The Far Above All Translation of the New Testament

Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians

Version 0.94.54, 23 October 2023


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Rom 1:1 Παῦλος, δοῦλος Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, κλητὸς ἀπόστολος, ἀφωρισμένος εἰς εὐαγγέλιον θεοῦ, From Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, separated to the gospel of God,
Rom 1:2 ὃ προεπηγγείλατο διὰ τῶν προφητῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν γραφαῖς ἁγίαις, which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy scriptures,
Rom 1:3 περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, τοῦ γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος {RP P1904: Δαυὶδ} [TR: Δαβὶδ] κατὰ σάρκα, concerning his son, who descended from the seed of David according to the flesh, David: on Δαυίδ vs. Δαβίδ, see Matt 1:1.

descended from ← became / came out of. Christ descended from David in Mary's line, Luke 3:23 - 3:38.

AV's Jesus Christ our Lord is taken from the next verse.
Rom 1:4 τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν δυνάμει, κατὰ πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης, ἐξ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν, Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν, who was marked out as the son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection of the dead – of Jesus Christ our Lord – AV transposes Jesus Christ our Lord into the previous verse.
Rom 1:5 δι' οὗ ἐλάβομεν χάριν καὶ ἀποστολὴν εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ, through whom we have received grace and an apostleship for obedience in faith among all the Gentiles for the cause of his name, for obedience in ← into obedience of.
Rom 1:6 ἐν οἷς ἐστὲ καὶ ὑμεῖς, κλητοὶ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ· among whom you are also – being a called people of Jesus Christ –
Rom 1:7 πᾶσιν τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν Ῥώμῃ ἀγαπητοῖς θεοῦ, κλητοῖς ἁγίοις· χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. to all those who are in Rome, God's beloved, called as saints, grace to you and peace from God our father and Lord, Jesus Christ. saints: see Matt 27:52.

Lord: no article in the Greek in Rom 1:7, 1 Cor 1:3, 2 Cor 1:2, Gal 1:3, Eph 1:2, Eph 5:5 (Christ), Eph 6:23, Phil 1:2, Col 1:2, 1 Thes 1:1, 2 Thes 1:1, 2 Thes 1:12, 1 Tim 1:1, 1 Tim 5:21, Titus 1:4, Titus 2:13 (saviour), Phmon 1:3, James 1:1, 2 Pet 1:1 (saviour), Jude 1:4. We repunctuate; AV differs. We ↴
Rom 1:8 Πρῶτον μὲν εὐχαριστῶ τῷ θεῷ μου διὰ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ ὑπὲρ πάντων ὑμῶν, ὅτι ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν καταγγέλλεται ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κόσμῳ. Firstly, I give thanks to my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, in that your faith is proclaimed in the whole world. ↳ take the construction “θεὸς καὶ noun-without-article” to equate θεὸς and that noun, or to express a quality or role of θεὸς. This can be regarded as either the application ↴
Rom 1:9 Μάρτυς γάρ μού ἐστιν ὁ θεός, ᾧ λατρεύω ἐν τῷ πνεύματί μου ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὡς ἀδιαλείπτως μνείαν ὑμῶν ποιοῦμαι, For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the cause of the gospel of his son, as to how I ceaselessly make mention of you, ↳ of Granville Sharp rule 1 but with the of ὁ θεός elided (as is often the case), or as an exception to rule 5, as exemplified by 1 Cor 1:24. Compare also Rev 20:2 (devil and Satan).
Rom 1:10 πάντοτε ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου δεόμενος, εἴ πως ἤδη ποτὲ εὐοδωθήσομαι ἐν τῷ θελήματι τοῦ θεοῦ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς. always on the occasions of my prayers asking that I might by some means, sometime, at last, by the will of God, have a prosperous journey and come to you.
Rom 1:11 Ἐπιποθῶ γὰρ ἰδεῖν ὑμᾶς, ἵνα τι μεταδῶ χάρισμα ὑμῖν πνευματικόν, εἰς τὸ στηριχθῆναι ὑμᾶς, For I yearn to see you, in order that I may share some spiritual gift with you for you to be strengthened,
Rom 1:12 τοῦτο δέ ἐστιν, συμπαρακληθῆναι ἐν ὑμῖν διὰ τῆς ἐν ἀλλήλοις πίστεως ὑμῶν τε καὶ ἐμοῦ. that is to say, for me to be encouraged along with you through each other's faith, both yours and mine.
Rom 1:13 Οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι πολλάκις προεθέμην ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς - καὶ ἐκωλύθην ἄχρι τοῦ δεῦρο - ἵνα {RP P1904: τινὰ καρπὸν} [TR: καρπόν τινα] σχῶ καὶ ἐν ὑμῖν, καθὼς καὶ ἐν τοῖς λοιποῖς ἔθνεσιν. But I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that I often planned to come to you (but I have been prevented up to now) so that I might also bear some fruit among you as indeed among the rest of the Gentiles. τινὰ καρπὸν, some + fruit, RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. καρπόν τινα, fruit + some, TR F1859=0/12.

but (second occurrence in verse): adversative use of καί.

bear ← have.
Rom 1:14 Ἕλλησίν τε καὶ βαρβάροις, σοφοῖς τε καὶ ἀνοήτοις ὀφειλέτης εἰμί· I am a debtor to both Greeks and barbarians, to both wise and foolish –
Rom 1:15 οὕτως τὸ κατ' ἐμὲ πρόθυμον καὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς ἐν Ῥώμῃ εὐαγγελίσασθαι. that is the nature of my eagerness to preach the gospel to you in Rome also. that is the nature of my eagerness ← thus the according-to-me eagerness.
Rom 1:16 Οὐ γὰρ ἐπαισχύνομαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ χριστοῦ· δύναμις γὰρ θεοῦ ἐστιν εἰς σωτηρίαν παντὶ τῷ πιστεύοντι, Ἰουδαίῳ τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνι. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ. For it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.
Rom 1:17 Δικαιοσύνη γὰρ θεοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ ἀποκαλύπτεται ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν, καθὼς γέγραπται, Ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται. For in it the righteousness of God is revealed, by faith, in faith, as it stands written: “And the righteous shall live by faith.” Hab 2:4.

it: neuter, referring to the gospel.

by faith (2x)out of faith.

in faith ← into faith.
Rom 1:18 Ἀποκαλύπτεται γὰρ ὀργὴ θεοῦ ἀπ' οὐρανοῦ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν ἀσέβειαν καὶ ἀδικίαν ἀνθρώπων τῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἐν ἀδικίᾳ κατεχόντων· For God's anger is revealed from heaven on all ungodliness and injustice of men who suppress the truth in injustice,
Rom 1:19 διότι τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ φανερόν ἐστιν ἐν αὐτοῖς· ὁ γὰρ θεὸς αὐτοῖς ἐφανέρωσεν. because what can be known about God is evident among them, for God has manifested it to them.
Rom 1:20 Τὰ γὰρ ἀόρατα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ κτίσεως κόσμου τοῖς ποιήμασιν νοούμενα καθορᾶται, ἥ τε ἀΐδιος αὐτοῦ δύναμις καὶ θειότης, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἀναπολογήτους· For the invisible attributes of him, from the creation of the world, are understood and caught sight of in the things made: his perpetual power and deity, so that they are without excuse, excuse ← defence.
Rom 1:21 διότι γνόντες τὸν θεόν, οὐχ ὡς θεὸν ἐδόξασαν ἢ εὐχαρίστησαν, ἀλλ' ἐματαιώθησαν ἐν τοῖς διαλογισμοῖς αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐσκοτίσθη ἡ ἀσύνετος αὐτῶν καρδία. because although they knew God, they did not glorify him as God or give thanks, but they became vain in their reasonings, and their undiscerning heart was darkened. although: concessive use of the participle.
Rom 1:22 Φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοὶ ἐμωράνθησαν, Asserting that they were wise, they became foolish,
Rom 1:23 καὶ ἤλλαξαν τὴν δόξαν τοῦ ἀφθάρτου θεοῦ ἐν ὁμοιώματι εἰκόνος φθαρτοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πετεινῶν καὶ τετραπόδων καὶ ἑρπετῶν. and they changed the glory of indefectible God into a likeness, an image of perishable man and birds and quadrupeds and reptiles. a likeness, an image ← a likeness of an image.

reptiles ← creeping (things). [LS] gives reptiles but not insects, though they are not necessarily excluded.
Rom 1:24 Διὸ καὶ παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς ἐν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις τῶν καρδιῶν αὐτῶν εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν, τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν ἐν {RP TR: ἑαυτοῖς} [P1904: αὐτοῖς]· This is why God has delivered them up to uncleanness in the desires of their hearts, so that their bodies are dishonoured among {RP TR: themselves} [P1904: them]. ἑαυτοῖς, themselves, RP TR F1859=12/12 vs. αὐτοῖς, them, P1904 F1859=0/12.

this is why ← on account of which.
Rom 1:25 οἵτινες μετήλλαξαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν τῷ ψεύδει, καὶ ἐσεβάσθησαν καὶ ἐλάτρευσαν τῇ κτίσει παρὰ τὸν κτίσαντα, ὅς ἐστιν εὐλογητὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. Ἀμήν. And they exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and they worshipped and served creation more than the creator, who is blessed throughout the ages. Amen. creation: AV differs (the creature).
Rom 1:26 Διὰ τοῦτο παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς εἰς πάθη ἀτιμίας· αἵ τε γὰρ θήλειαι αὐτῶν μετήλλαξαν τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν εἰς τὴν παρὰ φύσιν· For this reason God delivered them up to dishonourable passions. For their women also exchanged the natural way of things for one which is against nature, dishonourable passions ← passions of dishonour, a Hebraic genitive.

women ← females.

way of things ← use; usefulness; intimacy. Also in Rom 1:27.
Rom 1:27 ὁμοίως {RP TR: τε} [P1904: δὲ] καὶ οἱ {RP S1550: ἄρρενες} [P1904 E1624 S1894: ἄρσενες], ἀφέντες τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν τῆς θηλείας, ἐξεκαύθησαν ἐν τῇ ὀρέξει αὐτῶν εἰς ἀλλήλους, ἄρσενες ἐν ἄρσεσιν τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην κατεργαζόμενοι, καὶ τὴν ἀντιμισθίαν ἣν ἔδει τῆς πλάνης αὐτῶν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἀπολαμβάνοντες. and similarly the men also abandoned the natural way of things of the woman and burned in their lust for each other, males practising with males that which is indecent, and receiving the inevitable consequence of their error among themselves. τε, and, RP TR F1859=7/13 vs. δὲ, and / but, P1904 F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's dl) vs. word absent, F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's a*bho).

ἄρρενες, males (a later Attic form), RP S1550 F1859=11/12 vs. ἄρσενες, males (classical form), P1904 E1624 S1894 F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's c).

men ← males.

woman ← female.

inevitable consequence ← recompense which was necessary.
Rom 1:28 Καὶ καθὼς οὐκ ἐδοκίμασαν τὸν θεὸν ἔχειν ἐν ἐπιγνώσει, παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς εἰς ἀδόκιμον νοῦν, ποιεῖν τὰ μὴ καθήκοντα, And just as they did not think it fit to acknowledge God, God delivered them up to a discredited mentality, so as to do things which are not fitting, acknowledge ← hold in acknowledgment.
Rom 1:29 πεπληρωμένους πάσῃ ἀδικίᾳ, πορνείᾳ, πονηρίᾳ, πλεονεξίᾳ, κακίᾳ· μεστοὺς φθόνου, φόνου, ἔριδος, δόλου, κακοηθείας· ψιθυριστάς, being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, fraud, malice; being full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity – whisperers, fraud: or covetousness, greed. See 1 Cor 5:10.
Rom 1:30 καταλάλους, θεοστυγεῖς, ὑβριστάς, ὑπερηφάνους, ἀλαζόνας, ἐφευρετὰς κακῶν, γονεῦσιν ἀπειθεῖς, slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, haters of God: [LS] differs (hated of God), obsolete English for (hated by God). Similarly [CB] (hateful to God). But θεο- is the object in θεοσεβής (honouring God) and θεομάχος (fighting God). It is the subject in θεοδίδακτος (God-taught).
Rom 1:31 ἀσυνέτους, ἀσυνθέτους, ἀστόργους, ἀσπόνδους, ἀνελεήμονας· without understanding, without loyalty, without affection, implacable, merciless, loyalty ← allegiance, but here faithfulness in an allegiance.
Rom 1:32 οἵτινες τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπιγνόντες, ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες ἄξιοι θανάτου εἰσίν, οὐ μόνον αὐτὰ ποιοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ συνευδοκοῦσιν τοῖς πράσσουσιν. who, although they are well aware of the decree of God, that those who do such things are worthy of death, not only do they do them, but they also approve of those who do them. although: concessive use of the participle.

are well aware of ← recognized, acknowledged. See Matt 23:20. The rest of the sentence is in the present tense.
Rom 2:1 Διὸ ἀναπολόγητος εἶ, ὦ ἄνθρωπε πᾶς ὁ κρίνων· ἐν ᾧ γὰρ κρίνεις τὸν ἕτερον, σεαυτὸν κατακρίνεις, τὰ γὰρ αὐτὰ πράσσεις ὁ κρίνων. Therefore you are without excuse, O man – everyone who judges. For in the way that you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you who judge do the same things. excuse ← defence.
Rom 2:2 Οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τὸ κρίμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐστιν κατὰ ἀλήθειαν ἐπὶ τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντας. But we know that God's judgment is according to truth on those who do such things.
Rom 2:3 Λογίζῃ δὲ τοῦτο, ὦ ἄνθρωπε ὁ κρίνων τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντας καὶ ποιῶν αὐτά, ὅτι σὺ ἐκφεύξῃ τὸ κρίμα τοῦ θεοῦ; Do you think this, O man who judges those who do such things, although you do them yourself: that you will escape God's judgment? although: concessive use of the participle.
Rom 2:4 Ἢ τοῦ πλούτου τῆς χρηστότητος αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς ἀνοχῆς καὶ τῆς μακροθυμίας καταφρονεῖς, ἀγνοῶν ὅτι τὸ χρηστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς μετάνοιάν σε ἄγει; Or do you look down on the riches of his kindness and forbearance and longsuffering, being ignorant of the fact that the kindness of God leads you to repentance?
Rom 2:5 Κατὰ δὲ τὴν σκληρότητά σου καὶ ἀμετανόητον καρδίαν θησαυρίζεις σεαυτῷ ὀργὴν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ὀργῆς καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως {RP P1904: καὶ} [TR: - ] δικαιοκρισίας τοῦ θεοῦ, But you, with your obduracy and unrepentant heart, are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath and revelation {RP P1904: and} [TR: of] the righteous judgment of God, καὶ, and: absent in RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. present in TR F1859=0/12.
Rom 2:6 ὃς ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ· who will render to each person according to his works, Ps 62:13MT (Ps 62:12AV). See also Jer 17:10, Jer 32:19.
Rom 2:7 τοῖς μὲν καθ' ὑπομονὴν ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ ἀφθαρσίαν ζητοῦσιν, ζωὴν αἰώνιον· to some in accordance with their patience in good work, seeking glory and honour and incorruptibility: age-abiding life; incorruptibility: or indefectibility; compare Rom 1:23, 1 Tim 1:17. AV differs (immortality).
Rom 2:8 τοῖς δὲ ἐξ ἐριθείας, καὶ ἀπειθοῦσιν μὲν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ πειθομένοις δὲ τῇ ἀδικίᾳ, θυμὸς καὶ ὀργή, but to those who are of contention, and disobedient to the truth, and trusting in unrighteousness: wrath and anger, disobedient to: or disbelieving of.
Rom 2:9 θλίψις καὶ στενοχωρία, ἐπὶ πᾶσαν ψυχὴν ἀνθρώπου τοῦ κατεργαζομένου τὸ κακόν, Ἰουδαίου τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνος· tribulation and anguish on the mind of every man who perpetrates evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Greek; Greek: AV differs, reading Gentile, but none of our editions or Scrivener's manuscripts collated support Gentile.

the mind of every man ← every soul of a man.
Rom 2:10 δόξα δὲ καὶ τιμὴ καὶ εἰρήνη παντὶ τῷ ἐργαζομένῳ τὸ ἀγαθόν, Ἰουδαίῳ τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνι· but glory and honour and peace to everyone who does good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.
Rom 2:11 οὐ γάρ ἐστιν προσωποληψία παρὰ τῷ θεῷ. For there is no partiality with God.
Rom 2:12 Ὅσοι γὰρ ἀνόμως ἥμαρτον, ἀνόμως καὶ ἀπολοῦνται· καὶ ὅσοι ἐν νόμῳ ἥμαρτον, διὰ νόμου κριθήσονται· For those who have sinned without the law will also die without the law. And those who have sinned in the law will be judged by the law, those who (2x)as many as.

die ← perish.

The “law” in scripture is the law of Moses in the Old Testament.
Rom 2:13 οὐ γὰρ οἱ ἀκροαταὶ τοῦ νόμου δίκαιοι παρὰ τῷ θεῷ, ἀλλ' οἱ ποιηταὶ τοῦ νόμου δικαιωθήσονται. for it is not the hearers of the law who are just with God, but it is the doers of the law who will be justified.
Rom 2:14 Ὅταν γὰρ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῇ, οὗτοι, νόμον μὴ ἔχοντες, ἑαυτοῖς εἰσιν νόμος· For when the Gentiles, who do not have the law, carry out by nature the requirements of the law, they, although not having the law, are a law to themselves, they ← these.

although: concessive use of the participle.
Rom 2:15 οἵτινες ἐνδείκνυνται τὸ ἔργον τοῦ νόμου γραπτὸν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν, συμμαρτυρούσης αὐτῶν τῆς συνειδήσεως, καὶ μεταξὺ ἀλλήλων τῶν λογισμῶν κατηγορούντων ἢ καὶ ἀπολογουμένων, who demonstrate the work of the law, a work written in their hearts, while their conscience bears witness also, while their reasonings accuse or else defend each other – each other: we take ἀλλήλων with κατηγορούντων; others, with μεταξὺ (with one another).
Rom 2:16 ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ὅτε κρινεῖ ὁ θεὸς τὰ κρυπτὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου, διὰ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. this judgment being on the day when God judges the secret things of men according to my gospel through Jesus Christ. judges ← will judge, the explicit future tense not being required in English here.
Rom 2:17 Ἴδε σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ἐπονομάζῃ, καὶ ἐπαναπαύῃ τῷ νόμῳ, καὶ καυχᾶσαι ἐν θεῷ, Look, you are called a Jew, and you rely on the law and boast in God,
Rom 2:18 καὶ γινώσκεις τὸ θέλημα, καὶ δοκιμάζεις τὰ διαφέροντα, κατηχούμενος ἐκ τοῦ νόμου, and you know his will, and you scrutinize the things that differ, being taught from the law, scrutinize the things that differ. AV differs, reading approvest the things that are more excellent, which is also possible. Compare Phil 1:10.
Rom 2:19 πέποιθάς τε σεαυτὸν ὁδηγὸν εἶναι τυφλῶν, φῶς τῶν ἐν σκότει, and you trust yourself to be a guide of the blind, a light to those in darkness,
Rom 2:20 παιδευτὴν ἀφρόνων, διδάσκαλον νηπίων, ἔχοντα τὴν μόρφωσιν τῆς γνώσεως καὶ τῆς ἀληθείας ἐν τῷ νόμῳ· as an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of infants, having the formulation of the knowledge and the truth found in the law.
Rom 2:21 ὁ οὖν διδάσκων ἕτερον, σεαυτὸν οὐ διδάσκεις; Ὁ κηρύσσων μὴ κλέπτειν, κλέπτεις; So you who teach another, do you not teach yourself? You who preach not to steal, do you steal?
Rom 2:22 Ὁ λέγων μὴ μοιχεύειν, μοιχεύεις; Ὁ βδελυσσόμενος τὰ εἴδωλα, ἱεροσυλεῖς; You who tell people not to commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abominate idols, do you steal sacred items?
Rom 2:23 Ὃς ἐν νόμῳ καυχᾶσαι, διὰ τῆς παραβάσεως τοῦ νόμου τὸν θεὸν ἀτιμάζεις; You who boast in the law, do you through your transgression of the law dishonour God?
Rom 2:24 Τὸ γὰρ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ δι' ὑμᾶς βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, καθὼς γέγραπται. “For the name of God is blasphemed because of you among the Gentiles”, as it stands written. See Ezek 36:20-21, Ezek 36:23, Isa 52:5.
Rom 2:25 Περιτομὴ μὲν γὰρ ὠφελεῖ, ἐὰν νόμον πράσσῃς· ἐὰν δὲ παραβάτης νόμου ᾖς, ἡ περιτομή σου ἀκροβυστία γέγονεν. For circumcision is indeed of benefit if you carry out the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. uncircumcision ← foreskin.
Rom 2:26 Ἐὰν οὖν ἡ ἀκροβυστία τὰ δικαιώματα τοῦ νόμου φυλάσσῃ, οὐχὶ ἡ ἀκροβυστία αὐτοῦ εἰς περιτομὴν λογισθήσεται; So if the uncircumcision keeps the ordinances of the law, will not his uncircumcision be considered as circumcision? uncircumcision (2x): see Rom 2:25.
Rom 2:27 Καὶ κρινεῖ ἡ ἐκ φύσεως ἀκροβυστία, τὸν νόμον τελοῦσα, σὲ τὸν διὰ γράμματος καὶ περιτομῆς παραβάτην νόμου; And will not uncircumcision by nature, if it fulfils the law, judge you a transgressor of the law, despite your written word and circumcision? uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.

if: conditional use of the participle.

despite ← through, but the word is capable of expressing concessive circumstances. Compare Rom 4:11 and perhaps 1 Cor 1:21.

written wordletter, writing. Compare 2 Cor 3:6.
Rom 2:28 Οὐ γὰρ ὁ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ Ἰουδαῖός ἐστιν, οὐδὲ ἡ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ ἐν σαρκὶ περιτομή· For it is not he who is openly so who is a Jew, nor he who is openly circumcision in the flesh,
Rom 2:29 ἀλλ' ὁ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ Ἰουδαῖος, καὶ περιτομὴ καρδίας ἐν πνεύματι, οὐ γράμματι· οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος οὐκ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων, ἀλλ' ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ. but he who is a Jew in secret, and is the circumcision of the heart by spirit, not by the written word, one whose praise is not from men but from God. written word: See Rom 2:27.
Rom 3:1 Τί οὖν τὸ περισσὸν τοῦ Ἰουδαίου, ἢ τίς ἡ ὠφέλεια τῆς περιτομῆς; What, then, is special about the Jew? Or what is the benefit to the circumcision? special ← extraordinary.

to ← of.
Rom 3:2 Πολὺ κατὰ πάντα τρόπον· πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ὅτι ἐπιστεύθησαν τὰ λόγια τοῦ θεοῦ. Much in every respect. Firstly, then, because the oracles of God were entrusted to him. the oracles of God were entrusted to him: or they were entrusted (with) the oracles of God.
Rom 3:3 Τί γὰρ εἰ ἠπίστησάν τινες; Μὴ ἡ ἀπιστία αὐτῶν τὴν πίστιν τοῦ θεοῦ καταργήσει; For what if some have disbelieved? Their disbelief does not make God's faithfulness void, does it? faithfulness ← faith.
Rom 3:4 Μὴ γένοιτο· γινέσθω δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἀληθής, πᾶς δὲ ἄνθρωπος ψεύστης, καθὼς γέγραπται, Ὅπως ἂν δικαιωθῇς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου, καὶ {RP-text TR: νικήσῃς} [RP-marg P1904: νικήσεις] ἐν τῷ κρίνεσθαί σε. May it not be so. But let God be true and every man a liar, as it stands written:

“In order that you may be justified with your words,

And {RP-text TR: that you may} [RP-marg P1904: you will] be vindicated

When you are judged.”

νικήσῃς, you may conquer, be vindicated, RP-text TR F1859=11/12 vs. νικήσεις, you will conquer, be vindicated, RP-marg P1904 F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's n). A disparity with RP-marg (low count).

Ps 51:6MT (Ps 51:4AV).

be vindicated ← conquer.
Rom 3:5 Εἰ δὲ ἡ ἀδικία ἡμῶν θεοῦ δικαιοσύνην συνίστησιν, τί ἐροῦμεν; Μὴ ἄδικος ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἐπιφέρων τὴν ὀργήν; - κατὰ ἄνθρωπον λέγω - And if our unrighteousness commends the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Surely God, who brings wrath, is not unjust? I speak humanly.
Rom 3:6 Μὴ γένοιτο· ἐπεὶ πῶς κρινεῖ ὁ θεὸς τὸν κόσμον; May it not be so. Otherwise, how will God judge the world?
Rom 3:7 Εἰ γὰρ ἡ ἀλήθεια τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ ψεύσματι ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, τί ἔτι κἀγὼ ὡς ἁμαρτωλὸς κρίνομαι; For if God's truth has abounded to his glory in the face of my untruth, why am I for my part still judged as a sinner? for my part ← also.
Rom 3:8 Καὶ μή - καθὼς βλασφημούμεθα, καὶ καθώς φασίν τινες ἡμᾶς λέγειν - ὅτι Ποιήσωμεν τὰ κακὰ ἵνα ἔλθῃ τὰ ἀγαθά; Ὧν τὸ κρίμα ἔνδικόν ἐστιν. – and not according to how we are slanderously spoken of, and according to what some also claim that we say, namely, “Let us do evil things so that good things may come”, whose judgment is merited. We regard ποιήσωμεν as cohortative rather than deliberative, and punctuate accordingly. RP P1904 and TBS-TR seem to regard the verb as deliberative, Shall we do evil things ...? though a different question might be intended: Why am I not judged as (saying), “...”?
Rom 3:9 Τί οὖν; Προεχόμεθα; Οὐ πάντως· προῃτιασάμεθα γὰρ Ἰουδαίους τε καὶ Ἕλληνας πάντας ὑφ' ἁμαρτίαν εἶναι, What then? Are we superior? Not at all. For we have already made the charge that both Jews and Greeks are all under sin.
Rom 3:10 καθὼς γέγραπται {RP-text P1904 TR: ὅτι} [RP-marg: - ] Οὐκ ἔστιν δίκαιος οὐδὲ εἷς· As it stands written:

“Not even one is righteous.

ὅτι, that (introducing indirect or direct speech): present in RP-text P1904 TR F1859=8/12 vs. absent in RP-marg F1859=4/12 (Scrivener's achl).

Ps 14:1, Ps 53:2MT (Ps 53:1AV), Eccl 7:20.
Rom 3:11 οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ συνιῶν, οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν·

There is no-one who understands;

There is no-one who seeks God.

Ps 14:2, Ps 53:3MT (Ps 53:2AV).
Rom 3:12 πάντες ἐξέκλιναν, ἅμα ἠχρειώθησαν· οὐκ ἔστιν ποιῶν χρηστότητα, οὐκ ἔστιν ἕως ἑνός·

All have turned aside;

They have become altogether useless.

There is no-one who shows kindness

– There is not even one.

Ps 14:3, Ps 53:4MT (Ps 53:3AV).
Rom 3:13 τάφος ἀνεῳγμένος ὁ λάρυγξ αὐτῶν, ταῖς γλώσσαις αὐτῶν ἐδολιοῦσαν· ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν·

Their throat is an open sepulchre;

With their tongues they have been deceitful;

Vipers' venom is under their lips,

Ps 5:10MT (Ps 5:9AV), Ps 140:4MT (Ps 140:3AV).

they have been deceitful ← they were deceitful, an Alexandrian dialectical form, as in Ps 5:9 LXX.
Rom 3:14 ὧν τὸ στόμα ἀρᾶς καὶ πικρίας γέμει·

Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.

Ps 10:7.
Rom 3:15 ὀξεῖς οἱ πόδες αὐτῶν ἐκχέαι αἷμα·

Their feet are swift to shed blood.

Isa 59:7.

swift ← sharp.
Rom 3:16 σύντριμμα καὶ ταλαιπωρία ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν,

Ruin and hardship are in their ways,

Isa 59:7.
Rom 3:17 καὶ ὁδὸν εἰρήνης οὐκ ἔγνωσαν·

But they do not know the way of peace.

Isa 59:8.

they do not know ← they have not known, but the sense can be they have not come to know, from which they do not know.
Rom 3:18 οὐκ ἔστιν φόβος θεοῦ ἀπέναντι τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν.

There is no fear of God before their eyes.”

Ps 36:2MT (Ps 36:1AV).
Rom 3:19 Οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι ὅσα ὁ νόμος λέγει, τοῖς ἐν τῷ νόμῳ λαλεῖ, ἵνα πᾶν στόμα φραγῇ, καὶ ὑπόδικος γένηται πᾶς ὁ κόσμος τῷ θεῷ· But we know that whatever the law says, it speaks to those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be stopped up, and the whole world may be accountable to God, under ← in.
Rom 3:20 διότι ἐξ ἔργων νόμου οὐ δικαιωθήσεται πᾶσα σὰρξ ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ· διὰ γὰρ νόμου ἐπίγνωσις ἁμαρτίας. because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law before him, for through the law is acknowledgment of sin.
Rom 3:21 Νυνὶ δὲ χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ πεφανέρωται, μαρτυρουμένη ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν· But now the righteousness of God has been made manifest without the law, testified to by the law and the prophets –
Rom 3:22 δικαιοσύνη δὲ θεοῦ διὰ πίστεως Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ εἰς πάντας καὶ ἐπὶ πάντας τοὺς πιστεύοντας· οὐ γάρ ἐστιν διαστολή· the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all and on all who believe, for there is no distinction, in ← of. This could be a subjective genitive (faith which Jesus Christ has shown) or objective (the believers' faith in Jesus Christ), or it could have a suggestion of both. Our translation inclines towards the objective genitive.
Rom 3:23 πάντες γὰρ ἥμαρτον καὶ ὑστεροῦνται τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ, for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,
Rom 3:24 δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι διὰ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως τῆς ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· being justified freely by his grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus,
Rom 3:25 ὃν προέθετο ὁ θεὸς ἱλαστήριον, διὰ τῆς πίστεως, ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι, εἰς ἔνδειξιν τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ, διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν τῶν προγεγονότων ἁμαρτημάτων, whom God appointed as a propitiation through faith in his blood, as a demonstration of his righteousness, for the sake of the remission of previously committed sins,
Rom 3:26 ἐν τῇ ἀνοχῇ τοῦ θεοῦ· πρὸς ἔνδειξιν τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν δίκαιον καὶ δικαιοῦντα τὸν ἐκ πίστεως Ἰησοῦ. in God's forbearance, ¶ as a demonstration of his righteousness at the present time, with a view to him being just and a justifier of him who is a partaker of faith in Jesus. ¶ Verse division: in AV numbering, Rom 3:26 begins here.

of faith ← out of faith.

in Jesus ← of Jesus. See Rom 3:22.
Rom 3:27 Ποῦ οὖν ἡ καύχησις; Ἐξεκλείσθη. Διὰ ποίου νόμου; Τῶν ἔργων; Οὐχί, ἀλλὰ διὰ νόμου πίστεως. So where is boasting? It is excluded. By what law? That of works? No, rather by the law of faith. what ← what kind of.
Rom 3:28 Λογιζόμεθα οὖν πίστει δικαιοῦσθαι ἄνθρωπον, χωρὶς ἔργων νόμου. We conclude therefore that man is justified by faith apart from works of the law.
Rom 3:29 Ἢ Ἰουδαίων ὁ θεὸς μόνον; Οὐχὶ δὲ καὶ ἐθνῶν; Ναὶ καὶ ἐθνῶν· Or is God God of the Jews only? Is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles too,
Rom 3:30 ἐπείπερ εἷς ὁ θεός, ὃς δικαιώσει περιτομὴν ἐκ πίστεως, καὶ ἀκροβυστίαν διὰ τῆς πίστεως. seeing that God, who will justify circumcision by faith and uncircumcision through faith, is one. uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.
Rom 3:31 Νόμον οὖν καταργοῦμεν διὰ τῆς πίστεως; Μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλὰ νόμον ἱστῶμεν. Do we make the law void through faith? Far from it. Rather, we establish the law. far from it ← may it not become / be.

we establish: present indicative of ἱστάω, or subjunctive of ἵστημι, let us establish.
Rom 4:1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν Ἀβραὰμ τὸν πατέρα ἡμῶν εὑρηκέναι κατὰ σάρκα; What then shall we say Abraham our father has found with respect to the flesh?
Rom 4:2 Εἰ γὰρ Ἀβραὰμ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη, ἔχει καύχημα, ἀλλ' οὐ πρὸς τὸν θεόν. For if Abraham was justified by works, he has a reason to boast, but not to God.
Rom 4:3 Τί γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ λέγει; Ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. For what does the scripture say? “Now Abraham believed God, and it was imputed to him as righteousness.” Gen 15:6.
Rom 4:4 Τῷ δὲ ἐργαζομένῳ ὁ μισθὸς οὐ λογίζεται κατὰ χάριν, ἀλλὰ κατὰ {RP P1904: - } [TR: τὸ] ὀφείλημα. And the wages due to the workman are not considered as being of grace, but as a debt. τὸ, the (debt): absent in RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. present in TR F1859=0/12.
Rom 4:5 Τῷ δὲ μὴ ἐργαζομένῳ, πιστεύοντι δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν δικαιοῦντα τὸν ἀσεβῆ, λογίζεται ἡ πίστις αὐτοῦ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. But for one who does not work, but who believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted as righteousness.
Rom 4:6 Καθάπερ καὶ {RP P1904: Δαυὶδ} [TR: Δαβὶδ] λέγει τὸν μακαρισμὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, ᾧ ὁ θεὸς λογίζεται δικαιοσύνην χωρὶς ἔργων, As indeed David also says of the blessedness of the man to whom God imputes righteousness, apart from works, David: on Δαυίδ vs. Δαβίδ, see Matt 1:1.
Rom 4:7 Μακάριοι ὧν ἀφέθησαν αἱ ἀνομίαι, καὶ ὧν ἐπεκαλύφθησαν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι.

“Blessed are they whose lawless deeds have been forgiven

And whose sins have been covered over.

Ps 32:1.
Rom 4:8 Μακάριος ἀνὴρ ᾧ οὐ μὴ λογίσηται κύριος ἁμαρτίαν.

Blessed is the man

To whom the Lord will not impute sin at all.”

Ps 32:2.
Rom 4:9 Ὁ μακαρισμὸς οὖν οὗτος ἐπὶ τὴν περιτομήν, ἢ καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀκροβυστίαν; Λέγομεν γὰρ ὅτι Ἐλογίσθη τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἡ πίστις εἰς δικαιοσύνην. So is this blessedness on the circumcision or also on the uncircumcision? For we say, “Faith was imputed to Abraham as righteousness.” uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.
Rom 4:10 Πῶς οὖν ἐλογίσθη; Ἐν περιτομῇ ὄντι, ἢ ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ; Οὐκ ἐν περιτομῇ, ἀλλ' ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ· How then was it imputed? To him when he was in circumcision or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision but in uncircumcision. uncircumcision (2x): see Rom 2:25.
Rom 4:11 καὶ σημεῖον ἔλαβεν περιτομῆς, σφραγῖδα τῆς δικαιοσύνης τῆς πίστεως τῆς ἐν τῇ ἀκροβυστίᾳ· εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πατέρα πάντων τῶν πιστευόντων δι' ἀκροβυστίας, εἰς τὸ λογισθῆναι καὶ αὐτοῖς τὴν δικαιοσύνην· And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of faith which was in uncircumcision, so that he should be the father of all those who believe despite uncircumcision, with a view to righteousness being imputed to them also, uncircumcision (2x): see Rom 2:25.

despite ← through. See Rom 2:27.
Rom 4:12 καὶ πατέρα περιτομῆς τοῖς οὐκ ἐκ περιτομῆς μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς στοιχοῦσιν τοῖς ἴχνεσιν {RP: τῆς πίστεως τῆς ἐν τῇ ἀκροβυστίᾳ} [P1904 TR: τῆς ἐν τῇ ἀκροβυστίᾳ πίστεως] τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἀβραάμ. and the father of the circumcision, not to those of the circumcision only, but also to those who march in the footsteps of our father Abraham's faith, which was in uncircumcision. τῆς πίστεως τῆς ἐν τῇ ἀκροβυστίᾳ, the faith + the in the uncircumcision, RP F1859=10/12 (with minor variations in a**bgko) vs. τῆς ἐν τῇ ἀκροβυστίᾳ πίστεως, the + in the uncircumcision + faith, P1904 TR F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's dm).

footsteps ← tracks.

uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.
Rom 4:13 Οὐ γὰρ διὰ νόμου ἡ ἐπαγγελία τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἢ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ, τὸ κληρονόμον αὐτὸν εἶναι τοῦ κόσμου, ἀλλὰ διὰ δικαιοσύνης πίστεως. For the promise to Abraham or to his seed was not through the law, that he should be heir to the world, but it was through the righteousness of faith.
Rom 4:14 Εἰ γὰρ οἱ ἐκ νόμου κληρονόμοι, κεκένωται ἡ πίστις, καὶ κατήργηται ἡ ἐπαγγελία· For if those of the law were heirs, faith would have been made void, and the promise would have been invalidated, if: clearly an unreal condition, without ἄν, as in Rom 7:7.

invalidated ← nullified.
Rom 4:15 ὁ γὰρ νόμος ὀργὴν κατεργάζεται· οὗ γὰρ οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος, οὐδὲ παράβασις. for the law engenders wrath, for where there is no law, neither is there transgression.
Rom 4:16 Διὰ τοῦτο ἐκ πίστεως, ἵνα κατὰ χάριν, εἰς τὸ εἶναι βεβαίαν τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν παντὶ τῷ σπέρματι, οὐ τῷ ἐκ τοῦ νόμου μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῷ ἐκ πίστεως Ἀβραάμ, ὅς ἐστιν πατὴρ πάντων ἡμῶν - Here is why it is of faith: so that it is by grace, in order that the promise be secure for all the seed, not only to that of the law, but also to that of Abraham's faith, who is the father of us all, here is why ← on account of this.
Rom 4:17 καθὼς γέγραπται ὅτι Πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν τέθεικά σε - κατέναντι οὗ ἐπίστευσεν θεοῦ, τοῦ ζῳοποιοῦντος τοὺς νεκρούς, καὶ καλοῦντος τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα. as it stands written: “I have appointed you a father of many nations”, in the sight of God, whom he believed, who makes the dead alive and calls the things not in existence to exist. Gen 17:5.

in existence ← being, existing.

to exist ← as being, existing.
Rom 4:18 Ὃς παρ' ἐλπίδα ἐπ' ἐλπίδι ἐπίστευσεν, εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι αὐτὸν πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν, κατὰ τὸ εἰρημένον, Οὕτως ἔσται τὸ σπέρμα σου. And he against hope but in hope believed, so that he became the father of many nations according to what had been spoken: “So shall your seed be.” Gen 15:5.
Rom 4:19 Καὶ μὴ ἀσθενήσας τῇ πίστει, οὐ κατενόησεν τὸ ἑαυτοῦ σῶμα ἤδη νενεκρωμένον - ἑκατονταέτης που ὑπάρχων - καὶ τὴν νέκρωσιν {RP TR: τῆς} [P1904: - ] μήτρας Σάρρας· And not being weak in faith, he did not consider his own body, which was by that time dead, he being about one hundred years old, or the deadness of Sarah's womb, τῆς, of the: present in RP TR F1859=11/12 vs. absent in P1904 F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's m).

being ← having been. See Matt 23:20.
Rom 4:20 εἰς δὲ τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ θεοῦ οὐ διεκρίθη τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ, ἀλλ' ἐνεδυναμώθη τῇ πίστει, δοὺς δόξαν τῷ θεῷ, and he did not hesitate at God's promise in disbelief, but he was strengthened in faith, and he gave glory to God,
Rom 4:21 καὶ πληροφορηθεὶς ὅτι ὃ ἐπήγγελται, δυνατός ἐστιν καὶ ποιῆσαι. and he was fully convinced that what he had promised, he was also able to do, what he had promised: deponent middle, as in all similar occurrences, but theoretically also passive, what had been promised.
Rom 4:22 Διὸ καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. which is also why it was imputed to him as righteousness. Gen 15:6.

which is also why ← on account of which also.
Rom 4:23 Οὐκ ἐγράφη δὲ δι' αὐτὸν μόνον, ὅτι ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ· But it was not written for his sake alone that it was imputed to him,
Rom 4:24 ἀλλὰ καὶ δι' ἡμᾶς, οἷς μέλλει λογίζεσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν ἐπὶ τὸν ἐγείραντα Ἰησοῦν τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν ἐκ νεκρῶν, but also for our sakes, to whom it is going to be imputed – to us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,
Rom 4:25 ὃς παρεδόθη διὰ τὰ παραπτώματα ἡμῶν, καὶ ἠγέρθη διὰ τὴν δικαίωσιν ἡμῶν. who was delivered on account of our transgressions and raised on account of our justification.
Rom 5:1 Δικαιωθέντες οὖν ἐκ πίστεως, εἰρήνην {RP-text P1904 TR: ἔχομεν} [RP-marg: ἔχωμεν] πρὸς τὸν θεὸν διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, Having been justified therefore by faith, {RP-text P1904 TR: we have} [RP-marg: let us have] peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, ἔχομεν, we have, RP-text P1904 TR F1859=10/13 (Scrivener's abcdgh**klno) vs. ἔχωμεν, let us have (hortatory subjunctive), RP-marg F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's fh*m).
Rom 5:2 δι' οὗ καὶ τὴν προσαγωγὴν ἐσχήκαμεν τῇ πίστει εἰς τὴν χάριν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν, καὶ καυχώμεθα ἐπ' ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ. through whom we have also obtained access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and we exult in the hope of the glory of God.
Rom 5:3 Οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμεθα ἐν ταῖς θλίψεσιν, εἰδότες ὅτι ἡ θλίψις ὑπομονὴν κατεργάζεται, And not only so, but we also exult in tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces patience;
Rom 5:4 ἡ δὲ ὑπομονὴ δοκιμήν, ἡ δὲ δοκιμὴ ἐλπίδα· and patience, proven character; and proven character, hope.
Rom 5:5 ἡ δὲ ἐλπὶς οὐ καταισχύνει, ὅτι ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ ἐκκέχυται ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου τοῦ δοθέντος ἡμῖν. Now hope does not cause shame, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by holy spirit which has been given to us.
Rom 5:6 Ἔτι γὰρ χριστός, ὄντων ἡμῶν ἀσθενῶν, κατὰ καιρὸν ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν ἀπέθανεν. For while we were still weak, Christ at the due time died for the ungodly.
Rom 5:7 Μόλις γὰρ ὑπὲρ δικαίου τις ἀποθανεῖται· ὑπὲρ γὰρ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ τάχα τις καὶ τολμᾷ ἀποθανεῖν. For scarcely will anyone die for a righteous person. Yet for a good person someone might perhaps even dare to die. yet ← for. See Acts 8:39.
Rom 5:8 Συνίστησιν δὲ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀγάπην εἰς ἡμᾶς ὁ θεός, ὅτι ἔτι ἁμαρτωλῶν ὄντων ἡμῶν χριστὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἀπέθανεν. But God commends his own love to us, because while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.
Rom 5:9 Πολλῷ οὖν μᾶλλον, δικαιωθέντες νῦν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ, σωθησόμεθα δι' αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀργῆς. So having been all the more justified now by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath by him. all the more ← by much more.

wrath ← the wrath. See Gen 22:9.
Rom 5:10 Εἰ γὰρ ἐχθροὶ ὄντες κατηλλάγημεν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, πολλῷ μᾶλλον καταλλαγέντες σωθησόμεθα ἐν τῇ ζωῇ αὐτοῦ· For if when we were hostile, we were reconciled to God through the death of his son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved by his life!
Rom 5:11 οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμενοι ἐν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, δι' οὗ νῦν τὴν καταλλαγὴν ἐλάβομεν. And not only so, but we also exult in God through our Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation. reconciliation ← the reconciliation. See Gen 22:9.
Rom 5:12 Διὰ τοῦτο, ὥσπερ δι' ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσῆλθεν, καὶ διὰ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ θάνατος, καὶ οὕτως εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὁ θάνατος διῆλθεν, ἐφ' ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον - This is why, just as sin came into the world through one man, and through sin, death, so also death passed on to all men, seeing that all have sinned, this is why ← on account of this.
Rom 5:13 ἄχρι γὰρ νόμου ἁμαρτία ἦν ἐν κόσμῳ· ἁμαρτία δὲ οὐκ ἐλλογεῖται, μὴ ὄντος νόμου. for even before the law sin was in the world, but sin is not indicted when there is no law. even before ← until, but also after the law, though with a change of circumstances.
Rom 5:14 Ἀλλ' ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι {RP-text P1904: Μωϋσέως} [RP-marg TR: Μωσέως] καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ, ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος. But death reigned from Adam to Moses, including over those who had not sinned in a similar way to the transgression of Adam, who is a depiction of the one to come. Μωϋσέως, Moüses (1), RP-text P1904 F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's h**kmn) vs. Μωσέως, Moses, RP-marg TR F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's bcdo) vs. Μωϋσέος, Moüses (2), F1859=5/13 (Scrivener's afgh*l). Nearly a disparity with RP-text, R=5:5.

including ← also.

depiction: the AV's figure, and ↴
Rom 5:15 Ἀλλ' οὐχ ὡς τὸ παράπτωμα, οὕτως καὶ τὸ χάρισμα. Εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι τῇ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσεν. But the act of grace is not as the transgression is. For if in the transgression of one person, many have died, how much more has the grace of God, and the gift in grace which is from one man Jesus Christ, abounded to many! ↳ in commentaries often type, e.g. Ada R. Habershon's A Study of the Types. Adam is of course real, while in his life depicting Christ in a limited way.

as ← as also (otiose καί). The Greek emphasizes the (negated) balance with ὡς ... οὕτως καὶ, as ... as also, whereas in English, a single as is sufficient.

from ← of.
Rom 5:16 Καὶ οὐχ ὡς δι' ἑνὸς ἁμαρτήσαντος, τὸ δώρημα· τὸ μὲν γὰρ κρίμα ἐξ ἑνὸς εἰς κατάκριμα, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα ἐκ πολλῶν παραπτωμάτων εἰς δικαίωμα. And the gift is not just subsequent to one person having sinned. For the judgment on one person led to condemnation, but the act of grace ensuing from many transgressions led to justification. just ← as.

subsequent to ← through. The preposition διά + genitive is apparently also resultant in Rom 8:3.

