ית הַנָּשִׁים֙ שֵׁנִ֔י אֶל־יַ֧ד שַֽׁעֲשְׁגַ֛ז סְרִ֥יס הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַפִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים לֹא־תָב֥וֹא עוֹד֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּ֣י אִם־חָפֵ֥ץ בָּ֛הּ הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וְנִקְרְאָ֥ה בְשֵֽׁם׃‬ In the evening she would go, and in the evening she would return to the second women's quarters, in the care of Shaashgaz the king's eunuch who kept the concubines. She would not go again to the king unless the king was pleased with her and she was called by name. care ← hand.
Esth 2:15 ‫וּבְהַגִּ֣יעַ תֹּר־אֶסְתֵּ֣ר בַּת־אֲבִיחַ֣יִל דֹּ֣ד מָרְדֳּכַ֡י אֲשֶׁר֩ לָקַֽח־ל֨וֹ לְבַ֜ת לָב֣וֹא אֶל־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ לֹ֤א בִקְשָׁה֙ דָּבָ֔ר כִּ֠י אִ֣ם אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאמַ֛ר הֵגַ֥י סְרִיס־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַנָּשִׁ֑ים וַתְּהִ֤י אֶסְתֵּר֙ נֹשֵׂ֣את חֵ֔ן בְּעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־רֹאֶֽיהָ׃‬ And when the turn came for Esther, the daughter of Abihail, Mordecai's uncle, whom he had taken as a daughter, to go to the king, she did not request anything except what Hegai the king's eunuch, the keeper of the women, had said. And Esther obtained favour in the eyes of all who beheld her. had taken ← had taken to himself.

Hegai: see Esth 2:3.
Esth 2:16 ‫וַתִּלָּקַ֨ח אֶסְתֵּ֜ר אֶל־הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית מַלְכוּת֔וֹ בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הָעֲשִׂירִ֖י הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ טֵבֵ֑ת בִּשְׁנַת־שֶׁ֖בַע לְמַלְכוּתֽוֹ׃‬ And Esther was taken to Ahasuerus, to his royal house in the tenth month – that is the month of Tevet, in the seventh year of his reign. Tevet: AV= Tebeth, but we use the modern English name.
Esth 2:17 ‫וַיֶּאֱהַ֨ב הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ אֶת־אֶסְתֵּר֙ מִכָּל־הַנָּשִׁ֔ים וַתִּשָּׂא־חֵ֥ן וָחֶ֛סֶד לְפָנָ֖יו מִכָּל־הַבְּתוּלֹ֑ת וַיָּ֤שֶׂם כֶּֽתֶר־מַלְכוּת֙ בְּרֹאשָׁ֔הּ וַיַּמְלִיכֶ֖הָ תַּ֥חַת וַשְׁתִּֽי׃‬ And the king loved Esther more than all the other women, and she obtained more grace and favour in his presence than all the other virgins, and he placed the crown of the kingdom on her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti.
Esth 2:18 ‫וַיַּ֨עַשׂ הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ מִשְׁתֶּ֣ה גָד֗וֹל לְכָל־שָׂרָיו֙ וַעֲבָדָ֔יו אֵ֖ת מִשְׁתֵּ֣ה אֶסְתֵּ֑ר וַהֲנָחָ֤ה לַמְּדִינוֹת֙ עָשָׂ֔ה וַיִּתֵּ֥ן מַשְׂאֵ֖ת כְּיַ֥ד הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And the king held a great banquet for all his officials and servants, the banquet of Esther, and he made a holiday for the provinces, and he gave a gift according to the means of the king. means ← hand.
Esth 2:19 ‫וּבְהִקָּבֵ֥ץ בְּתוּל֖וֹת שֵׁנִ֑ית וּמָרְדֳּכַ֖י יֹשֵׁ֥ב בְּשַֽׁעַר־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And while the virgins were being collected the second time, Mordecai was sitting at the king's gate.
Esth 2:20 ‫אֵ֣ין אֶסְתֵּ֗ר מַגֶּ֤דֶת מֽוֹלַדְתָּהּ֙ וְאֶת־עַמָּ֔הּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה עָלֶ֖יהָ מָרְדֳּכָ֑י וְאֶת־מַאֲמַ֤ר מָרְדֳּכַי֙ אֶסְתֵּ֣ר עֹשָׂ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר הָיְתָ֥ה בְאָמְנָ֖ה אִתּֽוֹ׃ ס‬ Esther did not declare her race or her nationality, as Mordecai had charged her, and Esther carried out Mordecai's instruction, as when she was being brought up by him. being brought up by him ← in upbringing with him.
Esth 2:21 ‫בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם וּמָרְדֳּכַ֖י יֹשֵׁ֣ב בְּשַֽׁעַר־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ קָצַף֩ בִּגְתָ֨ן וָתֶ֜רֶשׁ שְׁנֵֽי־סָרִיסֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ מִשֹּׁמְרֵ֣י הַסַּ֔ף וַיְבַקְשׁוּ֙ לִשְׁלֹ֣חַ יָ֔ד בַּמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵֽרֹשׁ׃‬ In those days while Mordecai was sitting at the king's gate, Bigthan and Teresh, two of the king's eunuchs who guarded the threshold, became angry, and tried to lay their hands on King Ahasuerus. Teresh ← Theresh, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.

tried ← sought.

hands ← hand.
Esth 2:22 ‫וַיִּוָּדַ֤ע הַדָּבָר֙ לְמָרְדֳּכַ֔י וַיַּגֵּ֖ד לְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֑ה וַתֹּ֧אמֶר אֶסְתֵּ֛ר לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ בְּשֵׁ֥ם מָרְדֳּכָֽי׃‬ And the matter became known to Mordecai, and he told Esther the queen, and Esther told the king in Mordecai's name.
Esth 2:23 ‫וַיְבֻקַּ֤שׁ הַדָּבָר֙ וַיִּמָּצֵ֔א וַיִּתָּל֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־עֵ֑ץ וַיִּכָּתֵ֗ב בְּסֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ פ‬ And the matter was investigated, and it was exposed, and the two of them were hanged on gallows, and it was written in the chronicles in the king's presence. exposed ← found.

gallows ← wood, a tree, but probably gallows here, as in Esth 5:14.
Esth 3:1 ‫אַחַ֣ר ׀ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה גִּדַּל֩ הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֜וֹשׁ אֶת־הָמָ֧ן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָ֛תָא הָאֲגָגִ֖י וַֽיְנַשְּׂאֵ֑הוּ וַיָּ֙שֶׂם֙ אֶת־כִּסְא֔וֹ מֵעַ֕ל כָּל־הַשָּׂרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ׃‬ After these things, King Ahasuerus promoted Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and elevated him, and made his seat above all the officials who were with him. Agagite: so an Amalekite (1 Sam 15:8), descended from the Nephilim (Nu 13:29-33), the progeny of fallen angels (Gn 6:4).
Esth 3:2 ‫וְכָל־עַבְדֵ֨י הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בְּשַׁ֣עַר הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ כֹּרְעִ֤ים וּמִֽשְׁתַּחֲוִים֙ לְהָמָ֔ן כִּי־כֵ֖ן צִוָּה־ל֣וֹ הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וּמָ֨רְדֳּכַ֔י לֹ֥א יִכְרַ֖ע וְלֹ֥א יִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶֽה׃‬ And all the king's servants who were at the king's gate, would bow and prostrate themselves to Haman, for so the king had commanded concerning him, but Mordecai did not bow or prostrate himself.
Esth 3:3 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ עַבְדֵ֥י הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בְּשַׁ֥עַר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לְמָרְדֳּכָ֑י מַדּ֙וּעַ֙ אַתָּ֣ה עוֹבֵ֔ר אֵ֖ת מִצְוַ֥ת הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And the king's servants who were at the king's gate asked Mordecai, “Why do you transgress the king's command?” asked ← said to.
Esth 3:4 ‫וַיְהִ֗י *באמרם **כְּאָמְרָ֤ם אֵלָיו֙ י֣וֹם וָי֔וֹם וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖ע אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וַיַּגִּ֣ידוּ לְהָמָ֗ן לִרְאוֹת֙ הֲיַֽעַמְדוּ֙ דִּבְרֵ֣י מָרְדֳּכַ֔י כִּֽי־הִגִּ֥יד לָהֶ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־ה֥וּא יְהוּדִֽי׃‬ And it happened that {K: when} [Q: as] they asked him each day, he didn't take notice of them, and they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai's behaviour would stand, for he had told them that he was a Jew. take notice of them ← hear them.

behaviour ← words, but Mordecai did not say any words; also affairs, with wide semantic scope.
Esth 3:5 ‫וַיַּ֣רְא הָמָ֔ן כִּי־אֵ֣ין מָרְדֳּכַ֔י כֹּרֵ֥עַ וּמִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֖ה ל֑וֹ וַיִּמָּלֵ֥א הָמָ֖ן חֵמָֽה׃‬ And when Haman saw that Mordecai was not bowing and prostrating himself to him, Haman was filled with fury.
Esth 3:6 ‫וַיִּ֣בֶז בְּעֵינָ֗יו לִשְׁלֹ֤ח יָד֙ בְּמָרְדֳּכַ֣י לְבַדּ֔וֹ כִּֽי־הִגִּ֥ידוּ ל֖וֹ אֶת־עַ֣ם מָרְדֳּכָ֑י וַיְבַקֵּ֣שׁ הָמָ֗ן לְהַשְׁמִ֧יד אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִ֛ים אֲשֶׁ֛ר בְּכָל־מַלְכ֥וּת אֲחַשְׁוֵר֖וֹשׁ עַ֥ם מָרְדֳּכָֽי׃‬ But he considered it contemptible to lay hands on Mordecai alone, for they had told him Mordecai's nationality, and Haman looked for a way to destroy all the Jews who were in the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus – Mordecai's people. considered it contemptible ← despised in his eyes.