on ← from.
Rom 5:17 Εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι ὁ θάνατος ἐβασίλευσεν διὰ τοῦ ἑνός, πολλῷ μᾶλλον οἱ τὴν περισσείαν τῆς χάριτος καὶ τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς δικαιοσύνης λαμβάνοντες ἐν ζωῇ βασιλεύσουσιν διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. For if death started reigning by the transgression of one man – through the one – how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the gift of righteousness reign in life through one man, Jesus Christ! started reigning: inceptive aorist.
Rom 5:18 Ἄρα οὖν ὡς δι' ἑνὸς παραπτώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς κατάκριμα, οὕτως καὶ δι' ἑνὸς δικαιώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς. So then, as by one transgression sentence came on all men leading to condemnation, so also by one righteous act the gift came to all men leading to justification which is life. one transgression ... one righteous act: or (the) transgression of one (man) ... (the) righteous act of one (man).

which isof (epexegetic genitive), or more precisely the kind of justification which is evidenced by life.
Rom 5:19 Ὥσπερ γὰρ διὰ τῆς παρακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθησαν οἱ πολλοί, οὕτως καὶ διὰ τῆς ὑπακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς δίκαιοι κατασταθήσονται οἱ πολλοί. For as through the disobedience of one man many were established as sinners, so also through the obedience of one many will be established as righteous.
Rom 5:20 Νόμος δὲ παρεισῆλθεν, ἵνα πλεονάσῃ τὸ παράπτωμα· οὗ δὲ ἐπλεόνασεν ἡ ἁμαρτία, ὑπερεπερίσσευσεν ἡ χάρις· Then the law came along, so that transgression should abound, but where sin abounded, grace superabounded, abound: not to cause increase, but to show up the existing extent.
Rom 5:21 ἵνα ὥσπερ ἐβασίλευσεν ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐν τῷ θανάτῳ, οὕτως καὶ ἡ χάρις βασιλεύσῃ διὰ δικαιοσύνης εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, διὰ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν. so that as sin reigned by death, so also grace might reign through righteousness leading to age-abiding life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Rom 6:1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; {RP-text: Ἐπιμένομεν} [RP-marg: Ἐπιμένωμεν] [RP-marg2 P1904 TR: Ἐπιμενοῦμεν] τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ; What then shall we say? {RP-text: Do} [RP-marg: Should] [RP-marg2 P1904 TR: Shall] we continue in sin so that grace may abound? ἐπιμένομεν, do we continue, RP-text F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's dn) vs. ἐπιμένωμεν, should we continue (present subjunctive), RP-marg F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's b*mo) vs. ἐπιμενοῦμεν, shall we continue, RP-marg2 P1904 TR F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's ab**cfghl) vs. ἐπιμείνωμεν, should we continue (aorist subjunctive), F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's k). A strong disparity with RP, R=2:9.
Rom 6:2 Μὴ γένοιτο. Οἵτινες ἀπεθάνομεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, πῶς ἔτι ζήσομεν ἐν αὐτῇ; Far from it! How shall we who have died to sin go on living in it? far from it ← may it not become / be.

go on living ← still live.
Rom 6:3 Ἢ ἀγνοεῖτε ὅτι ὅσοι ἐβαπτίσθημεν εἰς χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν, εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ ἐβαπτίσθημεν; Or do you not know that as many of us as have been baptized into Christ Jesus have been baptized into his death? Christ Jesus: AV differs in word order, Jesus Christ.
Rom 6:4 Συνετάφημεν οὖν αὐτῷ διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος εἰς τὸν θάνατον· ἵνα ὥσπερ ἠγέρθη χριστὸς ἐκ νεκρῶν διὰ τῆς δόξης τοῦ πατρός, οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατήσωμεν. Therefore we have been buried with him through baptism into death, in order that as Christ rose from the dead by the glory of the father, so we too should walk in newness of life. buried: or entombed (and the Lord was put in a tomb).
Rom 6:5 Εἰ γὰρ σύμφυτοι γεγόναμεν τῷ ὁμοιώματι τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως ἐσόμεθα· For if we have been made of a joint nature in the likeness of his death, then we shall also be in the likeness of his resurrection, been made of a joint nature ← become jointly grown, been jointly begotten.

then ← but. Compare 2 Cor 13:4.
Rom 6:6 τοῦτο γινώσκοντες, ὅτι ὁ παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος συνεσταυρώθη, ἵνα καταργηθῇ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας, τοῦ μηκέτι δουλεύειν ἡμᾶς τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ· knowing this, that our old man was jointly crucified, in order that the body of sin might be put out of action, so that we should no longer serve sin.
Rom 6:7 ὁ γὰρ ἀποθανὼν δεδικαίωται ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας. For he who has died has been cleared of sin. cleared ← justified.
Rom 6:8 Εἰ δὲ ἀπεθάνομεν σὺν χριστῷ, πιστεύομεν ὅτι καὶ συζήσομεν αὐτῷ· So if we died with Christ, we believe we shall also live with him,
Rom 6:9 εἰδότες ὅτι χριστὸς ἐγερθεὶς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὐκέτι ἀποθνῄσκει· θάνατος αὐτοῦ οὐκέτι κυριεύει. knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, no longer dies; death no longer has dominion over him.
Rom 6:10 Ὃ γὰρ ἀπέθανεν, τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ἀπέθανεν ἐφάπαξ· ὃ δὲ ζῇ, ζῇ τῷ θεῷ. For as regards the fact that he died, he died to sin once and for all, but as regards the fact that he is alive, he is alive to God. once and for all: see Heb 7:27.
Rom 6:11 Οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς λογίζεσθε ἑαυτοὺς νεκροὺς μὲν εἶναι τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ζῶντας δὲ τῷ θεῷ ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. Likewise, you also count yourselves to be dead to sin, but living to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. Christ Jesus: AV differs in word order, Jesus Christ.
Rom 6:12 Μὴ οὖν βασιλευέτω ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐν τῷ θνητῷ ὑμῶν σώματι, εἰς τὸ ὑπακούειν αὐτῇ ἐν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις αὐτοῦ· Do not let sin reign in your mortal body by obeying it in its desires. obeying it: i.e. obeying sin.
Rom 6:13 μηδὲ παριστάνετε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα ἀδικίας τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ· ἀλλὰ παραστήσατε ἑαυτοὺς τῷ θεῷ ὡς ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας, καὶ τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα δικαιοσύνης τῷ θεῷ. And do not put your members as weapons of iniquity at the disposal of sin, but put yourselves at the disposal of God, as being living from the dead, and your members as weapons of righteousness at the disposal of God.
Rom 6:14 Ἁμαρτία γὰρ ὑμῶν οὐ κυριεύσει· οὐ γάρ ἐστε ὑπὸ νόμον, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ χάριν. For sin shall not have dominion over you, for you are not under the law, but under grace.
Rom 6:15 Τί οὖν; Ἁμαρτήσομεν, ὅτι οὐκ ἐσμὲν ὑπὸ νόμον, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ χάριν; Μὴ γένοιτο. What then? Shall we sin because we are not under the law, but under grace? Far from it. far from it ← may it not become / be.
Rom 6:16 Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ᾧ παριστάνετε ἑαυτοὺς δούλους εἰς ὑπακοήν, δοῦλοί ἐστε ᾧ ὑπακούετε, ἤτοι ἁμαρτίας εἰς θάνατον, ἢ ὑπακοῆς εἰς δικαιοσύνην; Do you not know that to whom you put yourselves at the disposal of as slaves in obedience – to him whom you obey – you are slaves, whether of sin resulting in death or of obedience resulting in righteousness? Punctuation: we have separated out to him whom you obey as a parenthetic summary of the previous clause, a division which is not apparent in RP P1904 or TBS-TR punctuation.
Rom 6:17 Χάρις δὲ τῷ θεῷ, ὅτι ἦτε δοῦλοι τῆς ἁμαρτίας, ὑπηκούσατε δὲ ἐκ καρδίας εἰς ὃν παρεδόθητε τύπον διδαχῆς· But thanks be to God, because you were slaves of sin, but you have been obedient from the heart to the form of doctrine to which you were committed. thanks ← grace. The usual word for thanks, εὐχαριστία, e.g. 1 Tim 4:4, is cognate with the word for grace, χάρις.
Rom 6:18 ἐλευθερωθέντες δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας, ἐδουλώθητε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ. But having been set free from sin, you have become servants of righteousness. servants of ← enslaved to.
Rom 6:19 Ἀνθρώπινον λέγω διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν· ὥσπερ γὰρ παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀνομίᾳ εἰς τὴν ἀνομίαν, οὕτως νῦν παραστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ εἰς ἁγιασμόν. I speak humanly on account of the weakness of your flesh. For as you have in the past put your members in service to immorality and lawlessness, resulting in lawlessness, so now put your members in service to righteousness, resulting in sanctification.
Rom 6:20 Ὅτε γὰρ δοῦλοι ἦτε τῆς ἁμαρτίας, ἐλεύθεροι ἦτε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ. For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. free: the opposite of servant / slave.
Rom 6:21 Τίνα οὖν καρπὸν εἴχετε τότε ἐφ' οἷς νῦν ἐπαισχύνεσθε; Τὸ γὰρ τέλος ἐκείνων θάνατος. So what fruit did you then have from the things of which you are now ashamed? For the result of those things is death.
Rom 6:22 Νυνὶ δὲ ἐλευθερωθέντες ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας, δουλωθέντες δὲ τῷ θεῷ, ἔχετε τὸν καρπὸν ὑμῶν εἰς ἁγιασμόν, τὸ δὲ τέλος ζωὴν αἰώνιον. But now, having been set free from sin, and having been made servants to God, you have your fruit in sanctification, and the result, which is age-abiding life.
Rom 6:23 Τὰ γὰρ ὀψώνια τῆς ἁμαρτίας θάνατος, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα τοῦ θεοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιος ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. For the wages of sin are death, but the gift of God is age-abiding life in Christ Jesus our Lord. Christ Jesus: AV differs in word order, Jesus Christ.
Rom 7:1 Ἢ ἀγνοεῖτε, ἀδελφοί - γινώσκουσιν γὰρ νόμον λαλῶ - ὅτι ὁ νόμος κυριεύει τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐφ' ὅσον χρόνον ζῇ; Or are you unaware, brothers – for I speak to those who know the law – that the law rules over man as long as he is alive?
Rom 7:2 Ἡ γὰρ ὕπανδρος γυνὴ τῷ ζῶντι ἀνδρὶ δέδεται νόμῳ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ, κατήργηται ἀπὸ τοῦ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: νόμου τοῦ} [E1624: - ] ἀνδρός. For a married woman is bound by the law to her husband while he is alive, but if the husband dies, she is released from {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: the law of the} [E1624: her] husband. νόμου τοῦ, law of the: present in RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=12/12 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. absent in E1624 F1859=0/12.

married: literally, under / subject to a husband.

is released ← has been annulled / abolished.
Rom 7:3 Ἄρα οὖν ζῶντος τοῦ ἀνδρὸς μοιχαλὶς χρηματίσει, ἐὰν γένηται ἀνδρὶ ἑτέρῳ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ, ἐλευθέρα ἐστὶν ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου, τοῦ μὴ εἶναι αὐτὴν μοιχαλίδα, γενομένην ἀνδρὶ ἑτέρῳ. So she will be called an adulteress if she becomes the wife of another man while the husband is alive. But if the husband dies, she is free from the law, so that she is not an adulteress if she becomes the wife of another man. be called ← transact, then later be styled, bear the title of.

man (2x)husband.

if she becomes: conditional use of the participle. AV differs (though ...), concessive use, which is also possible.
Rom 7:4 Ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐθανατώθητε τῷ νόμῳ διὰ τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ, εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι ὑμᾶς ἑτέρῳ, τῷ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγερθέντι, ἵνα καρποφορήσωμεν τῷ θεῷ. So, my brothers, you too have died to the law through the body of Christ so as to become subject to another, him who has been raised from the dead, so that we may bear fruit to God. have died ← were put to death.
Rom 7:5 Ὅτε γὰρ ἦμεν ἐν τῇ σαρκί, τὰ παθήματα τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν τὰ διὰ τοῦ νόμου ἐνηργεῖτο ἐν τοῖς μέλεσιν ἡμῶν εἰς τὸ καρποφορῆσαι τῷ θανάτῳ. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions defined by the law were active in our members so as to produce fruit to death. sinful passions ← passions of sin, a Hebraic genitive.

defined by ← through.
Rom 7:6 Νυνὶ δὲ κατηργήθημεν ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου, {RP P1904 S1550: ἀποθανόντες} [E1624 S1894: ἀποθανόντος] ἐν ᾧ κατειχόμεθα, ὥστε δουλεύειν ἡμᾶς ἐν καινότητι πνεύματος, καὶ οὐ παλαιότητι γράμματος. But now, we have been released from the law, and {RP P1904 S1550: we have died to that by which we were being held} [E1624 S1894: that by which we were being held having died], so that we should serve in newness of spirit and not in the oldness of the letter. ἀποθανόντες, (we) having died, RP P1904 S1550 F1859=12/12 vs. ἀποθανόντος, (it / he) having died, E1624 S1894 F1859=0/12.

released ← annulled / abolished.

letter: i.e. the law of Moses.
Rom 7:7 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; Ὁ νόμος ἁμαρτία; Μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλὰ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ ἔγνων, εἰ μὴ διὰ νόμου· τήν τε γὰρ ἐπιθυμίαν οὐκ ᾔδειν, εἰ μὴ ὁ νόμος ἔλεγεν, Οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις· What, then, shall we say? Is the law sin? Far from it. But I would not have known sin, except through the law. For indeed I would not have known covetousness if the law had not said, “You shall not covet.” Ex 20:17, Deut 5:21.

far from it ← may it not become / be.

if: an unreal condition, without ἄν.
Rom 7:8 ἀφορμὴν δὲ λαβοῦσα ἡ ἁμαρτία διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς κατειργάσατο ἐν ἐμοὶ πᾶσαν ἐπιθυμίαν· χωρὶς γὰρ νόμου ἁμαρτία νεκρά. And sin, having seized the opportunity through the commandment, engendered in me all sorts of covetousness. For without the law, sin is dead.
Rom 7:9 Ἐγὼ δὲ ἔζων χωρὶς νόμου ποτέ· ἐλθούσης δὲ τῆς ἐντολῆς, ἡ ἁμαρτία ἀνέζησεν, ἐγὼ δὲ ἀπέθανον· And I was alive without the law at one time. But when the commandment came, sin came to life, but I died, came to life ← came back to life.
Rom 7:10 καὶ εὑρέθη μοι ἡ ἐντολὴ ἡ εἰς ζωήν, αὕτη εἰς θάνατον· and the very commandment leading to life was found by me to lead to death, the very commandment leading to life was found ← the commandment leading to life, this was found.
Rom 7:11 ἡ γὰρ ἁμαρτία ἀφορμὴν λαβοῦσα διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς ἐξηπάτησέν με, καὶ {RP TR: δι'} [P1904: διὰ] αὐτῆς ἀπέκτεινεν. for sin seized the opportunity through the commandment, and it deceived me and killed me through that. δι', through (apocopated), RP TR F1859=12/12 vs. διὰ, through (unapocopated), P1904 F1859=0/12.

that ← it. We take the antecedent to be the commandment.
Rom 7:12 Ὥστε ὁ μὲν νόμος ἅγιος, καὶ ἡ ἐντολὴ ἁγία καὶ δικαία καὶ ἀγαθή. And so the law is holy, and the commandment holy and righteous and good.
Rom 7:13 Τὸ οὖν ἀγαθὸν ἐμοὶ γέγονεν θάνατος; Μὴ γένοιτο. Ἀλλὰ ἡ ἁμαρτία, ἵνα φανῇ ἁμαρτία, διὰ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ μοι κατεργαζομένη θάνατον - ἵνα γένηται καθ' ὑπερβολὴν ἁμαρτωλὸς ἡ ἁμαρτία διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς. So did that which was good become death to me? Far from it. But sin did, in order that it might be shown up as sin, engendering death to me through that which is good – in order that sin might become exceedingly sinful through the commandment. far from it ← may it not become / be.
Rom 7:14 Οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι ὁ νόμος πνευματικός ἐστιν· ἐγὼ δὲ σαρκικός εἰμι, πεπραμένος ὑπὸ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am carnal, sold under sin.
Rom 7:15 Ὃ γὰρ κατεργάζομαι, οὐ γινώσκω· οὐ γὰρ ὃ θέλω, τοῦτο πράσσω· ἀλλ' ὃ μισῶ, τοῦτο ποιῶ. For I do not approve of what I do. For it is not the case that I do what I want to do, but what I hate – that is what I do. approve of ← know. [CB] has approve, though it is not a meaning given by [LS], [MG] (realize) or [MM].

There are three different words for do in the Greek, but it is hard to ↴
Rom 7:16 Εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ θέλω, τοῦτο ποιῶ, σύμφημι τῷ νόμῳ ὅτι καλός. And if I do what I do not wish to do, I assent to the law that it is good. ↳ identify and express any difference in shade of meaning. Perhaps more literally κατεργάζομαι = work at, πράσσω = practise, ποιέω = do. These verbs also occur in the next few verses.
Rom 7:17 Νυνὶ δὲ οὐκέτι ἐγὼ κατεργάζομαι αὐτό, ἀλλ' ἡ οἰκοῦσα ἐν ἐμοὶ ἁμαρτία. But now it is no longer I who do it, but sin which dwells in me.
Rom 7:18 Οἶδα γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ οἰκεῖ ἐν ἐμοί, τοῦτ' ἔστιν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου, ἀγαθόν· τὸ γὰρ θέλειν παράκειταί μοι, τὸ δὲ κατεργάζεσθαι τὸ καλὸν οὐχ εὑρίσκω. For I know that there does not dwell in me – that is, in my flesh – anything good. For willing a thing is readily available to me, but doing that which is good escapes me. is readily available ← lies alongside.

escapes me ← I do not find.
Rom 7:19 Οὐ γὰρ ὃ θέλω, ποιῶ ἀγαθόν· ἀλλ' ὃ οὐ θέλω κακόν, τοῦτο πράσσω. For I do not do the good that I wish to do, but as for the evil that I do not wish to do – that is what I do.
Rom 7:20 Εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ θέλω ἐγώ, τοῦτο ποιῶ, οὐκέτι ἐγὼ κατεργάζομαι αὐτό, ἀλλ' ἡ οἰκοῦσα ἐν ἐμοὶ ἁμαρτία. Now if I do that which I do not wish to do, it is no longer I who do it, but the sin which dwells in me.
Rom 7:21 Εὑρίσκω ἄρα τὸν νόμον τῷ θέλοντι ἐμοὶ ποιεῖν τὸ καλόν, ὅτι ἐμοὶ τὸ κακὸν παράκειται. So I find the principle for me, who would like to do that which is good, that evil besets me. principle ← law.

would like ← wants.

besets ← lies alongside.
Rom 7:22 Συνήδομαι γὰρ τῷ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ κατὰ τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον· For I delight in the law of God from the perspective of the inward man.
Rom 7:23 βλέπω δὲ ἕτερον νόμον ἐν τοῖς μέλεσίν μου ἀντιστρατευόμενον τῷ νόμῳ τοῦ νοός μου, καὶ αἰχμαλωτίζοντά με {RP-text TR: - } [RP-marg P1904: ἐν] τῷ νόμῳ τῆς ἁμαρτίας τῷ ὄντι ἐν τοῖς μέλεσίν μου. But I see another law in my members warring against the law of my mind and {RP-text TR: making me captive to} [RP-marg P1904: taking me captive in] the law of sin which is in my members. ἐν, in (the law): absent in RP-text TR F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's ab**dfghl) vs. present in RP-marg P1904 F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's b*ckmno). Nearly a disparity with RP-text, R=8:7.

which: the antecedent is law, not sin.
Rom 7:24 Ταλαίπωρος ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπος· τίς με ῥύσεται ἐκ τοῦ σώματος τοῦ θανάτου τούτου; Miserable man that I am! Who will rescue me from this mortal body? mortal body ← body of death, a Hebraic genitive.
Rom 7:25 Εὐχαριστῶ τῷ θεῷ διὰ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν. Ἄρα οὖν αὐτὸς ἐγὼ τῷ μὲν νοῒ δουλεύω νόμῳ θεοῦ, τῇ δὲ σαρκὶ νόμῳ ἁμαρτίας. I thank God that it is through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then, I myself serve the law of God with my mind, but the law of sin with the flesh.
Rom 8:1 Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα. So there is now no condemnation of those in Christ Jesus, who do not walk according to the flesh, but according to the spirit.
Rom 8:2 Ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν με ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου. For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus has freed me from the law of sin and death.
Rom 8:3 Τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινεν τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί· For what was impossible with the law, in that it was weak as a result of the flesh, God did, having sent his own son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and concerning sin he condemned sin in the flesh, with ← of.

as a result of ← through.

sinful flesh ← flesh of sin, a Hebraic genitive. Flesh and sin are associated in natural sinful man, which we feel is ↴
Rom 8:4 ἵνα τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν, τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα. in order that the righteous decree of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk not according to the flesh but according to the spirit. ↳ the sense of flesh of sin, though Christ breaks that association, yet bearing man's sin. [CB] translates (likeness of) sin's flesh, so as to ↴
Rom 8:5 Οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν· οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος. For those who are according to the flesh concentrate on the interests of the flesh, but those who are according to the spirit concentrate on the interests of the spirit. ↳ avoid any association of Christ's flesh with sin, but this leaves the strange concept of sin having flesh. Angels also sinned (2 Pet 2:4), presumably initially when not in the flesh.
Rom 8:6 Τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος· τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη· For the mindset of the flesh is on a par with death, but the mindset of the spirit is on a par with life and peace.
Rom 8:7 διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα εἰς θεόν, τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται, οὐδὲ γὰρ δύναται· For the mindset of the flesh is hostile to God, for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can it be,
Rom 8:8 οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται. and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.
Rom 8:9 Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκί, ἀλλ' ἐν πνεύματι, εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν. Εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ. But you are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, assuming the spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone does not have the spirit of Christ, he is not one of his. assuming ← if indeed.

he ← this (one).
Rom 8:10 Εἰ δὲ χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν {RP: διὰ} [P1904 TR: δι'] ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην. But if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is life because of righteousness. διὰ, on account of (unapocopated), RP F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's dgn) vs. δι', on account of (apocopated), P1904 TR F1859=8/12 (Scrivener's abcfhklo) vs. διὰ, on account of (unapocopated), in another reading, F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's m). A strong disparity with RP, R=3:10.
Rom 8:11 Εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας τὸν χριστὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῳοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν, διὰ {RP P1904 S1550: τὸ ἐνοικοῦν αὐτοῦ πνεῦμα} [E1624 S1894: τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντος αὐτοῦ πνεύματος] ἐν ὑμῖν. And if the spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies {RP P1904 S1550: on account of} [E1624 S1894: through] his spirit which dwells in you. τὸ ἐνοικοῦν αὐτοῦ πνεῦμα, (on account of) his indwelling spirit, RP P1904 S1550 F1859=9/12 (Scrivener's bc(tacite)fghklno) vs. τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντος αὐτοῦ πνεύματος, (through) his indwelling spirit, E1624 S1894 F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's adm).
Rom 8:12 Ἄρα οὖν, ἀδελφοί, ὀφειλέται ἐσμέν, οὐ τῇ σαρκί, τοῦ κατὰ σάρκα ζῇν· So then, brothers, we are debtors, but not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh,
Rom 8:13 εἰ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ζῆτε, μέλλετε ἀποθνῄσκειν· εἰ δὲ πνεύματι τὰς πράξεις τοῦ σώματος θανατοῦτε, ζήσεσθε. for if you live according to the flesh, you are going to die. But if you mortify the deeds of the body through the spirit, you will live. are going to: not the future tense, but from the verb μέλλω, so possibly are about to, are destined to or even in this context are doomed to.

through: dative of instrument.
Rom 8:14 Ὅσοι γὰρ πνεύματι θεοῦ ἄγονται, οὗτοί εἰσιν υἱοὶ θεοῦ. For those who are led by the spirit of God are the sons of God. those who ... are ← as many as ... these are.
Rom 8:15 Οὐ γὰρ ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα δουλείας πάλιν εἰς φόβον, ἀλλ' ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας, ἐν ᾧ κράζομεν, Ἀββᾶ, ὁ πατήρ. For you have not received the spirit of bondage again, leading to fear, but you have received the spirit of adoption, by which we cry, “Abba, father.” Abba: Aramaic for father.
Rom 8:16 Αὐτὸ τὸ πνεῦμα συμμαρτυρεῖ τῷ πνεύματι ἡμῶν, ὅτι ἐσμὲν τέκνα θεοῦ· The spirit itself bears joint witness with our spirit that we are children of God.
Rom 8:17 εἰ δὲ τέκνα, καὶ κληρονόμοι· κληρονόμοι μὲν θεοῦ, συγκληρονόμοι δὲ χριστοῦ· εἴπερ συμπάσχομεν, ἵνα καὶ συνδοξασθῶμεν. And if children, then also heirs, God's heirs at that, and Christ's joint heirs, if indeed we jointly suffer, in order also for us to be jointly glorified. Punctuation: the meaning of this sentence, especially the scope of the apodosis to the conditional, could be changed somewhat by replacing one of the commas by a semicolon. We leave a neutral interpretation with our commas in our translation, but we have a leaning towards a longer break after God's heirs at that.
Rom 8:18 Λογίζομαι γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ ἄξια τὰ παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ πρὸς τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς. For I do not consider the sufferings of the present time worthy compared to the coming glory which is to be revealed to us. do not consider ... worthy ← consider ... not worthy.
Rom 8:19 Ἡ γὰρ ἀποκαραδοκία τῆς κτίσεως τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν τῶν υἱῶν τοῦ θεοῦ ἀπεκδέχεται. For the eager expectation of creation awaits the revelation of the sons of God. creation: AV differs (creature).
Rom 8:20 Τῇ γὰρ ματαιότητι ἡ κτίσις ὑπετάγη, οὐχ ἑκοῦσα, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα, ἐπ' ἐλπίδι· For creation was subject to futility, not willingly, but on account of him who did the subjecting, but in hope creation: AV differs (creature).
Rom 8:21 ὅτι καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ κτίσις ἐλευθερωθήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς εἰς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ. that also creation itself will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the glorious freedom of the children of God. creation: AV differs (creature).

glorious freedom ← freedom of glory, a Hebraic genitive.
Rom 8:22 Οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι πᾶσα ἡ κτίσις συστενάζει καὶ συνωδίνει ἄχρι τοῦ νῦν. For we know that the whole of creation has been groaning and suffering labour pains together up to now.
Rom 8:23 Οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ τὴν ἀπαρχὴν τοῦ πνεύματος ἔχοντες, καὶ ἡμεῖς αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς στενάζομεν, υἱοθεσίαν ἀπεκδεχόμενοι, τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν. And not only that, but also those who have the firstfruit of the spirit, and we ourselves also groan inwardly while awaiting the adoption – the redemption of our body. inwardly ← in ourselves.
Rom 8:24 Τῇ γὰρ ἐλπίδι ἐσώθημεν· ἐλπὶς δὲ βλεπομένη οὐκ ἔστιν ἐλπίς· ὃ γὰρ βλέπει τις, τί καὶ ἐλπίζει; For we have been saved by hope. Now hope which is seen is not hope. For what someone sees, in what way does he also hope for it?
Rom 8:25 Εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ βλέπομεν ἐλπίζομεν, δι' ὑπομονῆς ἀπεκδεχόμεθα. But if we hope for that which we do not see, we await it with patience.
Rom 8:26 Ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα συναντιλαμβάνεται ταῖς ἀσθενείαις ἡμῶν· τὸ γὰρ τί {RP P1904: προσευξόμεθα} [TR: προσευξώμεθα] καθὸ δεῖ, οὐκ οἴδαμεν, ἀλλ' αὐτὸ τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπερεντυγχάνει ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις· And likewise, the spirit also helps counter our weaknesses. For we do not know in what way {RP P1904: we shall pray} [TR: we should pray] – as we ought to – but the spirit itself intercedes for us with unutterable sighings. προσευξόμεθα, we shall pray, RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. προσευξώμεθα, we should pray (deliberative subjunctive), TR F1859=0/12.
Rom 8:27 ὁ δὲ ἐρευνῶν τὰς καρδίας οἶδεν τί τὸ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος, ὅτι κατὰ θεὸν ἐντυγχάνει ὑπὲρ ἁγίων. And he who searches hearts knows what the mindset of the spirit is, because it intercedes for the saints in God's way. Jer 17:10, Jer 20:12. See also Rev 2:23.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
Rom 8:28 Οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν τὸν θεὸν πάντα συνεργεῖ εἰς ἀγαθόν, τοῖς κατὰ πρόθεσιν κλητοῖς οὖσιν. And we know that for those who love God, all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose,
Rom 8:29 Ὅτι οὓς προέγνω, καὶ προώρισεν συμμόρφους τῆς εἰκόνος τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐν πολλοῖς ἀδελφοῖς· that those whom he knew beforehand, he also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of his son, so that he should be the firstborn among many brothers;
Rom 8:30 οὓς δὲ προώρισεν, τούτους καὶ ἐκάλεσεν· καὶ οὓς ἐκάλεσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδικαίωσεν· οὓς δὲ ἐδικαίωσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδόξασεν. and those whom he predestined, he also called; and those whom he called, he also justified; and those whom he justified, he also glorified.
Rom 8:31 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν πρὸς ταῦτα; Εἰ ὁ θεὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, τίς καθ' ἡμῶν; What, then, shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who is against us?
Rom 8:32 Ὅς γε τοῦ ἰδίου υἱοῦ οὐκ ἐφείσατο, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν πάντων παρέδωκεν αὐτόν, πῶς οὐχὶ καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα ἡμῖν χαρίσεται; He who for his part did not spare his own son but delivered him up for all of us, how will he not with him also make a gift of all things to us? for his part ← also.
Rom 8:33 Τίς ἐγκαλέσει κατὰ ἐκλεκτῶν θεοῦ; Θεὸς ὁ δικαιῶν· Who can bring a charge against God's chosen ones? God is the one who justifies. can ← will, a Hebraism.
Rom 8:34 τίς ὁ κατακρίνων; Χριστὸς ὁ ἀποθανών, μᾶλλον δὲ καὶ ἐγερθείς, ὃς καὶ ἔστιν ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ θεοῦ, ὃς καὶ ἐντυγχάνει ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν. Who is the accuser? Christ is the one who died, or rather, who was also raised, who is also at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us.
Rom 8:35 Τίς ἡμᾶς χωρίσει ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ χριστοῦ; Θλίψις, ἢ στενοχωρία, ἢ διωγμός, ἢ λιμός, ἢ γυμνότης, ἢ κίνδυνος, ἢ μάχαιρα; Who can separate us from the love of Christ? Can tribulation or anguish or persecution or famine or destitution or danger or the sword? can ← will, a Hebraism.

destitution ← nakedness.
Rom 8:36 Καθὼς γέγραπται ὅτι {RP: Ἕνεκέν} [P1904 TR: Ἕνεκά] σου θανατούμεθα ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν· ἐλογίσθημεν ὡς πρόβατα σφαγῆς. As it stands written:

For your sake we are killed all day long.

We have been considered as sheep for slaughter.”

ἕνεκέν, for your sake (1), RP F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's mn) vs. ἕνεκά, for your sake (2), P1904 TR F1859=10/12 (Scrivener's abcdfghklo). A strong disparity with RP, R=2:12.

Ps 44:23MT (Ps 44:22AV).
Rom 8:37 Ἀλλ' ἐν τούτοις πᾶσιν ὑπερνικῶμεν διὰ τοῦ ἀγαπήσαντος ἡμᾶς. But in all these things we do more than conquer through him who loved us.
Rom 8:38 Πέπεισμαι γὰρ ὅτι οὔτε θάνατος οὔτε ζωὴ οὔτε ἄγγελοι οὔτε ἀρχαὶ οὔτε δυνάμεις οὔτε ἐνεστῶτα οὔτε μέλλοντα For I have been persuaded that neither death nor life, nor angels, nor dominions nor powers, nor things present or future,
Rom 8:39 οὔτε ὕψωμα οὔτε βάθος οὔτε τις κτίσις ἑτέρα δυνήσεται ἡμᾶς χωρίσαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. nor height nor depth, nor any other creation will be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. creation: AV differs (creature).
Rom 9:1 Ἀλήθειαν λέγω ἐν χριστῷ, οὐ ψεύδομαι, συμμαρτυρούσης μοι τῆς συνειδήσεώς μου ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, I am speaking the truth in Christ – I am not lying – with my conscience jointly bearing me witness by holy spirit,
Rom 9:2 ὅτι λύπη μοι ἐστὶν μεγάλη, καὶ ἀδιάλειπτος ὀδύνη τῇ καρδίᾳ μου. that I have great sorrow and continual distress in my heart. in ← to.
Rom 9:3 {RP: Εὐχόμην} [P1904 TR: Ηὐχόμην] γὰρ αὐτὸς ἐγὼ ἀνάθεμα εἶναι ἀπὸ τοῦ χριστοῦ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀδελφῶν μου, τῶν συγγενῶν μου κατὰ σάρκα· For I could vow that I myself were accursed from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh, εὐχόμην, I could vow, RP F1859=4/12 (Scrivener's ckln) vs. ηὐχόμην, I could vow, P1904 TR F1859=8/12 (Scrivener's abdfghmo). Both forms are imperfect without augment, for a present time frame potential clause, without the classical ἄν. On the absence of ἄν, compare Gal 4:20. A disparity with RP, R=4:10.

accursed ← an accursed thing; a curse.
Rom 9:4 οἵτινές εἰσιν Ἰσραηλῖται, ὧν ἡ υἱοθεσία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ αἱ διαθῆκαι καὶ ἡ νομοθεσία καὶ ἡ λατρεία καὶ αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι, who are Israelites, who have the adoption and the glory and the covenants and the instituting of the law and the service and the promises, service: i.e. temple service in particular.
Rom 9:5 ὧν οἱ πατέρες, καὶ ἐξ ὧν ὁ χριστὸς τὸ κατὰ σάρκα, ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων, θεὸς εὐλογητὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. Ἀμήν. of whom the fathers are, and from whom Christ is as regards the flesh, who is above all, God blessed throughout the ages. Amen.
Rom 9:6 Οὐχ οἷον δὲ ὅτι ἐκπέπτωκεν ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ. Οὐ γὰρ πάντες οἱ ἐξ Ἰσραήλ, οὗτοι Ἰσραήλ· But it is not so that the word of God has failed. For it is not all those of Israel who are Israel, who ← these.
Rom 9:7 οὐδ' ὅτι εἰσὶν σπέρμα Ἀβραάμ, πάντες τέκνα· ἀλλ' Ἐν Ἰσαὰκ κληθήσεταί σοι σπέρμα. nor is it so that because they are the seed of Abraham, they are all children, but, “In the line of Isaac your seed will be called.” Gen 21:12.

called: i.e. acknowledged.
Rom 9:8 Τοῦτ' ἔστιν, οὐ τὰ τέκνα τῆς σαρκός, ταῦτα τέκνα τοῦ θεοῦ· ἀλλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐπαγγελίας λογίζεται εἰς σπέρμα. This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but rather that the children of the promise are counted as seed. means ← is.

who ← these.
Rom 9:9 Ἐπαγγελίας γὰρ ὁ λόγος οὗτος, Κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον ἐλεύσομαι, καὶ ἔσται τῇ Σάρρᾳ υἱός. For this is the word of promise: “At this time I will come, and Sarah will have a son.” Gen 18:14.
Rom 9:10 Οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ Ῥεβέκκα ἐξ ἑνὸς κοίτην ἔχουσα, Ἰσαὰκ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν - And not only this, but Rebecca also conceived from one man, Isaac our father,
Rom 9:11 μήπω γὰρ γεννηθέντων, μηδὲ πραξάντων τι ἀγαθὸν ἢ κακόν, ἵνα ἡ κατ' ἐκλογὴν {RP: πρόθεσις τοῦ θεοῦ} [P1904 TR: τοῦ θεοῦ πρόθεσις] μένῃ, οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων, ἀλλ' ἐκ τοῦ καλοῦντος, for while they had not yet been born and had not done anything good or bad (so that the purpose of God should stand by choice, not of works, but by him who does the calling) πρόθεσις τοῦ θεοῦ, purpose + of God, RP F1859=12/12 vs. τοῦ θεοῦ πρόθεσις, of God + purpose, P1904 TR F1859=0/12. A case of collusion between P1904 and TR?

stand ← remain.

by ← out of, ἐκ being used to match the preposition in not of works.
Rom 9:12 {RP TR: ἐρρήθη} [P1904: ἐρρέθη] αὐτῇ ὅτι Ὁ μείζων δουλεύσει τῷ ἐλάσσονι. it was said to her, “The elder will serve the younger.” ἐρρήθη, it was said (classical form), RP TR F1859=5/12 (Scrivener's acglm) vs. ἐρρέθη, it was said (non-classical form), P1904 F1859=7/12 (Scrivener's bdfhkno). A weak disparity with RP, R=6:8. But in Gal 3:16, a clear majority of our witnesses support the η spelling.

Gen 25:23.
Rom 9:13 Καθὼς γέγραπται, Τὸν Ἰακὼβ ἠγάπησα, τὸν δὲ Ἠσαῦ ἐμίσησα. As it stands written: “I have loved Jacob, but I have hated Esau.” Mal 1:2, Mal 1:3. See also for the linguistic usage Deut 21:15.
Rom 9:14 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; Μὴ ἀδικία παρὰ τῷ θεῷ; Μὴ γένοιτο. What, then, shall we say? Surely there is no injustice with God? May it not be so.
Rom 9:15 Τῷ γὰρ {RP-text P1904: Μωϋσῇ} [RP-marg TR: Μωσῇ] λέγει, Ἐλεήσω ὃν ἂν ἐλεῶ, καὶ οἰκτειρήσω ὃν ἂν οἰκτείρω. For he says to Moses, “I will show mercy to whomever I will show mercy, and I will have compassion on whomever I will have compassion.” Μωϋσῇ, Moüses, RP-text P1904 F1859=9/12 vs. Μωσῇ, Moses, RP-marg TR F1859=0/12 vs. Μωϋσεῖ, Moüses, F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's cd) vs. Μωσεῖ, Moses, F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's g). A disparity with RP-marg (low count) for the reading chosen.

Ex 33:19.
Rom 9:16 Ἄρα οὖν οὐ τοῦ θέλοντος, οὐδὲ τοῦ τρέχοντος, ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἐλεοῦντος θεοῦ. So then, it is not a matter of him who wishes, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy.
Rom 9:17 Λέγει γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ τῷ Φαραὼ ὅτι Εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἐξήγειρά σε, ὅπως ἐνδείξωμαι ἐν σοὶ τὴν δύναμίν μου, καὶ ὅπως διαγγελῇ τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῇ. For the scripture says to Pharaoh, “I raised you up for this very thing: that I might show my power by means of you, and so that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.” Ex 9:16.

earth: or land.
Rom 9:18 Ἄρα οὖν ὃν θέλει ἐλεεῖ· ὃν δὲ θέλει σκληρύνει. So he has mercy on whom he wishes, and he hardens whom he wishes.
Rom 9:19 Ἐρεῖς οὖν μοι, Τί ἔτι μέμφεται; Τῷ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: γὰρ} [E1624: - ] βουλήματι αὐτοῦ τίς ἀνθέστηκεν; Then you will say to me, “Why does he blame anyone then? {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: For who} [E1624: Who] is withstanding his will?” γὰρ, for: present in RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=12/12 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. absent in E1624 F1859=0/12.

then ← still, yet.

is withstanding: perhaps, non-classically, ≈ AV, has withstood.
Rom 9:20 Μενοῦνγε, ὦ ἄνθρωπε, σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ ἀνταποκρινόμενος τῷ θεῷ; Μὴ ἐρεῖ τὸ πλάσμα τῷ πλάσαντι, Τί με ἐποίησας οὕτως; Rather, O man, who are you to answer back to God? Will the artefact say to the fashioner, “Why did you make me like this?”? Isa 29:16, Isa 45:9.

will: the particle μή puts pressure for an answer of no, classically at least, but we do not consider that this needs emphasizing here.
Rom 9:21 Ἢ οὐκ ἔχει ἐξουσίαν ὁ κεραμεὺς τοῦ πηλοῦ, ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ φυράματος ποιῆσαι ὃ μὲν εἰς τιμὴν σκεῦος, ὃ δὲ εἰς ἀτιμίαν; Or does the potter not have the power over the clay to make from the same lump one vessel having honour, but another lacking honour? having honour ← for honour.

lacking honour ← for lack of honour, or for dishonour.
Rom 9:22 Εἰ δὲ θέλων ὁ θεὸς ἐνδείξασθαι τὴν ὀργήν, καὶ γνωρίσαι τὸ δυνατὸν αὐτοῦ, ἤνεγκεν ἐν πολλῇ μακροθυμίᾳ σκεύη ὀργῆς κατηρτισμένα εἰς ἀπώλειαν· So what if God, wishing to show anger and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath, prepared for destruction, destruction: or loss, waste.
Rom 9:23 καὶ ἵνα γνωρίσῃ τὸν πλοῦτον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ σκεύη ἐλέους, ἃ προητοίμασεν εἰς δόξαν, and acted in order that he might make the riches of his glory known on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory –
Rom 9:24 οὓς καὶ ἐκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς οὐ μόνον ἐξ Ἰουδαίων, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐξ ἐθνῶν; us whom he called, not only out of the Jews, but also out of the Gentiles.
Rom 9:25 Ὡς καὶ ἐν τῷ Ὡσηὲ λέγει, Καλέσω τὸν οὐ λαόν μου λαόν μου· καὶ τὴν οὐκ ἠγαπημένην ἠγαπημένην. As he also says in Hosea,

“I will call those who are not my people

‘My people’,

And her who was not beloved


Hos 1:9, Hos 2:1MT (Hos 1:10AV).

he: or it.

Hosea: Greek and AV, Osee.
Rom 9:26 Καὶ ἔσται, ἐν τῷ τόπῳ οὗ {RP TR: ἐρρήθη} [P1904: ἐρρέθη] αὐτοῖς, Οὐ λαός μου ὑμεῖς, ἐκεῖ κληθήσονται υἱοὶ θεοῦ ζῶντος.

And it will be the case

That in the place where it was said to them,

‘You are not my people’,

There they will be called

The sons of the living God.’ ”

ἐρρήθη, it was spoken (classical form), RP TR F1859=5/12 (Scrivener's abgmo) vs. ἐρρέθη, it was spoken (non-classical form), P1904 F1859=6/12 (Scrivener's dfhkl**n) vs. ἐρήθη, it was spoken (misspelled, but close to classical form), F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's c). Scrivener's l*, apparently another reading, is excluded, as it is doubtful. A weak disparity with RP, R=6:7. Compare Rom 9:12.

Hos 2:1MT (Hos 1:10AV), Hos 2:25MT (Hos 2:23AV).
Rom 9:27 Ἠσαΐας δὲ κράζει ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Ἐὰν ᾖ ὁ ἀριθμὸς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ὡς ἡ ἄμμος τῆς θαλάσσης, τὸ κατάλειμμα σωθήσεται· And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel,

Even if the number of the sons of Israel

Is like the sand of the sea,

The remnant will be saved.

Isa 10:22.
Rom 9:28 λόγον γὰρ συντελῶν καὶ συντέμνων ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ· ὅτι λόγον συντετμημένον ποιήσει κύριος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.

For he will conclude the matter

And make decrees in righteousness,

Because the Lord will carry out the pronouncement

Which has been decreed on the earth.”

Isa 10:22, Isa 10:23.

make decrees ... decreed ← cut, cut short, but by a Hebraism (‫גזר‬, ‫כרת‬, ‫חקק‬, ‫חרץ‬) decrees and covenants are “cut”. AV differs, not having the metaphorical sense.
Rom 9:29 Καὶ καθὼς προείρηκεν Ἠσαΐας, Εἰ μὴ κύριος Σαβαὼθ ἐγκατέλιπεν ἡμῖν σπέρμα, ὡς Σόδομα ἂν ἐγενήθημεν, καὶ ὡς Γόμορρα ἂν ὡμοιώθημεν. And as Isaiah foretold,

“If the Lord of hosts had not left us a seed,

We would have become like Sodom,

And we would have been made to resemble Gomorrah.”

Isa 1:9.

hosts: or armies, which could be of angels.
Rom 9:30 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; Ὅτι ἔθνη τὰ μὴ διώκοντα δικαιοσύνην, κατέλαβεν δικαιοσύνην, δικαιοσύνην δὲ τὴν ἐκ πίστεως· What, then, shall we say? – That the Gentiles who do not pursue righteousness have attained righteousness, and righteousness out of faith at that. at that: this sense is implied by the particle δέ in this sentence.
Rom 9:31 Ἰσραὴλ δέ, διώκων νόμον δικαιοσύνης, εἰς νόμον δικαιοσύνης οὐκ ἔφθασεν. But Israel, pursuing the law of righteousness, has not come up to the standard of the law of righteousness. come up to the standard ofanticipated, come beforehand, overtaken.
Rom 9:32 Διὰ τί; Ὅτι οὐκ ἐκ πίστεως, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐξ ἔργων νόμου· προσέκοψαν γὰρ τῷ λίθῳ τοῦ προσκόμματος, How come? Because they pursued it not out of faith but out of works of the law. For they stumbled at the stumbling block, but ← but as.

block ← stone.
Rom 9:33 καθὼς γέγραπται, Ἰδοὺ τίθημι ἐν Σιὼν λίθον προσκόμματος καὶ πέτραν σκανδάλου· καὶ πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ' αὐτῷ οὐ καταισχυνθήσεται. as it stands written:

“Behold, I put a stumbling block in Zion

And a rock of offence,

But no-one who believes in it

Will be put to shame.”

Isa 8:14, Isa 28:16. See also Ps 118:22.

block ← stone.

Zion: Greek and AV, Sion.

no-one ... will ← everyone ... will not.
Rom 10:1 Ἀδελφοί, ἡ μὲν εὐδοκία τῆς ἐμῆς καρδίας καὶ ἡ δέησις ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ ἐστιν εἰς σωτηρίαν. Brothers, my heart's desire and supplication to God for Israel is for salvation. desire ← goodwill.
Rom 10:2 Μαρτυρῶ γὰρ αὐτοῖς ὅτι ζῆλον θεοῦ ἔχουσιν, ἀλλ' οὐ κατ' ἐπίγνωσιν. For I testify to them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge. knowledge: or acknowledgment.
Rom 10:3 Ἀγνοοῦντες γὰρ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ δικαιοσύνην, καὶ τὴν ἰδίαν δικαιοσύνην ζητοῦντες στῆσαι, τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑπετάγησαν. For they are ignorant of God's righteousness, and, seeking to establish their own righteousness, they have not submitted to God's righteousness. submitted ← been subjected, being passive, but also simply intransitive, submitted.
Rom 10:4 Τέλος γὰρ νόμου χριστὸς εἰς δικαιοσύνην παντὶ τῷ πιστεύοντι. For Christ is the objective of the law leading to righteousness to everyone who believes. objective ← end.
Rom 10:5 {RP P1904: Μωϋσῆς} [TR: Μωσῆς] γὰρ γράφει τὴν δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐκ τοῦ νόμου, ὅτι ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ἄνθρωπος ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς. For Moses describes the righteousness which is of the law, that the man who does the requirements will live by them. Μωϋσῆς, Moüses, RP P1904 F1859=6/12 (Scrivener's bcfkmo) vs. Μωσῆς, Moses, TR F1859=6/12 (Scrivener's adghln). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=7:7.

Lev 18:5.

the requirementsthem (neuter).
Rom 10:6 Ἡ δὲ ἐκ πίστεως δικαιοσύνη οὕτως λέγει, Μὴ εἴπῃς ἐν {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: τῇ} [E1624: - ] καρδίᾳ σου, Τίς ἀναβήσεται εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν; - τοῦτ' ἔστιν χριστὸν καταγαγεῖν - But the righteousness which is of faith speaks like this: “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will go up to heaven?’ ” – that is, to bring Christ down – τῇ, the (with “of you” = your): present in RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=11/12 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. absent in E1624 F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's b).

Deut 30:12.
Rom 10:7 ἤ, Τίς καταβήσεται εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον; - τοῦτ' ἔστιν χριστὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναγαγεῖν. “or, ‘Who will go down to the abyss?’ ” – that is, to bring Christ up from the dead. Deut 30:13.
Rom 10:8 Ἀλλὰ τί λέγει; Ἐγγύς σου τὸ ῥῆμά ἐστιν, ἐν τῷ στόματί σου καὶ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου· τοῦτ' ἔστιν τὸ ῥῆμα τῆς πίστεως ὃ κηρύσσομεν· But what does it say? “The word is near to you, in your mouth and in your heart” – that is, the word of faith which we proclaim, Deut 30:14.
Rom 10:9 ὅτι ἐὰν ὁμολογήσῃς ἐν τῷ στόματί σου κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ πιστεύσῃς ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου ὅτι ὁ θεὸς αὐτὸν ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν, σωθήσῃ· that if you confess the Lord Jesus with your mouth, and you believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.
Rom 10:10 καρδίᾳ γὰρ πιστεύεται εἰς δικαιοσύνην, στόματι δὲ ὁμολογεῖται εἰς σωτηρίαν. For one believes with the heart leading to righteousness, and confesses with the mouth leading to salvation. one believes ... confesses ← it is believed ... it is confessed.
Rom 10:11 Λέγει γὰρ ἡ γραφή, Πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ' αὐτῷ οὐ καταισχυνθήσεται. For the scripture says, No-one who believes in him will be put to shame.” Isa 28:16.

no-one ... will ← everyone ... won't.
Rom 10:12 Οὐ γάρ ἐστιν διαστολὴ Ἰουδαίου τε καὶ Ἕλληνος· ὁ γὰρ αὐτὸς κύριος πάντων, πλουτῶν εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἐπικαλουμένους αὐτόν. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same one is Lord of all, being rich towards all those who call on him.
Rom 10:13 Πᾶς γὰρ ὃς ἂν ἐπικαλέσηται τὸ ὄνομα κυρίου σωθήσεται. For everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved. Joel 3:5MT (Joel 2:32AV).

everyone who ← everyone whoever. Pleonastic, perhaps for emphasis.
Rom 10:14 Πῶς οὖν ἐπικαλέσονται εἰς ὃν οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν; Πῶς δὲ πιστεύσουσιν οὗ οὐκ ἤκουσαν; Πῶς δὲ ἀκούσουσιν χωρὶς κηρύσσοντος; How, then, will they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how will they believe in him whom they have not heard? And how will they hear without one who does the proclaiming?
Rom 10:15 Πῶς δὲ κηρύξουσιν ἐὰν μὴ ἀποσταλῶσιν; Καθὼς γέγραπται, Ὡς ὡραῖοι οἱ πόδες τῶν εὐαγγελιζομένων εἰρήνην, τῶν εὐαγγελιζομένων τὰ ἀγαθά. And how will they do the proclaiming if they are not sent? As it stands written:

“How beautiful are the feet

Of those who preach the gospel of peace,

Of those who preach the gospel of good things!”

Isa 52:7.
Rom 10:16 Ἀλλ' οὐ πάντες ὑπήκουσαν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ. Ἠσαΐας γὰρ λέγει, Κύριε, τίς ἐπίστευσεν τῇ ἀκοῇ ἡμῶν; But not all have responded to the gospel. For Isaiah says,

“Lord, who has believed our account?”

Isa 53:1.

responded to ← obeyed.

account ← thing heard.
Rom 10:17 Ἄρα ἡ πίστις ἐξ ἀκοῆς, ἡ δὲ ἀκοὴ διὰ ῥήματος θεοῦ. So faith comes from an announcement heard, and the announcement comes through the word of God. announcement heard ← thing heard.
Rom 10:18 Ἀλλὰ λέγω, μὴ οὐκ ἤκουσαν; Μενοῦνγε· Εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἐξῆλθεν ὁ φθόγγος αὐτῶν, καὶ εἰς τὰ πέρατα τῆς οἰκουμένης τὰ ῥήματα αὐτῶν. But I say, “Have they not heard?” They certainly have –

Their speech went out into all the earth,

And their words to the ends of the world.

Ps 19:5MT (Ps 19:4AV).

earth: or land.
Rom 10:19 Ἀλλὰ λέγω, μὴ οὐκ ἔγνω Ἰσραήλ; Πρῶτος {RP P1904: Μωϋσῆς} [TR: Μωσῆς] λέγει, Ἐγὼ παραζηλώσω ὑμᾶς ἐπ' οὐκ ἔθνει, ἐπὶ ἔθνει ἀσυνέτῳ παροργιῶ ὑμᾶς. But I say, “Did Israel not know?” Firstly, Moses says,

“I will provoke you to jealousy by a non-nation,

By a foolish nation I will provoke you to anger.”

Μωϋσῆς, Moüses, RP P1904 F1859=10/13 vs. Μωσῆς, Moses, TR F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's g**hn).

Deut 32:21.
Rom 10:20 Ἠσαΐας δὲ ἀποτολμᾷ καὶ λέγει, Εὑρέθην τοῖς ἐμὲ μὴ ζητοῦσιν, ἐμφανὴς ἐγενόμην τοῖς ἐμὲ μὴ ἐπερωτῶσιν. But Isaiah shows boldness and says,

“I have been found

By those who were not seeking me;

I have become evident

To those who were not inquiring after me.”

Isa 65:1.
Rom 10:21 Πρὸς δὲ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ λέγει, Ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν ἐξεπέτασα τὰς χεῖράς μου πρὸς λαὸν ἀπειθοῦντα καὶ ἀντιλέγοντα. But to Israel he says,

“All day long I have stretched out my hands

To a disbelieving and refractory people.”

Isa 65:2.

disbelieving: or, possibly, disobedient, but clearly disbelieving in John 3:36.
Rom 11:1 Λέγω οὖν, μὴ ἀπώσατο ὁ θεὸς τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ; Μὴ γένοιτο. Καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ Ἰσραηλίτης εἰμί, ἐκ σπέρματος Ἀβραάμ, φυλῆς Βενιαμίν. So I say, “Surely God has not rejected his people?” May it not be so. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.
Rom 11:2 Οὐκ ἀπώσατο ὁ θεὸς τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ ὃν προέγνω. Ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ἐν Ἠλίᾳ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή; Ὡς ἐντυγχάνει τῷ θεῷ κατὰ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, λέγων, God has not rejected his people whom he knew beforehand. Or do you not know what the scripture says in the passage about Elijah, when he intercedes to God against Israel, and says, Punctuation: RP P1904 TBS-TR close the question at γραφή. RP, but not P1904 or TBS-TR, capitalizes the next word. We conclude the question at the end of verse 3.

Ps 94:14, slightly adapted.

Elijah ← Elias.
Rom 11:3 Κύριε, τοὺς προφήτας σου ἀπέκτειναν, καὶ τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου κατέσκαψαν· κἀγὼ ὑπελείφθην μόνος, καὶ ζητοῦσιν τὴν ψυχήν μου. “Lord, they have killed your prophets and demolished your altars, and I am left remaining on my own, and they seek my life? 1 Ki 19:10, 1 Ki 19:14.

life ← soul.
Rom 11:4 Ἀλλὰ τί λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ χρηματισμός; Κατέλιπον ἐμαυτῷ ἑπτακισχιλίους ἄνδρας, οἵτινες οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ. But what does the oracle say to him? – “I have kept myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.” 1 Ki 19:18.

Baal: [MG] explains the feminine as through the custom of reading the execrable name as bosheth (‫בֹּשֶׁת‬), LXX αἰσχύνη (shame), both of which are feminine.
Rom 11:5 Οὕτως οὖν καὶ ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ λεῖμμα κατ' ἐκλογὴν χάριτος γέγονεν. So in this way even at the present time a remnant exists by a gracious choice. exists ← has become, has come.

gracious choice ← choice of grace, a Hebraic genitive.
Rom 11:6 Εἰ δὲ χάριτι, οὐκέτι ἐξ ἔργων· ἐπεὶ ἡ χάρις οὐκέτι γίνεται χάρις. Εἰ δὲ ἐξ ἔργων, οὐκέτι ἐστὶν χάρις· ἐπεὶ τὸ ἔργον οὐκέτι ἐστὶν ἔργον. And if by grace, then no longer by works, for then grace is no longer grace. But if by works, then it is no longer grace, for then the work is no longer work.
Rom 11:7 Τί οὖν; Ὃ ἐπιζητεῖ Ἰσραήλ, {RP P1904: τοῦτο} [TR: τούτου] οὐκ ἐπέτυχεν, ἡ δὲ ἐκλογὴ ἐπέτυχεν, οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ ἐπωρώθησαν· What is the case then? What Israel is seeking it has not obtained, but those chosen did obtain it, whereas the rest became hardened. τοῦτο, this (accusative, with obtained, perhaps attracted by ), RP P1904 F1859=9/13 vs. τούτου, this (genitive, the usual case after ἐπιτυγχάνω), TR F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's dghl**).

obtained ← obtained this.

those chosen ← the choice.

hardened: AV differs somewhat (blinded).
Rom 11:8 καθὼς γέγραπται, Ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς πνεῦμα κατανύξεως, ὀφθαλμοὺς τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν, καὶ ὦτα τοῦ μὴ ἀκούειν, ἕως τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας. As it stands written:

“God gave them a slumbering spirit –

Eyes not for seeing

And ears not for hearing”,

which holds up to this day.
Isa 29:10; Isa 6:9. See also Ezek 12:2.
Rom 11:9 Καὶ {RP P1904: Δαυὶδ} [TR: Δαβὶδ] λέγει, Γενηθήτω ἡ τράπεζα αὐτῶν εἰς παγίδα καὶ εἰς θήραν, καὶ εἰς σκάνδαλον, καὶ εἰς ἀνταπόδομα αὐτοῖς· And David says,

Make their table become a snare

And a trap,

And a stumbling block

And a requital to them;

David: on Δαυίδ vs. Δαβίδ, see Matt 1:1.

Ps 69:23MT (Ps 69:22AV).

make their table become ← their table must be made, third person passive imperative (not optative).

trap ← hunt.
Rom 11:10 σκοτισθήτωσαν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν τοῦ μὴ βλέπειν, καὶ τὸν νῶτον αὐτῶν διὰ παντὸς σύγκαμψον.

Make their eyes darkened

So as not to see,

And bend their back continually.”

Ps 69:24MT (Ps 69:23AV).

make their eyes darkened ← their eyes must be darkened, third person passive imperative, as in the previous verse.

bend: second person active imperative.
Rom 11:11 Λέγω οὖν, μὴ ἔπταισαν ἵνα πέσωσιν; Μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλὰ τῷ αὐτῶν παραπτώματι ἡ σωτηρία τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, εἰς τὸ παραζηλῶσαι αὐτούς. So I say, “Did they stumble in order that they might fall?” Far from it. But by their fall there is salvation to the Gentiles, so as to provoke them to jealousy. far from it ← may it not become / be.

fall ← transgression, falling aside, cognate with fall.
Rom 11:12 Εἰ δὲ τὸ παράπτωμα αὐτῶν πλοῦτος κόσμου, καὶ τὸ ἥττημα αὐτῶν πλοῦτος ἐθνῶν, πόσῳ μᾶλλον τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῶν; Now if their fall is the world's richness, and their decline is the richness of the Gentiles, how much more is their fulness! We punctuate as an exclamation; RP P1904 TBS-TR as a question.

fall: see Rom 11:11.

decline ← worsening.
Rom 11:13 Ὑμῖν γὰρ λέγω τοῖς ἔθνεσιν. Ἐφ' ὅσον μέν εἰμι ἐγὼ ἐθνῶν ἀπόστολος, τὴν διακονίαν μου δοξάζω· For I speak to you Gentiles. Insofar as I am an apostle of the Gentiles, I glorify my ministry,
Rom 11:14 εἴ πως παραζηλώσω μου τὴν σάρκα, καὶ σώσω τινὰς ἐξ αὐτῶν. seeing if somehow I can provoke those of my flesh to jealousy and save some of them. can ← will, a Hebraism.
Rom 11:15 Εἰ γὰρ ἡ ἀποβολὴ αὐτῶν καταλλαγὴ κόσμου, τίς ἡ πρόσληψις, εἰ μὴ ζωὴ ἐκ νεκρῶν; For if casting them aside is the reconciliation of the world, what is the acceptance of them, if not life from the dead? casting them aside ← the casting away of them. We feel that casting aside avoids the definitive suggestion of casting away, which, in view of the later acceptance in this verse (and as prophesied abundantly in the Old Testament) is inappropriate.
Rom 11:16 Εἰ δὲ ἡ ἀπαρχὴ ἁγία, καὶ τὸ φύραμα· καὶ εἰ ἡ ῥίζα ἁγία, καὶ οἱ κλάδοι. And if the firstfruit is holy, so is the bulk. And if the root is holy, so are the branches. bulk ← dough, paste, lump.
Rom 11:17 Εἰ δέ τινες τῶν κλάδων ἐξεκλάσθησαν, σὺ δὲ ἀγριέλαιος ὢν ἐνεκεντρίσθης ἐν αὐτοῖς, καὶ συγκοινωνὸς τῆς ῥίζης καὶ τῆς πιότητος τῆς ἐλαίας ἐγένου, But if some of the branches have been broken off, and you, being a wild olive, have been grafted into them and have become a joint partaker of the root and the fatness of the olive tree,
Rom 11:18 μὴ κατακαυχῶ τῶν κλάδων· εἰ δὲ κατακαυχᾶσαι, οὐ σὺ τὴν ῥίζαν βαστάζεις, ἀλλ' ἡ ῥίζα σέ. do not boast over the branches. And if you do boast, consider that it is not you who support the root, but the root you.
Rom 11:19 Ἐρεῖς οὖν, Ἐξεκλάσθησαν {RP: - } [P1904 TR: οἱ] κλάδοι, ἵνα ἐγὼ ἐγκεντρισθῶ. Then suppose you should say, “{RP: Some} [P1904 TR: The] branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” οἱ, the (branches): absent in RP F1859=9/12 vs. present in P1904 TR F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's bco).

then suppose you should ← you will say therefore.
Rom 11:20 Καλῶς· τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ ἐξεκλάσθησαν, σὺ δὲ τῇ πίστει ἕστηκας. Μὴ ὑψηλοφρόνει, ἀλλὰ φοβοῦ· Well now, they were broken off because of unbelief, but you stand by faith. Do not be high-minded, but be fearful.
Rom 11:21 εἰ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς τῶν κατὰ φύσιν κλάδων οὐκ ἐφείσατο, μήπως οὐδέ σου {RP P1904: φείσεται} [TR: φείσηται]. For if God did not spare the natural branches, maybe he will not spare you either. φείσεται, he will spare (future indicative), RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. φείσηται, he may spare (aorist subjunctive), TR F1859=0/12.
Rom 11:22 Ἴδε οὖν χρηστότητα καὶ ἀποτομίαν θεοῦ· ἐπὶ μὲν τοὺς πεσόντας, ἀποτομίαν· ἐπὶ δέ σε, χρηστότητα, ἐὰν ἐπιμείνῃς τῇ χρηστότητι· ἐπεὶ καὶ σὺ ἐκκοπήσῃ. So see the kindness and severity of God: severity towards those who have fallen, but kindness to you, if you remain in the kindness, otherwise you will also be cut off.
Rom 11:23 Καὶ ἐκεῖνοι δέ, ἐὰν μὴ ἐπιμείνωσιν τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ, ἐγκεντρισθήσονται· δυνατὸς {RP P1904: γὰρ ὁ θεός ἐστιν} [TR: γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θεὸς] πάλιν ἐγκεντρίσαι αὐτούς. And they too, if they do not remain in unbelief, will be grafted in. For God is able to graft them in again. ὁ θεός ἐστι(ν), God + is, RP P1904 F1859=4/12 (Scrivener's ahkl) vs. ἐστι(ν) ὁ θεὸς, is + God (not interrogative), TR F1859=8/12 (Scrivener's bcdfgmno). A disparity with RP, R=5:9.

they ← those.
Rom 11:24 Εἰ γὰρ σὺ ἐκ τῆς κατὰ φύσιν ἐξεκόπης ἀγριελαίου, καὶ παρὰ φύσιν ἐνεκεντρίσθης εἰς καλλιέλαιον, πόσῳ μᾶλλον οὗτοι, οἱ κατὰ φύσιν, ἐγκεντρισθήσονται τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐλαίᾳ; For if you were cut out from the naturally wild olive and were unnaturally grafted in to the fine olive, how much more can these, the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree! We punctuate as an exclamation; RP P1904 TBS-TR as a question.

can ← will, a Hebraism.
Rom 11:25 Οὐ γὰρ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο, ἵνα μὴ ἦτε παρ' ἑαυτοῖς φρόνιμοι, ὅτι πώρωσις ἀπὸ μέρους τῷ Ἰσραὴλ γέγονεν, ἄχρι οὗ τὸ πλήρωμα τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰσέλθῃ· For I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, of this mystery, so that you are not clever in your own estimation: that hardness in part has taken place with Israel, and it will remain until the fulness of the Gentiles has come in.
Rom 11:26 καὶ οὕτως πᾶς Ἰσραὴλ σωθήσεται· καθὼς γέγραπται, Ἥξει ἐκ Σιὼν ὁ ῥυόμενος, καὶ ἀποστρέψει ἀσεβείας ἀπὸ Ἰακώβ· And in this way all Israel will be saved, as it stands written:

“The deliverer will come out of Zion

And will turn ungodliness away from Jacob,

Isa 59:20.

ungodliness ← ungodlinesses, suggesting acts of ungodliness.
Rom 11:27 καὶ αὕτη αὐτοῖς ἡ παρ' ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, ὅταν ἀφέλωμαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν.

And this is my covenant with them

When I take away their sins.”

Isa 27:9, Isa 59:21.

my covenant ← the covenant from alongside me.
Rom 11:28 Κατὰ μὲν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, ἐχθροὶ δι' ὑμᾶς· κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἐκλογήν, ἀγαπητοὶ διὰ τοὺς πατέρας. Now in relation to the gospel they are hostile for your sake, but in relation to the choice they are beloved for the sake of the fathers.
Rom 11:29 Ἀμεταμέλητα γὰρ τὰ χαρίσματα καὶ ἡ κλῆσις τοῦ θεοῦ. For the gracious gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.
Rom 11:30 Ὥσπερ γὰρ καὶ ὑμεῖς ποτὲ ἠπειθήσατε τῷ θεῷ, νῦν δὲ ἠλεήθητε τῇ τούτων ἀπειθείᾳ· For just as you once did not believe God, but now have received mercy in their unbelief, you once ← you also once.

their ← of these.
Rom 11:31 οὕτως καὶ οὗτοι νῦν ἠπείθησαν, τῷ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: ὑμετέρῳ} [E1624: ἡμετέρῳ] ἐλέει ἵνα καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθῶσιν· so also have these not believed either, in the mercy shown to {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: you} [E1624: us], in order that they too may receive mercy. ὑμετέρῳ, to your (mercy), RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=12/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. ἡμετέρῳ, to our (mercy), E1624 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's m*).
Rom 11:32 συνέκλεισεν γὰρ ὁ θεὸς τοὺς πάντας εἰς ἀπείθειαν, ἵνα τοὺς πάντας ἐλεήσῃ. For God has shut everyone up in unbelief in order that he may show everyone mercy.
Rom 11:33 Ὦ βάθος πλούτου καὶ σοφίας καὶ γνώσεως θεοῦ. Ὡς ἀνεξερεύνητα τὰ κρίματα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀνεξιχνίαστοι αἱ ὁδοὶ αὐτοῦ. O depth of God's riches and wisdom and knowledge, how unsearchable his judgments are and untraceable his ways are! riches and: AV differs somewhat (riches ... of).
Rom 11:34 Τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου; Ἢ τίς σύμβουλος αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο;

For who has known the mind of the Lord?

Or who has been his counsellor?

Isa 40:13.
Rom 11:35 Ἢ τίς προέδωκεν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἀνταποδοθήσεται αὐτῷ;

Or who has given him anything beforehand,

And it will be repaid to him?

Job 41:3MT (Job 41:11AV).

it will be repaid to him: or he will be repaid by him.
Rom 11:36 Ὅτι ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ δι' αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα· αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. Ἀμήν. For all things are from him and through him and destined for him. To him be glory throughout the ages. Amen.
Rom 12:1 Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ, παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν θυσίαν ζῶσαν, ἁγίαν, εὐάρεστον τῷ θεῷ, τὴν λογικὴν λατρείαν ὑμῶν, So I exhort you, brothers, being moved by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, a holy one, pleasing to God, as your rational service,
Rom 12:2 καὶ μὴ {RP-text P1904: συσχηματίζεσθαι} [RP-marg TR: συσχηματίζεσθε] τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ, ἀλλὰ {RP-text P1904: μεταμορφοῦσθαι} [RP-marg TR: μεταμορφοῦσθε] τῇ ἀνακαινώσει τοῦ νοὸς ὑμῶν, εἰς τὸ δοκιμάζειν ὑμᾶς τί τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ εὐάρεστον καὶ τέλειον. and {RP-text P1904: not to} [RP-marg TR: do not] be conformed to this age, but {RP-text P1904: to} [RP-marg TR: - ] be transformed by the renewal of your mind, in order to determine what the will of God is, what is good and pleasing and perfect. συσχηματίζεσθαι, (not) to be conformed, RP-text P1904 F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's gkn) vs. συσχηματίζεσθε, (do not) be conformed, RP-marg TR F1859=9/13 (Scrivener's abcd**fhlmo) vs. another reading, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's d*). A disparity (#1) with RP-text, R=4:110.

μεταμορφοῦσθαι, (but) to be transformed, RP-text P1904 F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's cgk + o*?) vs. μεταμορφοῦσθε, (but) be transformed, RP-marg TR F1859=9/12 (Scrivener's abdfhlmno**). Scrivener's o* is excluded as it is doubtful. A disparity (#2) with RP-text, R=4:10.
Rom 12:3 Λέγω γάρ, διὰ τῆς χάριτος τῆς δοθείσης μοι, παντὶ τῷ ὄντι ἐν ὑμῖν, μὴ ὑπερφρονεῖν παρ' ὃ δεῖ φρονεῖν, ἀλλὰ φρονεῖν εἰς τὸ σωφρονεῖν, ἑκάστῳ ὡς ὁ θεὸς ἐμέρισεν μέτρον πίστεως. For by the grace which has been given to me, I am telling everyone among you not to be high-minded above how you should be minded, but to be minded to be sober-minded, as God has apportioned a measure of faith to each one. high-minded (etc.): although this verse may not sound very elegant in English, it is close to the Greek and is perhaps a play on words: ὑπερφρονεῖν ... φρονεῖν ... φρονεῖν ... σωφρονεῖν.
Rom 12:4 Καθάπερ γὰρ ἐν ἑνὶ σώματι μέλη πολλὰ ἔχομεν, τὰ δὲ μέλη πάντα οὐ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει πρᾶξιν· For as we have many members in one body, but not all members have the same function,
Rom 12:5 οὕτως οἱ πολλοὶ ἓν σῶμά ἐσμεν ἐν χριστῷ, ὁ δὲ καθ' εἷς ἀλλήλων μέλη. so, being many, we are one body in Christ, but individually members of each other.
Rom 12:6 Ἔχοντες δὲ χαρίσματα κατὰ τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν διάφορα, εἴτε προφητείαν, κατὰ τὴν ἀναλογίαν τῆς πίστεως· And we have different gracious gifts according to the grace given to us, whether prophecy, according to the proportion of our faith,
Rom 12:7 εἴτε διακονίαν, ἐν τῇ διακονίᾳ· εἴτε ὁ διδάσκων, ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ· whether a ministry, in the ministry, or whether as a teacher, in education,
Rom 12:8 εἴτε ὁ παρακαλῶν, ἐν τῇ παρακλήσει· ὁ μεταδιδούς, ἐν ἁπλότητι· ὁ προϊστάμενος, ἐν σπουδῇ· ὁ ἐλεῶν, ἐν ἱλαρότητι. or whether as one who encourages, with encouragement; a sharer, with generosity; one who presides, with diligence; one who shows mercy, with cheerfulness.
Rom 12:9 Ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκριτος. Ἀποστυγοῦντες τὸ πονηρόν, κολλώμενοι τῷ ἀγαθῷ. Love is unpretentious. Let us abhor evil, clinging to goodness,
Rom 12:10 Τῇ φιλαδελφίᾳ εἰς ἀλλήλους φιλόστοργοι· τῇ τιμῇ ἀλλήλους προηγούμενοι· showing tender affection to each other in brotherly love, guiding each other with honour, guiding: AV differs, to modern ears at least (preferring).
Rom 12:11 τῇ σπουδῇ μὴ ὀκνηροί· τῷ πνεύματι ζέοντες· τῷ {RP P1904 E1624 S1894: κυρίῳ} [S1550: καιρῷ] δουλεύοντες· with diligence, not being slack, being fervent in the spirit, serving the {RP P1904 E1624 S1894: Lord} [S1550: season], κυρίῳ, Lord, RP P1904 E1624 S1894 F1859=12/12 vs. καιρῷ, time, season, S1550 F1859=0/12.
Rom 12:12 τῇ ἐλπίδι χαίροντες· τῇ θλίψει ὑπομένοντες· τῇ προσευχῇ προσκαρτεροῦντες· rejoicing in hope, being patient in tribulation, persevering in prayer,
Rom 12:13 ταῖς χρείαις τῶν ἁγίων κοινωνοῦντες· τὴν φιλοξενίαν διώκοντες. contributing to the needs of the saints, pursuing hospitality. saints: see Matt 27:52.
Rom 12:14 Εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς διώκοντας ὑμᾶς· εὐλογεῖτε, καὶ μὴ καταρᾶσθε. Bless those who persecute you. Bless and do not curse.
Rom 12:15 Χαίρειν μετὰ χαιρόντων, καὶ κλαίειν μετὰ κλαιόντων. Rejoice with those who are rejoicing, and weep with those who are weeping.
Rom 12:16 Τὸ αὐτὸ εἰς ἀλλήλους φρονοῦντες. Μὴ τὰ ὑψηλὰ φρονοῦντες, ἀλλὰ τοῖς ταπεινοῖς συναπαγόμενοι. Μὴ γίνεσθε φρόνιμοι παρ' ἑαυτοῖς. Be of the same mind towards each other. Do not be high-minded, but sympathize with those who are low-ranking. Do not become wise-minded in your own estimation. Prov 3:7.

wise-minded ← (right-, prudent-) minded. Compare the play on words in Rom 12:3.

your own estimationyourselves.
Rom 12:17 Μηδενὶ κακὸν ἀντὶ κακοῦ ἀποδιδόντες. Προνοούμενοι καλὰ ἐνώπιον πάντων ἀνθρώπων. Let no-one render evil for evil. Have a predisposition for good things in the presence of all men. Prov 3:4 (allusion).

let no-one render: imperatival use of the participle.
Rom 12:18 Εἰ δυνατόν, τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν, μετὰ πάντων ἀνθρώπων εἰρηνεύοντες. If it is possible, as much as you can, be peaceable with all men. as much as you canwhat (is) out of you.
Rom 12:19 Μὴ ἑαυτοὺς ἐκδικοῦντες, ἀγαπητοί, ἀλλὰ δότε τόπον τῇ ὀργῇ· γέγραπται γάρ, Ἐμοὶ ἐκδίκησις, ἐγὼ ἀνταποδώσω, λέγει κύριος. Do not take revenge on each other, beloved, but leave room for anger, for it stands written: “Vengeance is mine. I will repay”, says the Lord. Deut 32:35. See also Prov 20:22, Prov 24:29, Prov 25:22.

leave ← give.

anger: i.e. God's anger, as noted by [CB], [MG].
Rom 12:20 Ἐὰν οὖν πεινᾷ ὁ ἐχθρός σου, ψώμιζε αὐτόν· ἐὰν διψᾷ, πότιζε αὐτόν· τοῦτο γὰρ ποιῶν, ἄνθρακας πυρὸς σωρεύσεις ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ.

“So if your enemy is hungry,

Feed him.

If he is thirsty,

Give him a drink.

For by doing this

You will heap fiery coals on his head.”

Prov 25:21, Prov 25:22.

by doing: gerundial use of the participle.

fiery coals ← coals of fire, a Hebraic genitive.
Rom 12:21 Μὴ νικῶ ὑπὸ τοῦ κακοῦ, ἀλλὰ νίκα ἐν τῷ ἀγαθῷ τὸ κακόν. Do not be conquered by evil, but conquer evil with goodness.
Rom 13:1 Πᾶσα ψυχὴ ἐξουσίαις ὑπερεχούσαις ὑποτασσέσθω· οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἐξουσία εἰ μὴ {RP P1904: ὑπὸ} [TR: ἀπὸ] θεοῦ, αἱ δὲ οὖσαι ἐξουσίαι ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ τεταγμέναι εἰσίν. Let every person be subject to supreme authorities. For there is no authority {RP P1904: unless appointed by} [TR: except from] God, and the existing authorities have been appointed by God, ὑπὸ, by (the usual agent of the passive), RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. ἀπὸ, by, or an exceptional agent of the passive, TR F1859=0/12.

person ← soul.

supreme authorities: Refuting the absolute universal application of Romans 13:1-5 to civil authorities are e.g. Acts 5:29 (obey God rather than men), Rev 16:2 (obey the beast?), and ↴
Rom 13:2 Ὥστε ὁ ἀντιτασσόμενος τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ, τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ διαταγῇ ἀνθέστηκεν· οἱ δὲ ἀνθεστηκότες ἑαυτοῖς κρίμα λήψονται. so that he who opposes authority is resisting God's ordinance, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. ↳ WW2 history (the holocaust). After Acts 28:28 we have the present Gentile dispensation expounded primarily in Ephesians and Colossians, in which the injunctions of Romans 13:1-5 are not necessarily applicable, and Paul rather appeals, without a rod, to his readers to live a godly life. Compare Heb 13:7. We are somewhat ↴

on ← to.
Rom 13:3 Οἱ γὰρ ἄρχοντες οὐκ εἰσὶν φόβος τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἔργων, ἀλλὰ τῶν κακῶν. Θέλεις δὲ μὴ φοβεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξουσίαν; Τὸ ἀγαθὸν ποίει, καὶ ἕξεις ἔπαινον ἐξ αὐτῆς· For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to bad ones. Now do you wish not to fear authority? Do what is good, and you will have commendation for it, ↳ doubtful about Otis Q. Sellers' suggestion that the supreme authorities are the apostles, appointed by God. But it is true that up to Acts 28:28 they had tremendous authority, over the sick, over the dishonest, over a magician (Elymas) etc. In any case, civil injunctions should be observed where they do not contravene God's injunctions.

for ← from.
Rom 13:4 θεοῦ γὰρ διάκονός ἐστίν σοι εἰς τὸ ἀγαθόν. Ἐὰν δὲ τὸ κακὸν ποιῇς, φοβοῦ· οὐ γὰρ εἰκῇ τὴν μάχαιραν φορεῖ· θεοῦ γὰρ διάκονός ἐστιν, {RP TR: ἔκδικος εἰς ὀργὴν} [P1904: εἰς ὀργὴν ἔκδικος] τῷ τὸ κακὸν πράσσοντι. for it is an instrument of God which applies to you to good purpose. But if you do what is wrong, then fear, for it does not bear the sword for nothing, for it is an instrument of God {RP TR: , an avenger in wrath} [P1904: for wrath – an avenger] on him who does wrong. ἔκδικος εἰς ὀργὴν, an avenger + for / in wrath, RP TR F1859=6/12 (Scrivener's adghlm) vs. εἰς ὀργὴν ἔκδικος, for / in wrath + an avenger, P1904 F1859=6/12 (Scrivener's bcfkno). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=7:7.

Punctuation: either our RP TR English or our English for P1904 is possible for both variants, our P1904 reading requiring moving RP's comma from after ἐστιν to after ὀργὴν.

instrument (2x)servant.
Rom 13:5 Διὸ ἀνάγκη {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: ὑποτάσσεσθαι} [E1624: προτάσσεσθαι], οὐ μόνον διὰ τὴν ὀργήν, ἀλλὰ καὶ διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν. So it is necessary to be {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: subject} [E1624: appointed beforehand] not only on account of the wrath, but also on account of one's conscience. ὑποτάσσεσθαι, to be subject, RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=11/12 vs. προτάσσεσθαι, to be appointed beforehand, E1624 F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's m).

it is necessary ← (there is) necessity.
Rom 13:6 Διὰ τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ φόρους τελεῖτε· λειτουργοὶ γὰρ θεοῦ εἰσιν, εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο προσκαρτεροῦντες. So in view of this, pay your taxes also. For they are God's ministers persevering with this very thing. this very thing: i.e. being God's ministers, we presume.
Rom 13:7 Ἀπόδοτε οὖν πᾶσιν τὰς ὀφειλάς· τῷ τὸν φόρον τὸν φόρον· τῷ τὸ τέλος τὸ τέλος· τῷ τὸν φόβον τὸν φόβον· τῷ τὴν τιμὴν τὴν τιμήν. So pay to everyone what is due – tax to whom tax is due, levies to whom levies are due, fear to whom fear is due, honour to whom honour is due. what is due ← the debts.
Rom 13:8 Μηδενὶ μηδὲν ὀφείλετε, εἰ μὴ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν ἀλλήλους· ὁ γὰρ ἀγαπῶν τὸν ἕτερον, νόμον πεπλήρωκεν. Don't owe anyone anything except to love one another, for he who loves another has fulfilled the law.
Rom 13:9 Τὸ γάρ, Οὐ μοιχεύσεις, οὐ φονεύσεις, οὐ κλέψεις, {RP-text P1904: - } [RP-marg TR: οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις,] οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις, καὶ εἴ τις ἑτέρα ἐντολή, ἐν τούτῳ τῷ λόγῳ ἀνακεφαλαιοῦται, ἐν τῷ, Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς {RP P1904: σεαυτόν} [TR: ἑαυτόν]. For the injunctions are, “You shall not commit adultery. You shall not commit murder. You shall not steal. {RP-text P1904: - } [RP-marg TR: You shall not give false testimony.] You shall not covet.” And if there is any other commandment, it is summed up in this formula: “You shall love your neighbour as yourself.” οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις, you shall not give false witness: absent in RP-text P1904 F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's cgl) vs. present in RP-marg TR F1859=9/12 (Scrivener's adfhkmno). A disparity (#1) with RP-text, R=4:10. AV differs textually.

σεαυτόν, yourself (classical form), RP P1904 F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's bcdg*ho, though g* reads σαυτόν) vs. ἑαυτόν, yourself (non-classical third person pronoun for second), TR F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's afg**klmn). A weak disparity (#2) with RP, R=7:8.

Ex 20:13-15, {RP: - } [RP-marg TR: Ex 20:16,] Ex 20:17, Lev 19:18, Deut 5:17-19 {RP: - } [RP-marg TR: , Deut 5:20].
Rom 13:10 Ἡ ἀγάπη τῷ πλησίον κακὸν οὐκ ἐργάζεται· πλήρωμα οὖν νόμου ἡ ἀγάπη. Love does not inflict harm on one's neighbour. Therefore love is the fulness of the law.
Rom 13:11 Καὶ τοῦτο, εἰδότες τὸν καιρόν, ὅτι ὥρα ἡμᾶς ἤδη ἐξ ὕπνου ἐγερθῆναι· νῦν γὰρ ἐγγύτερον ἡμῶν ἡ σωτηρία ἢ ὅτε ἐπιστεύσαμεν. And there is this, while we know the time, that the hour is already here for us to be roused from sleep. For our salvation is now nearer than when we believed. while we know: temporal use of the participle.
Rom 13:12 Ἡ νὺξ προέκοψεν, ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤγγικεν· ἀποθώμεθα οὖν τὰ ἔργα τοῦ σκότους, καὶ ἐνδυσώμεθα τὰ ὅπλα τοῦ φωτός. The night is advanced; the day has drawn near. So let us put away the works of darkness and put on the armour of light.
Rom 13:13 Ὡς ἐν ἡμέρᾳ, εὐσχημόνως περιπατήσωμεν, μὴ κώμοις καὶ μέθαις, μὴ κοίταις καὶ ἀσελγείαις, μὴ ἔριδι καὶ ζήλῳ. Let us walk decently as in the day, not with orgies and in drunkenness, not in promiscuity and licentiousness, not in strife and jealousy, promiscuity and licentiousness ← promiscuities and licentiousnesses.
Rom 13:14 Ἀλλ' ἐνδύσασθε τὸν κύριον Ἰησοῦν χριστόν, καὶ τῆς σαρκὸς πρόνοιαν μὴ ποιεῖσθε, εἰς ἐπιθυμίας. but put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and do not indulge in the predisposition of the flesh in its desires.
Rom 14:1 Τὸν δὲ ἀσθενοῦντα τῇ πίστει προσλαμβάνεσθε, μὴ εἰς διακρίσεις διαλογισμῶν. Receive him who is weak in faith, but not by getting involved in arbitrating in arguments. arbitrating in arguments ← arbitrations of arguments.
Rom 14:2 Ὃς μὲν πιστεύει φαγεῖν πάντα, ὁ δὲ ἀσθενῶν λάχανα ἐσθίει. One person believes in eating everything; another who is weak eats vegetables.
Rom 14:3 Ὁ ἐσθίων τὸν μὴ ἐσθίοντα μὴ ἐξουθενείτω, καὶ ὁ μὴ ἐσθίων τὸν ἐσθίοντα μὴ κρινέτω· ὁ θεὸς γὰρ αὐτὸν προσελάβετο. Let him who eats something not despise him who does not eat it, nor he who does not eat something judge him who does eat it. For God has accepted him.
Rom 14:4 Σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ κρίνων ἀλλότριον οἰκέτην; Τῷ ἰδίῳ κυρίῳ στήκει ἢ πίπτει. Σταθήσεται δέ· δυνατὸς γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θεὸς στῆσαι αὐτόν. Who are you to judge another person's servant? He stands or falls serving his own master. But he will be upheld, for God is able to uphold him. to judge ← the (one) judging.
Rom 14:5 Ὃς μὲν κρίνει ἡμέραν παρ' ἡμέραν, ὃς δὲ κρίνει πᾶσαν ἡμέραν. Ἕκαστος ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ νοῒ πληροφορείσθω. One person judges one day against another, while another judges each day. Let each one be completely sure in his own mind.
Rom 14:6 Ὁ φρονῶν τὴν ἡμέραν, κυρίῳ φρονεῖ· καὶ ὁ μὴ φρονῶν τὴν ἡμέραν, κυρίῳ οὐ φρονεῖ. {RP P1904: Καὶ ὁ} [TR: ] ἐσθίων κυρίῳ ἐσθίει, εὐχαριστεῖ γὰρ τῷ θεῷ· καὶ ὁ μὴ ἐσθίων κυρίῳ οὐκ ἐσθίει, καὶ εὐχαριστεῖ τῷ θεῷ. He who considers the day considers it to the honour of the Lord, and he who ignores the day ignores it to the honour of the Lord. {RP P1904: And he} [TR: He] who eats something, eats it to the honour of the Lord, for he gives thanks to God. And he who refrains from eating something refrains from eating it also to the honour of the Lord, and he gives God thanks. καὶ, and: present in RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. absent in TR F1859=0/12.

refrains from eating (2x)does not eat.
Rom 14:7 Οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἡμῶν ἑαυτῷ ζῇ, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἑαυτῷ ἀποθνῄσκει. For none of us lives for himself, and no-one dies for himself. lives for: or, [MG], is accountable to.
Rom 14:8 Ἐάν τε γὰρ ζῶμεν, τῷ κυρίῳ ζῶμεν· ἐάν τε ἀποθνῄσκωμεν, τῷ κυρίῳ ἀποθνῄσκομεν· ἐάν τε οὖν ζῶμεν, ἐάν τε ἀποθνῄσκωμεν, τοῦ κυρίου ἐσμέν. For if we live, we live to the Lord, or if we die, we die to the Lord. So whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord's.
Rom 14:9 Εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ χριστὸς καὶ ἀπέθανεν καὶ ἀνέστη καὶ {RP P1904: ἔζησεν} [TR: ἀνέζησεν], ἵνα καὶ νεκρῶν καὶ ζώντων κυριεύσῃ. For it is for this reason that Christ both died and rose and {RP P1904: came to life} [TR: came back to life]: in order that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living. ἔζησεν, he came to life, RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. ἀνέζησεν, he came back to life, TR F1859=0/12.
Rom 14:10 Σὺ δὲ τί κρίνεις τὸν ἀδελφόν σου; Ἢ καὶ σὺ τί ἐξουθενεῖς τὸν ἀδελφόν σου; Πάντες γὰρ παραστησόμεθα τῷ βήματι τοῦ χριστοῦ. And why do you judge your brother? Or again, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand at Christ's court. Christ's court: compare 2 Cor 5:10. NA26's God's court has no support from F1859.
Rom 14:11 Γέγραπται γάρ, Ζῶ ἐγώ, λέγει κύριος· ὅτι ἐμοὶ κάμψει πᾶν γόνυ, καὶ πᾶσα γλῶσσα ἐξομολογήσεται τῷ θεῷ. For it stands written:

“ ‘As I live’, says the Lord,

‘To me every knee shall bow,

And every tongue will confess to God.’ ”

Isa 45:23.
Rom 14:12 Ἄρα οὖν ἕκαστος ἡμῶν περὶ ἑαυτοῦ λόγον δώσει τῷ θεῷ. So then, each of us will give an account of himself to God.
Rom 14:13 Μηκέτι οὖν ἀλλήλους κρίνωμεν· ἀλλὰ τοῦτο κρίνατε μᾶλλον, τὸ μὴ τιθέναι πρόσκομμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ ἢ σκάνδαλον. So let us no longer judge each other, but judge this rather: not to put a stumbling block or a cause of offence in your brother's way. in your brother's way ← to the brother.
Rom 14:14 Οἶδα καὶ πέπεισμαι ἐν κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ, ὅτι οὐδὲν κοινὸν δι' {RP P1904: αὐτοῦ} [TR: ἑαυτοῦ]· εἰ μὴ τῷ λογιζομένῳ τι κοινὸν εἶναι, ἐκείνῳ κοινόν. I know and have been persuaded by the Lord Jesus that nothing is profane of itself, except that to anyone who considers something to be profane, to him it is profane. αὐτοῦ, of it (but standing for the reflexive pronoun), RP P1904 F1859=10/12 vs. ἑαυτοῦ, of itself, TR F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's dm).

him ← that (person).
Rom 14:15 Εἰ δὲ διὰ βρῶμα ὁ ἀδελφός σου λυπεῖται, οὐκέτι κατὰ ἀγάπην περιπατεῖς. Μὴ τῷ βρώματί σου ἐκεῖνον ἀπόλλυε, ὑπὲρ οὗ χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν. And if your brother grieves on account of food, you no longer walk lovingly. Do not by your food lose him for whom Christ died. him ← that (person).
Rom 14:16 Μὴ βλασφημείσθω οὖν ὑμῶν τὸ ἀγαθόν· So do not let your good behaviour be slandered, slandered ← blasphemed.
Rom 14:17 οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ βρῶσις καὶ πόσις, ἀλλὰ δικαιοσύνη καὶ εἰρήνη καὶ χαρὰ ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. for the kingdom of God is not food and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy by holy spirit. by: or in.
Rom 14:18 Ὁ γὰρ ἐν τούτοις δουλεύων τῷ χριστῷ εὐάρεστος τῷ θεῷ, καὶ δόκιμος τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. For he who serves Christ in these matters is pleasing to God and approved of by men.
Rom 14:19 Ἄρα οὖν τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης διώκωμεν, καὶ τὰ τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τῆς εἰς ἀλλήλους. So then, let us pursue the things that pertain to peace and to each other's edification.
Rom 14:20 Μὴ ἕνεκεν βρώματος κατάλυε τὸ ἔργον τοῦ θεοῦ. Πάντα μὲν καθαρά, ἀλλὰ κακὸν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τῷ διὰ προσκόμματος ἐσθίοντι. Do not undo the work for God on account of food. All things are clean, but it is wrong for the man who eats with offence to do so. work for God ← work of God, objective genitive.
Rom 14:21 Καλὸν τὸ μὴ φαγεῖν κρέα, μηδὲ πιεῖν οἶνον, μηδὲ ἐν ᾧ ὁ ἀδελφός σου προσκόπτει ἢ σκανδαλίζεται ἢ ἀσθενεῖ. It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or to consume anything at which your brother stumbles or is offended or falters. falters ← is weak.
Rom 14:22 Σὺ πίστιν ἔχεις; Κατὰ {RP P1904: σεαυτὸν} [TR: σαυτὸν] ἔχε ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ. Μακάριος ὁ μὴ κρίνων ἑαυτὸν ἐν ᾧ δοκιμάζει. Do you have faith? Have it as your own in God's sight. Blessed is he who does not judge himself in what he approves of. σεαυτὸν, your own (1), RP P1904 F1859=6/12 (Scrivener's cgklno) vs. σαυτὸν, your own (2), TR F1859=6/12 (Scrivener's abdfhm). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=7:7.

judge: AV differs somewhat (condemneth).
Rom 14:23 Ὁ δὲ διακρινόμενος, ἐὰν φάγῃ, κατακέκριται, ὅτι οὐκ ἐκ πίστεως· πᾶν δὲ ὃ οὐκ ἐκ πίστεως, ἁμαρτία ἐστίν. But he who is in two minds stands condemned if he eats like that, because it is not based on faith. Indeed everything that is not based on faith is a sin. stands condemned ← has been condemned. Compare our it stands written for γέγραπται.
Rom 14:24 {RP P1904: Τῷ δὲ δυναμένῳ ὑμᾶς στηρίξαι κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου καὶ τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν μυστηρίου χρόνοις αἰωνίοις σεσιγημένου,} [TR: - ] {RP P1904: To him who is able to establish you according to my gospel and the proclaiming of Jesus Christ by revelation of a mystery, kept silent in past durations of the ages,} [TR: - ] ¶ Verse division: in TR, Rom 14:24-26 are at Rom 16:25-27.