looked for a way ← sought.
Esth 3:7 ‫בַּחֹ֤דֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן֙ הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ נִיסָ֔ן בִּשְׁנַת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣ים עֶשְׂרֵ֔ה לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ הִפִּ֣יל פּוּר֩ ה֨וּא הַגּוֹרָ֜ל לִפְנֵ֣י הָמָ֗ן מִיּ֧וֹם ׀ לְי֛וֹם וּמֵחֹ֛דֶשׁ לְחֹ֥דֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֖ר הוּא־חֹ֥דֶשׁ אֲדָֽר׃ ס‬ In the first month, that is the month of Nisan, in the twelfth year of King Ahasuerus, they cast Pur – that is a lot – in the presence of Haman day by day and month by month, up to the twelfth month, that is the month of Adar.
Esth 3:8 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הָמָן֙ לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ יֶשְׁנ֣וֹ עַם־אֶחָ֗ד מְפֻזָּ֤ר וּמְפֹרָד֙ בֵּ֣ין הָֽעַמִּ֔ים בְּכֹ֖ל מְדִינ֣וֹת מַלְכוּתֶ֑ךָ וְדָתֵיהֶ֞ם שֹׁנ֣וֹת מִכָּל־עָ֗ם וְאֶת־דָּתֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֵינָ֣ם עֹשִׂ֔ים וְלַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֵין־שֹׁוֶ֖ה לְהַנִּיחָֽם׃‬ And Haman said to King Ahasuerus, “There is one people, scattered and separated among the peoples in every province of your kingdom, and their laws are different from the laws of every other people, and they do not comply with the king's laws, and it is not fitting to suffer them. comply with ← do.
Esth 3:9 ‫אִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֔וֹב יִכָּתֵ֖ב לְאַבְּדָ֑ם וַעֲשֶׂ֨רֶת אֲלָפִ֜ים כִּכַּר־כֶּ֗סֶף אֶשְׁקוֹל֙ עַל־יְדֵי֙ עֹשֵׂ֣י הַמְּלָאכָ֔ה לְהָבִ֖יא אֶל־גִּנְזֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ If the king sees fit, let it be written to destroy them, and I will weigh ten thousand talents of silver to be paid to those who do the job, and to be brought to the king's treasuries.” the king sees fit ← (it is) good at the king.

talents: see Ex 25:39.

to be paid to ← to the hands of.

and to be brought ← (and) to bring. The insertion of the word and resolves the apparent ↴
Esth 3:10 ‫וַיָּ֧סַר הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶת־טַבַּעְתּ֖וֹ מֵעַ֣ל יָד֑וֹ וַֽיִּתְּנָ֗הּ לְהָמָ֧ן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָ֛תָא הָאֲגָגִ֖י צֹרֵ֥ר הַיְּהוּדִֽים׃‬ And the king removed his ring from his hand and gave it to Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the enemy of the Jews. ↳ contradiction. Others regard our those who do the job as the receivers of the money, which may be a good interpretation (compare Esth 4:7), but it does not reflect the original words.

Agagite: see Esth 3:1.
Esth 3:11 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְהָמָ֔ן הַכֶּ֖סֶף נָת֣וּן לָ֑ךְ וְהָעָ֕ם לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת בּ֖וֹ כַּטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ׃‬ And the king said to Haman, “The money is given to you, and it is for you to do to the people what is right in your sight.”
Esth 3:12 ‫וַיִּקָּרְאוּ֩ סֹפְרֵ֨י הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָרִאשׁ֗וֹן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֣ר יוֹם֮ בּוֹ֒ וַיִּכָּתֵ֣ב כְּֽכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֣ה הָמָ֡ן אֶ֣ל אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנֵֽי־הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ וְֽאֶל־הַפַּח֞וֹת אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ עַל־מְדִינָ֣ה וּמְדִינָ֗ה וְאֶל־שָׂ֤רֵי עַם֙ וָעָ֔ם מְדִינָ֤ה וּמְדִינָה֙ כִּכְתָבָ֔הּ וְעַ֥ם וָעָ֖ם כִּלְשׁוֹנ֑וֹ בְּשֵׁ֨ם הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ֙ נִכְתָּ֔ב וְנֶחְתָּ֖ם בְּטַבַּ֥עַת הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And the king's scribes were called in the first month, on the thirteenth day of it, and it was written according to everything that Haman commanded the king's satraps and the governors who were in charge of every province, and the officials of every people – every province according to their script, and every people according to their language – and in the name of King Ahasuerus it was written, and it was sealed with the king's ring.
Esth 3:13 ‫וְנִשְׁל֨וֹחַ סְפָרִ֜ים בְּיַ֣ד הָרָצִים֮ אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינ֣וֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ֒ לְהַשְׁמִ֡יד לַהֲרֹ֣ג וּלְאַבֵּ֣ד אֶת־כָּל־הַ֠יְּהוּדִים מִנַּ֨עַר וְעַד־זָקֵ֨ן טַ֤ף וְנָשִׁים֙ בְּי֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר לְחֹ֥דֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֖ר הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ אֲדָ֑ר וּשְׁלָלָ֖ם לָבֽוֹז׃‬ And the letters were sent by runners to every province of the king, to destroy, to kill and to cause to perish all the Jews, from the child to the old man, little children and women, in one day, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, that is the month of Adar, and to plunder their spoil.
Esth 3:14 ‫פַּתְשֶׁ֣גֶן הַכְּתָ֗ב לְהִנָּ֤תֵֽן דָּת֙ בְּכָל־מְדִינָ֣ה וּמְדִינָ֔ה גָּל֖וּי לְכָל־הָֽעַמִּ֑ים לִהְי֥וֹת עֲתִדִ֖ים לַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃‬ A transcript of the writing was to be issued as a decree in every province, published to all the peoples, for them to be ready on this day.
Esth 3:15 ‫הָֽרָצִ֞ים יָצְא֤וּ דְחוּפִים֙ בִּדְבַ֣ר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְהַדָּ֥ת נִתְּנָ֖ה בְּשׁוּשַׁ֣ן הַבִּירָ֑ה וְהַמֶּ֤לֶךְ וְהָמָן֙ יָשְׁב֣וּ לִשְׁתּ֔וֹת וְהָעִ֥יר שׁוּשָׁ֖ן נָבֽוֹכָה׃ פ‬ The runners went out with haste at the king's word, and the decree was issued in the citadel of Shushan, and the king and Haman sat down to drink, while the city of Shushan was in confusion.
Esth 4:1 ‫וּמָרְדֳּכַ֗י יָדַע֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר נַעֲשָׂ֔ה וַיִּקְרַ֤ע מָרְדֳּכַי֙ אֶת־בְּגָדָ֔יו וַיִּלְבַּ֥שׁ שַׂ֖ק וָאֵ֑פֶר וַיֵּצֵא֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הָעִ֔יר וַיִּזְעַ֛ק זְעָקָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה וּמָרָֽה׃‬ And Mordecai knew everything that had been done, and Mordecai tore his clothes and put on sackcloth and ashes, and went out to the middle of the city, and cried out with a great and bitter cry.
Esth 4:2 ‫וַיָּב֕וֹא עַ֖ד לִפְנֵ֣י שַֽׁעַר־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין לָב֛וֹא אֶל־שַׁ֥עַר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ בִּלְב֥וּשׁ שָֽׂק׃‬ And he went in front of the king's gate, for it was not permitted to go in to the king's gate in sackcloth clothing.
Esth 4:3 ‫וּבְכָל־מְדִינָ֣ה וּמְדִינָ֗ה מְקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דְּבַר־הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ וְדָתוֹ֙ מַגִּ֔יעַ אֵ֤בֶל גָּדוֹל֙ לַיְּהוּדִ֔ים וְצ֥וֹם וּבְכִ֖י וּמִסְפֵּ֑ד שַׂ֣ק וָאֵ֔פֶר יֻצַּ֖ע לָֽרַבִּֽים׃‬ And in every province, wherever the word of the king and his decree arrived, there was great mourning among the Jews, and there was fasting and weeping and bewailing. And sackcloth and ashes were strewn by many.
Esth 4:4 ‫וַ֠תָּבוֹאינָה נַעֲר֨וֹת אֶסְתֵּ֤ר וְסָרִיסֶ֙יהָ֙ וַיַּגִּ֣ידוּ לָ֔הּ וַתִּתְחַלְחַ֥ל הַמַּלְכָּ֖ה מְאֹ֑ד וַתִּשְׁלַ֨ח בְּגָדִ֜ים לְהַלְבִּ֣ישׁ אֶֽת־מָרְדֳּכַ֗י וּלְהָסִ֥יר שַׂקּ֛וֹ מֵעָלָ֖יו וְלֹ֥א קִבֵּֽל׃‬ And when Esther's servant-girls and her eunuchs came and told her, the queen was very grieved, and she sent clothing to clothe Mordecai and to have him remove his sackcloth, but he did not accept it. came: [BHS] but not [WLC] has a qeré as an alternative form to the ketiv with the same meaning.