Whole verse: present here in RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. present in Rom 16:25 in TR F1859=0/12. It is not clear to us whether f** contains the verses at Rom 16:25, but f** margin supports f*. See Rom 16:25-27 for textual variations in the verses. AV differs textually.

{RP P1904: in past durations of the ages ← in age-abiding times.}
Rom 14:25 {RP P1904: φανερωθέντος δὲ νῦν, διά τε γραφῶν προφητικῶν, κατ' ἐπιταγὴν τοῦ αἰωνίου θεοῦ, εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθνη γνωρισθέντος,} [TR: - ] {RP P1904: but which is now made manifest, through prophetic scriptures on command of age-abiding God, for obedience to faith, having been made known to all the nations,} [TR: - ] ¶ Verse division: see Rom 14:24.

to ← of.
Rom 14:26 {RP P1904: μόνῳ σοφῷ θεῷ, διὰ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. Ἀμήν.} [TR: - ] {RP P1904: to God the only wise one, through Jesus Christ, to him be glory throughout the ages. Amen.} [TR: - ] ¶ Verse division: see Rom 14:24.

{RP P1904: him ← whom}.
Rom 15:1 Ὀφείλομεν δὲ ἡμεῖς οἱ δυνατοὶ τὰ ἀσθενήματα τῶν ἀδυνάτων βαστάζειν, καὶ μὴ ἑαυτοῖς ἀρέσκειν. Now we who are able should bear the weaknesses of those who are unable to, and we should not please ourselves.
Rom 15:2 Ἕκαστος {RP P1904: - } [TR: γὰρ] ἡμῶν τῷ πλησίον ἀρεσκέτω εἰς τὸ ἀγαθὸν πρὸς οἰκοδομήν. {RP P1904: Let} [TR: For let] each one of us please his neighbour in what is right for edification. γὰρ, for: absent in RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. present in TR F1859=0/12.
Rom 15:3 Καὶ γὰρ ὁ χριστὸς οὐχ ἑαυτῷ ἤρεσεν, ἀλλά, καθὼς γέγραπται, Οἱ ὀνειδισμοὶ τῶν ὀνειδιζόντων σε ἐπέπεσον ἐπ' ἐμέ. For indeed, Christ did not please himself, but as it stands written: “The reproaches of those who reproach you have fallen on me.” Ps 69:10MT (Ps 69:9AV).
Rom 15:4 Ὅσα γὰρ προεγράφη, εἰς τὴν ἡμετέραν διδασκαλίαν προεγράφη, ἵνα διὰ τῆς ὑπομονῆς καὶ {RP: διὰ} [P1904 TR: - ] τῆς παρακλήσεως τῶν γραφῶν τὴν ἐλπίδα ἔχωμεν. For all the things which were written beforehand were written for our instruction, in order that we might have hope through patience and {RP: through} [P1904 TR: - ] the encouragement of the scriptures. διὰ, through: present in RP F1859=5/12 (Scrivener's bdfgn) vs. absent in P1904 TR F1859=7/12 (Scrivener's achklmo). A disparity with RP, R=5:9.

all ← as many as.
Rom 15:5 Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς ὑπομονῆς καὶ τῆς παρακλήσεως δῴη ὑμῖν τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖν ἐν ἀλλήλοις κατὰ χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν· May the God of patience and encouragement give you the same mindset among each other, in accordance with Christ Jesus,
Rom 15:6 ἵνα ὁμοθυμαδὸν ἐν ἑνὶ στόματι δοξάζητε τὸν θεὸν καὶ πατέρα τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. so that you glorify the God and father of our Lord Jesus Christ in unanimity and in unison. in unison ← with one mouth.
Rom 15:7 Διὸ προσλαμβάνεσθε ἀλλήλους, καθὼς καὶ ὁ χριστὸς προσελάβετο {RP-text P1904: ὑμᾶς} [RP-marg TR: ἡμᾶς], εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ. On this account, receive each other as Christ also received {RP-text P1904: you} [RP-marg TR: us], with a view to God's glory. ὑμᾶς, you, RP-text P1904 F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's bcgl**mno) vs. ἡμᾶς, us, RP-marg TR F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's adfhkl*). Nearly a disparity with RP-text, R=8:7. AV differs textually.
Rom 15:8 Λέγω δέ, {RP P1904: χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν} [TR: Ἰησοῦν χριστὸν] διάκονον γεγενῆσθαι περιτομῆς ὑπὲρ ἀληθείας θεοῦ, εἰς τὸ βεβαιῶσαι τὰς ἐπαγγελίας τῶν πατέρων· Now I say that {RP P1904: Christ Jesus} [TR: Jesus Christ] has become a minister of the circumcision for God's truth, to confirm the promises to the fathers, χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν, Christ + Jesus, RP P1904 F1859=10/12 vs. Ἰησοῦν χριστὸν, Jesus + Christ, TR F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's bo). AV differs textually.

promises to ← promises of, objective genitive.
Rom 15:9 τὰ δὲ ἔθνη ὑπὲρ ἐλέους δοξάσαι τὸν θεόν, καθὼς γέγραπται, Διὰ τοῦτο ἐξομολογήσομαί σοι ἐν ἔθνεσιν, {RP TR: - } [P1904: κύριε,] καὶ τῷ ὀνόματί σου ψαλῶ. and for the Gentiles to glorify God for his mercy, as it stands written:

“On account of this I will confess you among the Gentiles, {RP TR: - } [P1904: O Lord,]

And I will sing praises to your name.”

κύριε, O Lord: absent in RP TR F1859=10/12 vs. present in P1904 F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's ch).

2 Sam 22:50, Ps 18:50MT (Ps 18:49AV).
Rom 15:10 Καὶ πάλιν λέγει, Εὐφράνθητε, ἔθνη, μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ. And again he says,

“Rejoice, you Gentiles,

With his people.”

Deut 32:43.
Rom 15:11 Καὶ πάλιν, Αἰνεῖτε τὸν κύριον πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, καί, Ἐπαινέσατε αὐτὸν πάντες οἱ λαοί. And again,

“Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles”


“Laud him, all you peoples.”

Ps 117:1.
Rom 15:12 Καὶ πάλιν Ἠσαΐας λέγει, Ἔσται ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν· ἐπ' αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν. And again, Isaiah says,

“There will be the root of Jesse

And the one who rises to rule over the Gentiles.

In him the Gentiles will hope.”

Isa 11:10.

and: conjoining two descriptions of the same person (Christ).
Rom 15:13 Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς ἐλπίδος πληρώσαι ὑμᾶς πάσης χαρᾶς καὶ εἰρήνης ἐν τῷ πιστεύειν, εἰς τὸ περισσεύειν ὑμᾶς ἐν τῇ ἐλπίδι, ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος ἁγίου. Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that you abound in the hope, by the power of holy spirit.
Rom 15:14 Πέπεισμαι δέ, ἀδελφοί μου, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐγὼ περὶ ὑμῶν, ὅτι καὶ αὐτοὶ μεστοί ἐστε ἀγαθωσύνης, πεπληρωμένοι πάσης γνώσεως, δυνάμενοι καὶ {RP: ἄλλους} [P1904 TR: ἀλλήλους] νουθετεῖν. And I am convinced, my brothers, I my very self, concerning you, that you yourselves too are full of goodness and are filled with all knowledge, and that you are able also to advise {RP: others} [P1904 TR: each other]. ἄλλους, others, RP F1859=11/11 (Scrivener's abcdghklmno + f?) vs. ἀλλήλους, each other, P1904 TR F1859=0/11. Scrivener's f is excluded as it is doubtful. A case of collusion between P1904 and TR? AV differs textually.
Rom 15:15 Τολμηρότερον δὲ ἔγραψα ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί, ἀπὸ μέρους, ὡς ἐπαναμιμνήσκων ὑμᾶς, διὰ τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ, Now I have written rather boldly to you, brothers, on occasion, as one reminding you, on account of the grace given to me by God on occasion ← from part, partly; from several (times). The same expression as for a while in Rom 15:24.
Rom 15:16 εἰς τὸ εἶναί με λειτουργὸν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, ἱερουργοῦντα τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα γένηται ἡ προσφορὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν εὐπρόσδεκτος, ἡγιασμένη ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. for me to be a minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, sacredly ministering the gospel of God, in order that the Gentiles' offering might be acceptable, sanctified by holy spirit.
Rom 15:17 Ἔχω οὖν καύχησιν ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τὰ πρὸς {RP P1904: τὸν} [TR: - ] θεόν. So I have exultation in Christ Jesus in respect of matters pertaining to God. τὸν, the (God): present in RP P1904 F1859=11/12 vs. absent in TR F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's b).

Christ Jesus: AV differs in word order, Jesus Christ.
Rom 15:18 Οὐ γὰρ τολμήσω λαλεῖν τι ὧν οὐ κατειργάσατο χριστὸς δι' ἐμοῦ, εἰς ὑπακοὴν ἐθνῶν, λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ, For I will not dare to speak of anything other than of the things which Christ accomplished through me in the cause of obedience of the Gentiles in word and deed, other than ← which ... not.

obedience of the Gentiles: subjective genitive (the Gentiles obey).
Rom 15:19 ἐν δυνάμει σημείων καὶ τεράτων, ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος θεοῦ· ὥστε με ἀπὸ Ἱερουσαλὴμ καὶ κύκλῳ μέχρι τοῦ Ἰλλυρικοῦ πεπληρωκέναι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ χριστοῦ· by the power of signs and miracles, by the power of God's spirit, so that I have completed the proclamation of the gospel of Christ from Jerusalem and round about as far as Illyricum,
Rom 15:20 οὕτως δὲ φιλοτιμούμενον εὐαγγελίζεσθαι, οὐχ ὅπου ὠνομάσθη χριστός, ἵνα μὴ ἐπ' ἀλλότριον θεμέλιον οἰκοδομῶ· in this way being particular not to preach the gospel where Christ has been named, so that I do not build on another's foundation,
Rom 15:21 ἀλλά, καθὼς γέγραπται, Οἷς οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη περὶ αὐτοῦ, ὄψονται· καὶ οἳ οὐκ ἀκηκόασιν συνήσουσιν. but as it stands written:

Those to whom no announcement about him was made

Shall see,

And those who have not heard

Will understand.”

Isa 52:15.

no announcement about him was made ← it has not been announced about him.
Rom 15:22 Διὸ καὶ ἐνεκοπτόμην τὰ πολλὰ τοῦ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς· And this is also why I was prevented in many ways from coming to you, this is also why ← on account of which also.

was prevented ← was being hindered, impeded.
Rom 15:23 νυνὶ δὲ μηκέτι τόπον ἔχων ἐν τοῖς κλίμασιν τούτοις, ἐπιποθίαν δὲ ἔχων τοῦ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἀπὸ πολλῶν ἐτῶν, but now, no longer having an opportunity in these regions, but having had a longing to come to you for many years,
Rom 15:24 ὡς ἐὰν πορεύωμαι εἰς τὴν Σπανίαν, ἐλεύσομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς· ἐλπίζω γὰρ διαπορευόμενος θεάσασθαι ὑμᾶς, καὶ ὑφ' ὑμῶν προπεμφθῆναι ἐκεῖ, ἐὰν ὑμῶν πρῶτον ἀπὸ μέρους ἐμπλησθῶ. as soon as I go to Spain, I will come to you. For I hope to see you as I pass through and to be sent on my way there by you, if I may first enjoy your company for a while. enjoy your company ← be satiated.

for a while ← from part, partly. The same expression as on occasion in Rom 15:15. AV differs (somewhat).
Rom 15:25 Νυνὶ δὲ πορεύομαι εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ, διακονῶν τοῖς ἁγίοις. But now I am going to Jerusalem to minister to the saints. to minister ← ministering, present participle for classical future participle of purpose.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
Rom 15:26 Εὐδόκησαν γὰρ Μακεδονία καὶ Ἀχαΐα κοινωνίαν τινὰ ποιήσασθαι εἰς τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῶν ἁγίων τῶν ἐν Ἱερουσαλήμ. For Macedonia and Achaea were pleased to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem. saints: see Matt 27:52.
Rom 15:27 Εὐδόκησαν γάρ, καὶ ὀφειλέται αὐτῶν εἰσιν. Εἰ γὰρ τοῖς πνευματικοῖς αὐτῶν ἐκοινώνησαν τὰ ἔθνη, ὀφείλουσιν καὶ ἐν τοῖς σαρκικοῖς λειτουργῆσαι αὐτοῖς. For they were pleased, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles had a share in their spiritual benefits, they conversely have a duty to minister to them in material matters. they were pleased, and they are their debtors: i.e. the Macedonians were pleased and the Macedonians are the Jerusalemites' debtors.

conversely ← also. The conjunction καὶ often has a sense of reciprocity.

material ← carnal.
Rom 15:28 Τοῦτο οὖν ἐπιτελέσας, καὶ σφραγισάμενος αὐτοῖς τὸν καρπὸν τοῦτον, ἀπελεύσομαι δι' ὑμῶν εἰς τὴν Σπανίαν. So when I have completed this and have sealed the transfer of these proceeds to them, I will depart passing through your way for Spain. when I have completed: temporal use of the participle.

sealed: or assured.

these proceeds ← this fruit.
Rom 15:29 Οἶδα δὲ ὅτι ἐρχόμενος πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν πληρώματι εὐλογίας τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τοῦ χριστοῦ ἐλεύσομαι. And I know that when I come to you, I will come in the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. when I come: temporal use of the participle.
Rom 15:30 Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ πνεύματος, συναγωνίσασθαί μοι ἐν ταῖς προσευχαῖς ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὸν θεόν· And I encourage you, brothers, through our Lord Jesus Christ, and through the love of the spirit, to jointly strive with me in prayers to God for me,
Rom 15:31 ἵνα ῥυσθῶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀπειθούντων ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ, καὶ ἵνα ἡ διακονία μου ἡ εἰς Ἱερουσαλὴμ εὐπρόσδεκτος γένηται τοῖς ἁγίοις· in order that I may be delivered from those who in Judaea do not believe, and that my ministry in Jerusalem may be well-received by the saints, in Jerusalem ← into Jerusalem. Pregnant use.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
Rom 15:32 ἵνα ἐν χαρᾷ ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ, καὶ συναναπαύσωμαι ὑμῖν. in order that I may come to you with joy through the will of God and may refresh myself with you.
Rom 15:33 Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν. Ἀμήν. May the God of peace be with you all. Amen.
Rom 16:1 Συνίστημι δὲ ὑμῖν Φοίβην τὴν ἀδελφὴν ἡμῶν, οὖσαν διάκονον τῆς ἐκκλησίας τῆς ἐν Κεγχρεαῖς· I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a minister of the church which is in Cenchrea, Phoebe: AV= Phebe.

church: see Matt 16:18.
Rom 16:2 ἵνα αὐτὴν προσδέξησθε ἐν κυρίῳ ἀξίως τῶν ἁγίων, καὶ παραστῆτε αὐτῇ ἐν ᾧ ἂν ὑμῶν χρῄζῃ πράγματι· καὶ γὰρ αὐτὴ προστάτις πολλῶν ἐγενήθη, καὶ αὐτοῦ ἐμοῦ. so that you welcome her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints, and that you stand by her in whatever matter she needs from you, for indeed she has been a patroness to many, including myself. saints: see Matt 27:52.
Rom 16:3 Ἀσπάσασθε {RP-text: Πρίσκαν} [RP-marg P1904 TR: Πρίσκιλλαν] καὶ Ἀκύλαν τοὺς συνεργούς μου ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, Greet {RP-text: Prisca} [RP-marg P1904 TR: Priscilla] and Aquila my fellow workers in Christ Jesus, Πρίσκαν, Prisca, RP-text F1859=5/12 (Scrivener's dghmn) vs. Πρίσκιλλαν, Priscilla, RP-marg P1904 TR F1859=7/12 (Scrivener's abcfklo). A disparity with RP-text, R=5:9.
Rom 16:4 οἵτινες ὑπὲρ τῆς ψυχῆς μου τὸν ἑαυτῶν τράχηλον ὑπέθηκαν, οἷς οὐκ ἐγὼ μόνος εὐχαριστῶ, ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶσαι αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῶν ἐθνῶν· who have risked their own necks for my life, to whom not only I, but also all the churches of the Gentiles give thanks, necks ← throats.

life ← soul.

churches: see Matt 16:18.
Rom 16:5 καὶ τὴν κατ' οἶκον αὐτῶν ἐκκλησίαν. Ἀσπάσασθε Ἐπαίνετον τὸν ἀγαπητόν μου, ὅς ἐστιν ἀπαρχὴ τῆς Ἀχαΐας εἰς χριστόν. and greet the church in various homes of theirs. Greet Epaenetus my beloved, who is the firstfruit of Achaea in Christ. church: see Matt 16:18.
Rom 16:6 Ἀσπάσασθε Μαριάμ, ἥτις πολλὰ ἐκοπίασεν εἰς ἡμᾶς. Greet Mary, who has toiled a lot for us.
Rom 16:7 Ἀσπάσασθε Ἀνδρόνικον καὶ Ἰουνίαν τοὺς συγγενεῖς μου καὶ συναιχμαλώτους μου, οἵτινές εἰσιν ἐπίσημοι ἐν τοῖς ἀποστόλοις, οἳ καὶ πρὸ ἐμοῦ γεγόνασιν ἐν χριστῷ. Greet Andronicus and Junia my kinsmen and my fellow captives, who are outstanding among the apostles, who were also in Christ before me. were ← have become.
Rom 16:8 Ἀσπάσασθε Ἀμπλίαν τὸν ἀγαπητόν μου ἐν κυρίῳ. Greet Amplias, my beloved in the Lord.
Rom 16:9 Ἀσπάσασθε Οὐρβανὸν τὸν συνεργὸν ἡμῶν ἐν χριστῷ, καὶ Στάχυν τὸν ἀγαπητόν μου. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. Urbanus: AV= Urbane.
Rom 16:10 Ἀσπάσασθε Ἀπελλῆν τὸν δόκιμον ἐν χριστῷ. Ἀσπάσασθε τοὺς ἐκ τῶν Ἀριστοβούλου. Greet Apelles, who is proven in Christ. Greet those of the household of Aristobulus.
Rom 16:11 Ἀσπάσασθε {RP P1904: Ἡρῳδίωνα} [TR: Ἡροδίωνα] τὸν συγγενῆ μου. Ἀσπάσασθε τοὺς ἐκ τῶν Ναρκίσσου, τοὺς ὄντας ἐν κυρίῳ. Greet Herodion, my kinsman. Greet those of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. Ἡρῳδίωνα, Herodion (1), RP P1904 F1859=11/12 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. Ἡροδίωνα, Herodion (2), TR F1859=0/12 vs. apparently another reading, F1859=1/12, Scrivener's g, but it is doubtful.
Rom 16:12 Ἀσπάσασθε Τρύφαιναν καὶ Τρυφῶσαν τὰς κοπιώσας ἐν κυρίῳ. Ἀσπάσασθε Περσίδα τὴν ἀγαπητήν, ἥτις πολλὰ ἐκοπίασεν ἐν κυρίῳ. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who have toiled in the Lord. Greet Persis the beloved, who has toiled a lot in the Lord. Tryphaena: AV= Tryphena.
Rom 16:13 Ἀσπάσασθε Ῥοῦφον τὸν ἐκλεκτὸν ἐν κυρίῳ, καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐμοῦ. Greet Rufus, who is eminent in the Lord, and his mother, and mine. eminent ← chosen, select, apparently going well beyond the starting point in Christ (Heb 6:1).
Rom 16:14 Ἀσπάσασθε Ἀσύγκριτον, Φλέγοντα, Ἑρμᾶν, Πατρόβαν, Ἑρμῆν, καὶ τοὺς σὺν αὐτοῖς ἀδελφούς. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes and the brothers with them.
Rom 16:15 Ἀσπάσασθε Φιλόλογον καὶ Ἰουλίαν, Νηρέα καὶ τὴν ἀδελφὴν αὐτοῦ, καὶ Ὀλυμπᾶν, καὶ τοὺς σὺν αὐτοῖς πάντας ἁγίους. Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas and all the saints who are with them. saints: see Matt 27:52.
Rom 16:16 Ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν φιλήματι ἁγίῳ. Ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τοῦ χριστοῦ. Greet each other with a holy kiss. The churches of Christ greet you. churches: see Matt 16:18.
Rom 16:17 Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, σκοπεῖν τοὺς τὰς διχοστασίας καὶ τὰ σκάνδαλα, παρὰ τὴν διδαχὴν ἣν ὑμεῖς ἐμάθετε, ποιοῦντας· καὶ ἐκκλίνατε ἀπ' αὐτῶν. And I exhort you, brothers, to look out for those who cause dissensions and offences contrary to the teaching which you have learned, and turn away from them.
Rom 16:18 Οἱ γὰρ τοιοῦτοι τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστῷ οὐ δουλεύουσιν, ἀλλὰ τῇ ἑαυτῶν κοιλίᾳ· καὶ διὰ τῆς χρηστολογίας καὶ εὐλογίας ἐξαπατῶσιν τὰς καρδίας τῶν ἀκάκων. For suchlike do not serve our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly, and they deceive the hearts of the naive through smooth speech and fine language.
Rom 16:19 Ἡ γὰρ ὑμῶν ὑπακοὴ εἰς πάντας ἀφίκετο. Χαίρω οὖν τὸ ἐφ' ὑμῖν· θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς σοφοὺς μὲν εἶναι εἰς τὸ ἀγαθόν, ἀκεραίους δὲ εἰς τὸ κακόν. For your obedience has reached everyone. So I rejoice over you. And I want you to be wise with respect to good, but untainted with respect to evil.
Rom 16:20 Ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης συντρίψει τὸν Σατανᾶν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας ὑμῶν ἐν τάχει. Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ μεθ' ὑμῶν. {RP P1904 S1550: - } [E1624 S1894: Ἀμήν.] And the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet quickly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. {RP P1904 S1550: - } [E1624 S1894: Amen.] ἀμήν, amen: absent in RP P1904 S1550 F1859=11/13 vs. present in E1624 S1894 F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's ah). AV differs textually.

quickly: AV differs, reading shortly, which is also possible.
Rom 16:21 Ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς Τιμόθεος ὁ συνεργός μου, καὶ Λούκιος καὶ Ἰάσων καὶ Σωσίπατρος οἱ συγγενεῖς μου. Timothy, my fellow worker, and Lucius and Jason and Sosipater my kinsmen greet you. Sosipater ← Sosipatros. Compare the anglicization of a similar name in Acts 20:4.
Rom 16:22 Ἀσπάζομαι ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ Τέρτιος, ὁ γράψας τὴν ἐπιστολήν, ἐν κυρίῳ. I Tertius, who wrote out the epistle, greet you in the Lord.
Rom 16:23 Ἀσπάζεται ὑμᾶς Γάϊος ὁ ξένος μου καὶ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ὅλης. Ἀσπάζεται ὑμᾶς Ἔραστος ὁ οἰκονόμος τῆς πόλεως, καὶ Κούαρτος ὁ ἀδελφός. Gaius, my host – and host of the whole church – greets you. Erastus, the steward of the city greets you, as does Quartus, our brother. church: see Matt 16:18.
Rom 16:24 Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν. Ἀμήν. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with all of you. Amen. This is the true ending of the epistle, as it has Paul's valedictory sign. See 2 Thes 3:17-18.
Rom 16:25 {RP P1904: - } [TR: Τῷ δὲ δυναμένῳ ὑμᾶς στηρίξαι κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου καὶ τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν μυστηρίου χρόνοις αἰωνίοις σεσιγημένου,] {RP P1904: - } [TR: To him who is able to establish you according to my gospel and the proclaiming of Jesus Christ by revelation of a mystery, kept silent in past durations of the ages,] ¶ Verse division: in RP, P1904, Rom 16:25-27 are at Rom 14:24-26. AV differs textually.

For witness support for the location of these verses, see Rom 14:24.

[TR: in past durations of the ages ← in age-abiding times.]
Rom 16:26 {RP P1904: - } [TR: φανερωθέντος δὲ νῦν, διά τε γραφῶν προφητικῶν, κατ' ἐπιταγὴν τοῦ αἰωνίου θεοῦ, εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθνη γνωρισθέντος,] {RP P1904: - } [TR: but which is now made manifest, through prophetic scriptures on command of age-abiding God, for obedience to faith, having been made known to all the nations,] ¶ Verse division: see Rom 16:25.

to ← of.
Rom 16:27 {RP P1904: - } [TR: μόνῳ σοφῷ θεῷ, διὰ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ,] {RP P1904: - } [S1550 E1624: ] [S1894: - ] {RP P1904: - } [TR: ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. Ἀμήν.] {RP P1904: - } [TR: to God the only wise one, through Jesus Christ] {RP P1904: - } [S1550 E1624: , to him] [S1894: - ] {RP P1904: - } [TR: be glory throughout the ages. Amen.] ¶ Verse division: see Rom 16:25.

, to whom: present in RP P1904 (in Rom 14:26) S1550 E1624 F1859=12/12 vs. absent in S1894 F1859=0/12. Scrivener's e is in a hiatus in Rom 14, and it does not contain the verse in Rom 16.

[S1550 E1624: him ← whom].
1 Cor 1:1 Παῦλος κλητὸς ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ, καὶ Σωσθένης ὁ ἀδελφός, From Paul, a called apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,
1 Cor 1:2 τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ, ἡγιασμένοις ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, κλητοῖς ἁγίοις, σὺν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐπικαλουμένοις τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ, αὐτῶν τε καὶ ἡμῶν· to the church of God which is in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all those who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in every place of both theirs and ours, church: see Matt 16:18.

saints: see Matt 27:52.

The verse could be read as ... (who) in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both theirs and ours, as in AV, so AV differs.
1 Cor 1:3 χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. grace to you, and peace from God our father and Lord, Jesus Christ. Lord: no article in the Greek. See Rom 1:7, showing why we repunctuate; AV differs.
1 Cor 1:4 Εὐχαριστῶ τῷ θεῷ μου πάντοτε περὶ ὑμῶν, ἐπὶ τῇ χάριτι τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ δοθείσῃ ὑμῖν ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· I thank my God always on your behalf for the grace of God which has been given to you in Christ Jesus, Christ Jesus: AV differs in word order, Jesus Christ.
1 Cor 1:5 ὅτι ἐν παντὶ ἐπλουτίσθητε ἐν αὐτῷ, ἐν παντὶ λόγῳ καὶ πάσῃ γνώσει, because you have been enriched in him in everything, in all speech and in all knowledge, in him: scripture recognizes the concepts of being “in Christ” and “in Adam” and their characteristics (1 Cor 15:22).

all speech: or every word.
1 Cor 1:6 καθὼς τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ χριστοῦ ἐβεβαιώθη ἐν ὑμῖν· in accordance with the fact that the testimony of Christ has been confirmed in you,
1 Cor 1:7 ὥστε ὑμᾶς μὴ ὑστερεῖσθαι ἐν μηδενὶ χαρίσματι, ἀπεκδεχομένους τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, so that you are not lacking in any gracious gift, as you await the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ, revelation: AV differs somewhat (coming).
1 Cor 1:8 ὃς καὶ βεβαιώσει ὑμᾶς ἕως τέλους, ἀνεγκλήτους ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. who will also secure you up to the end, irreproachable on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. secure ← confirm, as in 1 Cor 1:6, but we wish to avoid any association with the rite or sacrament of “confirmation” as practised by some established churches. The securing is done by Christ without human intervention. For the place of ordinances in the present dispensation, see Col 2:20.
1 Cor 1:9 Πιστὸς ὁ θεός, δι' οὗ ἐκλήθητε εἰς κοινωνίαν τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν. God, by whom you were called into fellowship with his son Jesus Christ our Lord, is faithful. with ← of.
1 Cor 1:10 Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματος τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, ἵνα τὸ αὐτὸ λέγητε πάντες, καὶ μὴ ᾖ ἐν ὑμῖν σχίσματα, ἦτε δὲ κατηρτισμένοι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ νοῒ καὶ ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ γνώμῃ. And I exhort you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak with one voice, and that there should not be any divisions among you, and that you should be equipped with the same mind and with the same purpose. speak with one voicespeak the same (thing).
1 Cor 1:11 Ἐδηλώθη γάρ μοι περὶ ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοί μου, ὑπὸ τῶν Χλόης, ὅτι ἔριδες ἐν ὑμῖν εἰσιν. For concerning you, my brothers, it has been shown to me by those of Chloe's household that there are controversies among you.
1 Cor 1:12 Λέγω δὲ τοῦτο, ὅτι ἕκαστος ὑμῶν λέγει, Ἐγὼ μέν εἰμι Παύλου, Ἐγὼ δὲ Ἀπολλώ, Ἐγὼ δὲ Κηφᾶ, Ἐγὼ δὲ χριστοῦ. And I mean this, that each of you is saying, “I am of the school of Paul”, and, “I of Apollos”, and, “I of Cephas”, and, “I of Christ.” mean ← say.
1 Cor 1:13 Μεμέρισται ὁ χριστός; Μὴ Παῦλος ἐσταυρώθη ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, ἢ εἰς τὸ ὄνομα Παύλου ἐβαπτίσθητε; Is Christ divided? Paul was not crucified for you, was he? Or were you baptized in Paul's name? is Christ divided ← has Christ been divided.
1 Cor 1:14 Εὐχαριστῶ τῷ θεῷ ὅτι οὐδένα ὑμῶν ἐβάπτισα, εἰ μὴ Κρίσπον καὶ Γάϊον· I thank God that I did not baptize any of you except Crispus and Gaius,
1 Cor 1:15 ἵνα μή τις εἴπῃ ὅτι εἰς τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα ἐβάπτισα. so that no-one should say that I baptized in my own name.
1 Cor 1:16 Ἐβάπτισα δὲ καὶ τὸν Στεφανᾶ οἶκον· λοιπὸν οὐκ οἶδα εἴ τινα ἄλλον ἐβάπτισα. But I also baptized the household of Stephanas. Other than that, I do not know whether I baptized anyone else.
1 Cor 1:17 Οὐ γὰρ ἀπέστειλέν με χριστὸς βαπτίζειν, ἀλλ' εὐαγγελίζεσθαι· οὐκ ἐν σοφίᾳ λόγου, ἵνα μὴ κενωθῇ ὁ σταυρὸς τοῦ χριστοῦ. For Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel, not in linguistic wisdom, so that the cross of Christ should not be made void. linguistic wisdom ← wisdom of a word.
1 Cor 1:18 Ὁ λόγος γὰρ ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ τοῖς μὲν ἀπολλυμένοις μωρία ἐστίν, τοῖς δὲ σῳζομένοις ἡμῖν δύναμις θεοῦ ἐστιν. For the word of the cross is foolishness to those who are on the road to perdition, but to us who are being saved, it is the power of God. perdition: or waste.

are being saved: either in an ongoing sense, as in 1 Cor 15:2, or iterative use, one person after another becoming saved, as in Acts 2:47.
1 Cor 1:19 Γέγραπται γάρ, Ἀπολῶ τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν, καὶ τὴν σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν ἀθετήσω. For it stands written:

“I will demolish the wisdom of the wise

And dismiss the intelligence of the intellectuals.”

Isa 29:14.
1 Cor 1:20 Ποῦ σοφός; Ποῦ γραμματεύς; Ποῦ συζητητὴς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου; Οὐχὶ ἐμώρανεν ὁ θεὸς τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ κόσμου τούτου; Where is the wise man? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of this age? Has not God rendered the wisdom of this world foolish? where is (3x): the sense is probably where does he stand?
1 Cor 1:21 Ἐπειδὴ γὰρ ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἔγνω ὁ κόσμος διὰ τῆς σοφίας τὸν θεόν, εὐδόκησεν ὁ θεὸς διὰ τῆς μωρίας τοῦ κηρύγματος σῶσαι τοὺς πιστεύοντας. For since the world, in the wisdom of God, did not know God through its wisdom, it pleased God to save those who believe through the foolishness of the proclamation of the gospel. through: or despite. Compare Rom 2:27, Rom 4:11.
1 Cor 1:22 Ἐπειδὴ καὶ Ἰουδαῖοι σημεῖον αἰτοῦσιν, καὶ Ἕλληνες σοφίαν ζητοῦσιν· Indeed so, seeing that the Jews ask for a sign, and the Greeks seek wisdom, This verse is another answer to the question asked in 1 Cor 1:20.
1 Cor 1:23 ἡμεῖς δὲ κηρύσσομεν χριστὸν ἐσταυρωμένον, Ἰουδαίοις μὲν σκάνδαλον, Ἕλλησιν δὲ μωρίαν· while we proclaim Christ crucified, a stumbling block to the Jews, and foolishness to the Greeks,
1 Cor 1:24 αὐτοῖς δὲ τοῖς κλητοῖς, Ἰουδαίοις τε καὶ Ἕλλησιν, χριστὸν θεοῦ δύναμιν καὶ θεοῦ σοφίαν. but to those themselves who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God,
1 Cor 1:25 Ὅτι τὸ μωρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ σοφώτερον τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ θεοῦ ἰσχυρότερον τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐστίν. because the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.
1 Cor 1:26 Βλέπετε γὰρ τὴν κλῆσιν ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι οὐ πολλοὶ σοφοὶ κατὰ σάρκα, οὐ πολλοὶ δυνατοί, οὐ πολλοὶ εὐγενεῖς· For you see your calling, brothers, and that not many who are wise according to the flesh, that not many who are powerful, that not many who are of noble birth, are called,
1 Cor 1:27 ἀλλὰ τὰ μωρὰ τοῦ κόσμου ἐξελέξατο ὁ θεός, ἵνα τοὺς σοφοὺς καταισχύνῃ· καὶ τὰ ἀσθενῆ τοῦ κόσμου ἐξελέξατο ὁ θεός, ἵνα καταισχύνῃ τὰ ἰσχυρά· but God has chosen the foolish things of the world, in order that he might put the wise to shame, and God has chosen the weak things of the world, in order that he might put the strong things to shame, the wise: masculine, so people here, not things as elsewhere in this verse.
1 Cor 1:28 καὶ τὰ ἀγενῆ τοῦ κόσμου καὶ τὰ ἐξουθενημένα ἐξελέξατο ὁ θεός, καὶ τὰ μὴ ὄντα, ἵνα τὰ ὄντα καταργήσῃ· and God has chosen the ignoble things of the world, and the despised things, and the nonexistent things, in order to nullify the existing things, nonexistent: perhaps standing for vacuous, or for invisible.
1 Cor 1:29 ὅπως μὴ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: καυχήσηται} [E1624: καυχήσεται] πᾶσα σὰρξ ἐνώπιον {RP P1904: τοῦ θεοῦ} [TR: αὐτοῦ]. in order that no flesh should boast in {RP P1904: God's} [TR: his] presence. καυχήσηται, should boast (classical aorist middle subjunctive), RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=10/13 vs. καυχήσεται, will boast (non-classical future middle indicative), E1624 F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's bno).

τοῦ θεοῦ, of God, RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. αὐτοῦ, of him, TR F1859=0/13. AV differs textually.
1 Cor 1:30 Ἐξ αὐτοῦ δὲ ὑμεῖς ἐστε ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ὃς ἐγενήθη ἡμῖν σοφία ἀπὸ θεοῦ, δικαιοσύνη τε καὶ ἁγιασμός, καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις· But by virtue of him you are in Christ Jesus, who became our wisdom from God, both righteousness and holiness, and redemption, by virtue of ← out of.
1 Cor 1:31 ἵνα, καθὼς γέγραπται, Ὁ καυχώμενος, ἐν κυρίῳ καυχάσθω. in order that, as it stands written: “Let him who boasts boast in the Lord.” Jer 9:23MT (Jer 9:24AV), adapted a little.
1 Cor 2:1 Κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, ἦλθον οὐ καθ' ὑπεροχὴν λόγου ἢ σοφίας καταγγέλλων ὑμῖν τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ θεοῦ. And as for me, when I came to you, brothers, I did not come in extravagance of speech or wisdom when I proclaimed the testimony of God to you. extravagance ← pre-eminence, over-topping.
1 Cor 2:2 Οὐ γὰρ ἔκρινα τοῦ εἰδέναι τι ἐν ὑμῖν, εἰ μὴ Ἰησοῦν χριστόν, καὶ τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον. For I decided not to know anything among you except Jesus Christ, and him crucified. him ← this (man).
1 Cor 2:3 Καὶ ἐγὼ ἐν ἀσθενείᾳ καὶ ἐν φόβῳ καὶ ἐν τρόμῳ πολλῷ ἐγενόμην πρὸς ὑμᾶς. And I came to you in weakness and in fear and in much trembling. came to ← became to, but with πρός, came to. AV differs (was with).
1 Cor 2:4 Καὶ ὁ λόγος μου καὶ τὸ κήρυγμά μου οὐκ ἐν πειθοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις, ἀλλ' ἐν ἀποδείξει πνεύματος καὶ δυνάμεως· And my speech and my proclamation were not with persuasive words of human wisdom, but in an exhibition of spirit and power,
1 Cor 2:5 ἵνα ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν μὴ ᾖ ἐν σοφίᾳ ἀνθρώπων, ἀλλ' ἐν δυνάμει θεοῦ. in order that your faith should not be in men's wisdom, but in the power of God.
1 Cor 2:6 Σοφίαν δὲ λαλοῦμεν ἐν τοῖς τελείοις· σοφίαν δὲ οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου, οὐδὲ τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου, τῶν καταργουμένων· But we speak wisdom among those who are complete – wisdom not of this age, nor of the rulers of this age, who are being brought to nothing,
1 Cor 2:7 ἀλλὰ λαλοῦμεν σοφίαν θεοῦ ἐν μυστηρίῳ, τὴν ἀποκεκρυμμένην, ἣν προώρισεν ὁ θεὸς πρὸ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς δόξαν ἡμῶν· but we speak God's wisdom in a mystery, wisdom which has been hidden, which God pre-ordained before the ages for our glory,
1 Cor 2:8 ἣν οὐδεὶς τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἔγνωκεν· εἰ γὰρ ἔγνωσαν, οὐκ ἂν τὸν κύριον τῆς δόξης ἐσταύρωσαν· which none of the rulers of this age has known, for if they had known, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. which: the antecedent is “wisdom” (feminine), not “mystery” (neuter), nor, as the context shows, “glory” (feminine).
1 Cor 2:9 ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπται, Ἃ ὀφθαλμὸς οὐκ εἶδεν, καὶ οὖς οὐκ ἤκουσεν, καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἀνέβη, ἃ ἡτοίμασεν ὁ θεὸς τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν. But, as it stands written:

“What the eye has not seen

And the ear has not heard

And what has not arisen in the heart of man

Are what God has prepared

For those who love him.”

Isa 64:3MT (Isa 64:4AV).
1 Cor 2:10 Ἡμῖν δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἀπεκάλυψεν διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ· τὸ γὰρ πνεῦμα πάντα ἐρευνᾷ, καὶ τὰ βάθη τοῦ θεοῦ. And God has revealed them to us through his spirit. For the spirit inquires about all things, including the deep things of God.
1 Cor 2:11 Τίς γὰρ οἶδεν ἀνθρώπων τὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ; Οὕτως καὶ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐδεὶς οἶδεν, εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ. For who among men knows the concerns of man, except the spirit of man which is in him? And likewise, no-one knows the concerns of God except the spirit of God. among ← of.
1 Cor 2:12 Ἡμεῖς δὲ οὐ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου ἐλάβομεν, ἀλλὰ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ χαρισθέντα ἡμῖν. But we have not received the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is from God, in order that we might know the things graciously given to us by God. from ← out of.
1 Cor 2:13 Ἃ καὶ λαλοῦμεν, οὐκ ἐν διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις, ἀλλ' ἐν διδακτοῖς πνεύματος ἁγίου, πνευματικοῖς πνευματικὰ συγκρίνοντες. And we also speak of these things, not with subject matter taught by human wisdom, but with subject matter taught by holy spirit, as we compare spiritual things with spiritual things. One could repunctuate by moving the second comma to after πνευματικοῖς, giving ... but with spiritual subject matter taught by holy spirit, as we compare spiritual things.

subject matter taught by human wisdom ← taught words of human wisdom.

subject matter taught by holy spirit ← taught (things) of holy spirit.

compare spiritual things with spiritual things: we take this to mean compare one scripture with another. Compare this scripture, for example, with Phil 1:10 and 2 Tim 2:15.
1 Cor 2:14 Ψυχικὸς δὲ ἄνθρωπος οὐ δέχεται τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ θεοῦ· μωρία γὰρ αὐτῷ ἐστιν, καὶ οὐ δύναται γνῶναι, ὅτι πνευματικῶς ἀνακρίνεται. But the natural man does not receive the things of the spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot know them because they are spiritually evaluated. natural ← of the soul, “soulical”.

foolishness ← foolish (things).

evaluated ← examined.
1 Cor 2:15 Ὁ δὲ πνευματικὸς ἀνακρίνει μὲν πάντα, αὐτὸς δὲ ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἀνακρίνεται. But the spiritual person evaluates everything, but he himself is not evaluated by anyone. evaluates ... evaluated ← examines ... examined.
1 Cor 2:16 Τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν κυρίου, ὃς συμβιβάσει αὐτόν; Ἡμεῖς δὲ νοῦν χριστοῦ ἔχομεν.

For who has known the mind of the Lord

And can instruct him?