remove ← remove from on him.
Esth 4:5 ‫וַתִּקְרָא֩ אֶסְתֵּ֨ר לַהֲתָ֜ךְ מִסָּרִיסֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶעֱמִ֣יד לְפָנֶ֔יהָ וַתְּצַוֵּ֖הוּ עַֽל־מָרְדֳּכָ֑י לָדַ֥עַת מַה־זֶּ֖ה וְעַל־מַה־זֶּֽה׃‬ And Esther called for Hatach, one of the king's eunuch's whom he had appointed to be in her presence, and she commanded him concerning Mordecai, to find out what this was and why this was. Hatach ← Hathach, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.
Esth 4:6 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֥א הֲתָ֖ךְ אֶֽל־מָרְדֳּכָ֑י אֶל־רְח֣וֹב הָעִ֔יר אֲשֶׁ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י שַֽׁעַר־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Hatach went out to Mordecai, to the street of the city which was in front of the king's gate. Hatach: see Esth 4:5.
Esth 4:7 ‫וַיַּגֶּד־ל֣וֹ מָרְדֳּכַ֔י אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָרָ֑הוּ וְאֵ֣ת ׀ פָּרָשַׁ֣ת הַכֶּ֗סֶף אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָמַ֤ר הָמָן֙ לִ֠שְׁקוֹל עַל־גִּנְזֵ֥י הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ *ביהודיים **בַּיְּהוּדִ֖ים לְאַבְּדָֽם׃‬ And Mordecai told him everything that had befallen him, and the specification of the sum of money which Haman had said that he would weigh to go into the king's treasuries in an act against the Jews, to destroy them. Jews: the ketiv is a variant form of the qeré.
Esth 4:8 ‫וְאֶת־פַּתְשֶׁ֣גֶן כְּתָֽב־הַ֠דָּת אֲשֶׁר־נִתַּ֨ן בְּשׁוּשָׁ֤ן לְהַשְׁמִידָם֙ נָ֣תַן ל֔וֹ לְהַרְא֥וֹת אֶת־אֶסְתֵּ֖ר וּלְהַגִּ֣יד לָ֑הּ וּלְצַוּ֣וֹת עָלֶ֗יהָ לָב֨וֹא אֶל־הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ לְהִֽתְחַנֶּן־ל֛וֹ וּלְבַקֵּ֥שׁ מִלְּפָנָ֖יו עַל־עַמָּֽהּ׃‬ And he gave him a transcript of the text of the decree which was issued at the citadel of Shushan, to destroy them, to show Esther and to tell her, and to command her to go to the king and to supplicate him and to plead before him concerning her people.
Esth 4:9 ‫וַיָּב֖וֹא הֲתָ֑ךְ וַיַּגֵּ֣ד לְאֶסְתֵּ֔ר אֵ֖ת דִּבְרֵ֥י מָרְדֳּכָֽי׃‬ And Hatach went back and told Esther Mordecai's words. Hatach: see Esth 4:5.
Esth 4:10 ‫וַתֹּ֤אמֶר אֶסְתֵּר֙ לַהֲתָ֔ךְ וַתְּצַוֵּ֖הוּ אֶֽל־מָרְדֳּכָֽי׃‬ And Esther spoke to Hatach and she commanded him to go to Mordecai and say, Hatach: see Esth 4:5.
Esth 4:11 ‫כָּל־עַבְדֵ֣י הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ וְעַם־מְדִינ֨וֹת הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ יֽוֹדְעִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר כָּל־אִ֣ישׁ וְאִשָּׁ֡ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָבֽוֹא־אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ֩ אֶל־הֶחָצֵ֨ר הַפְּנִימִ֜ית אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־יִקָּרֵ֗א אַחַ֤ת דָּתוֹ֙ לְהָמִ֔ית לְ֠בַד מֵאֲשֶׁ֨ר יֽוֹשִׁיט־ל֥וֹ הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶת־שַׁרְבִ֥יט הַזָּהָ֖ב וְחָיָ֑ה וַאֲנִ֗י לֹ֤א נִקְרֵ֙אתי֙ לָב֣וֹא אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ זֶ֖ה שְׁלוֹשִׁ֥ים יֽוֹם׃‬ “All the king's servants and the people of the king's provinces know that for every man or woman who goes to the king, to the inner court, who has not been called, that there is one law about this, to kill the person unless the king extends the golden sceptre to him, so that he should live. I have not been called to go to the king for thirty days now.”
Esth 4:12 ‫וַיַּגִּ֣ידוּ לְמָרְדֳּכָ֔י אֵ֖ת דִּבְרֵ֥י אֶסְתֵּֽר׃ פ‬ And they told Mordecai Esther's words.
Esth 4:13 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר מָרְדֳּכַ֖י לְהָשִׁ֣יב אֶל־אֶסְתֵּ֑ר אַל־תְּדַמִּ֣י בְנַפְשֵׁ֔ךְ לְהִמָּלֵ֥ט בֵּית־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מִכָּל־הַיְּהוּדִֽים׃‬ And Mordecai said to report back to Esther, “Do not think that you will save your life in the king's house any more than all Jews will. life ← soul.
Esth 4:14 ‫כִּ֣י אִם־הַחֲרֵ֣שׁ תַּחֲרִישִׁי֮ בָּעֵ֣ת הַזֹּאת֒ רֶ֣וַח וְהַצָּלָ֞ה יַעֲמ֤וֹד לַיְּהוּדִים֙ מִמָּק֣וֹם אַחֵ֔ר וְאַ֥תְּ וּבֵית־אָבִ֖יךְ תֹּאבֵ֑דוּ וּמִ֣י יוֹדֵ֔עַ אִם־לְעֵ֣ת כָּזֹ֔את הִגַּ֖עַתְּ לַמַּלְכֽוּת׃‬ For if you are completely silent at this time, relief and deliverance will be set up for the Jews from another place, but you and the house of your father will be destroyed. And who knows whether it was for a time like this that you came into the kingdom?” you are completely silent: infinitive absolute.
Esth 4:15 ‫וַתֹּ֥אמֶר אֶסְתֵּ֖ר לְהָשִׁ֥יב אֶֽל־מָרְדֳּכָֽי׃‬ And Esther said to report to Mordecai as follows,
Esth 4:16 ‫לֵךְ֩ כְּנ֨וֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִ֜ים הַֽנִּמְצְאִ֣ים בְּשׁוּשָׁ֗ן וְצ֣וּמוּ עָ֠לַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְל֨וּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּ֜וּ שְׁלֹ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ לַ֣יְלָה וָי֔וֹם גַּם־אֲנִ֥י וְנַעֲרֹתַ֖י אָצ֣וּם כֵּ֑ן וּבְכֵ֞ן אָב֤וֹא אֶל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־כַדָּ֔ת וְכַאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָבַ֖דְתִּי אָבָֽדְתִּי׃‬ “Go and assemble all the Jews who are present in Shushan and fast for me, and do not eat or drink for three days, day and night. I too and my servant-girls will fast likewise, and then I will go to the king in the way not according to the law, and if I perish, I perish.” present ← found.
Esth 4:17 ‫וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֖ר מָרְדֳּכָ֑י וַיַּ֕עַשׂ כְּכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוְּתָ֥ה עָלָ֖יו אֶסְתֵּֽר׃ ס‬ And Mordecai moved on and did according to everything that Esther commanded him. moved on ← passed over.
Esth 5:1 ‫וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י וַתִּלְבַּ֤שׁ אֶסְתֵּר֙ מַלְכ֔וּת וַֽתַּעֲמֹ֞ד בַּחֲצַ֤ר בֵּית־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַפְּנִימִ֔ית נֹ֖כַח בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְ֠הַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁ֞ב עַל־כִּסֵּ֤א מַלְכוּתוֹ֙ בְּבֵ֣ית הַמַּלְכ֔וּת נֹ֖כַח פֶּ֥תַח הַבָּֽיִת׃‬ And it came to pass on the third day that Esther put on her royal dress and stood in the inner court of the king's house, opposite the king's house, while the king was sitting on his royal throne in the royal house opposite the door of the house.
Esth 5:2 ‫וַיְהִי֩ כִרְא֨וֹת הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶת־אֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֗ה עֹמֶ֙דֶת֙ בֶּֽחָצֵ֔ר נָשְׂאָ֥ה חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינָ֑יו וַיּ֨וֹשֶׁט הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּ֗ר אֶת־שַׁרְבִ֤יט הַזָּהָב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּיָד֔וֹ וַתִּקְרַ֣ב אֶסְתֵּ֔ר וַתִּגַּ֖ע בְּרֹ֥אשׁ הַשַּׁרְבִֽיט׃ ס‬ And it came to pass when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, that she obtained favour in his sight, and the king extended to Esther the golden sceptre which was in his hand. And Esther approached, and she touched the top of the sceptre.
Esth 5:3 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהּ֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מַה־לָּ֖ךְ אֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֑ה וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵ֛ךְ עַד־חֲצִ֥י הַמַּלְכ֖וּת וְיִנָּ֥תֵֽן לָֽךְ׃‬ And the king said to her, “What is the matter, Queen Esther? And what is your request? Ask for up to half of the kingdom, and it shall be given to you.” what is the matter ← what (is) to you?
Esth 5:4 ‫וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֶסְתֵּ֔ר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ ט֑וֹב יָב֨וֹא הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ וְהָמָן֙ הַיּ֔וֹם אֶל־הַמִּשְׁתֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֥יתִי לֽוֹ׃‬ And Esther said, “If it has the king's approval, let the king and Haman come to the banquet today which I have prepared for him.” let the king and Haman come ... today: the second acrostic: יָב֨וֹא הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ וְהָמָן֙ הַיּ֔וֹם, where the first letter of each word, taken in forwards order, yields the divine name יהוה, YHWH / Jehovah, the Lord.

it has the king's approval ← (it is) good at the king.
Esth 5:5 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מַהֲרוּ֙ אֶת־הָמָ֔ן לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר אֶסְתֵּ֑ר וַיָּבֹ֤א הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְהָמָ֔ן אֶל־הַמִּשְׁתֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁר־עָשְׂתָ֥ה אֶסְתֵּֽר׃‬ And the king said, “Tell Haman to make haste to do what Esther said.” And the king and Haman came to the banquet which Esther had prepared. prepared ← made.
Esth 5:6 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּר֙ בְּמִשְׁתֵּ֣ה הַיַּ֔יִן מַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵ֖ךְ וְיִנָּ֣תֵֽן לָ֑ךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵ֛ךְ עַד־חֲצִ֥י הַמַּלְכ֖וּת וְתֵעָֽשׂ׃‬ And the king said to Esther at the banquet of wine, “What is your petition? Ask and it will be given to you. And what is your request? Ask for up to half the kingdom, and it will be done.”
Esth 5:7 ‫וַתַּ֥עַן אֶסְתֵּ֖ר וַתֹּאמַ֑ר שְׁאֵלָתִ֖י וּבַקָּשָׁתִֽי׃‬ And Esther answered and said, “My petition and request is:
Esth 5:8 ‫אִם־מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֜ן בְּעֵינֵ֣י הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְאִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ ט֔וֹב לָתֵת֙ אֶת־שְׁאֵ֣לָתִ֔י וְלַעֲשׂ֖וֹת אֶת־בַּקָּשָׁתִ֑י יָב֧וֹא הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ וְהָמָ֗ן אֶל־הַמִּשְׁתֶּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֣ה לָהֶ֔ם וּמָחָ֥ר אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה כִּדְבַ֥ר הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ if I have found favour with the king, and if the king approves, to accede to my petition and to carry out my request, let the king and Haman come to my banquet which I will hold for them, and tomorrow I will do according to the king's word.” the king approves ← (it is) good at the king.
Esth 5:9 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֤א הָמָן֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא שָׂמֵ֖חַ וְט֣וֹב לֵ֑ב וְכִרְאוֹת֩ הָמָ֨ן אֶֽת־מָרְדֳּכַ֜י בְּשַׁ֣עַר הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְלֹא־קָם֙ וְלֹא־זָ֣ע מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וַיִּמָּלֵ֥א הָמָ֛ן עַֽל־מָרְדֳּכַ֖י חֵמָֽה׃‬ And Haman went out on that day rejoicing, and glad in his heart, but when Haman saw Mordecai at the king's gate, and that he did not rise or move on account of him, Haman was filled with fury about Mordecai. glad in his heart ← good of heart.
Esth 5:10 ‫וַיִּתְאַפַּ֣ק הָמָ֔ן וַיָּב֖וֹא אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ וַיִּשְׁלַ֛ח וַיָּבֵ֥א אֶת־אֹהֲבָ֖יו וְאֶת־זֶ֥רֶשׁ אִשְׁתּֽוֹ׃‬ But Haman restrained himself and went to his house, and he sent for and invited his friends and Zeresh his wife.
Esth 5:11 ‫וַיְסַפֵּ֨ר לָהֶ֥ם הָמָ֛ן אֶת־כְּב֥וֹד עָשְׁר֖וֹ וְרֹ֣ב בָּנָ֑יו וְאֵת֩ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר גִּדְּל֤וֹ הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְאֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְּׂא֔וֹ עַל־הַשָּׂרִ֖ים וְעַבְדֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Haman told them about the glory of his riches and the multitude of his sons, and everything with which the king had made him great, and that he had elevated him above officials and the king's servants.
Esth 5:12 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֮ הָמָן֒ אַ֣ף לֹא־הֵבִיאָה֩ אֶסְתֵּ֨ר הַמַּלְכָּ֧ה עִם־הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־הַמִּשְׁתֶּ֥ה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖תָה כִּ֣י אִם־אוֹתִ֑י וְגַם־לְמָחָ֛ר אֲנִ֥י קָֽרוּא־לָ֖הּ עִם־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Haman said, “Also, Esther the queen did not invite anyone with the king to the banquet which she held but me, and also tomorrow I have been invited to her with the king.
Esth 5:13 ‫וְכָל־זֶ֕ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ שֹׁוֶ֖ה לִ֑י בְּכָל־עֵ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲנִ֤י רֹאֶה֙ אֶת־מָרְדֳּכַ֣י הַיְּהוּדִ֔י יוֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּשַׁ֥עַר הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ Yet all this does not satisfy me, all the time I see Mordecai the Jew sitting at the king's gate.” all this does not satisfy me: the third acrostic: זֶ֕ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ שֹׁוֶ֖ה לִ֑י, where the last letter of each word, taken in reverse order, yields the divine name יהוה, YHWH / Jehovah, the Lord.
Esth 5:14 ‫וַתֹּ֣אמֶר לוֹ֩ זֶ֨רֶשׁ אִשְׁתּ֜וֹ וְכָל־אֹֽהֲבָ֗יו יַֽעֲשׂוּ־עֵץ֮ גָּבֹ֣הַּ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים אַמָּה֒ וּבַבֹּ֣קֶר ׀ אֱמֹ֣ר לַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְיִתְל֤וּ אֶֽת־מָרְדֳּכַי֙ עָלָ֔יו וּבֹֽא־עִם־הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֶל הַמִּשְׁתֶּ֖ה שָׂמֵ֑חַ וַיִּיטַ֧ב הַדָּבָ֛ר לִפְנֵ֥י הָמָ֖ן וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָעֵֽץ׃ פ‬ And Zeresh his wife and all his friends said to him, “Let them make gallows, fifty cubits high, and in the morning, tell the king and let them hang Mordecai on it, and go to the banquet a happy man.” And the matter had Haman's approval, and he made the gallows. gallows (2x)wood; a tree.

cubit: about 18 inches or 45 cm.

had Haman's approval ← was good before Haman.
Esth 6:1 ‫בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַה֔וּא נָדְדָ֖ה שְׁנַ֣ת הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לְהָבִ֞יא אֶת־סֵ֤פֶר הַזִּכְרֹנוֹת֙ דִּבְרֵ֣י הַיָּמִ֔ים וַיִּהְי֥וּ נִקְרָאִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ On that night, the king's sleep deserted him, and he commanded to bring the book of the records of the chronicles, and they were read before the king. deserted himwandered, flew away.

commanded ← said.
Esth 6:2 ‫וַיִּמָּצֵ֣א כָת֗וּב אֲשֶׁר֩ הִגִּ֨יד מָרְדֳּכַ֜י עַל־בִּגְתָ֣נָא וָתֶ֗רֶשׁ שְׁנֵי֙ סָרִיסֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מִשֹּׁמְרֵ֖י הַסַּ֑ף אֲשֶׁ֤ר בִּקְשׁוּ֙ לִשְׁלֹ֣חַ יָ֔ד בַּמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֽוֹשׁ׃‬ And it was found written that Mordecai told about Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king's eunuchs, of those guarding the threshold, who tried to lay hands on King Ahasuerus. Teresh: see Esth 2:21.

tried ← sought.

lay hands ← cast a hand.
Esth 6:3 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מַֽה־נַּעֲשָׂ֞ה יְקָ֧ר וּגְדוּלָּ֛ה לְמָרְדֳּכַ֖י עַל־זֶ֑ה וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ נַעֲרֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ מְשָׁ֣רְתָ֔יו לֹא־נַעֲשָׂ֥ה עִמּ֖וֹ דָּבָֽר׃‬ And the king said, “What has been done by way of honour and greatness for Mordecai concerning this?” And the king's servants who ministered to him, said, “Nothing has been done for him.”
Esth 6:4 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מִ֣י בֶחָצֵ֑ר וְהָמָ֣ן בָּ֗א לַחֲצַ֤ר בֵּית־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַחִ֣יצוֹנָ֔ה לֵאמֹ֣ר לַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לִתְלוֹת֙ אֶֽת־מָרְדֳּכַ֔י עַל־הָעֵ֖ץ אֲשֶׁר־הֵכִ֥ין לֽוֹ׃‬ And the king said, “Who is in the court?” Now Haman had come to the outer court of the king's house, to say to the king to hang Mordecai on the gallows which he had prepared for him. gallows ← wood, tree.
Esth 6:5 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ נַעֲרֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּ֥ה הָמָ֖ן עֹמֵ֣ד בֶּחָצֵ֑ר וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ יָבֽוֹא׃‬ And the king's servants said to him, “Look, Haman is standing in the court.” And the king said, “Let him come in.”
Esth 6:6 ‫וַיָּבוֹא֮ הָמָן֒ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מַה־לַעֲשׂ֕וֹת בָּאִ֕ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חָפֵ֣ץ בִּיקָר֑וֹ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הָמָן֙ בְּלִבּ֔וֹ לְמִ֞י יַחְפֹּ֥ץ הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת יְקָ֖ר יוֹתֵ֥ר מִמֶּֽנִּי׃‬ So Haman came in, and the king said to him, “What should be done for the man whom the king is pleased to honour?” And Haman said in his heart, “On whom is the king pleased to bestow honour more than on me?” should be done ← is to do.

to honour ← with / in his honour.
Esth 6:7 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הָמָ֖ן אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ אִ֕ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חָפֵ֥ץ בִּיקָרֽוֹ׃‬ And Haman said to the king, “For the man whom the king is pleased to honour, to honour: see Esth 6:6.
Esth 6:8 ‫יָבִ֙יאוּ֙ לְב֣וּשׁ מַלְכ֔וּת אֲשֶׁ֥ר לָֽבַשׁ־בּ֖וֹ הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְס֗וּס אֲשֶׁ֨ר רָכַ֤ב עָלָיו֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִתַּ֛ן כֶּ֥תֶר מַלְכ֖וּת בְּרֹאשֽׁוֹ׃‬ let royal clothing be brought which the king wears, and a horse upon which the king rides, and let the royal crown be put on his head. let ... be brought ← let them bring. Avoidance of the passive.

wears ... rides: or, wore ... rode.
Esth 6:9 ‫וְנָת֨וֹן הַלְּב֜וּשׁ וְהַסּ֗וּס עַל־יַד־אִ֞ישׁ מִשָּׂרֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַֽפַּרְתְּמִ֔ים וְהִלְבִּ֙ישׁוּ֙ אֶת־הָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חָפֵ֣ץ בִּֽיקָר֑וֹ וְהִרְכִּיבֻ֤הוּ עַל־הַסּוּס֙ בִּרְח֣וֹב הָעִ֔יר וְקָרְא֣וּ לְפָנָ֔יו כָּ֚כָה יֵעָשֶׂ֣ה לָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חָפֵ֥ץ בִּיקָרֽוֹ׃‬ And let the clothing and the horse be given to the care of a man, one of the king's most noble officials, and let them clothe the man whom the king is pleased to honour, and they will let him ride on the horse in the main street of the city, and will call out before him, ‘This is how it is done for the man whom the king is pleased to honour.’ ” care ← hand.