But we have the mind of Christ.
Isa 40:13.

can ← will, a Hebraism.
1 Cor 3:1 Καὶ ἐγώ, ἀδελφοί, οὐκ ἠδυνήθην {RP P1904: ὑμῖν λαλῆσαι} [TR: λαλῆσαι ὑμῖν] ὡς πνευματικοῖς, ἀλλ' ὡς σαρκικοῖς, ὡς νηπίοις ἐν χριστῷ. Yet I myself, brothers, was not able to speak to you as one does to spiritual people, but only as one does to carnal people, as to infants in Christ. ὑμῖν λαλῆσαι, to you + to speak, RP P1904 F1859=10/13 vs. λαλῆσαι ὑμῖν, to speak + to you, TR F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's dkm).
1 Cor 3:2 Γάλα ὑμᾶς ἐπότισα, καὶ οὐ βρῶμα· οὔπω γὰρ {RP: ἐδύνασθε} [P1904 TR: ἠδύνασθε], ἀλλ' οὔτε ἔτι νῦν δύνασθε· I have given you milk to drink rather than food, for you were not yet able to take it, and even now you still can't, ἐδύνασθε, you were able (1), RP F1859=8/13 vs. ἠδύνασθε, you were able (2), P1904 TR F1859=5/13 (Scrivener's acdkn, though k misspelled and n with rough breathing). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=8:7.

rather than ← and not.
1 Cor 3:3 ἔτι γὰρ σαρκικοί ἐστε· ὅπου γὰρ ἐν ὑμῖν ζῆλος καὶ ἔρις καὶ διχοστασίαι, οὐχὶ σαρκικοί ἐστε, καὶ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε; for you are still carnal, for where there is rivalry among you, and strife, and dissensions, are you not carnal and do you not walk according to man?
1 Cor 3:4 Ὅταν γὰρ λέγῃ τις, Ἐγὼ μέν εἰμι Παύλου, ἕτερος δέ, Ἐγὼ Ἀπολλώ, οὐχὶ σαρκικοί ἐστε; For whenever a person says, “I am of Paul”, and another, “I am of Apollos”, are you not carnal?
1 Cor 3:5 Τίς οὖν ἐστιν Παῦλος, τίς δὲ Ἀπολλώς, ἀλλ' ἢ διάκονοι δι' ὧν ἐπιστεύσατε, καὶ ἑκάστῳ ὡς ὁ κύριος ἔδωκεν; Well who is Paul, and who is Apollos, but ministers through whom you came to believe, and each has a ministry according to what the Lord gave him? ministers: in the sense of servant, those who supply needs.

you came to believe: inceptive aorist.
1 Cor 3:6 Ἐγὼ ἐφύτευσα, Ἀπολλὼς ἐπότισεν, ἀλλ' ὁ θεὸς ηὔξανεν. I planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth.
1 Cor 3:7 Ὥστε οὔτε ὁ φυτεύων ἐστίν τι, οὔτε ὁ ποτίζων, ἀλλ' ὁ αὐξάνων θεός. So neither he who plants nor he who waters is anything, but God who gives the growth.
1 Cor 3:8 Ὁ φυτεύων δὲ καὶ ὁ ποτίζων ἕν εἰσιν· ἕκαστος δὲ τὸν ἴδιον μισθὸν λήψεται κατὰ τὸν ἴδιον κόπον. But he who plants and he who waters are one agency. And each will receive his own reward according to his own labour. one agency: neuter numeral, so from one (thing).
1 Cor 3:9 Θεοῦ γάρ ἐσμεν συνεργοί· θεοῦ γεώργιον, θεοῦ οἰκοδομή ἐστε. For we are God's co-workers; you are God's cultivated field – God's building.
1 Cor 3:10 Κατὰ τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι, ὡς σοφὸς ἀρχιτέκτων θεμέλιον τέθεικα, ἄλλος δὲ ἐποικοδομεῖ. Ἕκαστος δὲ βλεπέτω πῶς ἐποικοδομεῖ. I have laid a foundation as a wise master-builder, according to the grace of God given to me, and another is building on it. But let each one watch how he builds on it.
1 Cor 3:11 Θεμέλιον γὰρ ἄλλον οὐδεὶς δύναται θεῖναι παρὰ τὸν κείμενον, ὅς ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς {RP P1904: - } [TR: ] χριστός. For no-one can lay any other foundation than the one which has been laid, which is Jesus {RP P1904: - } [TR: the] Christ. , the: absent in RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. present in TR F1859=0/13.
1 Cor 3:12 Εἰ δέ τις ἐποικοδομεῖ ἐπὶ τὸν θεμέλιον τοῦτον χρυσόν, ἄργυρον, λίθους τιμίους, ξύλα, χόρτον, καλάμην, But if anyone builds gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw on this foundation,
1 Cor 3:13 ἑκάστου τὸ ἔργον φανερὸν γενήσεται· ἡ γὰρ ἡμέρα δηλώσει, ὅτι ἐν πυρὶ ἀποκαλύπτεται· καὶ ἑκάστου τὸ ἔργον ὁποῖόν ἐστιν τὸ πῦρ δοκιμάσει. each person's work will become manifest. For the day will show it, because it will be revealed by fire. And the fire will prove what kind of work each person's is.
1 Cor 3:14 Εἴ τινος τὸ ἔργον μένει ὃ {RP: ἐποικοδόμησεν} [P1904 TR: ἐπῳκοδόμησε], μισθὸν λήψεται. If anyone's work which he has built on remains, he will receive a reward. ἐποικοδόμησε(ν), he built on (non-classical form), RP F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's n, reading ἐπ' οἰκοδόμησε) vs. ἐπῳκοδόμησε(ν), he built on (classical form), P1904 TR F1859=12/13. A strong disparity with RP, R=1:14.

remains: perhaps better accented μενεῖ, will remain, analogously to the future protasis of the conditional clauses in the next verse.
1 Cor 3:15 Εἴ τινος τὸ ἔργον κατακαήσεται, ζημιωθήσεται· αὐτὸς δὲ σωθήσεται, οὕτως δὲ ὡς διὰ πυρός. If anyone's work is burnt up, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be saved, but this is how: as through fire. is ← will be, but English avoids the future tense in the protasis of conditional sentences.

this is how ← thus.
1 Cor 3:16 Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ναὸς θεοῦ ἐστε, καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν; Do you not know that you are the sanctuary of God and that the spirit of God dwells in you?
1 Cor 3:17 Εἴ τις τὸν ναὸν τοῦ θεοῦ φθείρει, φθερεῖ τοῦτον ὁ θεός· ὁ γὰρ ναὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ἅγιός ἐστιν, οἵτινές ἐστε ὑμεῖς. If anyone spoils the sanctuary of God, God will spoil him. For the sanctuary of God is holy, which is what you are. him ← this (one).

which is what you are ← who you are. An inanimate antecedent but animate relative pronoun, also discordant in number. English uses an inanimate relative pronoun in such cases.
1 Cor 3:18 Μηδεὶς ἑαυτὸν ἐξαπατάτω· εἴ τις δοκεῖ σοφὸς εἶναι ἐν ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ, μωρὸς γενέσθω, ἵνα γένηται σοφός. Let no-one deceive himself. If anyone among you considers himself to be wise in this age, let him become foolish, in order that he may become wise.
1 Cor 3:19 Ἡ γὰρ σοφία τοῦ κόσμου τούτου μωρία παρὰ τῷ θεῷ ἐστιν. Γέγραπται γάρ, Ὁ δρασσόμενος τοὺς σοφοὺς ἐν τῇ πανουργίᾳ αὐτῶν. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it stands written: “He catches the wise in their own cunning.” Job 5:13.

in: or by or with.
1 Cor 3:20 Καὶ πάλιν, Κύριος γινώσκει τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς τῶν σοφῶν, ὅτι εἰσὶν μάταιοι. And again: The Lord knows the reasonings of the wise – that they are vain.” Ps 94:11.
1 Cor 3:21 Ὥστε μηδεὶς καυχάσθω ἐν ἀνθρώποις· πάντα γὰρ ὑμῶν ἐστιν, So let no-one among men boast, for all things are yours, among men boast: AV differs (glory in men), also possible.
1 Cor 3:22 εἴτε Παῦλος, εἴτε Ἀπολλώς, εἴτε Κηφᾶς, εἴτε κόσμος, εἴτε ζωή, εἴτε θάνατος, εἴτε ἐνεστῶτα, εἴτε μέλλοντα· πάντα ὑμῶν ἐστιν, whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas or the world or life or death, whether present or future – everything is yours, yours: plural you.
1 Cor 3:23 ὑμεῖς δὲ χριστοῦ, χριστὸς δὲ θεοῦ. and you are Christ's, and Christ is God's.
1 Cor 4:1 Οὕτως ἡμᾶς λογιζέσθω ἄνθρωπος, ὡς ὑπηρέτας χριστοῦ καὶ οἰκονόμους μυστηρίων θεοῦ. In this way let a man consider us as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God.
1 Cor 4:2 Ὃ δὲ λοιπόν, ζητεῖται ἐν τοῖς οἰκονόμοις, ἵνα πιστός τις εὑρεθῇ. Moreover it is required in stewards that a person is found to be faithful. required ← inquired into; sought.
1 Cor 4:3 Ἐμοὶ δὲ εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστιν ἵνα ὑφ' ὑμῶν ἀνακριθῶ, ἢ ὑπὸ ἀνθρωπίνης ἡμέρας· ἀλλ' οὐδὲ ἐμαυτὸν ἀνακρίνω. And it is the least of my concerns that I should be examined by you or by the probings of the day of man. But neither do I examine myself. my ← to me.
1 Cor 4:4 Οὐδὲν γὰρ ἐμαυτῷ σύνοιδα, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐν τούτῳ δεδικαίωμαι· ὁ δὲ ἀνακρίνων με κύριός ἐστιν. For I am not conscious of anything against myself, but I do not stand justified by that. And he who examines me is the Lord. against myself: AV differs (by myself).

that ← this.
1 Cor 4:5 Ὥστε μὴ πρὸ καιροῦ τι κρίνετε, ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ ὁ κύριος, ὃς καὶ φωτίσει τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σκότους, καὶ φανερώσει τὰς βουλὰς τῶν καρδιῶν· καὶ τότε ὁ ἔπαινος γενήσεται ἑκάστῳ ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ. As a result, do not judge anything before its time, until the Lord comes, who will also bring the hidden things of darkness to light, and he will make the motives of people's hearts manifest, and then each one will have praise from God.
1 Cor 4:6 Ταῦτα δέ, ἀδελφοί, μετεσχημάτισα εἰς ἐμαυτὸν καὶ Ἀπολλὼ δι' ὑμᾶς, ἵνα ἐν ἡμῖν μάθητε τὸ μὴ ὑπὲρ ὃ γέγραπται φρονεῖν, ἵνα μὴ εἷς ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἑνὸς φυσιοῦσθε κατὰ τοῦ ἑτέρου. And, brothers, I have applied these things to myself and Apollos on your account, so that you who are among us might learn not to speculate beyond what stands written, so that you aren't self-opinionated – one person above another to the detriment of someone else. self-opinionated ← puffed up.
1 Cor 4:7 Τίς γάρ σε διακρίνει; Τί δὲ ἔχεις ὃ οὐκ ἔλαβες; Εἰ δὲ καὶ ἔλαβες, τί καυχᾶσαι ὡς μὴ λαβών; For who gives you distinct characteristics? And what do you possess that you did not receive? But if you received it, why do you boast as if you didn't receive it? gives you distinct characteristics ← distinguishes you.

but if: there is a sense of contrariety, but if on the other hand. Compare 2 Cor 4:3.
1 Cor 4:8 Ἤδη κεκορεσμένοι ἐστέ, ἤδη ἐπλουτήσατε, χωρὶς ἡμῶν ἐβασιλεύσατε· καὶ ὄφελόν γε ἐβασιλεύσατε, ἵνα καὶ ἡμεῖς ὑμῖν συμβασιλεύσωμεν. You have already become satiated, you have already become rich, you have started reigning without us – and if only you really had started reigning, so that we too might reign with you. started reigning (2x): inceptive aorist.
1 Cor 4:9 Δοκῶ γὰρ ὅτι ὁ θεὸς ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀποστόλους ἐσχάτους ἀπέδειξεν ὡς ἐπιθανατίους· ὅτι θέατρον ἐγενήθημεν τῷ κόσμῳ, καὶ ἀγγέλοις, καὶ ἀνθρώποις. For I consider that God has exhibited us, the apostles, last, as people under sentence of death, because we have become a spectacle to the world and to angels and to men.
1 Cor 4:10 Ἡμεῖς μωροὶ διὰ χριστόν, ὑμεῖς δὲ φρόνιμοι ἐν χριστῷ· ἡμεῖς ἀσθενεῖς, ὑμεῖς δὲ ἰσχυροί· ὑμεῖς ἔνδοξοι, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἄτιμοι. We are foolish for the sake of Christ, whereas you are wise in Christ. We are weak, whereas you are strong. You are esteemed, whereas we are without honour. without honour: or dishonoured.
1 Cor 4:11 Ἄχρι τῆς ἄρτι ὥρας καὶ πεινῶμεν, καὶ διψῶμεν, καὶ γυμνητεύομεν, καὶ κολαφιζόμεθα, καὶ ἀστατοῦμεν, Up to the present hour we have been hungry and thirsty and been poorly clothed and have been knocked about and have been without a fixed address, we have been hungry and thirsty ← we both hunger and thirst, our translation being in accordance with English tense usage. This tense disparity applies throughout the sentence.

without a fixed address ← unstable, but in the papyri unsettled, vagabond [MM].
1 Cor 4:12 καὶ κοπιῶμεν ἐργαζόμενοι ταῖς ἰδίαις χερσίν· λοιδορούμενοι εὐλογοῦμεν· διωκόμενοι ἀνεχόμεθα· and we have been toiling, working with our own hands. When railed at, we bless; when persecuted, we endure;
1 Cor 4:13 βλασφημούμενοι παρακαλοῦμεν· ὡς περικαθάρματα τοῦ κόσμου ἐγενήθημεν, πάντων περίψημα ἕως ἄρτι. when slandered, we speak in good cheer. We have become like the scum of the world – the offscouring of all sorts – up to the present time.
1 Cor 4:14 Οὐκ ἐντρέπων ὑμᾶς γράφω ταῦτα, ἀλλ' ὡς τέκνα μου ἀγαπητὰ νουθετῶ. I do not write these things to put you to shame, but I warn you about it as my beloved children. to put you to shame: a present participle for a classical future participle of purpose.
1 Cor 4:15 Ἐὰν γὰρ μυρίους παιδαγωγοὺς ἔχητε ἐν χριστῷ, ἀλλ' οὐ πολλοὺς πατέρας· ἐν γὰρ χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ἐγὼ ὑμᾶς ἐγέννησα. For even if you had ten thousand tutors in Christ, you still would not have many fathers. For I have begotten you in Christ Jesus through the gospel. if you had: an unreal condition, but in view of the negative apodosis, it need not be emphasized in English with if you were to have.
1 Cor 4:16 Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε. So I exhort you: be imitators of me.
1 Cor 4:17 Διὰ τοῦτο ἔπεμψα ὑμῖν Τιμόθεον, ὅς ἐστιν τέκνον μου ἀγαπητὸν καὶ πιστὸν ἐν κυρίῳ, ὃς ὑμᾶς ἀναμνήσει τὰς ὁδούς μου τὰς ἐν χριστῷ, καθὼς πανταχοῦ ἐν πάσῃ ἐκκλησίᾳ διδάσκω. For this reason I have sent you Timothy, who is a beloved child of mine, and faithful in the Lord, and who will remind you of my ways in Christ – how I teach everywhere in every church. church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 4:18 Ὡς μὴ ἐρχομένου δέ μου πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐφυσιώθησάν τινες. Some of you are complacent, as though I were not coming to you. complacent ← puffed up.
1 Cor 4:19 Ἐλεύσομαι δὲ ταχέως πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἐὰν ὁ κύριος θελήσῃ, καὶ γνώσομαι οὐ τὸν λόγον τῶν πεφυσιωμένων, ἀλλὰ τὴν δύναμιν. And I will come to you quickly, if the Lord wishes it, and get to know not the talk of those who are complacent, but the power, quickly: or soon.

talk ← word.

complacent ← puffed up.
1 Cor 4:20 Οὐ γὰρ ἐν λόγῳ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ, ἀλλ' ἐν δυνάμει. for the kingdom of God is not in talk but in power. talk ← word.
1 Cor 4:21 Τί θέλετε; Ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἢ ἐν ἀγάπῃ πνεύματί τε πρᾳότητος; What do you want? For me to come to you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of meekness?
1 Cor 5:1 Ὅλως ἀκούεται ἐν ὑμῖν πορνεία, καὶ τοιαύτη πορνεία, ἥτις οὐδὲ ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ὀνομάζεται, ὥστε γυναῖκά τινα τοῦ πατρὸς ἔχειν. It is heard – very much sothat there is fornication among you, and fornication of such a kind that is not even named among the Gentiles, that someone should have his father's wife. very much so ← altogether. This word is easier to translate when with a negative, e.g. Matt 5:34, not at all. Our word order and dashes are to prevent reading as It is very-much so-heard that ... .

father's wife: presumably not the man's mother, but a subsequent wife of the father, so a stepmother.
1 Cor 5:2 Καὶ ὑμεῖς πεφυσιωμένοι ἐστέ, καὶ οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἐπενθήσατε, ἵνα ἐξαρθῇ ἐκ μέσου ὑμῶν ὁ τὸ ἔργον τοῦτο ποιήσας. And you are complacent and have not rather mourned, so that he who committed this act should be removed from your company. complacent ← puffed up.

from your company ← from your midst.
1 Cor 5:3 Ἐγὼ μὲν γὰρ ὡς ἀπὼν τῷ σώματι παρὼν δὲ τῷ πνεύματι, ἤδη κέκρικα ὡς παρών, τὸν οὕτως τοῦτο κατεργασάμενον, Well I, being absent in the body but present in the spirit, have already reached a decision on him who actually did this, as if I were present, actually did this ← did this thus.
1 Cor 5:4 ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, συναχθέντων ὑμῶν καὶ τοῦ ἐμοῦ πνεύματος, σὺν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, while you are gathered together (as is my spirit) with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ,
1 Cor 5:5 παραδοῦναι τὸν τοιοῦτον τῷ Σατανᾷ εἰς ὄλεθρον τῆς σαρκός, ἵνα τὸ πνεῦμα σωθῇ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ. to deliver a man like this to Satan, for destruction of the flesh, in order that the spirit might be saved on the day of the Lord Jesus.
1 Cor 5:6 Οὐ καλὸν τὸ καύχημα ὑμῶν. Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ; Your boasting is not a good thing. Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump?
1 Cor 5:7 Ἐκκαθάρατε {RP-text: - } [RP-marg P1904 TR: οὖν] τὴν παλαιὰν ζύμην, ἵνα ἦτε νέον φύραμα, καθώς ἐστε ἄζυμοι. Καὶ γὰρ τὸ Πάσχα ἡμῶν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν {RP P1904 S1550: ἐτύθη} [E1624 S1894: ἐθύθη] χριστός· {RP-text: Clear} [RP-marg P1904 TR: So clear] out the old leaven, in order to be a new lump, since you are unleavened. For indeed, our Passover has been sacrificed for us – Christ – οὖν, therefore, so: absent in RP-text F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's l) vs. present in RP-marg P1904 TR F1859=11/12. A strong disparity with RP-text, R=1:13.

ἐτύθη, was sacrificed (classical form avoiding double aspiration), RP P1904 S1550 F1859=12/12 vs. ἐθύθη, was sacrificed (non-classical form with double aspiration), E1624 S1894 F1859=0/12.
1 Cor 5:8 ὥστε ἑορτάζωμεν, μὴ ἐν ζύμῃ παλαιᾷ, μηδὲ ἐν ζύμῃ κακίας καὶ πονηρίας, ἀλλ' ἐν ἀζύμοις εἰλικρινείας καὶ ἀληθείας. so let us keep the feast, not in old leaven, nor in leaven of wickedness and evil, but in unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
1 Cor 5:9 Ἔγραψα ὑμῖν ἐν τῇ ἐπιστολῇ μὴ συναναμίγνυσθαι πόρνοις· I have written to you in the epistle not to associate with fornicators, I have written ← I wrote, the sense being I have written in this epistle (1 Cor 5:1-2).
1 Cor 5:10 καὶ οὐ πάντως τοῖς πόρνοις τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἢ τοῖς πλεονέκταις, ἢ ἅρπαξιν, ἢ εἰδωλολάτραις· ἐπεὶ ὀφείλετε ἄρα ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου ἐξελθεῖν. and not at all with the fornicators of this world, or with the fraudsters, or the rapacious or idolaters, since then you would have to depart from the world. of this world: [MG] explains as the non-Christians.

fraudsters: or covetous. In 1 Thes 4:6, the cognate verb is clearly to defraud, a meaning included in [LS]. This better matches the other vices associated with the πλεονέκται, which typically involve some physical action, not just a mental state.
1 Cor 5:11 {RP P1904: Νῦν} [TR: Νυνὶ] δὲ ἔγραψα ὑμῖν μὴ συναναμίγνυσθαι, ἐάν τις ἀδελφὸς ὀνομαζόμενος ᾖ πόρνος, ἢ πλεονέκτης, ἢ εἰδωλολάτρης, ἢ λοίδορος, ἢ μέθυσος, ἢ ἅρπαξ· τῷ τοιούτῳ μηδὲ συνεσθίειν. And I have written to you now not to associate with anyone if he is called a brother, but who is a fornicator or a fraudster or an idolater or is abusive or drunk or rapacious, and not to eat with such a person. νῦν, now, RP P1904 F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's d**d(antiquior)kn) vs. νυνὶ, now (perhaps the less formal form), TR F1859=9/13 (incl. Scrivener's d recentior). Antiquior = older, recentior = more recent. A disparity with RP, R=5:10.

associate with anyone if he is called ← associate if anyone (is) called.

fraudster: or covetous person. See 1 Cor 5:10.
1 Cor 5:12 Τί γάρ μοι καὶ τοὺς ἔξω κρίνειν; Οὐχὶ τοὺς ἔσω ὑμεῖς κρίνετε; But what business is it of mine to also judge those outside? Is it not those inside whom you judge? those outside: i.e. the non-Christians.
1 Cor 5:13 Τοὺς δὲ ἔξω ὁ θεὸς κρινεῖ. Καὶ ἐξαρεῖτε τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν. But God will judge those outside. However, you shall remove the wicked person from your own group. your own groupyourselves.
1 Cor 6:1 Τολμᾷ τις ὑμῶν, πρᾶγμα ἔχων πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον, κρίνεσθαι ἐπὶ τῶν ἀδίκων, καὶ οὐχὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἁγίων; Does anyone among you dare, if you have a case against another, to go to law before the unjust, and not before the saints? if: conditional use of the participle.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
1 Cor 6:2 Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ ἅγιοι τὸν κόσμον κρινοῦσιν; Καὶ εἰ ἐν ὑμῖν κρίνεται ὁ κόσμος, ἀνάξιοί ἐστε κριτηρίων ἐλαχίστων; Do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And that if the world is judged by you, then you are unsuited for the least of the courts? saints: see Matt 27:52.

you are unsuited for ← you are unworthy of. The sense is you don't belong in (because you have a higher calling than a worldly court). AV differs, reading are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters?. But there is no second interrogative word, and a κριτήριον can be a court, as in James 2:6.
1 Cor 6:3 Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ἀγγέλους κρινοῦμεν; Μήτι γε βιωτικά; Do you not know that we shall judge angels? So surely not commonplace matters! surely not: this is the sense of μήτι, as in Matt 26:22, Mark 4:21, Mark 14:19, Luke 6:39, John 7:31, John 18:35, James 3:11. We thus retain the line of reasoning set out in the notes to 1 Cor 6:2 that the “saints” (i.e. believers) should not be occupied with these commonplace matters. AV differs.

commonplace ← pertaining to (everyday) life.
1 Cor 6:4 Βιωτικὰ μὲν οὖν κριτήρια ἐὰν ἔχητε, τοὺς ἐξουθενημένους ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ, τούτους καθίζετε. So if you have commonplace court cases, appoint those who are considered nobodies in the church. commonplace: see 1 Cor 6:3.

considered nobodies ← considered nothing. The line of reasoning set out in 1 Cor 6:2 continues: you have better things to do than go to court, and the least of you can do the judging.

church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 6:5 Πρὸς ἐντροπὴν ὑμῖν λέγω. Οὕτως οὐκ {RP P1904: ἔνι} [TR: ἔστιν] ἐν ὑμῖν σοφὸς οὐδὲ εἷς, ὃς δυνήσεται διακρῖναι ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, I speak to your shame. Is there not even one wise person among you, then, who will be able to judge between one of his brothers and another, ἔνι, there is in that place, RP P1904 F1859=12/13 (incl. k with rough breathing) vs. ἔστιν, there is, TR F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's m).

then: this comes from οὕτως, in this way.

one of his brothers ← his brother.
1 Cor 6:6 ἀλλὰ ἀδελφὸς μετὰ ἀδελφοῦ κρίνεται, καὶ τοῦτο ἐπὶ ἀπίστων; while instead a brother goes to law with a brother, and that before unbelievers? while insteadbut.
1 Cor 6:7 Ἤδη μὲν οὖν ὅλως ἥττημα {RP P1904: - } [TR: ἐν] ὑμῖν ἐστιν, ὅτι κρίματα ἔχετε μεθ' ἑαυτῶν. Διὰ τί οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἀδικεῖσθε; Διὰ τί οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἀποστερεῖσθε; So you are already wholly at fault in that you have lawsuits with each other. Why do you not rather suffer the injustice? Why do you not rather suffer being defrauded? ἐν, among, giving you are: absent in RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. present in TR F1859=0/13.

you are ... at fault ← {RP P1904: among} [TR: to] you there is a defeat.

each other ← yourselves. Reflexive for reciprocal.

suffer the injustice ... suffer being defrauded ← be wronged ... be defrauded.
1 Cor 6:8 Ἀλλὰ ὑμεῖς ἀδικεῖτε καὶ ἀποστερεῖτε, καὶ ταῦτα ἀδελφούς. But you commit injustice and perpetrate fraud, and against brothers at that. at that ← these (things).
1 Cor 6:9 Ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ἄδικοι βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν; Μὴ πλανᾶσθε· οὔτε πόρνοι, οὔτε εἰδωλολάτραι, οὔτε μοιχοί, οὔτε μαλακοί, οὔτε ἀρσενοκοῖται, Or do you not know that the unjust will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be led astray: neither fornicators nor idolaters nor adulterers nor the effeminate, nor men who lie with men, be led astray: or go astray.
1 Cor 6:10 οὔτε {RP P1904: πλεονέκται, οὔτε κλέπται} [TR: κλέπται, οὔτε πλεονέκται], οὔτε μέθυσοι, οὐ λοίδοροι, οὐχ ἅρπαγες, βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν. nor {RP P1904: fraudsters, nor thieves} [TR: thieves, nor fraudsters], nor drunkards, nor the abusive, nor the rapacious will inherit the kingdom of God. πλεονέκται, οὔτε κλέπται, fraudsters + nor thieves, RP P1904 F1859=10/13 vs. κλέπται, οὔτε πλεονέκται, thieves + nor fraudsters, TR F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's am) vs. another reading, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's k).

fraudsters: or the covetous. See 1 Cor 5:10.
1 Cor 6:11 Καὶ ταῦτά τινες ἦτε· ἀλλὰ ἀπελούσασθε, ἀλλὰ ἡγιάσθητε, {RP TR: ἀλλ'} [P1904: ἀλλὰ] ἐδικαιώθητε ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ, καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν. And so were some of you. But you have had yourselves washed, and you have been sanctified, and you have been justified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the spirit of our God. ἀλλ', but (apocopated), RP TR F1859=8/13 (Scrivener's ac (and the rest?)) vs. ἀλλὰ, but (unapocopated), P1904 F1859=5/13 (Scrivener's bklno). Scrivener's reference edition appears to read ἀλλὰ.

so ← these (things).

you have had yourselves washed: this sense comes from the middle voice. See Acts 4:3.

and (2x)but. Greek repeats the ↴
1 Cor 6:12 Πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν, ἀλλ' οὐ πάντα συμφέρει· πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐγὼ ἐξουσιασθήσομαι ὑπό τινος. Everything is permitted me, but not everything is profitable. Everything is permitted me, but I will not be put under authority by anyone. ↳ adversative conjunction but, whereas in English a subsequent but is either unnatural or stands in opposition to the previous but (rather than the main clause). Compare Titus 1:15.
1 Cor 6:13 Τὰ βρώματα τῇ κοιλίᾳ, καὶ ἡ κοιλία τοῖς βρώμασιν· ὁ δὲ θεὸς καὶ ταύτην καὶ ταῦτα καταργήσει. Τὸ δὲ σῶμα οὐ τῇ πορνείᾳ, ἀλλὰ τῷ κυρίῳ, καὶ ὁ κύριος τῷ σώματι· Food for the stomach and the stomach for food – but God will bring both of these to nothing. And the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body. both of these ← both this (i.e. the stomach) and these (i.e. the food).
1 Cor 6:14 ὁ δὲ θεὸς καὶ τὸν κύριον ἤγειρεν καὶ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: ἡμᾶς} [E1624: ὑμᾶς] ἐξεγερεῖ διὰ τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ. And God has raised the Lord, and he will also raise {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: us} [E1624: you] through his power. ἡμᾶς, us, RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=13/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. ὑμᾶς, you, E1624 F1859=0/13.

has ... and he will also ← both has ... and will.
1 Cor 6:15 Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν μέλη χριστοῦ ἐστιν; Ἄρας οὖν τὰ μέλη τοῦ χριστοῦ ποιήσω πόρνης μέλη; Μὴ γένοιτο. Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ and make them the members of a prostitute? May it not be so!
1 Cor 6:16 {RP-text: Οὐκ} [RP-marg P1904 TR: Ἢ οὐκ] οἴδατε ὅτι ὁ κολλώμενος τῇ πόρνῃ ἓν σῶμά ἐστιν; Ἔσονται γάρ, φησίν, οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν. {RP-text: Do} [RP-marg P1904 TR: Or do] you not know that he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? “For the two”, he says, “will be one flesh.” , or: absent in RP-text F1859=11/14 vs. present in RP-marg P1904 TR F1859=3/14 (Scrivener's a*hm).

Gen 2:24.
1 Cor 6:17 Ὁ δὲ κολλώμενος τῷ κυρίῳ ἓν πνεῦμά ἐστιν. But he who is joined to the Lord is one spirit.
1 Cor 6:18 Φεύγετε τὴν πορνείαν. Πᾶν ἁμάρτημα ὃ ἐὰν ποιήσῃ ἄνθρωπος ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν· ὁ δὲ πορνεύων εἰς τὸ ἴδιον σῶμα ἁμαρτάνει. Flee fornication. Whatever sin a man commits is separate from the body. But he who fornicates sins against his own body. whatever ← every whatever.

separate from ← outside.

against: or in. The Greek gives a good contrast: outside and inside the body, but the prepositions also have a wider scope.
1 Cor 6:19 Ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι τὸ σῶμα ὑμῶν ναὸς τοῦ ἐν ὑμῖν ἁγίου πνεύματός ἐστιν, οὗ ἔχετε ἀπὸ θεοῦ; Καὶ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἑαυτῶν, Or do you not know that your body is the sanctuary of the holy spirit in you, which you have from God? And you are not your own,
1 Cor 6:20 ἠγοράσθητε γὰρ τιμῆς· δοξάσατε δὴ τὸν θεὸν ἐν τῷ σώματι ὑμῶν, καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ὑμῶν, ἅτινά ἐστιν τοῦ θεοῦ. for you have been bought at a price. Glorify God, therefore, in your body and in your spirit, which are God's.
1 Cor 7:1 Περὶ δὲ ὧν ἐγράψατέ μοι, καλὸν ἀνθρώπῳ γυναικὸς μὴ ἅπτεσθαι. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me, it is good for a man not to touch a woman.
1 Cor 7:2 Διὰ δὲ τὰς πορνείας ἕκαστος τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα ἐχέτω, καὶ ἑκάστη τὸν ἴδιον ἄνδρα ἐχέτω. But because of the danger of fornication, let each man have his own wife, and each woman have her own husband.
1 Cor 7:3 Τῇ γυναικὶ ὁ ἀνὴρ τὴν ὀφειλομένην εὔνοιαν ἀποδιδότω· ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ἡ γυνὴ τῷ ἀνδρί. Let the husband fulfil the romance due to the wife, and similarly also the wife to her husband.
1 Cor 7:4 Ἡ γυνὴ τοῦ ἰδίου σώματος οὐκ ἐξουσιάζει, ἀλλ' ὁ ἀνήρ· ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ὁ ἀνὴρ τοῦ ἰδίου σώματος οὐκ ἐξουσιάζει, ἀλλ' ἡ γυνή. It is not the wife who has authority over her own body, but the husband. And similarly, neither is it the man who has authority over his own body, but the wife. similarly ← similarly also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 7:5 Μὴ ἀποστερεῖτε ἀλλήλους, εἰ μή τι ἂν ἐκ συμφώνου πρὸς καιρόν, ἵνα σχολάζητε τῇ νηστείᾳ καὶ τῇ προσευχῇ, καὶ πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: συνέρχησθε} [E1624: συνέρχεσθε], ἵνα μὴ πειράζῃ ὑμᾶς ὁ Σατανᾶς διὰ τὴν ἀκρασίαν ὑμῶν. Do not withhold from one another, except perhaps in agreement for a while, in order that you may be at leisure for fasting and {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: prayer, and come together} [E1624: prayer. And come together] again, so that Satan does not tempt you through lack of control on your part. συνέρχησθε, come together (subjunctive, part of the purpose clause), RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=10/13 vs. συνέρχεσθε, come together (imperative), E1624 F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's ach).

lack of control on your part ← your lack of control. Subjective genitive.
1 Cor 7:6 Τοῦτο δὲ λέγω κατὰ συγγνώμην, οὐ κατ' ἐπιταγήν. But I say this sympathetically, not by commandment. sympathetically ← according to fellow feeling.
1 Cor 7:7 Θέλω γὰρ πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἶναι ὡς καὶ ἐμαυτόν· ἀλλ' ἕκαστος ἴδιον χάρισμα ἔχει ἐκ θεοῦ, ὃς μὲν οὕτως, ὃς δὲ οὕτως. For I wish that all men were as I myself am, but each has his own gracious gift from God – one of this kind, one of that kind. as ← as also (otiose καί).

of this kind ... of that kind ← thus ... thus.
1 Cor 7:8 Λέγω δὲ τοῖς ἀγάμοις καὶ ταῖς χήραις, καλὸν αὐτοῖς ἐστιν ἐὰν μείνωσιν ὡς κἀγώ. But I say to those who are unmarried and to the widows, that it is good for them if they remain as I am. as ← as also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 7:9 Εἰ δὲ οὐκ ἐγκρατεύονται, γαμησάτωσαν· κρεῖσσον γάρ ἐστιν γαμῆσαι ἢ πυροῦσθαι. But if they cannot control themselves, let them marry. For it is better to marry than to be ardently desirous.
1 Cor 7:10 Τοῖς δὲ γεγαμηκόσιν παραγγέλλω, οὐκ ἐγώ, ἀλλ' ὁ κύριος, γυναῖκα ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς μὴ χωρισθῆναι· And to those married, I command, though not I, but the Lord, that a woman should not separate from her husband. separate ← be separated, but apparently a command to the woman, the command to the husband following.
1 Cor 7:11 ἐὰν δὲ καὶ χωρισθῇ, μενέτω ἄγαμος, ἢ τῷ ἀνδρὶ καταλλαγήτω - καὶ ἄνδρα γυναῖκα μὴ ἀφιέναι. But if she does separate, let her remain unmarried, or let her be reconciled to her husband. And I command a husband not to divorce his wife. separate: see 1 Cor 7:10.
1 Cor 7:12 Τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς ἐγὼ λέγω, οὐχ ὁ κύριος· εἴ τις ἀδελφὸς γυναῖκα ἔχει ἄπιστον, καὶ αὐτὴ συνευδοκεῖ οἰκεῖν μετ' αὐτοῦ, μὴ ἀφιέτω αὐτήν. And to the rest, I, not the Lord, speak. If any brother has an unbelieving wife, and she consents to live with him, let him not divorce her.
1 Cor 7:13 Καὶ γυνὴ {RP TR: ἥτις} [P1904: εἴ τις] ἔχει ἄνδρα ἄπιστον, καὶ αὐτὸς συνευδοκεῖ οἰκεῖν μετ' αὐτῆς, μὴ ἀφιέτω αὐτόν. And {RP TR: as for a wife who} [P1904: if any wife] has an unbelieving husband, and he consents to live with her, let her not divorce him. ἥτις, who, RP TR F1859=11/14 vs. εἴ τις, if anyone, P1904 F1859=3/14 (Scrivener's b*hk).
1 Cor 7:14 Ἡγίασται γὰρ ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ ἄπιστος ἐν τῇ γυναικί, καὶ ἡγίασται ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἄπιστος ἐν τῷ ἀνδρί· ἐπεὶ ἄρα τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν ἀκάθαρτά ἐστιν, νῦν δὲ ἅγιά ἐστιν. For the unbelieving husband has been sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving wife has been sanctified by the husband, since otherwise your children would be unclean, but as it is, they are holy. but as it isbut now.
1 Cor 7:15 Εἰ δὲ ὁ ἄπιστος χωρίζεται, χωριζέσθω. Οὐ δεδούλωται ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἡ ἀδελφὴ ἐν τοῖς τοιούτοις· ἐν δὲ εἰρήνῃ κέκληκεν ἡμᾶς ὁ θεός. But if the unbelieving spouse separates, let him be separate. A brother or sister is not tied down in such cases. And God has called us in peace. him ← him / her, a singular but genderless form. The unbelieving spouse is masculine in form but is probably a generality referring to either sex.

is not tied down ← has not been enslaved.
1 Cor 7:16 Τί γὰρ οἶδας, γύναι, εἰ τὸν ἄνδρα σώσεις; Ἢ τί οἶδας, ἄνερ, εἰ τὴν γυναῖκα σώσεις; For how do you know, you wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, you husband, whether you will save your wife?
1 Cor 7:17 Εἰ μὴ ἑκάστῳ ὡς ἐμέρισεν ὁ θεός, ἕκαστον ὡς κέκληκεν ὁ κύριος, οὕτως περιπατείτω. Καὶ οὕτως ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις πάσαις διατάσσομαι. But as God has distributed to everyone – as the Lord has called everyone – so let him walk. And this is what I command in all the churches. this is whatthus.

churches: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 7:18 Περιτετμημένος τις ἐκλήθη; Μὴ ἐπισπάσθω. Ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ τις ἐκλήθη; Μὴ περιτεμνέσθω. Is anyone who is circumcised called? Let him not screen his circumcision. Is anyone in uncircumcision called? Let him not be circumcised. screen his circumcisiondraw onto, perhaps by surgery.

uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.
1 Cor 7:19 Ἡ περιτομὴ οὐδέν ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ ἀκροβυστία οὐδέν ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ τήρησις ἐντολῶν θεοῦ. Circumcision isn't anything, nor is uncircumcision anything, but rather keeping the commandments of God is quite something. uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.
1 Cor 7:20 Ἕκαστος ἐν τῇ κλήσει ᾗ ἐκλήθη, ἐν ταύτῃ μενέτω. Let each person remain in the particular calling in which he is called. the ← that.
1 Cor 7:21 Δοῦλος ἐκλήθης; Μή σοι μελέτω· ἀλλ' εἰ καὶ δύνασαι ἐλεύθερος γενέσθαι, μᾶλλον χρῆσαι. Have you, as a slave, been called? Don't let it be a concern to you. But even so, if you can become free, it is preferable to make use of it. to make use: middle imperative (make use), but possibly an active infinitive; compare Luke 11:5 (lend).
1 Cor 7:22 Ὁ γὰρ ἐν κυρίῳ κληθεὶς δοῦλος, ἀπελεύθερος κυρίου ἐστίν· ὁμοίως καὶ ὁ ἐλεύθερος κληθείς, δοῦλός ἐστιν χριστοῦ. For the slave who has been called in the Lord is the Lord's freedman. Likewise too, the called free man is Christ's servant.
1 Cor 7:23 Τιμῆς ἠγοράσθητε· μὴ γίνεσθε δοῦλοι ἀνθρώπων. You have been bought at a price; do not become slaves of men.
1 Cor 7:24 Ἕκαστος ἐν ᾧ ἐκλήθη, ἀδελφοί, ἐν τούτῳ μενέτω παρὰ {RP: - } [P1904 TR: τῷ] θεῷ. Brothers, let everyone remain with God in the circumstances in which he has been called. τῷ, the (God): absent in RP F1859=11/13 vs. present in P1904 TR F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's ek).

the ← that (one).
1 Cor 7:25 Περὶ δὲ τῶν παρθένων ἐπιταγὴν κυρίου οὐκ ἔχω· γνώμην δὲ δίδωμι ὡς ἠλεημένος ὑπὸ κυρίου πιστὸς εἶναι. Now concerning virgins, I do not have a commandment from the Lord, but I give my opinion as one who has received mercy from the Lord, so as to be faithful. from ← of.
1 Cor 7:26 Νομίζω οὖν τοῦτο καλὸν ὑπάρχειν διὰ τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἀνάγκην, ὅτι καλὸν ἀνθρώπῳ τὸ οὕτως εἶναι. So I consider this to be right, on account of the present constrained circumstances: that it is right for a man to stay as he is. stay as he isbe thus. The sense of this is given in the next verse.
1 Cor 7:27 Δέδεσαι γυναικί; Μὴ ζήτει λύσιν. Λέλυσαι ἀπὸ γυναικός; Μὴ ζήτει γυναῖκα. Are you bound to a wife? Do not seek dissolution. Have you been released from a wife? Do not seek a wife. are you bound ← have you been bound, but with emphasis on the present state of being bound.
1 Cor 7:28 Ἐὰν δὲ καὶ γήμῃς, οὐχ ἥμαρτες· καὶ ἐὰν γήμῃ ἡ παρθένος, οὐχ ἥμαρτεν. Θλίψιν δὲ τῇ σαρκὶ ἕξουσιν οἱ τοιοῦτοι· ἐγὼ δὲ ὑμῶν φείδομαι. But even if you do marry, you have not sinned. And if a virgin marries, she has not sinned. However, such will have tribulation in the flesh. But I spare you.
1 Cor 7:29 Τοῦτο δέ φημι, ἀδελφοί, {RP P1904 S1550: - } [E1624 S1894: ὅτι] ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος· τὸ λοιπόν ἐστιν ἵνα καὶ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: οἱ} [E1624: - ] ἔχοντες γυναῖκας ὡς μὴ ἔχοντες ὦσιν· And I say this, {RP P1904 S1550: brothers: the} [E1624 S1894: brothers, that the] time has drawn on. From now on it is for even {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: those} [E1624: those] who have wives to be as if they do not have wives, ὅτι, that: absent in RP P1904 S1550 F1859=9/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. present in E1624 S1894 F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's dehl).

οἱ, the, those (having): present in RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=13/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. absent in E1624 F1859=0/13.
1 Cor 7:30 καὶ οἱ κλαίοντες, ὡς μὴ κλαίοντες· καὶ οἱ χαίροντες, ὡς μὴ χαίροντες· καὶ οἱ ἀγοράζοντες, ὡς μὴ κατέχοντες· and for those who weep to be as if they do not weep, and for those who rejoice to be as if they do not rejoice, and for those who make purchases to be as if they don't possess anything,
1 Cor 7:31 καὶ οἱ χρώμενοι τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ, ὡς μὴ καταχρώμενοι· παράγει γὰρ τὸ σχῆμα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου. and for those who use this world to be as if they don't exploit it, for the system of this world is passing away.
1 Cor 7:32 Θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀμερίμνους εἶναι. Ὁ ἄγαμος μεριμνᾷ τὰ τοῦ κυρίου, πῶς ἀρέσει τῷ κυρίῳ· And I would like you to be free from anxiety. He who is not married cares about the affairs of the Lord, about how he can please the Lord, can ← will, a Hebraism.
1 Cor 7:33 ὁ δὲ γαμήσας μεριμνᾷ τὰ τοῦ κόσμου, πῶς ἀρέσει τῇ γυναικί. but he who is married cares about the affairs of the world, about how he can please his wife. can ← will, a Hebraism.
1 Cor 7:34 Μεμέρισται {RP P1904: καὶ} [TR: - ] ἡ γυνὴ καὶ ἡ παρθένος. Ἡ ἄγαμος μεριμνᾷ τὰ τοῦ κυρίου, ἵνα ᾖ ἁγία καὶ σώματι καὶ πνεύματι· ἡ δὲ γαμήσασα μεριμνᾷ τὰ τοῦ κόσμου, πῶς ἀρέσει τῷ ἀνδρί. There is {RP P1904: also} [TR: - ] a distinction between a married woman and a virgin. An unmarried woman cares about the affairs of the Lord, in order that she may be holy in both body and spirit. But the married woman cares about the affairs of the world, about how she can please her husband. καὶ, and / also: present in RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. absent in TR F1859=0/13.

there is {RP P1904: ...} [TR: - ] a distinction ← it has been divided.

can ← will, a Hebraism.
1 Cor 7:35 Τοῦτο δὲ πρὸς τὸ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν συμφέρον λέγω· οὐχ ἵνα βρόχον ὑμῖν ἐπιβάλω, ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὸ εὔσχημον καὶ {RP TR: εὐπρόσεδρον} [P1904: εὐπάρεδρον] τῷ κυρίῳ ἀπερισπάστως. And I say this for the benefit of yourselves, not in order to put a noose round you, but for the sake of what is seemly and with willing devotion to the Lord without distraction. εὐπρόσεδρον, properly attentive (1), RP TR F1859=11/13 vs. εὐπάρεδρον, properly attentive (2), P1904 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's m) vs. another reading, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's o).
1 Cor 7:36 Εἰ δέ τις ἀσχημονεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν παρθένον αὐτοῦ νομίζει, ἐὰν ᾖ ὑπέρακμος, καὶ οὕτως ὀφείλει γίνεσθαι, ὃ θέλει ποιείτω· οὐχ ἁμαρτάνει· γαμείτωσαν. But if anyone thinks he is behaving in an improper way towards his virgin daughter, if she is passing the prime of life, and if he thinks it has to be this way, let him do what he wishes – he is not sinning – let such virgins marry. let such virgins marry ← let them marry, i.e. let the virgins marry their suitors, as approved by their fathers. Perhaps just referring to the one virgin and her suitor.
1 Cor 7:37 Ὃς δὲ ἕστηκεν ἑδραῖος ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ, μὴ ἔχων ἀνάγκην, ἐξουσίαν δὲ ἔχει περὶ τοῦ ἰδίου θελήματος, καὶ τοῦτο κέκρικεν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ, τοῦ τηρεῖν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ παρθένον, καλῶς ποιεῖ. But he who stands steadfast in his heart, not being under compulsion, but who has control over his own will, and who has so decided in his heart to keep his virgin daughter at home – he does well. being under ← having.

has so decided ← has decided this.
1 Cor 7:38 Ὥστε καὶ ὁ ἐκγαμίζων καλῶς ποιεῖ· ὁ δὲ μὴ ἐκγαμίζων κρεῖσσον ποιεῖ. So that he who gives her in marriage also does well, but he who does not give her in marriage does better.
1 Cor 7:39 Γυνὴ δέδεται νόμῳ ἐφ' ὅσον χρόνον ζῇ ὁ ἀνὴρ αὐτῆς· ἐὰν δὲ {RP: καὶ} [P1904 TR: - ] κοιμηθῇ ὁ ἀνήρ {RP: - } [P1904 TR: αὐτῆς], ἐλευθέρα ἐστὶν ᾧ θέλει γαμηθῆναι, μόνον ἐν κυρίῳ. The wife is bound by the law as long as her husband is alive. But if {RP: her} [P1904 TR: her] husband falls asleep, she is free to marry whom she wishes, except that it must be in the Lord. καὶ, and, also (but not necessarily translatable): present in RP F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's abefhlo) vs. absent in P1904 TR F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's cdgkmn). A weak disparity with RP, R=7:8.

αὐτῆς, her: absent in RP F1859=11/13 vs. present in P1904 TR F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's am).

to marry ← to be married to.
1 Cor 7:40 Μακαριωτέρα δέ ἐστιν ἐὰν οὕτως μείνῃ, κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴν γνώμην· δοκῶ δὲ κἀγὼ πνεῦμα θεοῦ ἔχειν. But she is more blessed if she remains as she is, in my opinion. And I also consider I have the spirit of God. as she isthus.
1 Cor 8:1 Περὶ δὲ τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων, οἴδαμεν ὅτι πάντες γνῶσιν ἔχομεν. Ἡ γνῶσις φυσιοῖ, ἡ δὲ ἀγάπη οἰκοδομεῖ. Now concerning things offered to idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge puffs a person up, whereas love edifies.
1 Cor 8:2 Εἰ δέ τις δοκεῖ εἰδέναι τι, οὐδέπω οὐδὲν ἔγνωκεν καθὼς δεῖ γνῶναι· And if anyone thinks he knows anything, he has not yet come to knowledge of anything in the way it is necessary to know it. knows ... come to knowledge ... know: the first verb of knowing is of instinctive knowing; the second two are of acquired knowledge.
1 Cor 8:3 εἰ δέ τις ἀγαπᾷ τὸν θεόν, οὗτος ἔγνωσται ὑπ' αὐτοῦ. But if anyone loves God, he is known by him. he is known ← this (one) has been known, but with emphasis on the present state of being known in an ongoing way. The verb of knowing is of acquired knowledge.
1 Cor 8:4 Περὶ τῆς βρώσεως οὖν τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων, οἴδαμεν ὅτι οὐδὲν εἴδωλον ἐν κόσμῳ, καὶ ὅτι οὐδεὶς θεὸς ἕτερος εἰ μὴ εἷς. Concerning food which has been offered to idols, then, we know that there is no self-existent idol in the universe, and that there is no other God besides the one. no other God besides the one ← no other God except one. What is acceptable pleonastic usage in Greek gives the impression in English of one other god besides the true God, so we adapt our translation accordingly. Another case of pleonastic usage in Mark 12:4.
1 Cor 8:5 Καὶ γὰρ εἴπερ εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοί, εἴτε ἐν οὐρανῷ εἴτε ἐπὶ {RP-text: - } [RP-marg P1904 TR: τῆς] γῆς· ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοί, καὶ κύριοι πολλοί· For indeed, although there are those called gods, whether in heaven or on {RP-text: - } [RP-marg P1904 TR: the] earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords, τῆς, the (earth): absent in RP-text F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's fgklmn) vs. present in RP-marg P1904 TR F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's abcdeho). A disparity with RP-text, R=6:9.
1 Cor 8:6 ἀλλ' ἡμῖν εἷς θεὸς ὁ πατήρ, ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα, καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν· καὶ εἷς κύριος Ἰησοῦς χριστός, δι' οὗ τὰ πάντα, καὶ ἡμεῖς δι' αὐτοῦ. yet to us there is one God, the father, from whom all things come, including us for him, and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom all things come, including us through him. from ← out of.
1 Cor 8:7 Ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐν πᾶσιν ἡ γνῶσις· τινὲς δὲ τῇ συνειδήσει τοῦ εἰδώλου ἕως ἄρτι ὡς εἰδωλόθυτον ἐσθίουσιν, καὶ ἡ συνείδησις αὐτῶν ἀσθενὴς οὖσα μολύνεται. But knowledge is not prevalent among all. And some still eat that which has been offered to idols with consciousness of the idol, and their conscience, being weak, is defiled. still ← up to now.

that which has been offered to idols ← as that which has been offered to idols. The word ὡς seems to be redundant, though it could originate from the manner of eating. See Luke 2:37.

An alternative translation of the verse is ... but some still have consciousness of an idol when they eat that which has been offered to an idol ... .
1 Cor 8:8 Βρῶμα δὲ ἡμᾶς οὐ παρίστησιν τῷ θεῷ· οὔτε γὰρ ἐὰν φάγωμεν περισσεύομεν, οὔτε ἐὰν μὴ φάγωμεν ὑστερούμεθα. But food does not commend us to God. For neither if we eat do we gain anything, nor if we do not eat do we lose anything. do we gain anythingdo we abound, have surplus.

do we lose anythingdo we lack, fall short.

With eating and fasting one may gain or lose weight, but one does not gain or lose commendation to God this way.
1 Cor 8:9 Βλέπετε δὲ μήπως ἡ ἐξουσία ὑμῶν αὕτη πρόσκομμα γένηται τοῖς ἀσθενοῦσιν. But watch out that this warrant of yours does not become a cause of stumbling to those who are weak. warrant: a warrant to eat whatever you wish.
1 Cor 8:10 Ἐὰν γάρ τις ἴδῃ σε τὸν ἔχοντα γνῶσιν ἐν εἰδωλείῳ κατακείμενον, οὐχὶ ἡ συνείδησις αὐτοῦ ἀσθενοῦς ὄντος οἰκοδομηθήσεται εἰς τὸ τὰ εἰδωλόθυτα ἐσθίειν; For if anyone sees you – you who have knowledge – reclining at table in an idolatrous temple, will not his conscience, with him being weak, be indoctrinated with the matter of eating things offered to idols? indoctrinated ← built, edified.
1 Cor 8:11 Καὶ ἀπολεῖται ὁ ἀσθενῶν ἀδελφὸς ἐπὶ τῇ σῇ γνώσει, δι' ὃν χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν; And the weak brother, for whose sake Christ died, will be lost when confronted with your knowledge. We, with P1904, punctuate as a statement (because no οὐχί as in the previous verse, which pressurizes for an answer of yes); RP TBS-TR punctuate as a question.

when confronted with ← at.
1 Cor 8:12 Οὕτως δὲ ἁμαρτάνοντες εἰς τοὺς ἀδελφούς, καὶ τύπτοντες αὐτῶν τὴν συνείδησιν ἀσθενοῦσαν, εἰς χριστὸν ἁμαρτάνετε. And in this way, in sinning against the brothers and wounding their weak conscience, you would be sinning against Christ. would be ← are. By this stage in the argument, we take the situation as hypothetical.
1 Cor 8:13 Διόπερ εἰ βρῶμα σκανδαλίζει τὸν ἀδελφόν μου, οὐ μὴ φάγω κρέα εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἵνα μὴ τὸν ἀδελφόν μου σκανδαλίσω. That is why if food causes offence to my brother, I certainly will never eat meat, in order not to cause offence to my brother. that is why ← on account of this.

never ← not ... throughout the age.
1 Cor 9:1 Οὐκ εἰμὶ ἀπόστολος; Οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐλεύθερος; Οὐχὶ Ἰησοῦν χριστὸν τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν ἑώρακα; Οὐ τὸ ἔργον μου ὑμεῖς ἐστε ἐν κυρίῳ; Am I not an apostle? Am I not free? Have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord? Are you not my work in the Lord?
1 Cor 9:2 Εἰ ἄλλοις οὐκ εἰμὶ ἀπόστολος, ἀλλά γε ὑμῖν εἰμι· ἡ γὰρ σφραγὶς τῆς ἐμῆς ἀποστολῆς ὑμεῖς ἐστε ἐν κυρίῳ. If I am not an apostle to others, at least I am to you. For you in the Lord are the seal of my apostleship.
1 Cor 9:3 Ἡ ἐμὴ ἀπολογία τοῖς ἐμὲ ἀνακρίνουσιν αὕτη ἐστίν. My defence to those who examine me is as follows. as follows ← this.
1 Cor 9:4 Μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν φαγεῖν καὶ πιεῖν; Do we not have authority to eat and drink?
1 Cor 9:5 Μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν ἀδελφὴν γυναῖκα περιάγειν, ὡς καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπόστολοι, καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ τοῦ κυρίου, καὶ Κηφᾶς; Do we not have authority to take a sister-lady around as the other apostles and the brothers of the Lord do, and Cephas does? as ← as also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 9:6 Ἢ μόνος ἐγὼ καὶ Βαρνάβας οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν τοῦ μὴ ἐργάζεσθαι; Or is it only Barnabas and I who do not have a warrant not to work? Barnabas and I ← I and Barnabas.
1 Cor 9:7 Τίς στρατεύεται ἰδίοις ὀψωνίοις ποτέ; Τίς φυτεύει ἀμπελῶνα, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ καρποῦ αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐσθίει; Ἢ τίς ποιμαίνει ποίμνην, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ γάλακτος τῆς ποίμνης οὐκ ἐσθίει; Who ever serves as a soldier at his own expense? Who plants a vineyard and does not eat from its fruit? Or who tends a flock and does not eat from the milk of the flock?
1 Cor 9:8 Μὴ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον ταῦτα λαλῶ; Ἢ οὐχὶ καὶ ὁ νόμος ταῦτα λέγει; Do I just say these things on a human level? Or does the law not say these things too? just: this word brings out the pressure for an answer of “no” to the question, as exerted by μή.
1 Cor 9:9 Ἐν γὰρ τῷ {RP-text: Μωϋσέως} [RP-marg P1904 TR: Μωσέως] νόμῳ γέγραπται, Οὐ φιμώσεις βοῦν ἀλοῶντα. Μὴ τῶν βοῶν μέλει τῷ θεῷ; For in the law of Moses it stands written: “You shall not muzzle an ox which threshes.” Is God really concerned about oxen? Μωϋσέως, of Moüses, RP-text F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's k) vs. Μωσέως, of Moses, RP-marg P1904 TR F1859=9/12 vs. Μωϋσέος, of Moses, F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's gl). A strong disparity with RP-text, R=1:11. But a reversal of the balance in 1 Cor 10:2.

Deut 25:4.

is God really concerned ← is it really a concern to God.
1 Cor 9:10 Ἢ δι' ἡμᾶς πάντως λέγει; Δι' ἡμᾶς γὰρ ἐγράφη, ὅτι ἐπ' ἐλπίδι ὀφείλει ὁ ἀροτριῶν ἀροτριᾶν, καὶ ὁ ἀλοῶν τῆς ἐλπίδος αὐτοῦ μετέχειν ἐπ' ἐλπίδι. Or does he say it entirely for our sakes? Well, it was written for our sakes, because he who ploughs should plough in hope, and he who threshes in hope should have a share of his hope.
1 Cor 9:11 Εἰ ἡμεῖς ὑμῖν τὰ πνευματικὰ ἐσπείραμεν, μέγα εἰ ἡμεῖς ὑμῶν τὰ σαρκικὰ θερίσομεν; If we have sown spiritual things for you, is it anything extraordinary if we reap your material things? extraordinary ← great. Colloquially, a big deal.

reap your material thingsshall reap your carnal (things), i.e. receive a wage from you.
1 Cor 9:12 Εἰ ἄλλοι τῆς ἐξουσίας ὑμῶν μετέχουσιν, οὐ μᾶλλον ἡμεῖς; Ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐχρησάμεθα τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ ταύτῃ, ἀλλὰ πάντα στέγομεν, ἵνα μὴ ἐγκοπήν τινα δῶμεν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ τοῦ χριστοῦ. If others share in this authority over you, should not we all the more? But we have not used this authority; rather, we endure all things, in order not to create any hindrance to the gospel of Christ. over you ← of you, an objective genitive.

create ← give.
1 Cor 9:13 Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ τὰ ἱερὰ ἐργαζόμενοι ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἐσθίουσιν, οἱ τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ προσεδρεύοντες τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ συμμερίζονται; Do you not know that those who work on holy matters eat from the income of the temple, and that those who officiate at the altar take a share in the sacrifices of the altar?
1 Cor 9:14 Οὕτως καὶ ὁ κύριος διέταξεν τοῖς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον καταγγέλλουσιν ἐκ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ζῇν. In this way the Lord also made provision for those who proclaim the gospel to live from the gospel.
1 Cor 9:15 Ἐγὼ δὲ οὐδενὶ ἐχρησάμην τούτων· οὐκ ἔγραψα δὲ ταῦτα ἵνα οὕτως γένηται ἐν ἐμοί· καλὸν γάρ μοι μᾶλλον ἀποθανεῖν, ἢ τὸ καύχημά μου ἵνα τις κενώσῃ. But I have not used any of these things, and I have not written these things, in order for them to be forgone like that in my case. For it is better for me to die than that anyone should make my exultation void. forgone like that: i.e. with his rights not exercised.

better ... than ← good ... rather than. Positive for comparative, a Hebraism.
1 Cor 9:16 Ἐὰν γὰρ εὐαγγελίζωμαι, οὐκ ἔστιν μοι καύχημα· ἀνάγκη γάρ μοι ἐπίκειται· οὐαὶ δέ μοι ἐστίν, ἐὰν μὴ εὐαγγελίζωμαι. For if I preach the gospel, I do not have anything to glory about, for necessity constrains me. But woe is me if I do not preach the gospel. anything to glory about ← a boast.

constrains ← lies on.

woe is me ← woe to me.
1 Cor 9:17 Εἰ γὰρ ἑκὼν τοῦτο πράσσω, μισθὸν ἔχω· εἰ δὲ ἄκων, οἰκονομίαν πεπίστευμαι. For if I do this willingly, I have a reward. But if unwillingly, then I have still been entrusted with a stewardship. stewardship: or dispensation.
1 Cor 9:18 Τίς οὖν μοί ἐστιν ὁ μισθός; Ἵνα εὐαγγελιζόμενος ἀδάπανον θήσω τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ χριστοῦ, εἰς τὸ μὴ καταχρήσασθαι τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ μου ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ. So what is my reward? That in preaching the gospel I may present the gospel of Christ without expense being incurred, so as not to exploit my authority with the gospel.
1 Cor 9:19 Ἐλεύθερος γὰρ ὢν ἐκ πάντων, πᾶσιν ἐμαυτὸν ἐδούλωσα, ἵνα τοὺς πλείονας κερδήσω. For although I am free from all, I have made myself a slave to all, so as to win over the greater number of people. although: concessive use of the participle.
1 Cor 9:20 Καὶ ἐγενόμην τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὡς Ἰουδαῖος, ἵνα Ἰουδαίους κερδήσω· τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερδήσω· And I became as a Jew to the Jews, in order to win over the Jews; to those under the law I became as one under the law, in order that I might win over those under the law;
1 Cor 9:21 τοῖς ἀνόμοις ὡς ἄνομος, μὴ ὢν ἄνομος θεῷ ἀλλ' ἔννομος χριστῷ, ἵνα κερδήσω ἀνόμους. to those who are without the law I became as one without the law (not being without the law to God, but subject in the law to Christ), in order that I might win over those without the law.
1 Cor 9:22 Ἐγενόμην τοῖς ἀσθενέσιν ὡς ἀσθενής, ἵνα τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς κερδήσω. Τοῖς πᾶσιν γέγονα τὰ πάντα, ἵνα πάντως τινὰς σώσω. To the weak I became as one weak, in order to win over the weak. I have become all sorts of things to all kinds of people, in order to save some in all sorts of ways.
1 Cor 9:23 Τοῦτο δὲ ποιῶ διὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, ἵνα συγκοινωνὸς αὐτοῦ γένωμαι. I do this on account of the gospel, in order that I may be a fellow sharer of it. be: or become.
1 Cor 9:24 Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ ἐν σταδίῳ τρέχοντες πάντες μὲν τρέχουσιν, εἷς δὲ λαμβάνει τὸ βραβεῖον; Οὕτως τρέχετε, ἵνα καταλάβητε. Do you not know that those who run in a stadium all run, but only one receives the prize? Run so as to win!
1 Cor 9:25 Πᾶς δὲ ὁ ἀγωνιζόμενος πάντα ἐγκρατεύεται· ἐκεῖνοι μὲν οὖν ἵνα φθαρτὸν στέφανον λάβωσιν, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἄφθαρτον. Every contestant exerts himself in every way. So they do it in order to obtain a perishable crown, but we for an imperishable one. they ← those.
1 Cor 9:26 Ἐγὼ τοίνυν οὕτως τρέχω ὡς οὐκ ἀδήλως· οὕτως πυκτεύω, ὡς οὐκ ἀέρα δέρων· So then, I run like that, not falteringly. I box like that, not beating the air, not falteringly ... not beating ← as not certainly ... as not beating. Two cases of a redundant ὡς; see Luke 2:37.
1 Cor 9:27 ἀλλ' {RP TR: ὑπωπιάζω} [P1904: ὑποπιάζω] μου τὸ σῶμα καὶ δουλαγωγῶ, μήπως, ἄλλοις κηρύξας, αὐτὸς ἀδόκιμος γένωμαι. but I deal severely with my body and bring it into subjection, in case, having proclaimed this to others, I myself become disqualified. ὑπωπιάζω, I strike under the eye, deal severely (1), RP TR F1859=8/15 vs. ὑποπιάζω, I strike under the eye, deal severely (2), P1904 F1859=7/15 (Scrivener's ab*cfg**no). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=9:8.

deal severely with ← strike under the eye.

become disqualified: the context indicates for the prize.
1 Cor 10:1 Οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν πάντες ὑπὸ τὴν νεφέλην ἦσαν, καὶ πάντες διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης διῆλθον, And, brothers, I do not want you to be ignorant of the fact that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea.
1 Cor 10:2 καὶ πάντες εἰς τὸν {RP P1904: Μωϋσῆν} [TR: Μωσῆν] ἐβαπτίσαντο ἐν τῇ νεφέλῃ καὶ ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, And they all had themselves baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, Μωϋσῆν, Moüses, RP P1904 F1859=10/12 vs. Μωσῆν, Moses, TR F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's dn).

had themselves baptized: this sense comes from the middle voice. See Acts 4:3.
1 Cor 10:3 καὶ πάντες τὸ αὐτὸ βρῶμα πνευματικὸν ἔφαγον, and they all ate the same spiritual food,
1 Cor 10:4 καὶ πάντες τὸ αὐτὸ πόμα πνευματικὸν ἔπιον· ἔπινον γὰρ ἐκ πνευματικῆς ἀκολουθούσης πέτρας· ἡ δὲ πέτρα ἦν ὁ χριστός. and they all drank the same spiritual drink, for they drank from a spiritual rock following them, and the rock was Christ.
1 Cor 10:5 Ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐν τοῖς πλείοσιν αὐτῶν εὐδόκησεν ὁ θεός· κατεστρώθησαν γὰρ ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ. But God was not pleased with most of them, as is evidenced by how they were strewn around in the desert. as is evidenced by howfor, but it is not the cause that is given, but the consequence which demonstrates the original assertion of the main clause.
1 Cor 10:6 Ταῦτα δὲ τύποι ἡμῶν ἐγενήθησαν, εἰς τὸ μὴ εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἐπιθυμητὰς κακῶν, καθὼς κἀκεῖνοι ἐπεθύμησαν. But these things were depictions for us, so that we should not be intent on evil things, as they for their part were intent. were ← became.

depictions: compare Rom 5:14.

for us ← our, of us.

intent on ... were intent ← desirers of ... desired.

for their part ← also.
1 Cor 10:7 Μηδὲ εἰδωλολάτραι γίνεσθε, καθώς τινες αὐτῶν· {RP: ὥσπερ} [P1904 TR: ὡς] γέγραπται, Ἐκάθισεν ὁ λαὸς φαγεῖν καὶ πιεῖν, καὶ ἀνέστησαν παίζειν. And do not become idolaters, as some of them did, {RP: as indeed} [P1904 TR: as] it stands written: “The people sat down to eat and drink, and they stood up to make sport.” ὥσπερ, as (strengthened form), RP F1859=10/12 vs. ὡς, as, P1904 TR F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's dk).

Ex 32:6.
1 Cor 10:8 Μηδὲ πορνεύωμεν, καθώς τινες αὐτῶν ἐπόρνευσαν, καὶ ἔπεσον ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ εἴκοσι τρεῖς χιλιάδες. And let us not fornicate, as some of them fornicated, and twenty-three thousand fell in one day.
1 Cor 10:9 Μηδὲ ἐκπειράζωμεν τὸν χριστόν, καθὼς καί τινες αὐτῶν ἐπείρασαν, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ὄφεων ἀπώλοντο. And let us not put Christ to the test, as some of them put him to the test and were destroyed by the serpents. as ← as also (otiose καί).

him: this ellipsis is justified considering 1 Cor 10:4.
1 Cor 10:10 Μηδὲ γογγύζετε, καθὼς καί τινες αὐτῶν ἐγόγγυσαν, καὶ ἀπώλοντο ὑπὸ τοῦ ὀλοθρευτοῦ. And do not grumble, as some of them grumbled and were killed by the destroyer. as ← as also (otiose καί). There is a certain sense of for their part, which we use occasionally, but not here.
1 Cor 10:11 Ταῦτα δὲ πάντα τύποι συνέβαινον ἐκείνοις· ἐγράφη δὲ πρὸς νουθεσίαν ἡμῶν, εἰς οὓς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων κατήντησεν. Now all these things happened to those people as depictions, but they have been written as a warning to us, on whom the ends of the ages have converged. to us ← of us, objective genitive (they warn us).
1 Cor 10:12 Ὥστε ὁ δοκῶν ἑστάναι, βλεπέτω μὴ πέσῃ. So he who thinks he is standing, let him watch out that he does not fall.
1 Cor 10:13 Πειρασμὸς ὑμᾶς οὐκ εἴληφεν εἰ μὴ ἀνθρώπινος· πιστὸς δὲ ὁ θεός, ὃς οὐκ ἐάσει ὑμᾶς πειρασθῆναι ὑπὲρ ὃ δύνασθε, ἀλλὰ ποιήσει σὺν τῷ πειρασμῷ καὶ τὴν ἔκβασιν, τοῦ δύνασθαι ὑμᾶς ὑπενεγκεῖν. Temptation has not got a grip on you, except for the human kind. But God is faithful, and he will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you can take, but rather will also fashion the outcome with the temptation so that you can endure it. temptation: or putting to the test.

got a grip on ← taken, seized.

fashion the outcome or make an escape route. “Outcome” in Heb 13:7.
1 Cor 10:14 Διόπερ, ἀγαπητοί μου, φεύγετε ἀπὸ τῆς {RP TR: εἰδωλολατρείας} [P1904: εἰδωλολατρίας]. Therefore, my beloved, flee from idolatry. εἰδωλολατρείας, idolatry (1), RP TR F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's h*mn) vs. εἰδωλολατρίας, idolatry (2), P1904 F1859=9/13 (Scrivener's abcdfgh**lo) vs. another spelling, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's k). A disparity with RP, R=4:10.
1 Cor 10:15 Ὡς φρονίμοις λέγω, κρίνατε ὑμεῖς ὅ φημι. I speak as to the prudent; judge for yourselves what I say.
1 Cor 10:16 Τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας ὃ εὐλογοῦμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ χριστοῦ ἐστίν; Τὸν ἄρτον ὃν κλῶμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ ἐστίν; The cup of blessing which we bless – is it not fellowship with the blood of Christ? The bread which we break – is it not fellowship with the body of Christ? the bread: inverse attraction (antecedent takes its case from the relative pronoun).
1 Cor 10:17 Ὅτι εἷς ἄρτος, ἓν σῶμα, οἱ πολλοί ἐσμεν· οἱ γὰρ πάντες ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου μετέχομεν. Because although many, we are one loaf of bread, one body – for we all partake of one loaf of bread.
1 Cor 10:18 Βλέπετε τὸν Ἰσραὴλ κατὰ σάρκα· οὐχὶ οἱ ἐσθίοντες τὰς θυσίας κοινωνοὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου εἰσίν; Look at Israel according to the flesh. Are not those who eat the sacrifices involved with the altar? involved with ← partners of, or in fellowship with.
1 Cor 10:19 Τί οὖν φημι; Ὅτι εἴδωλόν τί ἐστιν; Ἢ ὅτι εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν; What, then, do I say? That an idol is anything? Or that that which is offered to an idol is anything?
1 Cor 10:20 Ἀλλ' ὅτι ἃ θύει τὰ ἔθνη, δαιμονίοις θύει, καὶ οὐ θεῷ· οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς κοινωνοὺς τῶν δαιμονίων γίνεσθαι. No, but I say that what the Gentiles offer, they offer to demons and not to God, and I do not want you to become involved with the demons. Deut 32:17.

involved with ← partners of, or in fellowship with.
1 Cor 10:21 Οὐ δύνασθε ποτήριον κυρίου πίνειν καὶ ποτήριον δαιμονίων· οὐ δύνασθε τραπέζης κυρίου μετέχειν καὶ τραπέζης δαιμονίων. You cannot drink the cup of the Lord as well as the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the Lord's table and of the demons' table. as well as ← and.
1 Cor 10:22 Ἢ παραζηλοῦμεν τὸν κύριον; Μὴ ἰσχυρότεροι αὐτοῦ ἐσμέν; Or do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we really stronger than him? than him: or, if the reader prefers, than he.
1 Cor 10:23 Πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν, ἀλλ' οὐ πάντα συμφέρει. Πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν, ἀλλ' οὐ πάντα οἰκοδομεῖ. Everything is permitted me, but not everything is profitable. Everything is permitted me, but not everything edifies.
1 Cor 10:24 Μηδεὶς τὸ ἑαυτοῦ ζητείτω, ἀλλὰ τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου ἕκαστος. Let no-one seek his own interest, but rather let each seek that of another.
1 Cor 10:25 Πᾶν τὸ ἐν μακέλλῳ πωλούμενον ἐσθίετε, μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν· Eat anything that is sold in the meat-market, not inquiring in any way for conscience's sake. anything ← everything.
1 Cor 10:26 Τοῦ γὰρ κυρίου ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς. For the earth is the Lord's and the fulness of it. Ps 24:1.
1 Cor 10:27 Εἰ δέ τις καλεῖ ὑμᾶς τῶν ἀπίστων, καὶ θέλετε πορεύεσθαι, πᾶν τὸ παρατιθέμενον ὑμῖν ἐσθίετε, μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν. If any of the unbelievers invites you round and you wish to go, eat everything laid before you, not inquiring in any way for conscience's sake.
1 Cor 10:28 Ἐὰν δέ τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ, Τοῦτο εἰδωλόθυτόν ἐστιν, μὴ ἐσθίετε δι' ἐκεῖνον τὸν μηνύσαντα καὶ τὴν συνείδησιν· Τοῦ γὰρ κυρίου ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς. But if anyone says to you, “This has been offered to idols”, do not eat it, on account of him who informed you and conscience. For the earth is the Lord's and the fulness of it. Ps 24:1.

him ← that (one).
1 Cor 10:29 Συνείδησιν δὲ λέγω, οὐχὶ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ, ἀλλὰ τὴν τοῦ ἑτέρου· ἵνα τί γὰρ ἡ ἐλευθερία μου κρίνεται ὑπὸ ἄλλης συνειδήσεως; And I don't mean your own conscience, but that of the other. For why should my freedom be judged by another's conscience? should ... be ← is.

another's conscience ← another conscience.
1 Cor 10:30 Εἰ {RP P1904: - } [TR: δὲ] ἐγὼ χάριτι μετέχω, τί βλασφημοῦμαι ὑπὲρ οὗ ἐγὼ εὐχαριστῶ; {RP P1904: If} [TR: And if] I partake in gratitude, why should I be vilified for that for which I give thanks? δὲ, and / but: absent in RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. present in TR F1859=0/13.

should I be ← am.

Paul, being under grace, may give thanks for, and eat, anything, but he is liable to be vilified for it.
1 Cor 10:31 Εἴτε οὖν ἐσθίετε, εἴτε πίνετε, εἴτε τι ποιεῖτε, πάντα εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ ποιεῖτε. So whether you eat or whether you drink or whether you do anything, do everything to the glory of God.
1 Cor 10:32 Ἀπρόσκοποι γίνεσθε καὶ Ἰουδαίοις καὶ Ἕλλησιν καὶ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ· Be inoffensive to both Jews and Greeks as well as to the church of God, as well as: this phrase is justified by the first καὶ; English lacks an equivalent of the emphatic “both” when more than two items are conjoined.

church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 10:33 καθὼς κἀγὼ πάντα πᾶσιν ἀρέσκω, μὴ ζητῶν τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ συμφέρον, ἀλλὰ τὸ τῶν πολλῶν, ἵνα σωθῶσιν. as I also please everyone in respect of all things, not seeking my own benefit, but that of the many, so that they may be saved.
1 Cor 11:1 Μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε, καθὼς κἀγὼ χριστοῦ. Be imitators of me, as I am of Christ. be ← become.

I amI also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 11:2 Ἐπαινῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι πάντα μου μέμνησθε, καὶ καθὼς παρέδωκα ὑμῖν τὰς παραδόσεις κατέχετε. But I praise you, brothers, because you remember me in all respects, and you hold on to the traditions as I handed them down to you.
1 Cor 11:3 Θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς εἰδέναι, ὅτι παντὸς ἀνδρὸς ἡ κεφαλὴ ὁ χριστός ἐστιν· κεφαλὴ δὲ γυναικός, ὁ ἀνήρ· κεφαλὴ δὲ χριστοῦ, ὁ θεός. And I want you to know that Christ is the head of every man, and that the head of the wife is the husband, and that the head of Christ is God.
1 Cor 11:4 Πᾶς ἀνὴρ προσευχόμενος ἢ προφητεύων, κατὰ κεφαλῆς ἔχων, καταισχύνει τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ. Every man praying or prophesying with the head covered dishonours his head.
1 Cor 11:5 Πᾶσα δὲ γυνὴ προσευχομένη ἢ προφητεύουσα ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ, καταισχύνει τὴν κεφαλὴν ἑαυτῆς· ἓν γάρ ἐστιν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ τῇ ἐξυρημένῃ. But every woman praying or prophesying with the head uncovered dishonours her head. For she and one shaven are one and the same. uncovered: or unveiled [CB].

and one shaven ← to one shaven, suggesting when likened to one shaven.

one and the same: Greek uses neuter forms here.
1 Cor 11:6 Εἰ γὰρ οὐ κατακαλύπτεται γυνή, καὶ κειράσθω· εἰ δὲ αἰσχρὸν γυναικὶ τὸ κείρασθαι ἢ ξυρᾶσθαι, κατακαλυπτέσθω. For if a woman is not covered, let her have her hair cut. And if having her hair cut or being shaven is dishonouring to a woman, let her be covered.
1 Cor 11:7 Ἀνὴρ μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ὀφείλει κατακαλύπτεσθαι τὴν κεφαλήν, εἰκὼν καὶ δόξα θεοῦ ὑπάρχων· γυνὴ δὲ δόξα ἀνδρός ἐστιν. For indeed a man should not cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God, but a woman is the glory of a man. cover his head: middle voice, or passive be covered (in respect of) the head.

since: causal use of the participle.
1 Cor 11:8 Οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἀνὴρ ἐκ γυναικός, ἀλλὰ γυνὴ ἐξ ἀνδρός· For the man is not from the woman, but the woman is from the man.
1 Cor 11:9 καὶ γὰρ οὐκ ἐκτίσθη ἀνὴρ διὰ τὴν γυναῖκα, ἀλλὰ γυνὴ διὰ τὸν ἄνδρα· For indeed, man was not created for the sake of the woman, but the woman for the sake of the man.
1 Cor 11:10 διὰ τοῦτο ὀφείλει ἡ γυνὴ ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς διὰ τοὺς ἀγγέλους. On account of this, the woman should have authority over her head, because of the angels. Angels also mentioned in 1 Cor 4:9.
1 Cor 11:11 Πλὴν οὔτε ἀνὴρ χωρὶς γυναικός, οὔτε γυνὴ χωρὶς ἀνδρός, ἐν κυρίῳ. Except that there is neither man without woman, nor woman without man, in the Lord.
1 Cor 11:12 Ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ γυνὴ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρός, οὕτως καὶ ὁ ἀνὴρ διὰ τῆς γυναικός, τὰ δὲ πάντα ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ. For just as the woman is from the man, so is the man through the woman, but everything is from God. so ← so also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 11:13 Ἐν ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς κρίνατε· πρέπον ἐστὶν γυναῖκα ἀκατακάλυπτον τῷ θεῷ προσεύχεσθαι; Judge among yourselves. Is it becoming for a woman to pray to God uncovered?
1 Cor 11:14 Ἢ οὐδὲ αὐτὴ ἡ φύσις διδάσκει ὑμᾶς, ὅτι ἀνὴρ μὲν ἐὰν κομᾷ, ἀτιμία αὐτῷ ἐστίν; Or does not even nature itself teach you that if a man lets his hair grow, it is to his dishonour? to his dishonour ← a dishonour to him.
1 Cor 11:15 Γυνὴ δὲ ἐὰν κομᾷ, δόξα αὐτῇ ἐστίν. Ὅτι ἡ κόμη ἀντὶ περιβολαίου δέδοται {RP: - } [P1904 TR: αὐτῇ]. But that if a woman lets her hair grow, it is to her honour. For hair has been given {RP: - } [P1904 TR: to her] instead of a headdress. αὐτῇ, to her: absent in RP F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's efhl) vs. present in P1904 TR F1859=9/13 (including Scrivener's adm which place the word before δέδοται). A disparity with RP, R=4:11 (or R=4:8 if Scrivener's adm are excluded).

Punctuation: P1904, but not RP TBS-TR, has a question: is it to her honour? Or that it is to her honour?

to her honour ← an honour to her.

headdress: or cloak.
1 Cor 11:16 Εἰ δέ τις δοκεῖ φιλόνεικος εἶναι, ἡμεῖς τοιαύτην συνήθειαν οὐκ ἔχομεν, οὐδὲ αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τοῦ θεοῦ. But if anyone is inclined to be contentious, we do not have any such custom, and neither do the churches of God. churches: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 11:17 Τοῦτο δὲ παραγγέλλων οὐκ ἐπαινῶ, ὅτι οὐκ εἰς τὸ κρεῖττον ἀλλ' εἰς τὸ ἧττον συνέρχεσθε. Now as I advocate this, I don't praise you, because you meet together not for the better but for the worse.
1 Cor 11:18 Πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ συνερχομένων ὑμῶν ἐν {RP P1904: - } [TR: τῇ] ἐκκλησίᾳ, ἀκούω σχίσματα ἐν ὑμῖν ὑπάρχειν, καὶ μέρος τι πιστεύω. For firstly, I hear that when you come together in {RP P1904: the} [TR: the] church, there are divisions among you and to some extent I believe it. τῇ, the: absent in RP P1904 F1859=9/11 vs. present in TR F1859=2/11 (Scrivener's gh).

Punctuation: one could take in the church with there are divisions.

church: see Matt 16:18.

to some extent ← (in respect of) a certain part.
1 Cor 11:19 Δεῖ γὰρ καὶ αἱρέσεις ἐν ὑμῖν εἶναι, ἵνα οἱ δόκιμοι φανεροὶ γένωνται ἐν ὑμῖν. For there must indeed be sects among you, in order that those who are approved might be made evident among you.
1 Cor 11:20 Συνερχομένων οὖν ὑμῶν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό, οὐκ ἔστιν κυριακὸν δεῖπνον φαγεῖν. So when you meet together in one place, there is no question of eating the Lord's supper. one ← the same.
1 Cor 11:21 Ἕκαστος γὰρ τὸ ἴδιον δεῖπνον προλαμβάνει ἐν τῷ φαγεῖν, καὶ ὃς μὲν πεινᾷ, ὃς δὲ μεθύει. For each person first grabs his own supper when eating, and one goes hungry, while another becomes drunk. first grabs ← takes beforehand.
1 Cor 11:22 Μὴ γὰρ οἰκίας οὐκ ἔχετε εἰς τὸ ἐσθίειν καὶ πίνειν; Ἢ τῆς ἐκκλησίας τοῦ θεοῦ καταφρονεῖτε, καὶ καταισχύνετε τοὺς μὴ ἔχοντας; Τί ὑμῖν εἴπω; Ἐπαινέσω ὑμᾶς ἐν τούτῳ; Οὐκ ἐπαινῶ. For do you not have houses for eating and drinking in? Or do you despise the church of God, and do you not put those who do not have anything to shame? What am I to say to you? Am I to praise you in this matter? I do not praise you. church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 11:23 Ἐγὼ γὰρ παρέλαβον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, ὃ καὶ παρέδωκα ὑμῖν, ὅτι ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ᾗ παρεδίδοτο ἔλαβεν ἄρτον, For I had received from the Lord that which I passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus took bread on the night when he was betrayed. which ← which also (otiose καί).

when ← on which.
1 Cor 11:24 καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν, καὶ εἶπεν, Λάβετε, φάγετε, Τοῦτό μού ἐστιν τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν κλώμενον· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. And when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “Take it and eat it. This is my body which is broken for you. Do this in remembrance of me”, is: i.e. represents.
1 Cor 11:25 Ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον, μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων, Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ αἵματι· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἂν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. similarly also saying of the cup after having supper, “This cup is the new covenant by my blood. Do this, and every time you drink, let it be in remembrance of me.” every time ← as often as.
1 Cor 11:26 Ὁσάκις γὰρ ἂν ἐσθίητε τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον, καὶ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦτο πίνητε, τὸν θάνατον τοῦ κυρίου καταγγέλλετε ἄχρι οὗ ἂν ἔλθῃ. For until he comes, every time you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death. every time ← as often as.
1 Cor 11:27 Ὥστε ὃς ἂν ἐσθίῃ τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον ἢ πίνῃ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ κυρίου ἀναξίως {RP: τοῦ κυρίου} [P1904 TR: - ], ἔνοχος ἔσται τοῦ σώματος καὶ {RP: τοῦ} [P1904 TR: - ] αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου. So that whoever eats this bread or drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily {RP: of the Lord} [P1904 TR: - ] will be guilty of the body and {RP: the} [P1904 TR: - ] blood of the Lord. τοῦ κυρίου, of the Lord (after unworthily): present in RP F1859=1/11 (Scrivener's e) vs. absent in P1904 TR F1859=10/11. A strong disparity with RP, R=1:12. AV differs textually.

τοῦ, of the (blood): present in RP F1859=9/13 (Scrivener's a**bcefglmo) vs. absent in P1904 TR F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's a*dhk).
1 Cor 11:28 Δοκιμαζέτω δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἑαυτόν, καὶ οὕτως ἐκ τοῦ ἄρτου ἐσθιέτω, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ποτηρίου πινέτω. Let a man test himself then, and let him eat from the bread and drink from the cup in this way.
1 Cor 11:29 Ὁ γὰρ ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων ἀναξίως, κρίμα ἑαυτῷ ἐσθίει καὶ πίνει, μὴ διακρίνων τὸ σῶμα τοῦ κυρίου. For he who eats and drinks unworthily eats and drinks judgment on himself, not discerning the body of the Lord. on himself ← to himself.
1 Cor 11:30 Διὰ τοῦτο ἐν ὑμῖν πολλοὶ ἀσθενεῖς καὶ ἄρρωστοι, καὶ κοιμῶνται ἱκανοί. This is why there are many weak and sick among you, and a fair number are falling asleep. this is why ← on account of this.

a fair number ← sufficient.
1 Cor 11:31 Εἰ γὰρ ἑαυτοὺς διεκρίνομεν, οὐκ ἂν ἐκρινόμεθα. For if we were examining ourselves, we would not be being judged.
1 Cor 11:32 Κρινόμενοι δέ, ὑπὸ {RP TR: - } [P1904: τοῦ] κυρίου παιδευόμεθα, ἵνα μὴ σὺν τῷ κόσμῳ κατακριθῶμεν. But when we are judged, we are disciplined by {RP TR: the} [P1904: the] Lord in order that we should not be condemned with the world. τοῦ, of the: absent in RP TR F1859=11/12 vs. present in P1904 F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's m).

Punctuation: one could repunctuate so as to take by the Lord with are judged rather than are disciplined.
1 Cor 11:33 Ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου, συνερχόμενοι εἰς τὸ φαγεῖν, ἀλλήλους ἐκδέχεσθε. So, my brothers, when we meet together to eat, wait for each other. wait for each other: the opposite of the grabbing first of 1 Cor 11:21. The sense could be take it in turns without trying to get in first.
1 Cor 11:34 Εἰ δέ τις πεινᾷ, ἐν οἴκῳ ἐσθιέτω· ἵνα μὴ εἰς κρίμα συνέρχησθε. Τὰ δὲ λοιπά, ὡς ἂν ἔλθω, διατάξομαι. And if anyone is famished, let him eat at home, so that you do not meet bringing on judgment. As for the remaining matters, when I come, I will sort them out. famished ← hungry, but the sense is ravenous with intention to abuse the Lord's supper, as an opportunity to guzzle.

bringing on ← to.
1 Cor 12:1 Περὶ δὲ τῶν πνευματικῶν, ἀδελφοί, οὐ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν. Now concerning spiritual gifts, brothers, I do not want you to be ignorant.
1 Cor 12:2 Οἴδατε ὅτι {RP P1904: ὅτε} [TR: - ] ἔθνη ἦτε πρὸς τὰ εἴδωλα τὰ ἄφωνα, ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε, ἀπαγόμενοι. You know {RP P1904: how, when you were pagans,} [TR: that you were pagans and how] you were being drawn and led away to mute idols. ὅτε, when: present in RP P1904 F1859=8/12 vs. absent in TR F1859=4/12 (Scrivener's bdlm).

{RP P1904: how ← that, but reinforced later by ὡς, how.}

drawn ← led.
1 Cor 12:3 Διὸ γνωρίζω ὑμῖν, ὅτι οὐδεὶς ἐν πνεύματι θεοῦ λαλῶν λέγει Ἀνάθεμα Ἰησοῦν· καὶ οὐδεὶς δύναται εἰπεῖν, Κύριον Ἰησοῦν, εἰ μὴ ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. So I am making it known to you that no-one speaking in the spirit of God says, “Jesus is a curse”, and no-one can say, “Jesus is Lord”, except by holy spirit. Punctuation: the Greek is indirect speech (accusative and understood infinitive εἶναι), but RP represent it as direct speech by their capitalization. A punctuation divergence from RP.
1 Cor 12:4 Διαιρέσεις δὲ χαρισμάτων εἰσίν, τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα. Now there are varieties of gracious gifts, but it is the same spirit involved.
1 Cor 12:5 Καὶ διαιρέσεις διακονιῶν εἰσίν, καὶ ὁ αὐτὸς κύριος. And there are varieties of ministries, but the same Lord is involved.
1 Cor 12:6 Καὶ διαιρέσεις ἐνεργημάτων εἰσίν, ὁ δὲ αὐτός ἐστιν θεός, ὁ ἐνεργῶν τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν. And there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God who activates everything in everyone.
1 Cor 12:7 Ἑκάστῳ δὲ δίδοται ἡ φανέρωσις τοῦ πνεύματος πρὸς τὸ συμφέρον. But manifestation of the spirit is given to each person to be a benefit.
1 Cor 12:8 ᾯ μὲν γὰρ διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος δίδοται λόγος σοφίας, ἄλλῳ δὲ λόγος γνώσεως, κατὰ τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα· For to one a word of wisdom is given through the spirit, whereas to another it is a word of knowledge according to the same spirit,
1 Cor 12:9 ἑτέρῳ δὲ πίστις, ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι· ἄλλῳ δὲ χαρίσματα ἰαμάτων ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι· and to another it is faith by the same spirit, while to another it is gracious gifts of healing by the same spirit,
1 Cor 12:10 ἄλλῳ δὲ ἐνεργήματα δυνάμεων, ἄλλῳ δὲ προφητεία, ἄλλῳ δὲ διακρίσεις πνευμάτων, ἑτέρῳ δὲ γένη γλωσσῶν, ἄλλῳ δὲ ἑρμηνεία γλωσσῶν· and to yet another the working of deeds of power, and to another prophecy, and to another discernings of spirits, and to another various kinds of tongues, and to another the interpretation of tongues. working ← workings.
1 Cor 12:11 πάντα δὲ ταῦτα ἐνεργεῖ τὸ ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα, διαιροῦν ἰδίᾳ ἑκάστῳ καθὼς βούλεται. One and the same spirit is active in all these things, apportioning to each individually as it wishes. is active in: compare Eph 1:11.
1 Cor 12:12 Καθάπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ἕν ἐστιν, καὶ μέλη ἔχει πολλά, πάντα δὲ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος τοῦ ἑνός, πολλὰ ὄντα, ἕν ἐστιν σῶμα· οὕτως καὶ ὁ χριστός. For as the body is one and has many parts, and all the parts are of the one body, yet are many, whereas the body is one, so also is Christ.
1 Cor 12:13 Καὶ γὰρ ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι ἡμεῖς πάντες εἰς ἓν σῶμα ἐβαπτίσθημεν, εἴτε Ἰουδαῖοι εἴτε Ἕλληνες, εἴτε δοῦλοι εἴτε ἐλεύθεροι· καὶ πάντες εἰς ἓν πνεῦμα ἐποτίσθημεν. For indeed, we have all been baptized by one spirit into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we have all been given drink at one spirit. at one spirit ← to one spirit (pregnant use); as at a fountain, as noted by [CB].
1 Cor 12:14 Καὶ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἓν μέλος ἀλλὰ πολλά. For indeed, the body is not one part, but many.
1 Cor 12:15 Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ὁ πούς, Ὅτι οὐκ εἰμὶ χείρ, οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐκ τοῦ σώματος· οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ σώματος; If the foot says, “Because I am not a hand, I am not of the body”, surely it is not so, that on account of this, it is not part of the body?
1 Cor 12:16 Καὶ ἐὰν εἴπῃ τὸ οὖς, Ὅτι οὐκ εἰμὶ ὀφθαλμός, οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐκ τοῦ σώματος· οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ σώματος; And if the ear says, “Because I am not an eye, I am not of the body”, surely it is not so, that on account of this, it is not part of the body?
1 Cor 12:17 Εἰ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα ὀφθαλμός, ποῦ ἡ ἀκοή; Εἰ ὅλον ἀκοή, ποῦ ἡ ὄσφρησις; If the whole body were an eye, where would hearing be? If it were all hearing, where would the sense of smell be?
1 Cor 12:18 Νυνὶ δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἔθετο τὰ μέλη ἓν ἕκαστον αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ σώματι, καθὼς ἠθέλησεν. But as it is, God has appointed the parts – each one of them – in the body as he wished. but as it isbut now.
1 Cor 12:19 Εἰ δὲ ἦν τὰ πάντα ἓν μέλος, ποῦ τὸ σῶμα; But if all were one part, where would the body be?
1 Cor 12:20 Νῦν δὲ πολλὰ μὲν μέλη, ἓν δὲ σῶμα. But as it is, there are many parts and one body. but as it isbut now.
1 Cor 12:21 Οὐ δύναται δὲ {RP: } [P1904 TR: - ] ὀφθαλμὸς εἰπεῖν τῇ χειρί, Χρείαν σου οὐκ ἔχω· ἢ πάλιν ἡ κεφαλὴ τοῖς ποσίν, Χρείαν ὑμῶν οὐκ ἔχω. And {RP: the} [P1904 TR: an] eye cannot say to the hand, “I don't need you”, or again the head to the feet, “I don't need you.” , the (eye): present in RP F1859=9/12 vs. absent in P1904 TR F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's eho).
1 Cor 12:22 Ἀλλὰ πολλῷ μᾶλλον τὰ δοκοῦντα μέλη τοῦ σώματος ἀσθενέστερα ὑπάρχειν, ἀναγκαῖά ἐστιν· But how much more are those parts of the body which seem to be weaker necessary,
1 Cor 12:23 καὶ ἃ δοκοῦμεν {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: ἀτιμότερα} [E1624: ἀτιμώτερα] εἶναι τοῦ σώματος, τούτοις τιμὴν περισσοτέραν περιτίθεμεν· καὶ τὰ ἀσχήμονα ἡμῶν εὐσχημοσύνην περισσοτέραν ἔχει· so that as for those parts of the body which we consider to be less honoured, we invest them with all the more copious honour. Then our uncomely parts have more copious comeliness, ἀτιμότερα, less honoured; not honoured (classical form, short ο after long syllable, long ), RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=8/12 vs. ἀτιμώτερα, less honoured; not honoured (non-classical form), E1624 F1859=4/12 (Scrivener's bcfm).

them ← these.
1 Cor 12:24 τὰ δὲ εὐσχήμονα ἡμῶν οὐ χρείαν ἔχει· ἀλλ' ὁ θεὸς συνεκέρασεν τὸ σῶμα, τῷ ὑστεροῦντι περισσοτέραν δοὺς τιμήν, while our comely parts do not need redress. But God composed the body, and he gave more copious honour to that which lacked it,
1 Cor 12:25 ἵνα μὴ ᾖ {RP: σχίσματα} [P1904 TR: σχίσμα] ἐν τῷ σώματι, ἀλλὰ τὸ αὐτὸ ὑπὲρ ἀλλήλων μεριμνῶσιν τὰ μέλη. in order that there should be no {RP: divisions} [P1904 TR: division] in the body, but that the parts should care for each other in the same way. σχίσματα, divisions, RP F1859=7/12 (Scrivener's abcdegk) vs. σχίσμα, division, P1904 TR F1859=5/12 (Scrivener's fhlmo). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=7:7.
1 Cor 12:26 Καὶ εἴτε πάσχει ἓν μέλος, συμπάσχει πάντα τὰ μέλη· εἴτε δοξάζεται ἓν μέλος, συγχαίρει πάντα τὰ μέλη. And if one part suffers, all the parts suffer with it; if one part is glorified, all the parts rejoice with it.
1 Cor 12:27 Ὑμεῖς δέ ἐστε σῶμα χριστοῦ, καὶ μέλη ἐκ μέρους. And you are a body of Christ, and members individually. a body: one could justify the body on grammatical grounds – the word the often needs supplying in phrases like this – but consider John 10:16, other sheep too, which are not of this fold, and consider the body of Ephesians and Colossians where no distinctions in the parts are mentioned.

individually ← out of a part, so perhaps in a role. We speak of a part or role in a play.
1 Cor 12:28 Καὶ οὓς μὲν ἔθετο ὁ θεὸς ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ πρῶτον ἀποστόλους, δεύτερον προφήτας, τρίτον διδασκάλους, ἔπειτα δυνάμεις, εἶτα χαρίσματα ἰαμάτων, ἀντιλήψεις, κυβερνήσεις, γένη γλωσσῶν. And God appointed some in the church: firstly, apostles; secondly, prophets; thirdly, teachers; then workers of deeds of power; then those with gracious gifts of healing, help, guidance and various kinds of tongues. church: see Matt 16:18.

help, guidance ← helps, guidances.
1 Cor 12:29 Μὴ πάντες ἀπόστολοι; Μὴ πάντες προφῆται; Μὴ πάντες διδάσκαλοι; Μὴ πάντες δυνάμεις; Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Are all workers of deeds of power? These questions pressure for an answer of no.
1 Cor 12:30 Μὴ πάντες χαρίσματα ἔχουσιν ἰαμάτων; Μὴ πάντες γλώσσαις λαλοῦσιν; Μὴ πάντες διερμηνεύουσιν; Do all have gracious gifts of healing? Do all speak in tongues? Do all interpret?
1 Cor 12:31 Ζηλοῦτε δὲ τὰ χαρίσματα τὰ κρείττονα. Καὶ ἔτι καθ' ὑπερβολὴν ὁδὸν ὑμῖν δείκνυμι. Be zealous for the best gracious gifts. And yet I show you a superior way. best ← better, Greek comparative for superlative, compare Luke 7:28.
1 Cor 13:1 Ἐὰν ταῖς γλώσσαις τῶν ἀνθρώπων λαλῶ καὶ τῶν ἀγγέλων, ἀγάπην δὲ μὴ ἔχω, γέγονα χαλκὸς ἠχῶν ἢ κύμβαλον ἀλαλάζον. If I speak in the languages of men and of the angels, but I do not have love, I am sounding copper or a clanging cymbal. I am ← I have become.
1 Cor 13:2 Καὶ ἐὰν ἔχω προφητείαν, καὶ εἰδῶ τὰ μυστήρια πάντα καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γνῶσιν, καὶ ἐὰν ἔχω πᾶσαν τὴν πίστιν, ὥστε ὄρη μεθιστάνειν, ἀγάπην δὲ μὴ ἔχω, {RP S1550: οὐθέν} [P1904 E1624 S1894: οὐδέν] εἰμι. And if I have prophecy and know all the mysteries and have all knowledge, and if I have all faith so as to move mountains, but if I do not have love, I am nothing. οὐθέν, nothing (1), RP S1550 F1859=10/12 vs. οὐδέν, nothing (2), P1904 E1624 S1894 F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's dm).
1 Cor 13:3 Καὶ ἐὰν {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: ψωμίσω} [E1624: ψωμίζω] πάντα τὰ ὑπάρχοντά μου, καὶ ἐὰν παραδῶ τὸ σῶμά μου ἵνα {RP-text TR: καυθήσωμαι} [RP-marg P1904: καυθήσομαι], ἀγάπην δὲ μὴ ἔχω, οὐδὲν ὠφελοῦμαι. And if I distribute food from the proceeds of all my belongings, and if I deliver my body to be burned, but I do not have love, I am not profited in any way. ψωμίσω, I dole out (aorist subjunctive or future indicative), RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=12/12 vs. ψωμίζω, I dole out (present subjunctive), E1624 F1859=0/12.