to honour: see Esth 6:6.
Esth 6:10 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לְהָמָ֗ן מַ֠הֵר קַ֣ח אֶת־הַלְּב֤וּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס֙ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבַּ֔רְתָּ וַֽעֲשֵׂה־כֵן֙ לְמָרְדֳּכַ֣י הַיְּהוּדִ֔י הַיּוֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּשַׁ֣עַר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ אַל־תַּפֵּ֣ל דָּבָ֔ר מִכֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּֽרְתָּ׃‬ Then the king said to Haman, “Hasten and get the clothing and the horse, according to what you said, and let it be done to Mordecai the Jew who sits at the king's gate. Let no aspect of anything you have said fail.” anything ← everything.
Esth 6:11 ‫וַיִּקַּ֤ח הָמָן֙ אֶת־הַלְּב֣וּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּ֔וּס וַיַּלְבֵּ֖שׁ אֶֽת־מָרְדֳּכָ֑י וַיַּרְכִּיבֵ֙הוּ֙ בִּרְח֣וֹב הָעִ֔יר וַיִּקְרָ֣א לְפָנָ֔יו כָּ֚כָה יֵעָשֶׂ֣ה לָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חָפֵ֥ץ בִּיקָרֽוֹ׃‬ So Haman took the clothing and the horse, and clothed Mordecai, and let him ride through the streets of the city, and called out before him, “This is how it is done for the man whom the king is pleased to honour.” to honour: see Esth 6:6.
Esth 6:12 ‫וַיָּ֥שָׁב מָרְדֳּכַ֖י אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְהָמָן֙ נִדְחַ֣ף אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ אָבֵ֖ל וַחֲפ֥וּי רֹֽאשׁ׃‬ And Mordecai returned to the king's gate, but Haman hastened to his house mourning and with his face covered. but: adversative use of the vav.
Esth 6:13 ‫וַיְסַפֵּ֨ר הָמָ֜ן לְזֶ֤רֶשׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ֙ וּלְכָל־אֹ֣הֲבָ֔יו אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָרָ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֩אמְרוּ֩ ל֨וֹ חֲכָמָ֜יו וְזֶ֣רֶשׁ אִשְׁתּ֗וֹ אִ֣ם מִזֶּ֣רַע הַיְּהוּדִ֡ים מָרְדֳּכַ֞י אֲשֶׁר֩ הַחִלּ֨וֹתָ לִנְפֹּ֤ל לְפָנָיו֙ לֹא־תוּכַ֣ל ל֔וֹ כִּֽי־נָפ֥וֹל תִּפּ֖וֹל לְפָנָֽיו׃‬ And Haman told Zeresh his wife, and all his friends, everything that had befallen him. And his wise men and Zeresh his wife said to him, “If Mordecai, before whom you have begun to fall, is of Jewish seed, you will not prevail against him, but you will certainly fall before him.” will certainly fall: infinitive absolute.
Esth 6:14 ‫עוֹדָם֙ מְדַבְּרִ֣ים עִמּ֔וֹ וְסָרִיסֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ הִגִּ֑יעוּ וַיַּבְהִ֙לוּ֙ לְהָבִ֣יא אֶת־הָמָ֔ן אֶל־הַמִּשְׁתֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁר־עָשְׂתָ֥ה אֶסְתֵּֽר׃‬ Then while they were still speaking with him, the king's eunuchs arrived and hastened to bring Haman to the banquet which Esther was holding.
Esth 7:1 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤א הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְהָמָ֔ן לִשְׁתּ֖וֹת עִם־אֶסְתֵּ֥ר הַמַּלְכָּֽה׃‬ And the king and Haman came to drink with Esther the queen.
Esth 7:2 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּ֜ר גַּ֣ם בַּיּ֤וֹם הַשֵּׁנִי֙ בְּמִשְׁתֵּ֣ה הַיַּ֔יִן מַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵ֛ךְ אֶסְתֵּ֥ר הַמַּלְכָּ֖ה וְתִנָּ֣תֵֽן לָ֑ךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵ֛ךְ עַד־חֲצִ֥י הַמַּלְכ֖וּת וְתֵעָֽשׂ׃‬ And the king said to Esther, on the second day at the wine banquet as well, “What is your petition, Queen Esther? Ask and it will be given to you, and what is your request? Ask for up to half the kingdom, and it will be done.”
Esth 7:3 ‫וַתַּ֨עַן אֶסְתֵּ֤ר הַמַּלְכָּה֙ וַתֹּאמַ֔ר אִם־מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֤ן בְּעֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְאִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ ט֑וֹב תִּנָּֽתֶן־לִ֤י נַפְשִׁי֙ בִּשְׁאֵ֣לָתִ֔י וְעַמִּ֖י בְּבַקָּשָׁתִֽי׃‬ And Esther the queen answered and said, “If I have found favour in your sight, O king, and if the king approves, let my life be given to me at my petition, and that of my people at my request. if the king approves: see Esth 1:9.

life ← soul.
Esth 7:4 ‫כִּ֤י נִמְכַּ֙רְנוּ֙ אֲנִ֣י וְעַמִּ֔י לְהַשְׁמִ֖יד לַהֲר֣וֹג וּלְאַבֵּ֑ד וְ֠אִלּוּ לַעֲבָדִ֨ים וְלִשְׁפָח֤וֹת נִמְכַּ֙רְנוּ֙ הֶחֱרַ֔שְׁתִּי כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין הַצָּ֛ר שֹׁוֶ֖ה בְּנֵ֥זֶק הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ For we have been sold – I and my people – to be destroyed and to be killed and to be eliminated. But if we had been sold as slaves and servant-girls, I would have remained silent, for the distress would not be suitable grounds for disturbing the king.” to be destroyed and to be killed and to be eliminated ← (for others) to destroy and to kill and to eliminate.

The AV differs in the last clause.
Esth 7:5 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר לְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֑ה מִ֣י ה֥וּא זֶה֙ וְאֵֽי־זֶ֣ה ה֔וּא אֲשֶׁר־מְלָא֥וֹ לִבּ֖וֹ לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת כֵּֽן׃‬ And King Ahasuerus spoke and said to Esther the queen, “Who is this, and where is he, who has filled his heart to act this way?” is this, and where is he: a fifth acrostic, of a different kind to the others: ה֥וּא זֶה֙ וְאֵֽי־זֶ֣ה, where the last letter of each word, taken in forwards order, yields the divine title אהיה, EHYEH / I AM, of Ex 3:14.
Esth 7:6 ‫וַתֹּ֣אמֶר־אֶסְתֵּ֔ר אִ֚ישׁ צַ֣ר וְאוֹיֵ֔ב הָמָ֥ן הָרָ֖ע הַזֶּ֑ה וְהָמָ֣ן נִבְעַ֔ת מִלִּפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וְהַמַּלְכָּֽה׃‬ And Esther said, “An adversarial and hostile man – this wicked Haman.” And Haman was terrified in the presence of the king and the queen.
Esth 7:7 ‫וְהַמֶּ֜לֶךְ קָ֤ם בַּחֲמָתוֹ֙ מִמִּשְׁתֵּ֣ה הַיַּ֔יִן אֶל־גִּנַּ֖ת הַבִּיתָ֑ן וְהָמָ֣ן עָמַ֗ד לְבַקֵּ֤שׁ עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ֙ מֵֽאֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֔ה כִּ֣י רָאָ֔ה כִּֽי־כָלְתָ֥ה אֵלָ֛יו הָרָעָ֖ה מֵאֵ֥ת הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And the king rose in his fury from the wine banquet, and went to the palace garden, while Haman stood to plead for his life with Esther the queen, for he saw that evil was determined against him by the king. that evil was determined against him: the fourth acrostic of this kind: כִּֽי־כָלְתָ֥ה אֵלָ֛יו הָרָעָ֖ה, where the last letter of each word, taken in forwards order, yields the divine name יהוה, YHWH / Jehovah, the Lord.

life ← soul.
Esth 7:8 ‫וְהַמֶּ֡לֶךְ שָׁב֩ מִגִּנַּ֨ת הַבִּיתָ֜ן אֶל־בֵּ֣ית ׀ מִשְׁתֵּ֣ה הַיַּ֗יִן וְהָמָן֙ נֹפֵ֔ל עַל־הַמִּטָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶסְתֵּ֣ר עָלֶ֔יהָ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הֲ֠גַם לִכְבּ֧וֹשׁ אֶת־הַמַּלְכָּ֛ה עִמִּ֖י בַּבָּ֑יִת הַדָּבָ֗ר יָצָא֙ מִפִּ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וּפְנֵ֥י הָמָ֖ן חָפֽוּ׃ ס‬ And the king returned from the palace garden to the house of the wine banquet, and Haman fell onto the couch on which Esther was, and the king said, “Are you also going to assault the queen at home with me?” And the word went out from the king's mouth, and they covered Haman's face.
Esth 7:9 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חַ֠רְבוֹנָה אֶחָ֨ד מִן־הַסָּרִיסִ֜ים לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ גַּ֣ם הִנֵּה־הָעֵ֣ץ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֪ה הָמָ֟ן לְֽמָרְדֳּכַ֞י אֲשֶׁ֧ר דִּבֶּר־ט֣וֹב עַל־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ עֹמֵד֙ בְּבֵ֣ית הָמָ֔ן גָּבֹ֖הַּ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים אַמָּ֑ה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ תְּלֻ֥הוּ עָלָֽיו׃‬ And Harbonah, one of the eunuchs in the presence of the king, said, “Look at the gallows as well, which Haman made for Mordecai who had given good information concerning the king, standing at Haman's house, fifty cubits high.” And the king said, “Hang him on them.” gallows ← wood, tree.

given ← spoken.

cubit: about 18 inches or 45 cm.
Esth 7:10 ‫וַיִּתְלוּ֙ אֶת־הָמָ֔ן עַל־הָעֵ֖ץ אֲשֶׁר־הֵכִ֣ין לְמָרְדֳּכָ֑י וַחֲמַ֥ת הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ שָׁכָֽכָה׃ פ‬ And they hanged Haman on the gallows which he had prepared for Mordecai, and the king's fury abated. gallows ← wood, tree.
Esth 8:1 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נָתַ֞ן הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ֙ לְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֔ה אֶת־בֵּ֥ית הָמָ֖ן צֹרֵ֣ר *היהודיים **הַיְּהוּדִ֑ים וּמָרְדֳּכַ֗י בָּ֚א לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּֽי־הִגִּ֥ידָה אֶסְתֵּ֖ר מַ֥ה הוּא־לָֽהּ׃‬ On that day, King Ahasuerus gave the house of Haman, the enemy of the Jews, to Esther the queen. And Mordecai came before the king, for Esther had told him what relation he was to her. the ketiv is a variant form of the qeré, as in Esth 4:7.
Esth 8:2 ‫וַיָּ֨סַר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶת־טַבַּעְתּ֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הֶֽעֱבִיר֙ מֵֽהָמָ֔ן וַֽיִּתְּנָ֖הּ לְמָרְדֳּכָ֑י וַתָּ֧שֶׂם אֶסְתֵּ֛ר אֶֽת־מָרְדֳּכַ֖י עַל־בֵּ֥ית הָמָֽן׃ פ‬ And the king removed his ring which he had taken away from Haman, and he gave it to Mordecai. And Esther appointed Mordecai over Haman's house.
Esth 8:3 ‫וַתּ֣וֹסֶף אֶסְתֵּ֗ר וַתְּדַבֵּר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַתִּפֹּ֖ל לִפְנֵ֣י רַגְלָ֑יו וַתֵּ֣בְךְּ וַתִּתְחַנֶּן־ל֗וֹ לְהַֽעֲבִיר֙ אֶת־רָעַת֙ הָמָ֣ן הָֽאֲגָגִ֔י וְאֵת֙ מַֽחֲשַׁבְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָשַׁ֖ב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִֽים׃‬ And Esther spoke again before the king, and she fell at his feet, and she wept and implored him to revoke the evil of Haman the Agagite, and his plan which he had plotted against the Jews. Agagite: see Esth 3:1.

plan which he had plotted ← thought which he thought.
Esth 8:4 ‫וַיּ֤וֹשֶׁט הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְאֶסְתֵּ֔ר אֵ֖ת שַׁרְבִ֣ט הַזָּהָ֑ב וַתָּ֣קָם אֶסְתֵּ֔ר וַֽתַּעֲמֹ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And the king extended his golden sceptre to Esther, and Esther arose and stood before the king.
Esth 8:5 ‫וַ֠תֹּאמֶר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ ט֜וֹב וְאִם־מָצָ֧אתִי חֵ֣ן לְפָנָ֗יו וְכָשֵׁ֤ר הַדָּבָר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְטוֹבָ֥ה אֲנִ֖י בְּעֵינָ֑יו יִכָּתֵ֞ב לְהָשִׁ֣יב אֶת־הַסְּפָרִ֗ים מַחֲשֶׁ֜בֶת הָמָ֤ן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָ֙תָא֙ הָאֲגָגִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֣ר כָּתַ֗ב לְאַבֵּד֙ אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּכָל־מְדִינ֥וֹת הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And she said, “If the king approves, and if I have found favour in his sight, and the matter is fitting to the king, and if I am agreeable in his sight, let it be written to rescind the letters of the plot of Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote, to destroy the Jews who are in all the king's provinces. if the king approves: see Esth 1:9.