καυθήσωμαι, I am burned (aorist subjunctive of new verb καυθέω (?), or irregular form from καίω), RP-text TR F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's ab*eglmo) vs. καυθήσομαι, I am burned (future indicative), RP-marg P1904 F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's b**cdfhk). Nearly a disparity with RP-text, R=8:7.
1 Cor 13:4 Ἡ ἀγάπη μακροθυμεῖ, χρηστεύεται· ἡ ἀγάπη οὐ ζηλοῖ· ἡ ἀγάπη οὐ περπερεύεται, οὐ φυσιοῦται, Love is longsuffering; it is kind. Love is not jealous. Love does not vaunt itself; it does not become puffed up.
1 Cor 13:5 οὐκ ἀσχημονεῖ, οὐ ζητεῖ τὰ ἑαυτῆς, οὐ παροξύνεται, οὐ λογίζεται τὸ κακόν, It does not behave in an unseemly way, it does not seek its own interests, it is not provoked; it does not keep an account of evil.
1 Cor 13:6 οὐ χαίρει ἐπὶ τῇ ἀδικίᾳ, συγχαίρει δὲ τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, It does not rejoice over injustice, but rejoices with truth.
1 Cor 13:7 πάντα στέγει, πάντα πιστεύει, πάντα ἐλπίζει, πάντα ὑπομένει. It bears all things, it believes all things, it puts hope in all things; it endures all things.
1 Cor 13:8 Ἡ ἀγάπη οὐδέποτε ἐκπίπτει· εἴτε δὲ προφητεῖαι, καταργηθήσονται· εἴτε γλῶσσαι, παύσονται· εἴτε γνῶσις, καταργηθήσεται. Love never fails. But if there are gifts of prophecies, they will be abolished. And if there are tongues, they will cease. And if there is knowledge, it will cease to be applicable.
1 Cor 13:9 Ἐκ μέρους {RP P1904: δὲ} [TR: γὰρ] γινώσκομεν, καὶ ἐκ μέρους προφητεύομεν· {RP P1904: But} [TR: For] we know in part, and we prophesy in part. δὲ, and, but, RP P1904 F1859=11/12 vs. γὰρ, for, TR F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's m).
1 Cor 13:10 ὅταν δὲ ἔλθῃ τὸ τέλειον, τότε τὸ ἐκ μέρους καταργηθήσεται. But when the culmination arrives, then that which is in part will be abolished.
1 Cor 13:11 Ὅτε ἤμην νήπιος, ὡς νήπιος ἐλάλουν, ὡς νήπιος ἐφρόνουν, ὡς νήπιος ἐλογιζόμην· ὅτε δὲ γέγονα ἀνήρ, κατήργηκα τὰ τοῦ νηπίου. When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. But since I have become a man, I have done away with childish things.
1 Cor 13:12 Βλέπομεν γὰρ ἄρτι δι' ἐσόπτρου ἐν αἰνίγματι, τότε δὲ πρόσωπον πρὸς πρόσωπον· ἄρτι γινώσκω ἐκ μέρους, τότε δὲ ἐπιγνώσομαι καθὼς καὶ ἐπεγνώσθην. For now we see through a mirror enigmatically, but then it will be face to face. At present I know in part, but then I will know as I am also known. know ... known: or acknowledge ... acknowledged.
1 Cor 13:13 Νυνὶ δὲ μένει πίστις, ἐλπίς, ἀγάπη, τὰ τρία ταῦτα· μείζων δὲ τούτων ἡ ἀγάπη. And now there remain faith, hope and love – these three things. But the greatest of these is love. greatest ← greater, Greek comparative for superlative.
1 Cor 14:1 Διώκετε τὴν ἀγάπην· ζηλοῦτε δὲ τὰ πνευματικά, μᾶλλον δὲ ἵνα προφητεύητε. Pursue love, and be zealous for the spiritual gifts – preferably that you may prophesy.
1 Cor 14:2 Ὁ γὰρ λαλῶν γλώσσῃ οὐκ ἀνθρώποις λαλεῖ, ἀλλὰ τῷ θεῷ· οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἀκούει, πνεύματι δὲ λαλεῖ μυστήρια. For he who speaks in a tongue does not speak to men, but to God. For no-one understands him; rather, he speaks mysteries by the spirit. understands ← hears.
1 Cor 14:3 Ὁ δὲ προφητεύων ἀνθρώποις λαλεῖ οἰκοδομὴν καὶ παράκλησιν καὶ παραμυθίαν. But he who prophesies speaks edification and encouragement and consolation to men.
1 Cor 14:4 Ὁ λαλῶν γλώσσῃ ἑαυτὸν οἰκοδομεῖ, ὁ δὲ προφητεύων ἐκκλησίαν οἰκοδομεῖ. He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself, but he who prophesies edifies the church. church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 14:5 Θέλω δὲ πάντας ὑμᾶς λαλεῖν γλώσσαις, μᾶλλον δὲ ἵνα προφητεύητε· μείζων γὰρ ὁ προφητεύων ἢ ὁ λαλῶν γλώσσαις, ἐκτὸς εἰ μὴ {RP P1904: διερμηνεύει} [TR: διερμηνεύῃ], ἵνα ἡ ἐκκλησία οἰκοδομὴν λάβῃ. I would like you all to speak in tongues, but more so that you should prophesy. For he who prophesies is greater than he who speaks in tongues, unless he interprets, so that the church receives edification. διερμηνεύει, he interprets (non-classical present indicative), RP P1904 F1859=9/12 vs. διερμηνεύῃ, he interprets (classical present subjunctive), TR F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's emn) vs. another reading, F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's c).

would like ← want.

church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 14:6 Νυνὶ δέ, ἀδελφοί, ἐὰν ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς γλώσσαις λαλῶν, τί ὑμᾶς ὠφελήσω, ἐὰν μὴ ὑμῖν λαλήσω ἢ ἐν ἀποκαλύψει, ἢ ἐν γνώσει, ἢ ἐν προφητείᾳ ἢ ἐν διδαχῇ; And now, brothers, if I come to you speaking in tongues, how will I benefit you, unless I speak to you either in the form of revelation or in knowledge, or in prophecy or in teaching?
1 Cor 14:7 Ὅμως τὰ ἄψυχα φωνὴν διδόντα, εἴτε αὐλός, εἴτε κιθάρα, ἐὰν διαστολὴν τοῖς φθόγγοις μὴ {RP P1904: διδῶ} [TR: δῷ], πῶς γνωσθήσεται τὸ αὐλούμενον ἢ τὸ κιθαριζόμενον; Likewise, when inanimate objects give sound, whether the flute or the harp, if they do not show a distinction in the tones, how will the flute-playing or harp-playing tune be identified? διδῶ, they (neuter) give: present (but iota subscript wanting), RP P1904 F1859=11/12 vs. δῷ, they (neuter) give, aorist, TR F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's f). An iota subscript divergence from RP.

likewise: for our translation (though not in the RP Greek text) we have re-accented ὅμως, nevertheless, to ὁμῶς, likewise. An accentuation divergence from RP P1904 TBS-TR. AV differs (and even). We ↴

show ← give.
1 Cor 14:8 Καὶ γὰρ ἐὰν ἄδηλον φωνὴν σάλπιγξ δῷ, τίς παρασκευάσεται εἰς πόλεμον; For indeed, if a trumpet gives an unclear sound, who will prepare himself for war? ↳ make the same accent change in Gal 3:15 (see our note there), but not in John 12:42.
1 Cor 14:9 Οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς διὰ τῆς γλώσσης ἐὰν μὴ εὔσημον λόγον δῶτε, πῶς γνωσθήσεται τὸ λαλούμενον; Ἔσεσθε γὰρ εἰς ἀέρα λαλοῦντες. So you too, if you do not give clear speech through the tongue, how will that which is spoken be understood? For you will just be speaking into the air.
1 Cor 14:10 Τοσαῦτα, εἰ τύχοι, γένη φωνῶν ἐστὶν ἐν κόσμῳ καὶ οὐδὲν {RP P1904 S1550 E1624: αὐτῶν} [S1894: - ] ἄφωνον. Now for all the kinds of languages which there might be in the world, not one {RP P1904 S1550 E1624: of them} [S1894: - ] is meaningless. αὐτῶν, of them: present in RP P1904 S1550 E1624 F1859=11/12 vs. absent in S1894 F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's d).

now for all the kinds of languages which there might be ← so many, if it were to chance, kinds of voices there are.

not ← and / yet not.
1 Cor 14:11 Ἐὰν οὖν μὴ εἰδῶ τὴν δύναμιν τῆς φωνῆς, ἔσομαι τῷ λαλοῦντι βάρβαρος, καὶ ὁ λαλῶν ἐν ἐμοὶ βάρβαρος. So if I do not know the force of the sound, I will be to him who is speaking a barbarian, and he who is speaking will be a barbarian to me. a barbarian: one might have expected ὡς here, like a barbarian – the converse of the redundant ὡς of Luke 2:37 etc.
1 Cor 14:12 Οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς, ἐπεὶ ζηλωταί ἐστε πνευμάτων, πρὸς τὴν οἰκοδομὴν τῆς ἐκκλησίας ζητεῖτε ἵνα περισσεύητε. So you too, since you are zealots for spiritual gifts, seek them so that you may excel in the edification of the church. spiritual giftsspirits.

church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 14:13 Διόπερ ὁ λαλῶν γλώσσῃ προσευχέσθω ἵνα διερμηνεύῃ. So let him who speaks in a tongue pray that he may interpret. he: or one; the roles are separated in 1 Cor 12:10, but not necessarily so here.
1 Cor 14:14 Ἐὰν γὰρ προσεύχωμαι γλώσσῃ, τὸ πνεῦμά μου προσεύχεται, ὁ δὲ νοῦς μου ἄκαρπός ἐστιν. For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays, but my mind is without fruit.
1 Cor 14:15 Τί οὖν ἐστίν; Προσεύξομαι τῷ πνεύματι, προσεύξομαι δὲ καὶ τῷ νοΐ· ψαλῶ τῷ πνεύματι, ψαλῶ δὲ καὶ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: τῷ} [E1624: - ] νοΐ. What is the issue then? I will pray in the spirit, and I will also pray in my mind. I will sing psalms in the spirit, and I will also sing psalms in my mind. τῷ, the (mind): present in RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=11/12 vs. absent in E1624 F1859=0/12 vs. whole clause absent, F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's d).
1 Cor 14:16 Ἐπεὶ ἐὰν εὐλογήσῃς τῷ πνεύματι, ὁ ἀναπληρῶν τὸν τόπον τοῦ ἰδιώτου πῶς ἐρεῖ τὸ Ἀμὴν ἐπὶ τῇ σῇ εὐχαριστίᾳ, ἐπειδὴ τί λέγεις οὐκ οἶδεν; Otherwise, if you bless in the spirit, how will he who occupies the place of the layman say “Amen” to your thanksgiving, since he does not know what you are saying?
1 Cor 14:17 Σὺ μὲν γὰρ καλῶς εὐχαριστεῖς, ἀλλ' ὁ ἕτερος οὐκ οἰκοδομεῖται. For you give thanks well, but the other person is not edified.
1 Cor 14:18 Εὐχαριστῶ τῷ θεῷ μου, πάντων ὑμῶν μᾶλλον γλώσσαις λαλῶν· I give thanks to my God that I speak in tongues more than all of you,
1 Cor 14:19 ἀλλ' ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ θέλω πέντε λόγους διὰ τοῦ νοός μου λαλῆσαι, ἵνα καὶ ἄλλους κατηχήσω, ἢ μυρίους λόγους ἐν γλώσσῃ. but in the church I would rather speak five words mindfully, so that I might instruct others, than ten thousand words in a tongue. church: see Matt 16:18.

mindfully ← through my mind.

might ← might also, might for my part (otiose καί).
1 Cor 14:20 Ἀδελφοί, μὴ παιδία γίνεσθε ταῖς φρεσίν· ἀλλὰ τῇ κακίᾳ νηπιάζετε, ταῖς δὲ φρεσὶν τέλειοι γίνεσθε. Brothers, do not be children in mentality. However, act like an infant with regard to evil, but become fully mature in mentality. be ← become.
1 Cor 14:21 Ἐν τῷ νόμῳ γέγραπται ὅτι Ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις καὶ ἐν χείλεσιν ἑτέροις λαλήσω τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ, καὶ οὐδ' οὕτως εἰσακούσονταί μου, λέγει κύριος. In the law it stands written:

“By those of another language

And by foreign lips

I will speak to this people,

And not even in this way will they listen to me,

Says the Lord.”

Isa 28:11, Isa 28:12.
1 Cor 14:22 Ὥστε αἱ γλῶσσαι εἰς σημεῖόν εἰσιν, οὐ τοῖς πιστεύουσιν, ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἀπίστοις· ἡ δὲ προφητεία, οὐ τοῖς ἀπίστοις, ἀλλὰ τοῖς πιστεύουσιν. So tongues are a sign not to those who believe, but to unbelievers. But prophecy is not for unbelievers, but for believers. tongues: presumably when the tongues are the languages of the unbelievers, as in Acts 2:6.
1 Cor 14:23 Ἐὰν οὖν συνέλθῃ ἡ ἐκκλησία ὅλη ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό, καὶ πάντες γλώσσαις λαλῶσιν, εἰσέλθωσιν δὲ ἰδιῶται ἢ ἄπιστοι, οὐκ ἐροῦσιν ὅτι μαίνεσθε; So if the whole church meets together and all speak in tongues, and laymen or unbelievers come in, will they not say that you are mad? church: see Matt 16:18.

tongues: presumably here when the tongues are not the languages of the unbelievers, uninterpreted, and everything is disorderly.
1 Cor 14:24 Ἐὰν δὲ πάντες προφητεύωσιν, εἰσέλθῃ δέ τις ἄπιστος ἢ ἰδιώτης, ἐλέγχεται ὑπὸ πάντων, ἀνακρίνεται ὑπὸ πάντων, But if all prophesy, and some unbeliever or layman comes in, he is confronted by all – he is challenged by all.
1 Cor 14:25 καὶ οὕτως τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς καρδίας αὐτοῦ φανερὰ γίνεται· καὶ οὕτως πεσὼν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον προσκυνήσει τῷ θεῷ ἀπαγγέλλων ὅτι Ὁ θεὸς ὄντως ἐν ὑμῖν ἐστιν. And in this way the secret things of his heart become manifest, and so he will fall face down and worship God, declaring that God really is among you. RP punctuates for direct speech; we with TBS-TR, for indirect speech.
1 Cor 14:26 Τί οὖν ἐστίν, ἀδελφοί; Ὅταν συνέρχησθε, ἕκαστος ὑμῶν ψαλμὸν ἔχει, διδαχὴν ἔχει, γλῶσσαν ἔχει, ἀποκάλυψιν ἔχει, ἑρμηνείαν ἔχει. Πάντα πρὸς οἰκοδομὴν {RP P1904: γινέσθω} [TR: γενέσθω]. What is the issue then, brothers? Whenever you meet, each of you has a psalm – has teaching, has a tongue, has revelation, has interpretation. Let everything be for edification. γινέσθω, let it be (present, so imperfective aspect), RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. γενέσθω, let it be (aorist, so perfective aspect), TR F1859=0/12.
1 Cor 14:27 Εἴτε γλώσσῃ τις λαλεῖ, κατὰ δύο ἢ τὸ πλεῖστον τρεῖς, καὶ ἀνὰ μέρος, καὶ εἷς διερμηνευέτω· And if anyone speaks in a tongue, let it be two on an occasion or at most three, and in turn, and let one interpret,
1 Cor 14:28 ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ᾖ διερμηνευτής, σιγάτω ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ· ἑαυτῷ δὲ λαλείτω καὶ τῷ θεῷ. but if there is no interpreter, let him be silent in the church, and let him speak to himself and to God. church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 14:29 Προφῆται δὲ δύο ἢ τρεῖς λαλείτωσαν, καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι διακρινέτωσαν. However, let two or three prophets speak, and let the others use their discernment. use their discernment ← discern.
1 Cor 14:30 Ἐὰν δὲ ἄλλῳ {RP P1904c TR: ἀποκαλυφθῇ} [P1904u: ἀποκακαλυφθῇ] καθημένῳ, ὁ πρῶτος σιγάτω. And if anything is revealed to anyone else sitting there, let the first one be silent.
1 Cor 14:31 Δύνασθε γὰρ καθ' ἕνα πάντες προφητεύειν, ἵνα πάντες μανθάνωσιν, καὶ πάντες παρακαλῶνται· For you can all prophesy one by one, so that all learn and all are encouraged.
1 Cor 14:32 καὶ πνεύματα προφητῶν προφήταις ὑποτάσσεται. And the spiritual gifts of the prophets are under control of the prophets. spiritual giftsspirits, as in 1 Cor 14:12.

under control of ← subject to.
1 Cor 14:33 Οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἀκαταστασίας ὁ θεός, {RP P1904: ἀλλὰ} [TR: ἀλλ'] εἰρήνης, ὡς ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῶν ἁγίων. For God is not characterized by disorder, but peace, ¶ as in all the churches of the saints. ¶ Verse division: in P1904 numbering, 1 Cor 14:34 begins here.

ἀλλὰ, but (unapocopated), RP P1904 F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's egk) vs. ἀλλ', but (apocopated), TR F1859=9/12 (Scrivener's abcdfhlmo). A disparity with RP, R=4:10.

churches: see Matt 16:18.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
1 Cor 14:34 Αἱ γυναῖκες ὑμῶν ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις σιγάτωσαν· οὐ γὰρ ἐπιτέτραπται αὐταῖς λαλεῖν, ἀλλ' ὑποτάσσεσθαι, καθὼς καὶ ὁ νόμος λέγει. Let your women in the churches be silent. For it is not permitted for them to speak, but to be in subjection, as the law also says. churches: see Matt 16:18.

it is not permitted ← it has not been permitted.

The reference to being in subjection is Gen 3:16.
1 Cor 14:35 Εἰ δέ τι μαθεῖν θέλουσιν, ἐν οἴκῳ τοὺς ἰδίους ἄνδρας ἐπερωτάτωσαν· αἰσχρὸν γάρ ἐστιν γυναιξὶν ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ λαλεῖν. But if they wish to learn something, let them ask their own husbands at home, for it is shameful for women to speak in church. church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 14:36 Ἢ ἀφ' ὑμῶν ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ ἐξῆλθεν; Ἢ εἰς ὑμᾶς μόνους κατήντησεν; Now was it from you that the word of God went out? Or was it to you alone that it came? now ← or.

came ← came down to meet.
1 Cor 14:37 Εἴ τις δοκεῖ προφήτης εἶναι ἢ πνευματικός, ἐπιγινωσκέτω ἃ γράφω ὑμῖν, ὅτι {RP: - } [P1904 TR: τοῦ] κυρίου εἰσὶν ἐντολαί. If anyone considers himself to be a prophet or spiritual person, let him acknowledge that what I write to you is the Lord's commandments. τοῦ, the (Lord): absent in RP F1859=12/12 vs. present in P1904 TR F1859=0/12. A case of collusion between P1904 and TR?
1 Cor 14:38 Εἰ δέ τις ἀγνοεῖ, ἀγνοείτω. But if anyone is ignorant of them, let him be ignorant.
1 Cor 14:39 Ὥστε, ἀδελφοί, ζηλοῦτε τὸ προφητεύειν, καὶ τὸ λαλεῖν γλώσσαις μὴ κωλύετε· So, brothers, be zealous about prophesying, and do not prevent speaking in tongues.
1 Cor 14:40 πάντα εὐσχημόνως καὶ κατὰ τάξιν γινέσθω. Let everything take place decently and in an orderly way.
1 Cor 15:1 Γνωρίζω δὲ ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ὃ εὐηγγελισάμην ὑμῖν, ὃ καὶ παρελάβετε, ἐν ᾧ καὶ ἑστήκατε, Now I am making known to you, brothers, the gospel which I preached to you, which you also received, and in which you stand,
1 Cor 15:2 δι' οὗ καὶ σῴζεσθε· τίνι λόγῳ εὐηγγελισάμην ὑμῖν, εἰ κατέχετε, ἐκτὸς εἰ μὴ εἰκῇ ἐπιστεύσατε. by which you are also being saved, if you hold on to the words with which I preached the gospel to you, unless you have come to believe in vain. words ← word.
1 Cor 15:3 Παρέδωκα γὰρ ὑμῖν ἐν πρώτοις, ὃ καὶ παρέλαβον, ὅτι χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν κατὰ τὰς γραφάς· For I have passed on to you in the first place that which I for my part received, namely that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures, for my part ← also. The conjunction καὶ often has a sense of reciprocity or parallelism.
1 Cor 15:4 καὶ ὅτι ἐτάφη· καὶ ὅτι ἐγήγερται τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ κατὰ τὰς γραφάς· and that he was buried and that he was raised on the third day according to the scriptures, buried: or entombed (and the Lord was put in a tomb).

he was raised ← he has been raised, or he has risen.
1 Cor 15:5 καὶ ὅτι ὤφθη Κηφᾷ, εἶτα τοῖς δώδεκα· and that he was seen by Cephas, then by the twelve.
1 Cor 15:6 ἔπειτα ὤφθη ἐπάνω πεντακοσίοις ἀδελφοῖς ἐφάπαξ, ἐξ ὧν οἱ πλείους μένουσιν ἕως ἄρτι, τινὲς δὲ καὶ ἐκοιμήθησαν· After that he was seen by more than five hundred brothers at once, of whom the majority remain to the present time, but some have fallen asleep. some ← some also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 15:7 ἔπειτα ὤφθη Ἰακώβῳ, εἶτα τοῖς ἀποστόλοις πᾶσιν· Then he was seen by James, then by all the apostles,
1 Cor 15:8 ἔσχατον δὲ πάντων, ὡσπερεὶ τῷ ἐκτρώματι, ὤφθη κἀμοί. and last of all he was also seen by me, one untimely born, as it were. born: i.e. born from above / again (John 3:3), or, [MG], born into the family of apostles.
1 Cor 15:9 Ἐγὼ γάρ εἰμι ὁ ἐλάχιστος τῶν ἀποστόλων, ὃς οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς καλεῖσθαι ἀπόστολος, διότι ἐδίωξα τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ. For I am the least of the apostles, and I am not fit to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God, church: see Matt 16:18.
1 Cor 15:10 Χάριτι δὲ θεοῦ εἰμι ὅ εἰμι, καὶ ἡ χάρις αὐτοῦ ἡ εἰς ἐμὲ οὐ κενὴ ἐγενήθη, ἀλλὰ περισσότερον αὐτῶν πάντων ἐκοπίασα, οὐκ ἐγὼ δέ, ἀλλ' ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ ἡ σὺν ἐμοί. but by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace towards me has not been in vain, but I have toiled more inordinately than them all, yet not I, but the grace of God which is with me. than them: or, if the reader prefers, than they.
1 Cor 15:11 Εἴτε οὖν ἐγώ, εἴτε ἐκεῖνοι, οὕτως κηρύσσομεν καὶ οὕτως ἐπιστεύσατε. So whether it is I or they, this is what we preach, and this is what you have believed. they ← those.

this is what (2x)thus.
1 Cor 15:12 Εἰ δὲ χριστὸς κηρύσσεται ὅτι ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγήγερται, πῶς λέγουσίν τινες ἐν ὑμῖν ὅτι ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν; But if Christ is preached, namely that he has been raised from the dead, how is it that some among you say that there is no resurrection of the dead?
1 Cor 15:13 Εἰ δὲ ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν, οὐδὲ χριστὸς ἐγήγερται· Now if there is no resurrection of the dead, then neither has Christ been raised.
1 Cor 15:14 εἰ δὲ χριστὸς οὐκ ἐγήγερται, κενὸν ἄρα τὸ κήρυγμα ἡμῶν, κενὴ δὲ καὶ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν. And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is vacuous, and your faith is also vacuous.
1 Cor 15:15 Εὑρισκόμεθα δὲ καὶ ψευδομάρτυρες τοῦ θεοῦ, ὅτι ἐμαρτυρήσαμεν κατὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ὅτι ἤγειρεν τὸν χριστόν, ὃν οὐκ ἤγειρεν, εἴπερ ἄρα νεκροὶ οὐκ ἐγείρονται. And we are also found to be false witnesses of God, because we have testified against God, that he raised Christ, whom he did not raise, if the dead really are not raised. if ... really ← if indeed therefore.
1 Cor 15:16 Εἰ γὰρ νεκροὶ οὐκ ἐγείρονται, οὐδὲ χριστὸς ἐγήγερται· For if the dead are not raised, neither has Christ been raised,
1 Cor 15:17 εἰ δὲ χριστὸς οὐκ ἐγήγερται, ματαία ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν· ἔτι ἐστὲ ἐν ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ὑμῶν. and if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins.
1 Cor 15:18 Ἄρα καὶ οἱ κοιμηθέντες ἐν χριστῷ ἀπώλοντο. In that case those who have fallen asleep in Christ have also perished.
1 Cor 15:19 Εἰ ἐν τῇ ζωῇ ταύτῃ ἠλπικότες ἐσμὲν ἐν χριστῷ μόνον, ἐλεεινότεροι πάντων ἀνθρώπων ἐσμέν. If we have only hoped in Christ for this life, we are the most pitiable of all men. for ← in, a reference to the period where the hope applies.

most pitiable ← more pitiable, Greek comparative for superlative.
1 Cor 15:20 Νυνὶ δὲ χριστὸς ἐγήγερται ἐκ νεκρῶν, ἀπαρχὴ τῶν κεκοιμημένων ἐγένετο. But as it is, Christ has been raised from the dead. He has become the firstfruit of those who have fallen asleep. but as it isbut now.

those who have fallen asleep: on the italicization of have, see Acts 21:20.
1 Cor 15:21 Ἐπειδὴ γὰρ δι' ἀνθρώπου ὁ θάνατος, καὶ δι' ἀνθρώπου ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν. For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead also came through a man.
1 Cor 15:22 Ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐν τῷ Ἀδὰμ πάντες ἀποθνῄσκουσιν, οὕτως καὶ ἐν τῷ χριστῷ πάντες ζῳοποιηθήσονται. For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive. so ← so also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 15:23 Ἕκαστος δὲ ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ τάγματι· ἀπαρχὴ χριστός, ἔπειτα οἱ {RP: τοῦ} [P1904 TR: - ] χριστοῦ ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ αὐτοῦ. But each in his own order. Christ the firstfruit, then those of Christ at his coming. τοῦ, of the (Christ): present in RP F1859=12/12 vs. absent in P1904 TR F1859=0/12. A case of collusion between P1904 and TR?
1 Cor 15:24 Εἶτα τὸ τέλος, ὅταν παραδῷ τὴν βασιλείαν τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρί, ὅταν καταργήσῃ πᾶσαν ἀρχὴν καὶ πᾶσαν ἐξουσίαν καὶ δύναμιν. Then the end comes, when he delivers the kingdom to him who is God and father, when he abolishes all rule and all authority and power.
1 Cor 15:25 Δεῖ γὰρ αὐτὸν βασιλεύειν, ἄχρι οὗ ἂν θῇ πάντας τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ. For he must reign until he has put all the enemies under his feet. Ps 8:7MT (Ps 8:6AV).
1 Cor 15:26 Ἔσχατος ἐχθρὸς καταργεῖται ὁ θάνατος. The last enemy which will be abolished is death.
1 Cor 15:27 Πάντα γὰρ ὑπέταξεν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ. Ὅταν δὲ εἴπῃ ὅτι Πάντα ὑποτέτακται, δῆλον ὅτι ἐκτὸς τοῦ ὑποτάξαντος αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα. For he has put everything in subjection under his feet. And when he says, “Everything has been subjected”, it is evident that it is with the exception of him who made everything subject to him. Ps 8:7MT (Ps 8:6AV).
1 Cor 15:28 Ὅταν δὲ ὑποταγῇ αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα, τότε καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ υἱὸς ὑποταγήσεται τῷ ὑποτάξαντι αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα, ἵνα ᾖ ὁ θεὸς τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν. And when everything has been subjected to him, then the son himself will be subjected to him who subjected everything to him, in order that God may be all in all. God: it does not say “the father”, as we have seen this verse misquoted (see internet).
1 Cor 15:29 Ἐπεὶ τί ποιήσουσιν οἱ βαπτιζόμενοι ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν; Εἰ ὅλως νεκροὶ οὐκ ἐγείρονται, τί καὶ βαπτίζονται ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν; For otherwise, what will they who are being baptized in connection with the state of the dead do? If the dead are not raised at all, why are they being baptized in connection with the state of the dead? in connection with (2x)on behalf of, but also concerning, in connection with, as in 2 Thes 2:1.

why ← why also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 15:30 Τί καὶ ἡμεῖς κινδυνεύομεν πᾶσαν ὥραν; And why do we endanger ourselves all the time? all the time ← every hour.
1 Cor 15:31 Καθ' ἡμέραν ἀποθνῄσκω, νὴ τὴν {RP P1904 E1624 S1894: ὑμετέραν} [S1550: ἡμετέραν] καύχησιν, ἣν ἔχω ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. I die every day, I swear by the exultation over {RP P1904 E1624 S1894: you} [S1550: us] which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord. ὑμετέραν, (over) you, your, RP P1904 E1624 S1894 F1859=8/12 (Scivener's bcdefglo) vs. ἡμετέραν, (over) us, our, S1550 F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's akm) vs. initial letter erased, F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's h).
1 Cor 15:32 Εἰ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον ἐθηριομάχησα ἐν Ἐφέσῳ, τί μοι τὸ ὄφελος, εἰ νεκροὶ οὐκ ἐγείρονται; Φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν, αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκομεν. If I, humanly speaking, have done battle with wild beasts in Ephesus, what advantage do I have if the dead are not raised? Then let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. Isa 22:13.
1 Cor 15:33 Μὴ πλανᾶσθε· Φθείρουσιν ἤθη {RP P1904: χρηστὰ} [TR: χρήσθ'] ὁμιλίαι κακαί. Do not be led astray: bad company corrupts good habits. χρηστὰ, good (unapocopated), RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. χρήσθ', good (apocopated), TR F1859=0/12.

be led astray: or go astray.

company ← companies.
1 Cor 15:34 Ἐκνήψατε δικαίως καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε· ἀγνωσίαν γὰρ θεοῦ τινὲς ἔχουσιν· πρὸς ἐντροπὴν ὑμῖν λέγω. Sober up, as is right, and do not sin. For some are ignorant of God. I speak to your shame. as is right ← righteously.

to your shame ← to you for shame.
1 Cor 15:35 Ἀλλ' ἐρεῖ τις, Πῶς ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροί; Ποίῳ δὲ σώματι ἔρχονται; But someone will say, “How are the dead raised? And with what kind of body will they come?”
1 Cor 15:36 Ἄφρον, σὺ ὃ σπείρεις, οὐ ζῳοποιεῖται ἐὰν μὴ ἀποθάνῃ· You fool, what you sow – surely it does not give life unless it dies?
1 Cor 15:37 καὶ ὃ σπείρεις, οὐ τὸ σῶμα τὸ γενησόμενον σπείρεις, ἀλλὰ γυμνὸν κόκκον, εἰ τύχοι, σίτου ἤ τινος τῶν λοιπῶν· And what you sow – you do not sow the body which will come, but a bare seed, whether it happens to be of wheat or of some other crop.
1 Cor 15:38 ὁ δὲ θεὸς αὐτῷ δίδωσιν σῶμα καθὼς ἠθέλησεν, καὶ ἑκάστῳ τῶν σπερμάτων τὸ ἴδιον σῶμα. But God gives it a body as he has willed, that is, to each kind of seed, its own body.
1 Cor 15:39 Οὐ πᾶσα σὰρξ ἡ αὐτὴ σάρξ· ἀλλὰ ἄλλη μὲν {RP P1904: - } [TR: σὰρξ] ἀνθρώπων, ἄλλη δὲ σὰρξ κτηνῶν, ἄλλη δὲ ἰχθύων, ἄλλη δὲ {RP TR: πτηνῶν} [P1904: πετεινῶν]. Not all flesh is the same flesh, but there is one kind {RP P1904: - } [TR: of flesh] for men, but another kind of flesh for cattle, and another for fish, and another for birds. σὰρξ, flesh: absent in RP P1904 F1859=12/12 vs. present in TR F1859=0/12.

πτηνῶν, feathered, bird, RP TR F1859=12/12 vs. πετεινῶν, able to fly, bird, P1904 F1859=0/12.
1 Cor 15:40 Καὶ σώματα ἐπουράνια, καὶ σώματα ἐπίγεια· ἀλλ' ἑτέρα μὲν ἡ τῶν ἐπουρανίων δόξα, ἑτέρα δὲ ἡ τῶν ἐπιγείων. And there are upper-heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the upper-heavenly ones is of one kind, whereas that of the earthly ones is of another kind.
1 Cor 15:41 Ἄλλη δόξα ἡλίου, καὶ ἄλλη δόξα σελήνης, καὶ ἄλλη δόξα ἀστέρων· ἀστὴρ γὰρ ἀστέρος διαφέρει ἐν δόξῃ. The glory of the sun is of one kind, and the glory of the moon is of another kind, and the glory of the stars is of yet another kind, for one star differs from another star in glory.
1 Cor 15:42 Οὕτως καὶ ἡ ἀνάστασις τῶν νεκρῶν. Σπείρεται ἐν φθορᾷ, ἐγείρεται ἐν ἀφθαρσίᾳ· So is also the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in perishability; it is raised in indefectibility.
1 Cor 15:43 σπείρεται ἐν ἀτιμίᾳ, ἐγείρεται ἐν δόξῃ· σπείρεται ἐν ἀσθενείᾳ, ἐγείρεται ἐν δυνάμει· It is sown in dishonour; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it is raised in power.
1 Cor 15:44 σπείρεται σῶμα ψυχικόν, ἐγείρεται σῶμα πνευματικόν. Ἔστιν σῶμα ψυχικόν, καὶ ἔστιν σῶμα πνευματικόν. It is sown as a natural body; it is raised as a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body. natural (2x)of the soul, “soulical”.
1 Cor 15:45 Οὕτως καὶ γέγραπται, Ἐγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν. Ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζῳοποιοῦν. So it also stands written: “The first man Adam became a living soul.” The last Adam – a life-giving spirit. Gen 2:7.

soul: or being. Adam did not have a soul; he was a soul, and he died. The scriptural soul is not immortal; see Ezek 18:4, Ezek 18:20.
1 Cor 15:46 Ἀλλ' οὐ πρῶτον τὸ πνευματικόν, ἀλλὰ τὸ ψυχικόν, ἔπειτα τὸ πνευματικόν. But the spiritual was not first, but the natural, then came the spiritual. natural ← of the soul, “soulical”.
1 Cor 15:47 Ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος ἐκ γῆς, χοϊκός· ὁ δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος ὁ κύριος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ. The first man was of the earth – of dust. The second man is the Lord from heaven.
1 Cor 15:48 Οἷος ὁ χοϊκός, τοιοῦτοι καὶ οἱ χοϊκοί, καὶ οἷος ὁ ἐπουράνιος, τοιοῦτοι καὶ οἱ ἐπουράνιοι· As the one of dust was, so also are those of dust. And as the upper-heavenly one is, so also are the upper-heavenly ones.
1 Cor 15:49 καὶ καθὼς ἐφορέσαμεν τὴν εἰκόνα τοῦ χοϊκοῦ, {RP: φορέσωμεν} [P1904 TR: φορέσομεν] καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα τοῦ ἐπουρανίου. And just as we bore the image of the one of dust, so also {RP: let us bear} [P1904 TR: we shall bear] the image of the upper-heavenly one. φορέσωμεν, let us bear (hortatory subjunctive), RP F1859=9/12 vs. φορέσομεν, we shall bear, P1904 TR F1859=3/12 (Scrivener's acg).
1 Cor 15:50 Τοῦτο δέ φημι, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα βασιλείαν θεοῦ κληρονομῆσαι οὐ δύνανται, οὐδὲ ἡ φθορὰ τὴν ἀφθαρσίαν κληρονομεῖ. And I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does perishability inherit indefectibility.
1 Cor 15:51 Ἰδού, μυστήριον ὑμῖν λέγω· πάντες μὲν οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα, πάντες δὲ ἀλλαγησόμεθα, Look, I will tell you a mystery. We will not all fall asleep, but we will all be changed,
1 Cor 15:52 ἐν ἀτόμῳ, ἐν ῥιπῇ ὀφθαλμοῦ, ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι· σαλπίσει γάρ, καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ ἐγερθήσονται ἄφθαρτοι, καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀλλαγησόμεθα. in an unsplittable instant, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet-call. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised as indefectible, and we will be changed.
1 Cor 15:53 Δεῖ γὰρ τὸ φθαρτὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀφθαρσίαν, καὶ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀθανασίαν. For this perishable state must put on indefectibility, and this mortal state must put on immortality.
1 Cor 15:54 Ὅταν δὲ τὸ φθαρτὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσηται ἀφθαρσίαν, καὶ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσηται ἀθανασίαν, τότε γενήσεται ὁ λόγος ὁ γεγραμμένος, Κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος. And when this perishable state puts on indefectibility, and this mortal state puts on immortality, then the word which stands written will apply:

“Death has been swallowed up in victory.”

Isa 25:8.

apply ← happen.
1 Cor 15:55 Ποῦ σου, Θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον; Ποῦ σου, ᾍδη, τὸ νῖκος;

“Where, O death, is your sting?

Where, O Hades, is your victory?”

Hos 13:14.