Agagite: see Esth 3:1.
Esth 8:6 ‫כִּ֠י אֵיכָכָ֤ה אוּכַל֙ וְֽרָאִ֔יתִי בָּרָעָ֖ה אֲשֶׁר־יִמְצָ֣א אֶת־עַמִּ֑י וְאֵֽיכָכָ֤ה אוּכַל֙ וְֽרָאִ֔יתִי בְּאָבְדַ֖ן מוֹלַדְתִּֽי׃ ס‬ For how could I endure and see the evil which would come upon my people, and how could I endure and see the elimination of my kin?” come upon ← find.
Esth 8:7 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ֙ לְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֔ה וּֽלְמָרְדֳּכַ֖י הַיְּהוּדִ֑י הִנֵּ֨ה בֵית־הָמָ֜ן נָתַ֣תִּי לְאֶסְתֵּ֗ר וְאֹתוֹ֙ תָּל֣וּ עַל־הָעֵ֔ץ עַ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַ֥ח יָד֖וֹ *ביהודיים **בַּיְּהוּדִֽים׃‬ And King Ahasuerus said to Esther the queen and to Mordecai the Jew, “Look, I have given the house of Haman to Esther, and they have hanged him on the gallows, because he laid his hands on the Jews. Jews: the ketiv is a variant form of the qeré, as in Esth 4:7.

gallows ← wood, tree.

laid his hands ← sent his hand.
Esth 8:8 ‫וְ֠אַתֶּם כִּתְב֨וּ עַל־הַיְּהוּדִ֜ים כַּטּ֤וֹב בְּעֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְחִתְמ֖וּ בְּטַבַּ֣עַת הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ כִּֽי־כְתָ֞ב אֲשֶׁר־נִכְתָּ֣ב בְּשֵׁם־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְנַחְתּ֛וֹם בְּטַבַּ֥עַת הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֵ֥ין לְהָשִֽׁיב׃‬ Write to the Jews as seems right in your sight, in the name of the king, and seal it with the king's ring, for any writing which is written in the name of the king and is sealed with the king's seal cannot be rescinded.” write: plural.

cannot be rescinded ← is not to rescind.
Esth 8:9 ‫וַיִּקָּרְא֣וּ סֹפְרֵֽי־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ בָּֽעֵת־הַ֠הִיא בַּחֹ֨דֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֜י הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ סִיוָ֗ן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁ֣ה וְעֶשְׂרִים֮ בּוֹ֒ וַיִּכָּתֵ֣ב כְּֽכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֣ה מָרְדֳּכַ֣י אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִ֡ים וְאֶ֣ל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִֽים־וְהַפַּחוֹת֩ וְשָׂרֵ֨י הַמְּדִינ֜וֹת אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ מֵהֹ֣דּוּ וְעַד־כּ֗וּשׁ שֶׁ֣בַע וְעֶשְׂרִ֤ים וּמֵאָה֙ מְדִינָ֔ה מְדִינָ֤ה וּמְדִינָה֙ כִּכְתָבָ֔הּ וְעַ֥ם וָעָ֖ם כִּלְשֹׁנ֑וֹ וְאֶ֨ל־הַיְּהוּדִ֔ים כִּכְתָבָ֖ם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָֽם׃‬ And the king's scribes were called at that time, in the third month – that is the month of Sivan – on the twenty-third day in it, and it was written according to everything that Mordecai commanded the Jews and the satraps and the governors and the officials of the provinces which are from India to Ethiopia – one hundred and twenty-seven provinces – to each individual province according to its script, and to each individual people according to their language, and to the Jews according to their script and according to their language. This is the longest verse in the Hebrew Bible (43 words), followed by 2 Ki 1:6 and Esth 4:11 (41 words).
Esth 8:10 ‫וַיִּכְתֹּ֗ב בְּשֵׁם֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹ֔שׁ וַיַּחְתֹּ֖ם בְּטַבַּ֣עַת הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח סְפָרִ֡ים בְּיַד֩ הָרָצִ֨ים בַּסּוּסִ֜ים רֹכְבֵ֤י הָרֶ֙כֶשׁ֙ הָֽאֲחַשְׁתְּרָנִ֔ים בְּנֵ֖י הָֽרַמָּכִֽים׃‬ And he wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and he sealed it with the king's seal, and he sent the letters by the agency of couriers, on horses – riders of royal stallions and mules and the offspring of royal mares – agency ← hand.
Esth 8:11 ‫אֲשֶׁר֩ נָתַ֨ן הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לַיְּהוּדִ֣ים ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּכָל־עִיר־וָעִ֗יר לְהִקָּהֵל֮ וְלַעֲמֹ֣ד עַל־נַפְשָׁם֒ לְהַשְׁמִיד֩ וְלַהֲרֹ֨ג וּלְאַבֵּ֜ד אֶת־כָּל־חֵ֨יל עַ֧ם וּמְדִינָ֛ה הַצָּרִ֥ים אֹתָ֖ם טַ֣ף וְנָשִׁ֑ים וּשְׁלָלָ֖ם לָבֽוֹז׃‬ that the king allowed the Jews who were in each individual city to be gathered and to take a stand for their lives, and to destroy and to kill and to eliminate every army of a people or province hostile to them, children and women, and for their spoil to be a booty, each ← every.

lives ← souls.
Esth 8:12 ‫בְּי֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד בְּכָל־מְדִינ֖וֹת הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר לְחֹ֥דֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֖ר הוּא־חֹ֥דֶשׁ אֲדָֽר׃‬ on one day, in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, that is the month of Adar.
Esth 8:13 ‫פַּתְשֶׁ֣גֶן הַכְּתָ֗ב לְהִנָּ֤תֵֽן דָּת֙ בְּכָל־מְדִינָ֣ה וּמְדִינָ֔ה גָּל֖וּי לְכָל־הָעַמִּ֑ים וְלִהְי֨וֹת *היהודיים **הַיְּהוּדִ֤ים *עתודים **עֲתִידִים֙ לַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה לְהִנָּקֵ֖ם מֵאֹיְבֵיהֶֽם׃‬ A transcript of the writing was to be issued as a decree in every individual province, published to all the peoples, and for the Jews to be prepared for that day, to avenge themselves of their enemies. Jews: the ketiv is a variant form of the qeré, as in Esth 4:7.

prepared: the ketiv has to be regarded as a variant form of the qeré.

that day ← this day.
Esth 8:14 ‫הָרָצִ֞ים רֹכְבֵ֤י הָרֶ֙כֶשׁ֙ הָֽאֲחַשְׁתְּרָנִ֔ים יָֽצְא֛וּ מְבֹהָלִ֥ים וּדְחוּפִ֖ים בִּדְבַ֣ר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְהַדָּ֥ת נִתְּנָ֖ה בְּשׁוּשַׁ֥ן הַבִּירָֽה׃ פ‬ The couriers riding on royal stallions and mules went out hastening and pressing on at the king's word, and the decree was issued at the citadel of Shushan.
Esth 8:15 ‫וּמָרְדֳּכַ֞י יָצָ֣א ׀ מִלִּפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ בִּלְב֤וּשׁ מַלְכוּת֙ תְּכֵ֣לֶת וָח֔וּר וַעֲטֶ֤רֶת זָהָב֙ גְּדוֹלָ֔ה וְתַכְרִ֥יךְ בּ֖וּץ וְאַרְגָּמָ֑ן וְהָעִ֣יר שׁוּשָׁ֔ן צָהֲלָ֖ה וְשָׂמֵֽחָה׃‬ And Mordecai went out from the presence of the king in royal clothing, in blue material, and white linen, and a large golden crown, and a robe of fine linen, and purple material. And the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad.
Esth 8:16 ‫לַיְּהוּדִ֕ים הָֽיְתָ֥ה אוֹרָ֖ה וְשִׂמְחָ֑ה וְשָׂשֹׂ֖ן וִיקָֽר׃‬ The Jews had prosperity and joy and happiness and honour. prosperity: or, enlightenment.
Esth 8:17 ‫וּבְכָל־מְדִינָ֨ה וּמְדִינָ֜ה וּבְכָל־עִ֣יר וָעִ֗יר מְקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דְּבַר־הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ וְדָתוֹ֙ מַגִּ֔יעַ שִׂמְחָ֤ה וְשָׂשׂוֹן֙ לַיְּהוּדִ֔ים מִשְׁתֶּ֖ה וְי֣וֹם ט֑וֹב וְרַבִּ֞ים מֵֽעַמֵּ֤י הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ מִֽתְיַהֲדִ֔ים כִּֽי־נָפַ֥ל פַּֽחַד־הַיְּהוּדִ֖ים עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And in every individual province, and in every individual city – every place where the word of the king and his decree arrived – the Jews had joy and happiness. They held a feast and a holiday, and many of the people of the land became Jews, for the fear of the Jews had fallen on them. holiday ← good day.
Esth 9:1 ‫וּבִשְׁנֵים֩ עָשָׂ֨ר חֹ֜דֶשׁ הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ אֲדָ֗ר בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ בּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִגִּ֧יעַ דְּבַר־הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְדָת֖וֹ לְהֵעָשׂ֑וֹת בַּיּ֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר שִׂבְּר֜וּ אֹיְבֵ֤י הַיְּהוּדִים֙ לִשְׁל֣וֹט בָּהֶ֔ם וְנַהֲפ֣וֹךְ ה֔וּא אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁלְט֧וּ הַיְּהוּדִ֛ים הֵ֖מָּה בְּשֹׂנְאֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And in the twelfth month – that is the month of Adar – on the thirteenth day of it, when the king's word and his decree were reaching the point of being carried out, on the day when the enemies of the Jews hoped to have dominion over them, this was inverted, so that it was the Jews who had dominion over those that hated them.
Esth 9:2 ‫נִקְהֲל֨וּ הַיְּהוּדִ֜ים בְּעָרֵיהֶ֗ם בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֳחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ לִשְׁלֹ֣חַ יָ֔ד בִּמְבַקְשֵׁ֖י רָֽעָתָ֑ם וְאִישׁ֙ לֹא־עָמַ֣ד לִפְנֵיהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־נָפַ֥ל פַּחְדָּ֖ם עַל־כָּל־הָעַמִּֽים׃‬ The Jews assembled in their cities in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, to lay their hands on those who sought to harm them, and no man stood before them, for the fear of them fell upon all the peoples. hands ← hand.

to harm them ← their evil (objective genitive).
Esth 9:3 ‫וְכָל־שָׂרֵ֨י הַמְּדִינ֜וֹת וְהָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִ֣ים וְהַפַּח֗וֹת וְעֹשֵׂ֤י הַמְּלָאכָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מְנַשְּׂאִ֖ים אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִ֑ים כִּֽי־נָפַ֥ל פַּֽחַד־מָרְדֳּכַ֖י עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And all the officials of the provinces, and the satraps and the governors, and those who carried out the king's work, assisted the Jews, for fear of Mordecai had fallen on them.
Esth 9:4 ‫כִּֽי־גָ֤דוֹל מָרְדֳּכַי֙ בְּבֵ֣ית הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְשָׁמְע֖וֹ הוֹלֵ֣ךְ בְּכָל־הַמְּדִינ֑וֹת כִּֽי־הָאִ֥ישׁ מָרְדֳּכַ֖י הוֹלֵ֥ךְ וְגָדֽוֹל׃ פ‬ For Mordecai was great in the king's house, and his reputation went to all the provinces, for the man Mordecai became greater and greater.
Esth 9:5 ‫וַיַּכּ֤וּ הַיְּהוּדִים֙ בְּכָל־אֹ֣יְבֵיהֶ֔ם מַכַּת־חֶ֥רֶב וְהֶ֖רֶג וְאַבְדָ֑ן וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ בְשֹׂנְאֵיהֶ֖ם כִּרְצוֹנָֽם׃‬ And the Jews struck all their enemies with the blow of the sword, and slaughter, and destruction. And they did what they pleased to those who hated them. what they pleased ← according to their will.
Esth 9:6 ‫וּבְשׁוּשַׁ֣ן הַבִּירָ֗ה הָרְג֤וּ הַיְּהוּדִים֙ וְאַבֵּ֔ד חֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת אִֽישׁ׃‬ And in the citadel of Shushan the Jews killed and eliminated five hundred men,
Esth 9:7 ‫וְאֵ֧ת ׀ פַּרְשַׁנְדָּ֛תָא וְאֵ֥ת ׀ דַּֽלְפ֖וֹן וְאֵ֥ת ׀ אַסְפָּֽתָא׃‬ and Parshandatha and Dalphon and Aspatha,
Esth 9:8 ‫וְאֵ֧ת ׀ פּוֹרָ֛תָא וְאֵ֥ת ׀ אֲדַלְיָ֖א וְאֵ֥ת ׀ אֲרִידָֽתָא׃‬ and Poratha and Adalia and Aridatha,
Esth 9:9 ‫וְאֵ֤ת ׀ פַּרְמַ֙שְׁתָּא֙ וְאֵ֣ת ׀ אֲרִיסַ֔י וְאֵ֥ת ׀ אֲרִדַ֖י וְאֵ֥ת ׀ וַיְזָֽתָא׃‬ and Parmashta and Arisai and Aridai and Vajezatha.
Esth 9:10 ‫עֲ֠שֶׂרֶת בְּנֵ֨י הָמָ֧ן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָ֛תָא צֹרֵ֥ר הַיְּהוּדִ֖ים הָרָ֑גוּ וּבַ֨בִּזָּ֔ה לֹ֥א שָׁלְח֖וּ אֶת־יָדָֽם׃‬ They killed the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha the enemy of the Jews, but they did not lay their hands on the spoil. Hammedatha: see Esth 3:1.

lay their hands ← send their hand.
Esth 9:11 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא בָּ֣א מִסְפַּ֧ר הַֽהֲרוּגִ֛ים בְּשׁוּשַׁ֥ן הַבִּירָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ On that day the report of the number of those killed in the citadel of Shushan came before the king.
Esth 9:12 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֗ה בְּשׁוּשַׁ֣ן הַבִּירָ֡ה הָרְגוּ֩ הַיְּהוּדִ֨ים וְאַבֵּ֜ד חֲמֵ֧שׁ מֵא֣וֹת אִ֗ישׁ וְאֵת֙ עֲשֶׂ֣רֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָ֔ן בִּשְׁאָ֛ר מְדִינ֥וֹת הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מֶ֣ה עָשׂ֑וּ וּמַה־שְּׁאֵֽלָתֵךְ֙ וְיִנָּ֣תֵֽן לָ֔ךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵ֥ךְ ע֖וֹד וְתֵעָֽשׂ׃‬ And the king said to Esther the queen, “In the citadel of Shushan the Jews have killed and eliminated five hundred men and Haman's ten sons. In the remainder of the provinces of the king, what have they done and what else is your petition, and it will be given to you, and what is your request, and it will be done?”
Esth 9:13 ‫וַתֹּ֤אמֶר אֶסְתֵּר֙ אִם־עַל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֔וֹב יִנָּתֵ֣ן גַּם־מָחָ֗ר לַיְּהוּדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּשׁוּשָׁ֔ן לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת כְּדָ֣ת הַיּ֑וֹם וְאֵ֛ת עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָ֖ן יִתְל֥וּ עַל־הָעֵֽץ׃‬ And Esther said, “If the king approves, let the Jews who are in Shushan do according to today's decree tomorrow as well, and let them hang Haman's ten sons on the gallows.” if the king approves: see Esth 1:9.

gallows ← wood, tree.
Esth 9:14 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְהֵֽעָשׂ֣וֹת כֵּ֔ן וַתִּנָּתֵ֥ן דָּ֖ת בְּשׁוּשָׁ֑ן וְאֵ֛ת עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת בְּנֵֽי־הָמָ֖ן תָּלֽוּ׃‬ And the king commanded this to be done, and the decree was issued in Shushan, and they hanged Haman's ten sons. this ← thus.
Esth 9:15 ‫וַיִּֽקָּהֲל֞וּ *היהודיים **הַיְּהוּדִ֣ים אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁ֗ן גַּ֠ם בְּי֣וֹם אַרְבָּעָ֤ה עָשָׂר֙ לְחֹ֣דֶשׁ אֲדָ֔ר וַיַּֽהַרְג֣וּ בְשׁוּשָׁ֔ן שְׁלֹ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת אִ֑ישׁ וּבַ֨בִּזָּ֔ה לֹ֥א שָׁלְח֖וּ אֶת־יָדָֽם׃‬ And the Jews who were in Shushan assembled, also on the fourteenth day of the month of Adar, and they killed in Shushan three hundred men, but they did not lay their hands on the spoil. Jews: the ketiv is a variant form of the qeré, as in Esth 4:7.

lay their hands ← send their hand.
Esth 9:16 ‫וּשְׁאָ֣ר הַיְּהוּדִ֡ים אֲשֶׁר֩ בִּמְדִינ֨וֹת הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ נִקְהֲל֣וּ ׀ וְעָמֹ֣ד עַל־נַפְשָׁ֗ם וְנ֙וֹחַ֙ מֵאֹ֣יְבֵיהֶ֔ם וְהָרֹג֙ בְּשֹׂ֣נְאֵיהֶ֔ם חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה וְשִׁבְעִ֖ים אָ֑לֶף וּבַ֨בִּזָּ֔ה לֹ֥א שָֽׁלְח֖וּ אֶת־יָדָֽם׃‬ And the remainder of the Jews, who were in the king's provinces, assembled and took a stand for their lives, and for rest from their enemies, and they killed seventy-five thousand of those who hated them, but they did not lay their hands on the spoil. lives ← souls.

lay their hands ← send their hand.
Esth 9:17 ‫בְּיוֹם־שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר לְחֹ֣דֶשׁ אֲדָ֑ר וְנ֗וֹחַ בְּאַרְבָּעָ֤ה עָשָׂר֙ בּ֔וֹ וְעָשֹׂ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ י֖וֹם מִשְׁתֶּ֥ה וְשִׂמְחָֽה׃‬ This was on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar, and there was rest on the fourteenth day of it, and they made it a day of festivity and gladness.
Esth 9:18 ‫*והיהודיים **וְהַיְּהוּדִ֣ים אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁ֗ן נִקְהֲלוּ֙ בִּשְׁלֹשָׁ֤ה עָשָׂר֙ בּ֔וֹ וּבְאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר בּ֑וֹ וְנ֗וֹחַ בַּחֲמִשָּׁ֤ה עָשָׂר֙ בּ֔וֹ וְעָשֹׂ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ י֖וֹם מִשְׁתֶּ֥ה וְשִׂמְחָֽה׃‬ And the Jews who were in Shushan assembled on the thirteenth day of it, and on the fourteenth day of it. And there was rest on the fifteenth day of it, and they made it a day of festivity and gladness.
Esth 9:19 ‫עַל־כֵּ֞ן הַיְּהוּדִ֣ים *הפרוזים **הַפְּרָזִ֗ים הַיֹּשְׁבִים֮ בְּעָרֵ֣י הַפְּרָזוֹת֒ עֹשִׂ֗ים אֵ֠ת י֣וֹם אַרְבָּעָ֤ה עָשָׂר֙ לְחֹ֣דֶשׁ אֲדָ֔ר שִׂמְחָ֥ה וּמִשְׁתֶּ֖ה וְי֣וֹם ט֑וֹב וּמִשְׁל֥וֹחַ מָנ֖וֹת אִ֥ישׁ לְרֵעֵֽהוּ׃ פ‬ Therefore the Jews in the villages, who dwelt in unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month of Adar a day of gladness and festivity, and a holiday, and of sending each other gifts. in the villages: the ketiv and qeré are different plural forms of the same word.

holiday ← good day.

each other ← a man to his neighbour.
Esth 9:20 ‫וַיִּכְתֹּ֣ב מָרְדֳּכַ֔י אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח סְפָרִ֜ים אֶל־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִ֗ים אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ הַקְּרוֹבִ֖ים וְהָרְחוֹקִֽים׃‬ And Mordecai wrote these things, and he sent letters to all the Jews who were in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus, near and far,
Esth 9:21 ‫לְקַיֵּם֮ עֲלֵיהֶם֒ לִהְי֣וֹת עֹשִׂ֗ים אֵ֠ת י֣וֹם אַרְבָּעָ֤ה עָשָׂר֙ לְחֹ֣דֶשׁ אֲדָ֔ר וְאֵ֛ת יוֹם־חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר בּ֑וֹ בְּכָל־שָׁנָ֖ה וְשָׁנָֽה׃‬ to establish among them that they should celebrate the fourteenth day of the month of Adar, and the fifteenth day of it, each year, celebrate ← be doing.

each year ← every year and year.
Esth 9:22 ‫כַּיָּמִ֗ים אֲשֶׁר־נָ֨חוּ בָהֶ֤ם הַיְּהוּדִים֙ מֵא֣וֹיְבֵיהֶ֔ם וְהַחֹ֗דֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר֩ נֶהְפַּ֨ךְ לָהֶ֤ם מִיָּגוֹן֙ לְשִׂמְחָ֔ה וּמֵאֵ֖בֶל לְי֣וֹם ט֑וֹב לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת אוֹתָ֗ם יְמֵי֙ מִשְׁתֶּ֣ה וְשִׂמְחָ֔ה וּמִשְׁל֤וֹחַ מָנוֹת֙ אִ֣ישׁ לְרֵעֵ֔הוּ וּמַתָּנ֖וֹת לָֽאֶבְיוֹנִֽים׃‬ as the days on which the Jews rested from their enemies, and as the month when it was turned for them from sorrow to gladness, and from mourning to a holiday, to make them days of festivity and gladness, and sending of items to one another, and gifts to the poor. items ← portions, belongings. Compare Esth 2:9.
Esth 9:23 ‫וְקִבֵּל֙ הַיְּהוּדִ֔ים אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־הֵחֵ֖לּוּ לַעֲשׂ֑וֹת וְאֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־כָּתַ֥ב מָרְדֳּכַ֖י אֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And the Jews undertook that which they had begun to do, and that which Mordecai had written to them.
Esth 9:24 ‫כִּי֩ הָמָ֨ן בֶּֽן־הַמְּדָ֜תָא הָֽאֲגָגִ֗י צֹרֵר֙ כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִ֔ים חָשַׁ֥ב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִ֖ים לְאַבְּדָ֑ם וְהִפִּ֥יל פּוּר֙ ה֣וּא הַגּוֹרָ֔ל לְהֻמָּ֖ם וּֽלְאַבְּדָֽם׃‬ For Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, plotted against the Jews to eliminate them, and he cast Pur – that is a lot – to defeat them and to eliminate them, Agagite: see Esth 3:1.
Esth 9:25 ‫וּבְבֹאָהּ֮ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּלֶךְ֒ אָמַ֣ר עִם־הַסֵּ֔פֶר יָשׁ֞וּב מַחֲשַׁבְתּ֧וֹ הָרָעָ֛ה אֲשֶׁר־חָשַׁ֥ב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִ֖ים עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וְתָל֥וּ אֹת֛וֹ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֖יו עַל־הָעֵֽץ׃‬ but when she came before the king, he commanded with a letter that his evil plot which he plotted against the Jews should rebound on him, and they hanged him and his sons on the gallows. she: or, this.

rebound on him ← turn on his head.

gallows ← wood, tree.
Esth 9:26 ‫עַל־כֵּ֡ן קָֽרְאוּ֩ לַיָּמִ֨ים הָאֵ֤לֶּה פוּרִים֙ עַל־שֵׁ֣ם הַפּ֔וּר עַל־כֵּ֕ן עַל־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֖י הָאִגֶּ֣רֶת הַזֹּ֑את וּמָֽה־רָא֣וּ עַל־כָּ֔כָה וּמָ֥ה הִגִּ֖יעַ אֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ Therefore they call these days Purim, according to the name Pur, for this reason, because of all the words of this letter, and because of what they saw of this matter, and because of what had come upon them. Purim ... Pur ← lots ... lot.

this matterthus.
Esth 9:27 ‫קִיְּמ֣וּ *וקבל **וְקִבְּל֣וּ הַיְּהוּדִים֩ ׀ עֲלֵיהֶ֨ם ׀ וְעַל־זַרְעָ֜ם וְעַ֨ל כָּל־הַנִּלְוִ֤ים עֲלֵיהֶם֙ וְלֹ֣א יַעֲב֔וֹר לִהְי֣וֹת עֹשִׂ֗ים אֵ֣ת שְׁנֵ֤י הַיָּמִים֙ הָאֵ֔לֶּה כִּכְתָבָ֖ם וְכִזְמַנָּ֑ם בְּכָל־שָׁנָ֖ה וְשָׁנָֽה׃‬ The Jews established and took it upon themselves and upon their seed and upon all those who joined them, that it would not pass into disuse, to celebrate these two days according to their description and according to their time each year. took: the ketiv can be taken as an infinitive absolute, taking on the role of the form given in the qeré. Compare Esth 2:3.

joined them ← were joined to them.

celebrate ← be doing.

description ← writing.
Esth 9:28 ‫וְהַיָּמִ֣ים הָ֠אֵלֶּה נִזְכָּרִ֨ים וְנַעֲשִׂ֜ים בְּכָל־דּ֣וֹר וָד֗וֹר מִשְׁפָּחָה֙ וּמִשְׁפָּחָ֔ה מְדִינָ֥ה וּמְדִינָ֖ה וְעִ֣יר וָעִ֑יר וִימֵ֞י הַפּוּרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה לֹ֤א יַֽעַבְרוּ֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַיְּהוּדִ֔ים וְזִכְרָ֖ם לֹא־יָס֥וּף מִזַּרְעָֽם׃ ס‬ And these days are remembered and celebrated in every generation, in every family, in every province and in every city. And these days of Purim will not pass into disuse among the Jews, and their memory will not come to an end among their seed. celebrated ← done.

Purim ← lots.

among (second occurrence in verse)from.
Esth 9:29 ‫וַ֠תִּכְתֹּב אֶסְתֵּ֨ר הַמַּלְכָּ֧ה בַת־אֲבִיחַ֛יִל וּמָרְדֳּכַ֥י הַיְּהוּדִ֖י אֶת־כָּל־תֹּ֑קֶף לְקַיֵּ֗ם אֵ֣ת אִגֶּ֧רֶת הַפּוּרִ֛ים הַזֹּ֖את הַשֵּׁנִֽית׃‬ And Queen Esther, the daughter of Abihail and Mordecai the Jew wrote with all authority to confirm this second letter of Purim. Mordecai: as foster father he could consider Esther his daughter.

Purim ← lots.
Esth 9:30 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח סְפָרִ֜ים אֶל־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִ֗ים אֶל־שֶׁ֨בַע וְעֶשְׂרִ֤ים וּמֵאָה֙ מְדִינָ֔ה מַלְכ֖וּת אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ דִּבְרֵ֥י שָׁל֖וֹם וֶאֱמֶֽת׃‬ And he sent letters to all the Jews – to the one hundred and twenty-seven provinces – of the kingdom of Ahasuerus, with words of peace and truth,
Esth 9:31 ‫לְקַיֵּ֡ם אֵת־יְמֵי֩ הַפֻּרִ֨ים הָאֵ֜לֶּה בִּזְמַנֵּיהֶ֗ם כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ קִיַּ֨ם עֲלֵיהֶ֜ם מָרְדֳּכַ֤י הַיְּהוּדִי֙ וְאֶסְתֵּ֣ר הַמַּלְכָּ֔ה וְכַאֲשֶׁ֛ר קִיְּמ֥וּ עַל־נַפְשָׁ֖ם וְעַל־זַרְעָ֑ם דִּבְרֵ֥י הַצֹּמ֖וֹת וְזַעֲקָתָֽם׃‬ to establish these days of Purim at their times, as Mordecai the Jew had established them among them, as had Esther the queen, and as they had established matters of fasts and their outcry for their lives and for their seed. Purim ← lots.

lives ← soul.
Esth 9:32 ‫וּמַאֲמַ֣ר אֶסְתֵּ֔ר קִיַּ֕ם דִּבְרֵ֥י הַפֻּרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וְנִכְתָּ֖ב בַּסֵּֽפֶר׃ פ‬ And Esther's commandment established these matters of Purim, and it was written in the book. Purim ← lots.
Esth 10:1 ‫וַיָּשֶׂם֩ הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ *אחשרש **אֲחַשְׁוֵר֧וֹשׁ ׀ מַ֛ס עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ וְאִיֵּ֥י הַיָּֽם׃‬ And King {Q: Ahasuerus} [K: Ahaserus] levied a tax on the land and the islands. The ketiv, Ahaserus, is more precisely in the Hebrew Ahasherosh, but we accommodate it as we do with the traditional name.

islands ← islands / coastlands of the sea.
Esth 10:2 ‫וְכָל־מַעֲשֵׂ֤ה תָקְפּוֹ֙ וּגְב֣וּרָת֔וֹ וּפָרָשַׁת֙ גְּדֻלַּ֣ת מָרְדֳּכַ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר גִּדְּל֖וֹ הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ הֲלוֹא־הֵ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֙פֶר֙ דִּבְרֵ֣י הַיָּמִ֔ים לְמַלְכֵ֖י מָדַ֥י וּפָרָֽס׃‬ And all the acts of his authority and his power, and the declaration of the greatness of Mordecai whom the king made great, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Media and Persia?
Esth 10:3 ‫כִּ֣י ׀ מָרְדֳּכַ֣י הַיְּהוּדִ֗י מִשְׁנֶה֙ לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ וְגָדוֹל֙ לַיְּהוּדִ֔ים וְרָצ֖וּי לְרֹ֣ב אֶחָ֑יו דֹּרֵ֥שׁ טוֹב֙ לְעַמּ֔וֹ וְדֹבֵ֥ר שָׁל֖וֹם לְכָל־זַרְעֽוֹ׃‬ For Mordecai the Jew was second to King Ahasuerus, and was great among the Jews, and was well-received among the multitude of his brothers, seeking good for his people, and peace to all his seed.