Hades: the place of the dead. The AV's grave also conveys the sense well.
1 Cor 15:56 Τὸ δὲ κέντρον τοῦ θανάτου ἡ ἁμαρτία· ἡ δὲ δύναμις τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ νόμος· The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law.
1 Cor 15:57 τῷ δὲ θεῷ χάρις τῷ διδόντι ἡμῖν τὸ νῖκος διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Cor 15:58 Ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί, ἑδραῖοι γίνεσθε, ἀμετακίνητοι, περισσεύοντες ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ τοῦ κυρίου πάντοτε, εἰδότες ὅτι ὁ κόπος ὑμῶν οὐκ ἔστιν κενὸς ἐν κυρίῳ. So then, my beloved brothers, be firmly seated, steadfast, always abounding in the Lord's work, knowing that your labour is not in vain with the Lord. with ← in.
1 Cor 16:1 Περὶ δὲ τῆς λογίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους, ὥσπερ διέταξα ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας, οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιήσατε. Now concerning the collection for the saints: as I instructed the churches of Galatia, you do the same. saints: see Matt 27:52.

churches: see Matt 16:18.

you do the same ← so you do as well.
1 Cor 16:2 Κατὰ μίαν σαββάτων ἕκαστος ὑμῶν παρ' ἑαυτῷ τιθέτω, θησαυρίζων ὅ τι ἂν εὐοδῶται, ἵνα μή, ὅταν ἔλθω, τότε λογίαι γίνωνται. On each first day of the week let each one of you put something aside, and contribute to the treasury whatever accords with how he is prospering, so that there will not be collections when I come. week ← Sabbath.

aside ← alongside himself.

contribute to the treasury ← treasure up.
1 Cor 16:3 Ὅταν δὲ παραγένωμαι, οὓς ἐὰν δοκιμάσητε δι' ἐπιστολῶν, τούτους πέμψω ἀπενεγκεῖν τὴν χάριν ὑμῶν εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ· But when I arrive, I will send whomever you recommend in writing to take your gracious gift to Jerusalem. whomever ← whomever ... these (so plural).

recommend in writing ← approve through letters.
1 Cor 16:4 ἐὰν δὲ ᾖ ἄξιον τοῦ κἀμὲ πορεύεσθαι, σὺν ἐμοὶ πορεύσονται. And if it is appropriate that I too should go, they can go with me. can ← will, a Hebraism.
1 Cor 16:5 Ἐλεύσομαι δὲ πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ὅταν Μακεδονίαν διέλθω· Μακεδονίαν γὰρ διέρχομαι· And I will come to you, when I cross Macedonia, for I am crossing Macedonia.
1 Cor 16:6 πρὸς ὑμᾶς δὲ τυχὸν παραμενῶ, ἢ καὶ παραχειμάσω, ἵνα ὑμεῖς με προπέμψητε οὗ ἐὰν πορεύωμαι. It may be that I will stay with you, or even that I will spend the winter with you, so that you may send me on my way to wherever I am going.
1 Cor 16:7 Οὐ θέλω γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἄρτι ἐν παρόδῳ ἰδεῖν· ἐλπίζω δὲ χρόνον τινὰ ἐπιμεῖναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἐὰν ὁ κύριος ἐπιτρέπῃ. I do not want to see you in passing now, but I hope to stay on with you for some time, if the Lord permits.
1 Cor 16:8 Ἐπιμενῶ δὲ ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἕως τῆς Πεντηκοστῆς· And I will stay on in Ephesus, until Pentecost.
1 Cor 16:9 θύρα γάρ μοι ἀνέῳγεν μεγάλη καὶ ἐνεργής, καὶ ἀντικείμενοι πολλοί. For a very auspicious door stands open for me, but also many adversaries. very auspicious door ← great and effective door, referring to the place to which the door leads.
1 Cor 16:10 Ἐὰν δὲ ἔλθῃ Τιμόθεος, βλέπετε ἵνα ἀφόβως γένηται πρὸς ὑμᾶς· τὸ γὰρ ἔργον κυρίου ἐργάζεται ὡς {RP TR: καὶ ἐγώ} [P1904: κἀγώ]. Now if Timothy comes, see that he feels at ease with you, for he carries out the work of the Lord, as I do. καὶ ἐγώ, as I (do) (unapocopated), RP TR F1859=12/13 vs. κἀγώ, as I (do) (apocopated), P1904 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's n).

feels ← becomes.

as ← as also (otiose καί).
1 Cor 16:11 Μή τις οὖν αὐτὸν ἐξουθενήσῃ· προπέμψατε δὲ αὐτὸν ἐν εἰρήνῃ, ἵνα ἔλθῃ πρός με· ἐκδέχομαι γὰρ αὐτὸν μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν. So do not let anyone make light of him. And send him on his way in peace, so that he may come to me, for I am expecting him with the brothers. make light ← make nothing.
1 Cor 16:12 Περὶ δὲ Ἀπολλὼ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, πολλὰ παρεκάλεσα αὐτὸν ἵνα ἔλθῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν· καὶ πάντως οὐκ ἦν θέλημα ἵνα νῦν ἔλθῃ, ἐλεύσεται δὲ ὅταν εὐκαιρήσῃ. And concerning our brother Apollos, I have greatly encouraged him to come to you with the brothers. But it was not his will at all to come now, but he will come when there is a good opportunity. there is a good opportunity: or he has a good opportunity.
1 Cor 16:13 Γρηγορεῖτε, στήκετε ἐν τῇ πίστει, ἀνδρίζεσθε, κραταιοῦσθε. Be watchful, stand firm in the faith, show yourselves men, show yourselves strong.
1 Cor 16:14 Πάντα ὑμῶν ἐν ἀγάπῃ γινέσθω. Let all your deeds be done in love.
1 Cor 16:15 Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί - οἴδατε τὴν οἰκίαν Στεφανᾶ, ὅτι ἐστὶν ἀπαρχὴ τῆς Ἀχαΐας, καὶ εἰς διακονίαν τοῖς ἁγίοις ἔταξαν ἑαυτούς - And I urge you, brothers – you know the household of Stephanas, how he is the firstfruit of Achaea, and how they appointed themselves to the ministry of the saints – how ← that.

appointed: AV differs (addicted), apparently through dislike of self-appointment to the ministry, since the AV has appointed for this verb in Matt 28:16, Acts 22:10, Acts 28:23, and ordained in Acts 13:48, Rom 13:1.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
1 Cor 16:16 ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς ὑποτάσσησθε τοῖς τοιούτοις, καὶ παντὶ τῷ συνεργοῦντι καὶ κοπιῶντι. that you too be subject to people like this and to every co-worker and everyone who labours. people like this ← such.
1 Cor 16:17 Χαίρω δὲ ἐπὶ τῇ παρουσίᾳ Στεφανᾶ καὶ Φουρτουνάτου καὶ Ἀχαϊκοῦ, ὅτι τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα οὗτοι ἀνεπλήρωσαν. And I rejoice at the presence of Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaichus, in that these men have supplied what you lacked.
1 Cor 16:18 Ἀνέπαυσαν γὰρ τὸ ἐμὸν πνεῦμα καὶ τὸ ὑμῶν· ἐπιγινώσκετε οὖν τοὺς τοιούτους. For they gave rest to my spirit and yours. So do acknowledge such folk.
1 Cor 16:19 Ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῆς Ἀσίας· ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς ἐν κυρίῳ πολλὰ Ἀκύλας καὶ Πρίσκιλλα, σὺν τῇ κατ' οἶκον αὐτῶν ἐκκλησίᾳ. The churches in Asia greet you. Aquila and Priscilla greet you profoundly in the Lord, as does the church in their various houses. churches ... church: see Matt 16:18.

profoundly ← very much (adverbial neuter plural).

in their various houses: κατά + accusative singular, as in Luke 8:4 [AnLx]. AV differs (in their house), as [MG], which is also possible.
1 Cor 16:20 Ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς οἱ ἀδελφοὶ πάντες. Ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν φιλήματι ἁγίῳ. All the brothers greet you. Greet each other with a holy kiss.
1 Cor 16:21 Ὁ ἀσπασμὸς τῇ ἐμῇ χειρὶ Παύλου. Here is the greeting of Paul with my own hand.
1 Cor 16:22 Εἴ τις οὐ φιλεῖ τὸν κύριον Ἰησοῦν χριστόν, ἤτω ἀνάθεμα. Μαρὰν ἀθά. If anyone does not love the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be a curse. Maranatha. maranatha ← our Lord, come (Aramaic, ‫מְרַנָא תָא‬ [Dalman]). AV differs in sense, omitting our immediately preceding full stop.
1 Cor 16:23 Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ μεθ' ὑμῶν. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
1 Cor 16:24 Ἡ ἀγάπη μου μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. Ἀμήν. May my love be with all of you in Christ Jesus. Amen.
2 Cor 1:1 Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ, καὶ Τιμόθεος ὁ ἀδελφός, τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ, σὺν τοῖς ἁγίοις πᾶσιν τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Ἀχαΐᾳ· From Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy the brother, to the church of God which is in Corinth, with all the saints who are in the whole of Achaea, church: see Matt 16:18.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
2 Cor 1:2 χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. grace to you and peace from God our father and Lord, Jesus Christ. Lord: no article in the Greek. See Rom 1:7, showing why we repunctuate; AV differs.
2 Cor 1:3 Εὐλογητὸς ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, ὁ πατὴρ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν καὶ θεὸς πάσης παρακλήσεως, Blessed be the God and father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the father of mercies and God of all comfort,
2 Cor 1:4 ὁ παρακαλῶν ἡμᾶς {RP TR: ἐπὶ} [P1904: ἐν] πάσῃ τῇ θλίψει ἡμῶν, εἰς τὸ δύνασθαι ἡμᾶς παρακαλεῖν τοὺς ἐν πάσῃ θλίψει, διὰ τῆς παρακλήσεως ἧς παρακαλούμεθα αὐτοὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ. who comforts us {RP TR: at} [P1904: in] every tribulation of ours, so that we can comfort those in any tribulation, through the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted by God. ἐπὶ, at, in, RP TR F1859=10/12 vs. ἐν, in, P1904 F1859=2/12 (Scrivener's ln).

any ← every.
2 Cor 1:5 Ὅτι καθὼς περισσεύει τὰ παθήματα τοῦ χριστοῦ εἰς ἡμᾶς, οὕτως διὰ {RP: τοῦ} [P1904 TR: - ] χριστοῦ περισσεύει καὶ ἡ παράκλησις ἡμῶν. For as the sufferings of Christ abound towards us, so also our comfort abounds through Christ. τοῦ, the (Christ): present in RP F1859=12/12 vs. absent in P1904 TR F1859=0/12. A case of collusion between P1904 and TR?
2 Cor 1:6 Εἴτε δὲ θλιβόμεθα, ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑμῶν παρακλήσεως καὶ σωτηρίας, τῆς ἐνεργουμένης ἐν ὑπομονῇ τῶν αὐτῶν παθημάτων ὧν καὶ ἡμεῖς πάσχομεν· {RP P1904: καὶ ἡ ἐλπὶς ἡμῶν βεβαία ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· εἴτε παρακαλούμεθα, ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑμῶν παρακλήσεως καὶ σωτηρίας} [TR: εἴτε παρακαλούμεθα, ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑμῶν παρακλήσεως καὶ σωτηρίας· καὶ ἡ ἐλπὶς ἡμῶν βεβαία ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν]· And if we are in tribulation, it is for your comfort and salvation, which is effective in endurance of the same sufferings which we also suffer. {RP P1904: And our hope for you is firm, and if we are comforted, it is for your comfort and salvation} [TR: And if we are comforted, it is for your comfort and salvation, ¶ and our hope for you is firm], ¶ Verse division: in AV numbering (and some TR editions), 2 Cor 1:7 begins here.

καὶ ... ὑμῶν· εἴτε ... σωτηρίας, and our hope ... is firm; or if we are comforted ... salvation, RP P1904 F1859=11/12 (Scrivener's abcefghklno, with variations in ao*) vs. εἴτε ... σωτηρίας· καὶ ... ὑμῶν, or if we are comforted ... salvation; and our hope ... is firm, TR F1859=0/12 vs. another ordering, F1859=1/12 (Scrivener's m). This is a movement of text, not a change to any of the words within RP P1904 TR.
2 Cor 1:7 εἰδότες ὅτι ὥσπερ κοινωνοί ἐστε τῶν παθημάτων, οὕτως καὶ τῆς παρακλήσεως. knowing that as you are partakers of the sufferings, so are you also of the comfort.
2 Cor 1:8 Οὐ γὰρ θέλομεν ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὑπὲρ τῆς θλίψεως ἡμῶν τῆς γενομένης ἡμῖν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ, ὅτι καθ' ὑπερβολὴν ἐβαρήθημεν ὑπὲρ δύναμιν, ὥστε ἐξαπορηθῆναι ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῦ ζῇν. For we do not wish you to be ignorant, brothers, of our tribulation which came on us in Asia, because we were exceedingly weighed down beyond our ability to cope, so that we even despaired of surviving. surviving ← living.
2 Cor 1:9 Ἀλλὰ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς τὸ ἀπόκριμα τοῦ θανάτου ἐσχήκαμεν, ἵνα μὴ πεποιθότες ὦμεν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῖς ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ τῷ ἐγείροντι τοὺς νεκρούς· But we ourselves have had the sentence of death in ourselves so that we should not be trusting in ourselves, but in God who raises the dead,
2 Cor 1:10 ὃς ἐκ τηλικούτου θανάτου ἐρρύσατο ἡμᾶς καὶ ῥύεται, εἰς ὃν ἠλπίκαμεν ὅτι καὶ ἔτι ῥύσεται, who has rescued us from so great a death, and who is rescuing us, in whom we have put our hope that he will also rescue still,
2 Cor 1:11 συνυπουργούντων καὶ ὑμῶν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν τῇ δεήσει, ἵνα ἐκ πολλῶν προσώπων τὸ εἰς ἡμᾶς χάρισμα διὰ πολλῶν εὐχαριστηθῇ ὑπὲρ {RP: ὑμῶν} [P1904 TR: ἡμῶν]. while you also support us by your supplication for us, so that thanks may be offered for the favour shown to us by many individuals, through many tribulations, on {RP: your} [P1904 TR: our] behalf. ὑμῶν, (of) you, RP F1859=8/14 (Scrivener's ce**fghlmn) vs. ἡμῶν, (of) us, P1904 TR F1859=5/14 (Scrivener's ade*ko) vs. another reading, F1859=1/14 (Scrivener's b, though we do not fully understand Scrivener here). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=8:7. AV differs textually.

individuals ← faces.

tribulations(things), if neuter; or if masculine, (people), as AV; or if feminine, (journeys / ways). So AV differs.
2 Cor 1:12 Ἡ γὰρ καύχησις ἡμῶν αὕτη ἐστίν, τὸ μαρτύριον τῆς συνειδήσεως ἡμῶν, ὅτι ἐν ἁπλότητι καὶ εἰλικρινείᾳ θεοῦ, οὐκ ἐν σοφίᾳ σαρκικῇ ἀλλ' ἐν χάριτι θεοῦ, ἀνεστράφημεν ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ, περισσοτέρως δὲ πρὸς ὑμᾶς. For our exultation is this: the witness of our consciences – that we have conducted ourselves in godly simplicity and sincerity, not in fleshly wisdom, but in the grace of God, in the world and all the more towards you. consciences ← conscience.

godly simplicity and sincerity ← simplicity and sincerity of God, a Hebraic genitive.
2 Cor 1:13 Οὐ γὰρ ἄλλα γράφομεν ὑμῖν, ἀλλ' ἢ ἃ ἀναγινώσκετε ἢ καὶ ἐπιγινώσκετε, ἐλπίζω δὲ ὅτι καὶ ἕως τέλους ἐπιγνώσεσθε· For we do not write to you any other things than either what you read or acknowledge, and I hope that you will also continue to acknowledge them until the end,
2 Cor 1:14 καθὼς καὶ ἐπέγνωτε ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ μέρους, ὅτι καύχημα ὑμῶν ἐσμέν, καθάπερ καὶ ὑμεῖς ἡμῶν, ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ. as you have also acknowledged us in part, that we are your pride, as indeed you are ours, on the day of the Lord Jesus. pride ← boasting. Perhaps exultation here.

as indeed ← as indeed also.
2 Cor 1:15 Καὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πεποιθήσει ἐβουλόμην {RP: ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς} [P1904 TR: πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐλθεῖν] {RP: τὸ} [P1904 TR: - ] πρότερον, ἵνα δευτέραν χάριν ἔχητε· And I wanted to come to you in this confidence before, so that you might have a second benefit, ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, to come + to you, RP F1859=10/13 (Scrivener's bcdefgklno) vs. πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐλθεῖν, to you + to come, P1904 TR F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's h) vs. other readings, F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's am). A case of collusion between P1904 and TR?

τὸ, the (an optional part of the idiom for before): present in RP F1859=10/13 (Scrivener's bcdefgklno) vs. absent in P1904 TR F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's ahm).

benefit ← grace.
2 Cor 1:16 καὶ δι' ὑμῶν διελθεῖν εἰς Μακεδονίαν, καὶ πάλιν ἀπὸ Μακεδονίας ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, καὶ ὑφ' ὑμῶν προπεμφθῆναι εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν. and to cross through your way to Macedonia, and to come to you again from Macedonia, and to be sent on by you to Judaea. your way ← you.
2 Cor 1:17 Τοῦτο οὖν {RP TR: βουλευόμενος} [P1904: βουλόμενος], μή τι ἄρα τῇ ἐλαφρίᾳ ἐχρησάμην; Ἢ ἃ βουλεύομαι, κατὰ σάρκα βουλεύομαι, ἵνα ᾖ παρ' ἐμοὶ τὸ Ναί, ναὶ καὶ τὸ Οὔ, οὔ; Now then, when I {RP TR: resolved} [P1904: wanted] to do this, did I indulge in frivolity at all? Or the things I resolve to do – do I resolve to do them according to the flesh, so that it is, “Yes, yes” one day and, “No, no” another day with me? βουλευόμενος, resolving, RP TR F1859=8/13 vs. βουλόμενος, wishing, P1904 F1859=5/13 (Scrivener's achmo).

at all: this brings out the pressure (from μή τι) for a negative answer to the question.
2 Cor 1:18 Πιστὸς δὲ ὁ θεός, ὅτι ὁ λόγος ἡμῶν ὁ πρὸς ὑμᾶς οὐκ ἐγένετο Ναὶ καὶ οὔ. But as God is faithful, our word to you was not, “Yes” one day and, “No” another day. Punctuation: we have translated as if the Greek were capitalized as Ναὶ καὶ Οὔ, in harmony with the previous verse, so changing what is in direct speech.
2 Cor 1:19 Ὁ γὰρ τοῦ θεοῦ υἱὸς Ἰησοῦς χριστὸς ὁ ἐν ὑμῖν δι' ἡμῶν κηρυχθείς, δι' ἐμοῦ καὶ Σιλουανοῦ καὶ Τιμοθέου, οὐκ ἐγένετο Ναὶ καὶ Οὔ, ἀλλὰ Ναὶ ἐν αὐτῷ γέγονεν. For the son of God, Jesus Christ, who was proclaimed among you by us, by me and Silvanus and Timothy, was not, “Yes” and, “No”, but in him was, “Yes.”
2 Cor 1:20 Ὅσαι γὰρ ἐπαγγελίαι θεοῦ, ἐν αὐτῷ τὸ Ναί, καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ τὸ Ἀμήν, τῷ θεῷ πρὸς δόξαν δι' ἡμῶν. For as regards all God's promises, in him is “Yes” and in him is “Amen”, with a view to glory to God through us. all ← as many (as there are).
2 Cor 1:21 Ὁ δὲ βεβαιῶν ἡμᾶς σὺν ὑμῖν εἰς χριστόν, καὶ χρίσας ἡμᾶς, θεός, Now he who confirms us with you into Christ, and who has anointed us, is God,
2 Cor 1:22 ὁ καὶ σφραγισάμενος ἡμᾶς, καὶ δοὺς τὸν ἀρραβῶνα τοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν. who has also sealed us to himself and given the pledge of the spirit in our hearts.
2 Cor 1:23 Ἐγὼ δὲ μάρτυρα τὸν θεὸν ἐπικαλοῦμαι ἐπὶ τὴν ἐμὴν ψυχήν, ὅτι φειδόμενος ὑμῶν οὐκέτι ἦλθον εἰς Κόρινθον. And I call on God as a witness to my soul that I had stopped coming to Corinth to spare you. soul: i.e. self, life.

had stopped coming ← came no longer.

to spare ← sparing, present participle for classical future participle of purpose.
2 Cor 1:24 Οὐχ ὅτι κυριεύομεν ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως, ἀλλὰ συνεργοί ἐσμεν τῆς χαρᾶς ὑμῶν· τῇ γὰρ πίστει ἑστήκατε. Not that we lord it over your faith, but we are co-workers of your joy, for you stand by faith.
2 Cor 2:1 Ἔκρινα δὲ ἐμαυτῷ τοῦτο, τὸ μὴ πάλιν {RP: ἐν λύπῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐλθεῖν} [P1904: ἐν λύπῃ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς] [TR: ἐλθεῖν ἐν λύπῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς]. And I resolved on this: not to come to you again in grief. ἐν λύπῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐλθεῖν, in grief + to you + to come, RP F1859=13/13 vs. ἐν λύπῃ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, in grief + to come + to you, P1904 F1859=0/13 vs. ἐλθεῖν ἐν λύπῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς, to come + in grief + to you, TR F1859=0/13.

I resolved on ← I decided on ... for myself.
2 Cor 2:2 Εἰ γὰρ ἐγὼ λυπῶ ὑμᾶς, καὶ τίς ἐστιν ὁ εὐφραίνων με, εἰ μὴ ὁ λυπούμενος ἐξ ἐμοῦ; For if I am causing you grief, then who can cheer me up except him who is grieving because of me? who ← who is it who.
2 Cor 2:3 Καὶ ἔγραψα ὑμῖν τοῦτο αὐτό, ἵνα μὴ ἐλθὼν λύπην ἔχω ἀφ' ὧν ἔδει με χαίρειν, πεποιθὼς ἐπὶ πάντας ὑμᾶς, ὅτι ἡ ἐμὴ χαρὰ πάντων ὑμῶν ἐστίν. And I wrote this very thing to you, so that I would not have grief when I came from those people over whom I should have rejoiced, trusting in you all that my joy is that of you all.
2 Cor 2:4 Ἐκ γὰρ πολλῆς θλίψεως καὶ συνοχῆς καρδίας ἔγραψα ὑμῖν διὰ πολλῶν δακρύων, οὐχ ἵνα λυπηθῆτε, ἀλλὰ τὴν ἀγάπην ἵνα γνῶτε ἣν ἔχω περισσοτέρως εἰς ὑμᾶς. For I wrote to you from much tribulation and distress of heart, with many tears, not that you should grieve, but that you should know the love which I have most profusely towards you. most profusely ← more profusely, Greek comparative for superlative.
2 Cor 2:5 Εἰ δέ τις λελύπηκεν, οὐκ ἐμὲ λελύπηκεν, {RP P1904: ἀλλὰ} [TR: ἀλλ'] ἀπὸ μέρους· ἵνα μὴ ἐπιβαρῶ πάντας ὑμᾶς. But if anyone has caused grief, he has not caused me grief, except for a while, so that I do not weigh down on you all. ἀλλὰ, but (unapocopated), RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. ἀλλ', but (apocopated), TR F1859=0/13.

for a while: as in Rom 15:24, or in part.
2 Cor 2:6 Ἱκανὸν τῷ τοιούτῳ ἡ ἐπιτιμία αὕτη ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν πλειόνων· The censure which is given by the majority is sufficient for such a man, the censure ← this censure.
2 Cor 2:7 ὥστε τοὐναντίον μᾶλλον ὑμᾶς χαρίσασθαι καὶ παρακαλέσαι, μήπως τῇ περισσοτέρᾳ λύπῃ καταποθῇ ὁ τοιοῦτος. so that on the contrary rather, you show grace and give encouragement, in case such a man should in any way be overwhelmed by too much grief. overwhelmed ← swallowed up.
2 Cor 2:8 Διὸ παρακαλῶ ὑμᾶς κυρῶσαι εἰς αὐτὸν ἀγάπην. So I encourage you to assure him of your love of him.
2 Cor 2:9 Εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ ἔγραψα, ἵνα γνῶ τὴν δοκιμὴν ὑμῶν, εἰ εἰς πάντα ὑπήκοοί ἐστε. For I wrote to this effect, that I should know your proven character – whether you are obedient in all things. proven character ← test, trial.
2 Cor 2:10 ᾯ δέ τι χαρίζεσθε, καὶ ἐγώ· καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ εἴ τι κεχάρισμαι, ᾧ κεχάρισμαι, δι' ὑμᾶς ἐν προσώπῳ χριστοῦ, If you forgive anyone anything, so do I. And indeed if I have forgiven anyone anything, I forgave him because of you in the presence of Christ, if you forgive anyone ← whom you forgive.

if I have forgiven anyone anything, I forgave him ← if I have forgiven anything, whom I have forgiven.
2 Cor 2:11 ἵνα μὴ πλεονεκτηθῶμεν ὑπὸ τοῦ Σατανᾶ· οὐ γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὰ νοήματα ἀγνοοῦμεν. so that we might not be taken advantage of by Satan, for we are not ignorant of his intentions.
2 Cor 2:12 Ἐλθὼν δὲ εἰς τὴν Τρῳάδα εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ χριστοῦ, καὶ θύρας μοι ἀνεῳγμένης ἐν κυρίῳ, And when I came to Troas for the purpose of the gospel of Christ, and a door was opened to me in the Lord,
2 Cor 2:13 οὐκ ἔσχηκα ἄνεσιν τῷ πνεύματί μου, τῷ μὴ εὑρεῖν με Τίτον τὸν ἀδελφόν μου· ἀλλὰ ἀποταξάμενος αὐτοῖς ἐξῆλθον εἰς Μακεδονίαν. I did not have peace of mind, because I did not find Titus my brother, but I took leave of them and departed for Macedonia. peace of mind ← abatement of my spirit.
2 Cor 2:14 Τῷ δὲ θεῷ χάρις τῷ πάντοτε θριαμβεύοντι ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ χριστῷ, καὶ τὴν ὀσμὴν τῆς γνώσεως αὐτοῦ φανεροῦντι δι' ἡμῶν ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ. But thanks be to God, who always leads us in triumph in Christ, and who makes the scent of knowledge of him manifest through us in every place.
2 Cor 2:15 Ὅτι χριστοῦ εὐωδία ἐσμὲν τῷ θεῷ ἐν τοῖς σῳζομένοις καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀπολλυμένοις· For we are a sweet smell of Christ to God among those on the road to being saved and among those who are on the road to perdition: perdition: or waste.
2 Cor 2:16 οἷς μὲν ὀσμὴ θανάτου εἰς θάνατον, οἷς δὲ ὀσμὴ ζωῆς εἰς ζωήν. Καὶ πρὸς ταῦτα τίς ἱκανός; to some a savour of death leading to death, to others a savour of life leading to life. And who is worthy of these things? worthy ← sufficient. Compare Luke 7:6.
2 Cor 2:17 Οὐ γάρ ἐσμεν ὡς οἱ {RP-text P1904: λοιποί} [RP-marg TR: πολλοί], καπηλεύοντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ· ἀλλ' ὡς ἐξ εἰλικρινείας, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐκ θεοῦ, κατενώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ, ἐν χριστῷ λαλοῦμεν. For we are not as {RP-text P1904: others} [RP-marg TR: many] who corrupt the word of God, but we are sincere, and we speak in Christ, as from God, in the presence of God. λοιποί, (the) rest, RP-text P1904 F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's defghln) vs. πολλοί, (the) many, RP-marg TR F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's abckmo). Nearly a disparity with RP-text, R=8:7. AV differs textually.

{RP-text P1904: others ← the rest.}

corrupt: or make a trade of, or, with [CB], [MG], adulterate.

sincere ← as of sincerity.
2 Cor 3:1 Ἀρχόμεθα πάλιν ἑαυτοὺς συνιστάνειν; {RP P1904 S1550 E1624: Εἰ} [S1894: ] μὴ χρῄζομεν, ὥς τινες, συστατικῶν ἐπιστολῶν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἢ ἐξ ὑμῶν συστατικῶν; Are we starting to commend ourselves again? {RP P1904 S1550 E1624: Do} [S1894: Or do] we really need, as some do, commendatory epistles to be sent to you, or commendations from you? εἰ, if; particle introducing a question, a Hebraism (‫אִם‬), RP P1904 S1550 E1624 F1859=10/13 vs. , or, S1894 F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's afm).
2 Cor 3:2 Ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ἡμῶν ὑμεῖς ἐστέ, ἐγγεγραμμένη ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν, γινωσκομένη καὶ ἀναγινωσκομένη ὑπὸ πάντων ἀνθρώπων· You are our epistle, inscribed on our hearts, known and read by all men.
2 Cor 3:3 φανερούμενοι ὅτι ἐστὲ ἐπιστολὴ χριστοῦ διακονηθεῖσα ὑφ' ἡμῶν, ἐγγεγραμμένη οὐ μέλανι, ἀλλὰ πνεύματι θεοῦ ζῶντος, οὐκ ἐν πλαξὶν λιθίναις, {RP S1550 S1894: ἀλλ'} [P1904 E1624: ἀλλὰ] ἐν πλαξὶν {RP P1904: καρδίαις} [TR: καρδίας] σαρκίναις. You are manifested that you are an epistle of Christ ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the spirit of the living God, not on stone tablets, but on {RP P1904: tablets which are fleshly hearts} [TR: fleshly tablets of the heart]. ἀλλ', but (apocopated), RP S1550 S1894 F1859=8/13 (Scrivener's adfklmno) vs. ἀλλὰ, but (unapocopated), P1904 E1624 F1859=5/13 (Scrivener's bcegh).

καρδίαις, (on) hearts, RP P1904 F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's adfhlno) vs. καρδίας, of a heart, TR F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's bcegkm). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=8:7, but note the correspondence in Scrivener's witnesses with the previous variation (only h migrates).

ink ← black.
2 Cor 3:4 Πεποίθησιν δὲ τοιαύτην ἔχομεν διὰ τοῦ χριστοῦ πρὸς τὸν θεόν· And we have such confidence through Christ in God. in ← towards.
2 Cor 3:5 οὐχ ὅτι ἱκανοί ἐσμεν ἀφ' ἑαυτῶν λογίσασθαί τι ὡς ἐξ ἑαυτῶν, ἀλλ' ἡ ἱκανότης ἡμῶν ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ· Not that we are qualified to credit anything as being of ourselves, but our qualification is from God,
2 Cor 3:6 ὃς καὶ ἱκάνωσεν ἡμᾶς διακόνους καινῆς διαθήκης, οὐ γράμματος, ἀλλὰ πνεύματος· τὸ γὰρ γράμμα {RP: ἀποκτένει} [P1904: ἀποκτέννει] [TR: ἀποκτείνει], τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζῳοποιεῖ. who has also qualified us as ministers of a new covenant, not of a letter but of spirit. For the letter kills, but the spirit gives life. ἀποκτένει, kills (1), RP F1859=8/14 (Scrivener's acghkm*no) vs. ἀποκτέννει, kills (2), P1904 F1859=4/14 (Scrivener's eflm**) vs. ἀποκτείνει, kills (3), TR F1859=2/14 (Scrivener's bd). All three forms (as accented) are in the present tense.

letter (2x): a letter of the alphabet, referring to the old covenant of the law of Moses written on stone tablets.
2 Cor 3:7 Εἰ δὲ ἡ διακονία τοῦ θανάτου ἐν γράμμασιν, ἐντετυπωμένη ἐν λίθοις, ἐγενήθη ἐν δόξῃ, ὥστε μὴ δύνασθαι ἀτενίσαι τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραὴλ εἰς τὸ πρόσωπον {RP P1904: Μωϋσέως} [TR: Μωσέως] διὰ τὴν δόξαν τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ, τὴν καταργουμένην, But if the ministry of death, engraved in letters on stones, was in glory, so that the sons of Israel could not look straight at Moses' face, because of the glory of his face – a glory to be abolished – Μωϋσέως, of Moüses, RP P1904 F1859=5/13 (Scrivener's bekmn) vs. Μωσέως, of Moses, TR F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's ac) vs. Μωϋσέος, of Moses, F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's dfghlo). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=6:6.

Punctuation: we, with AV, associate in letters with engraved, RP TBS-TR with ministry of death. P1904 leaves the question open.

to be abolished: or being abolished.
2 Cor 3:8 πῶς οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἡ διακονία τοῦ πνεύματος ἔσται ἐν δόξῃ; how much more will the ministry of the spirit be in glory! We punctuate as an exclamation; RP P1904 TBS-TR as a question. Compare the next verse.
2 Cor 3:9 Εἰ γὰρ ἡ διακονία τῆς κατακρίσεως δόξα, πολλῷ μᾶλλον περισσεύει ἡ διακονία τῆς δικαιοσύνης ἐν δόξῃ. For if the ministry of condemnation is glory, how much more does the ministry of righteousness abound in glory!
2 Cor 3:10 Καὶ γὰρ {RP: οὐ} [P1904 TR: οὐδὲ] δεδόξασται τὸ δεδοξασμένον ἐν τούτῳ τῷ μέρει, ἕνεκεν τῆς ὑπερβαλλούσης δόξης. For indeed, {RP: that which has been glorified has not been glorified} [P1904 TR: not even that which has been glorified has been glorified] in this respect, because of the exceeding glory. οὐ, not, RP F1859=12/13 vs. οὐδὲ, not even, P1904 TR F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's h). A case of collusion between P1904 and TR?

respect ← part. The glory is too much to behold for now.
2 Cor 3:11 Εἰ γὰρ τὸ καταργούμενον, διὰ δόξης, πολλῷ μᾶλλον τὸ μένον, ἐν δόξῃ. For if that which is being abolished was with glory, how much more will that which remains be in glory! with glory ← through glory, but here of attendant circumstances [MG].
2 Cor 3:12 Ἔχοντες οὖν τοιαύτην ἐλπίδα, πολλῇ παρρησίᾳ χρώμεθα· Having therefore such a hope, we make use of much freedom of speech,
2 Cor 3:13 καὶ οὐ καθάπερ {RP P1904: Μωϋσῆς} [TR: Μωσῆς] ἐτίθει κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τὸ πρόσωπον ἑαυτοῦ, πρὸς τὸ μὴ ἀτενίσαι τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραὴλ εἰς τὸ τέλος τοῦ καταργουμένου· and are not as Moses, who put a covering on his face in order that the sons of Israel should not look straight at the result of that which is being abolished. Μωϋσῆς, Moüses, RP P1904 F1859=13/14 vs. Μωσῆς, Moses, TR F1859=1/14 (Scrivener's b*).

result ← end, or perhaps whole, by a Hebraism (‫קָצֶה‬).
2 Cor 3:14 ἀλλ' ἐπωρώθη τὰ νοήματα αὐτῶν· ἄχρι γὰρ τῆς σήμερον τὸ αὐτὸ κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τῇ ἀναγνώσει τῆς παλαιᾶς διαθήκης μένει μὴ ἀνακαλυπτόμενον, {RP TR: ὅ τι} [P1904: ὅτι] ἐν χριστῷ καταργεῖται. But their thoughts were hardened. For up to today the same covering remains unremoved at the reading of the old covenant, {RP TR: it being a covering which} [P1904: because it] is being abolished in Christ. ὅ τι, (a thing) which, RP TR F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's abcdefk) vs. ὅτι, because, P1904 F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's ghlmno). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=8:7. The distinction was probably not visible in the archetype, as spaces were scarcely employed (we presume). The combination ὅ τι, when not followed by an indeterminate particle such as ἄν, is rare (only here and John 8:25).
2 Cor 3:15 Ἀλλ' ἕως σήμερον, ἡνίκα ἀναγινώσκεται {RP P1904: Μωϋσῆς} [TR: Μωσῆς], κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτῶν κεῖται. But up to today, when Moses is read, a covering lies over their heart. Μωϋσῆς, Moüses, RP P1904 F1859=10/14 vs. Μωσῆς, Moses, TR F1859=4/14 (Scrivener's b**cdh).
2 Cor 3:16 Ἡνίκα δ' ἂν ἐπιστρέψῃ πρὸς κύριον, περιαιρεῖται τὸ κάλυμμα. But when it turns to the Lord, the covering will be removed. when ← whenever.

it: i.e. their heart.
2 Cor 3:17 Ὁ δὲ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν· οὗ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου, ἐκεῖ ἐλευθερία. And the Lord is the spirit; where the spirit of the Lord is, there there is freedom. there there is freedom: the sense is: in that place there is freedom. The two occurrences of there are intentional.
2 Cor 3:18 Ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντες, ἀνακεκαλυμμένῳ προσώπῳ τὴν δόξαν κυρίου κατοπτριζόμενοι, τὴν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα ἀπὸ δόξης εἰς δόξαν, καθάπερ ἀπὸ κυρίου πνεύματος. But we all with uncovered face, reflecting the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image, from glory to glory, such as comes from the spirit of the Lord. from glory to glory: i.e. from old covenant glory to new covenant glory. Compare John 1:16, 2 Cor 3:6-7.
2 Cor 4:1 Διὰ τοῦτο ἔχοντες τὴν διακονίαν ταύτην, καθὼς ἠλεήθημεν, οὐκ ἐκκακοῦμεν· For this reason, having this ministry according to how we have received mercy, we are not faint-hearted,
2 Cor 4:2 {RP: ἀλλὰ} [P1904 TR: ἀλλ'] ἀπειπάμεθα τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης, μὴ περιπατοῦντες ἐν πανουργίᾳ μηδὲ δολοῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ, ἀλλὰ τῇ φανερώσει τῆς ἀληθείας συνιστῶντες ἑαυτοὺς πρὸς πᾶσαν συνείδησιν ἀνθρώπων ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ. but we have renounced shameful hidden things, not going about in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully, but in manifestation of the truth, commending ourselves to every man's conscience before God. ἀλλὰ, but (unapocopated), RP F1859=9/13 vs. ἀλλ', but (apocopated), P1904 TR F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's abmo).

shameful hidden thingshidden (things) of shame, a Hebraic genitive.

every man's conscience ← every conscience of men.
2 Cor 4:3 Εἰ δὲ καὶ ἔστιν κεκαλυμμένον τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν, ἐν τοῖς ἀπολλυμένοις ἐστὶν κεκαλυμμένον· But if on the other hand our gospel is veiled, it is veiled among those who are on the road to perdition, who are on the road to perdition: or to waste. Alternatively by those (things) which are passing away, taking ἐν as instrumental, showing the old covenant being used to blind people to the new covenant. Then continue with by which the god ... in 2 Cor 4:4.
2 Cor 4:4 ἐν οἷς ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἐτύφλωσεν τὰ νοήματα τῶν ἀπίστων, εἰς τὸ μὴ αὐγάσαι αὐτοῖς τὸν φωτισμὸν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: τῆς} [E1624: τὸν] δόξης τοῦ χριστοῦ, ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ. among whom the god of this age has blinded the minds of those who do not believe, so that the light of the {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: glorious gospel} [E1624: gospel, the light of glory] of Christ, who is the image of God, does not shine on them. τῆς, of the (glory), RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=13?/13 vs. τὸν, the (light which is), E1624 F1859=0?/13. Scrivener does not give variants, which strongly suggests that his edition of Elzevir reads τῆς, or that he misread the τ-double-grave abbreviation for τὸν.

{RP P1904 S1550 S1894: glorious gospel ← gospel of the glory, a Hebraic genitive.}
2 Cor 4:5 Οὐ γὰρ ἑαυτοὺς κηρύσσομεν, ἀλλὰ χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν κύριον· ἑαυτοὺς δὲ δούλους ὑμῶν διὰ Ἰησοῦν. For we do not proclaim ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord, yet ourselves as your servants for the sake of Jesus.
2 Cor 4:6 Ὅτι ὁ θεὸς ὁ εἰπὼν ἐκ σκότους φῶς λάμψαι, ὃς ἔλαμψεν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν πρὸς φωτισμὸν τῆς γνώσεως τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν προσώπῳ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. For it is God, who commanded light to shine from darkness, who has shone in our hearts for the enlightenment of knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
2 Cor 4:7 Ἔχομεν δὲ τὸν θησαυρὸν τοῦτον ἐν ὀστρακίνοις σκεύεσιν, ἵνα ἡ ὑπερβολὴ τῆς δυνάμεως ᾖ τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ μὴ ἐξ ἡμῶν· And we have this treasure in earthen vessels, so that the immensity of the power should be of God and not of ourselves:
2 Cor 4:8 ἐν παντὶ θλιβόμενοι, ἀλλ' οὐ στενοχωρούμενοι· ἀπορούμενοι, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐξαπορούμενοι· in every respect oppressed but not in straits, at a loss but not at a total loss,
2 Cor 4:9 διωκόμενοι, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐγκαταλειπόμενοι· καταβαλλόμενοι, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἀπολλύμενοι· persecuted, but not deserted, struck down, but not losing our lives, losing our lives ← perishing.
2 Cor 4:10 πάντοτε τὴν νέκρωσιν τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματι περιφέροντες, ἵνα καὶ ἡ ζωὴ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματι ἡμῶν φανερωθῇ. always carrying around in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, in order that the life of Jesus might be made manifest in our body. in order that ← in order that also (otiose καί).
2 Cor 4:11 Ἀεὶ γὰρ ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες εἰς θάνατον παραδιδόμεθα διὰ Ἰησοῦν, ἵνα καὶ ἡ ζωὴ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ φανερωθῇ ἐν τῇ θνητῇ σαρκὶ ἡμῶν. For we who are alive are continually delivered to death on account of Jesus, in order that on the other hand the life of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh. on the other hand ← also.
2 Cor 4:12 Ὥστε ὁ μὲν θάνατος ἐν ἡμῖν ἐνεργεῖται, ἡ δὲ ζωὴ ἐν ὑμῖν. So that death is at work in us, but life in you. This verse is explained by the previous verse.
2 Cor 4:13 Ἔχοντες δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πίστεως, κατὰ τὸ γεγραμμένον, Ἐπίστευσα, διὸ ἐλάλησα, καὶ ἡμεῖς πιστεύομεν, διὸ καὶ λαλοῦμεν· But having the same spirit of faith according to what stands written: “I have believed, therefore I have spoken”, we also believe and therefore also speak, Ps 116:10.
2 Cor 4:14 εἰδότες ὅτι ὁ ἐγείρας τὸν κύριον Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἡμᾶς διὰ Ἰησοῦ ἐγερεῖ, καὶ παραστήσει σὺν ὑμῖν. knowing that he who raised the Lord Jesus will also raise us through Jesus and present us with you. he who raised: see Acts 2:32, John 10:18.
2 Cor 4:15 Τὰ γὰρ πάντα δι' ὑμᾶς, ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσασα διὰ τῶν πλειόνων τὴν εὐχαριστίαν περισσεύσῃ εἰς τὴν δόξαν τοῦ θεοῦ. For all things are for your sake, so that grace, having increased with many people, may cause thanksgiving to abound to the glory of God. many ← more, Greek comparative for positive.

AV differs in structure, giving through the thanksgiving of many.
2 Cor 4:16 Διὸ οὐκ ἐκκακοῦμεν, ἀλλ' εἰ καὶ ὁ ἔξω ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος διαφθείρεται, ἀλλ' ὁ ἔσωθεν ἀνακαινοῦται ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἡμέρᾳ. For this reason we are not faint-hearted, and even though our outward man is perishing, our inward man is renewed day by day.
2 Cor 4:17 Τὸ γὰρ παραυτίκα ἐλαφρὸν τῆς θλίψεως ἡμῶν καθ' ὑπερβολὴν εἰς ὑπερβολὴν αἰώνιον βάρος δόξης κατεργάζεται ἡμῖν, For the momentary light weight of our tribulation works for us an age-abiding weight of glory which is exceedingly exceeding, exceedingly exceeding ← exceedingly in excess. Although unusual English, this gives the flavour of the Greek, καθ' ὑπερβολὴν εἰς ὑπερβολὴν.
2 Cor 4:18 μὴ σκοπούντων ἡμῶν τὰ βλεπόμενα, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὴ βλεπόμενα· τὰ γὰρ βλεπόμενα πρόσκαιρα· τὰ δὲ μὴ βλεπόμενα αἰώνια. while we do not look to the visible things, but the invisible things. For the visible things are temporary, but the invisible things are age-abiding. visible ... invisible (2x)(being) seen ... not (being) seen.
2 Cor 5:1 Οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι ἐὰν ἡ ἐπίγειος ἡμῶν οἰκία τοῦ σκήνους καταλυθῇ, οἰκοδομὴν ἐκ θεοῦ ἔχομεν, οἰκίαν ἀχειροποίητον, αἰώνιον ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. For we know that if our earthly tent-house is dissolved, we have a building from God, an age-abiding house in the heavens, not made by hands. our earthly tent-house ← our earthly house of the tent, i.e. our mortal body.
2 Cor 5:2 Καὶ γὰρ ἐν τούτῳ στενάζομεν, τὸ οἰκητήριον ἡμῶν τὸ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἐπενδύσασθαι ἐπιποθοῦντες· For indeed, we groan in this respect, longing to put on our dwelling from heaven, put on ← put on over (as an outer garment).
2 Cor 5:3 εἴγε καὶ ἐνδυσάμενοι οὐ γυμνοὶ εὑρεθησόμεθα. and then if clothed, we will not be found naked. clothed ← having put clothes on (middle not passive, but perhaps not to be pressed).
2 Cor 5:4 Καὶ γὰρ οἱ ὄντες ἐν τῷ σκήνει στενάζομεν βαρούμενοι· {RP P1904 E1624 S1894: ἐφ' ᾧ} [S1550: ἐπειδὴ] οὐ θέλομεν ἐκδύσασθαι, ἀλλ' ἐπενδύσασθαι, ἵνα καταποθῇ τὸ θνητὸν ὑπὸ τῆς ζωῆς. And indeed, being in the tent, we groan, weighed down {RP P1904 E1624 S1894: because} [S1550: since] we do not wish to take clothes off, but to put clothes on, so that that which is mortal is swallowed up by life. ἐφ' ᾧ, because (strongly causal), RP P1904 E1624 S1894 F1859=13/13 vs. ἐπειδὴ, since, considering, S1550 F1859=0/13. We interpret Scrivener's “ἐφ' ᾧ (pro Millii ἐπειδὴ) c” as meaning that the reference text against which codex c was collated is Mill's text, reading ἐπειδὴ, whereas c reads ἐφ' ῳ.

put clothes on ← put on over, as in 2 Cor 5:2.
2 Cor 5:5 Ὁ δὲ κατεργασάμενος ἡμᾶς εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο θεός, ὁ καὶ δοὺς ἡμῖν τὸν ἀρραβῶνα τοῦ πνεύματος. But he who has prepared us for this very thing is God, who has also given us the pledge: the spirit. the spirit ← of the spirit (epexegetic genitive).
2 Cor 5:6 Θαρροῦντες οὖν πάντοτε, καὶ εἰδότες ὅτι ἐνδημοῦντες ἐν τῷ σώματι ἐκδημοῦμεν ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου - So we are always of good courage, also knowing that although we are at home in the body, we are away from home, being away from the Lord – although: concessive use of the participle.
2 Cor 5:7 διὰ πίστεως γὰρ περιπατοῦμεν, οὐ διὰ εἴδους - for we walk by faith, not by sight – sight ← visible shape.
2 Cor 5:8 θαρροῦμεν δέ, καὶ εὐδοκοῦμεν μᾶλλον ἐκδημῆσαι ἐκ τοῦ σώματος, καὶ ἐνδημῆσαι πρὸς τὸν κύριον. but we are of good courage, and we would rather be away from home out of the body and be at home with the Lord.
2 Cor 5:9 Διὸ καὶ φιλοτιμούμεθα, εἴτε ἐνδημοῦντες, εἴτε ἐκδημοῦντες, εὐάρεστοι αὐτῷ εἶναι. This is also why, whether at home or away from home, we aspire to be pleasing to him. this is also why ← on account of which also.
2 Cor 5:10 Τοὺς γὰρ πάντας ἡμᾶς φανερωθῆναι δεῖ ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ βήματος τοῦ χριστοῦ, ἵνα κομίσηται ἕκαστος τὰ διὰ τοῦ σώματος, πρὸς ἃ ἔπραξεν, εἴτε ἀγαθόν, εἴτε κακόν. For we must all be manifested before Christ's court, in order that each should receive what is due for the things he did in the body, whether a good or bad thing. Christ's court: compare Rom 14:10.

the thingsthe (things) in relation to which.

in the body: or through the body.
2 Cor 5:11 Εἰδότες οὖν τὸν φόβον τοῦ κυρίου ἀνθρώπους πείθομεν, θεῷ δὲ πεφανερώμεθα· ἐλπίζω δὲ καὶ ἐν ταῖς συνειδήσεσιν ὑμῶν πεφανερῶσθαι. So knowing the fear of the Lord, we persuade men, but we have been manifested to God, and I hope we have also been manifested in your consciences.
2 Cor 5:12 Οὐ γὰρ πάλιν ἑαυτοὺς συνιστάνομεν ὑμῖν, ἀλλὰ ἀφορμὴν διδόντες ὑμῖν καυχήματος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, ἵνα ἔχητε πρὸς τοὺς ἐν προσώπῳ καυχωμένους καὶ οὐ καρδίᾳ. For we do not commend ourselves to you again, but we give you an occasion for boasting on our behalf, so that you may have something in answer to those who boast superficially but not in the heart. superficially ← in face.
2 Cor 5:13 Εἴτε γὰρ ἐξέστημεν, θεῷ· εἴτε σωφρονοῦμεν, ὑμῖν. For if we are beside ourselves, it is for God, and if we are of sound mind, it is for you. we are beside ourselves: aorist, but present in meaning.
2 Cor 5:14 Ἡ γὰρ ἀγάπη τοῦ χριστοῦ συνέχει ἡμᾶς, κρίναντας τοῦτο, ὅτι {RP-text P1904 TR: εἰ} [RP-marg: - ] εἷς ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀπέθανεν, ἄρα οἱ πάντες ἀπέθανον· For the love of Christ constrains us, as we conclude as follows, that {RP-text P1904 TR: if} [RP-marg: - ] one died for all, {RP-text P1904 TR: then} [RP-marg: so] all must have died, εἰ, if: present in RP-text P1904 TR F1859=9/13 vs. absent in RP-marg F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's deln).

as we conclude ← having concluded. See Matt 23:20.

as follows ← this.

all must have died: perhaps viewed from an end-time perspective, or perhaps referring to the mortal condition of natural man.
2 Cor 5:15 καὶ ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀπέθανεν ἵνα οἱ ζῶντες μηκέτι ἑαυτοῖς ζῶσιν, ἀλλὰ τῷ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν ἀποθανόντι καὶ ἐγερθέντι. and he died for all, in order that those living should no longer live for themselves, but for him who died for them and was raised again. was raised again: this is English idiom to avoid an abrupt end to the sentence. Obviously, we do not mean was raised a second or another time. The word again here means in a previously experienced condition [Collins Dictionary, 1979], i.e. alive (though not in the same body). Compare a sentence such as He went out and came back again.
2 Cor 5:16 Ὥστε ἡμεῖς ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν οὐδένα οἴδαμεν κατὰ σάρκα· εἰ δὲ καὶ ἐγνώκαμεν κατὰ σάρκα χριστόν, ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐκέτι γινώσκομεν. The result is that from now on we know no-one according to the flesh. And even if we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now we no longer know him that way, know ... known ... know. The first is of instinctive knowledge; the others are of acquired knowledge.
2 Cor 5:17 Ὥστε εἴ τις ἐν χριστῷ, καινὴ κτίσις· τὰ ἀρχαῖα παρῆλθεν, ἰδού, γέγονεν {RP-text P1904 TR: καινὰ τὰ πάντα} [RP-marg: τὰ πάντα καινά]. with the result that if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation – the old things have passed away. Behold, all things have become new. καινὰ τὰ πάντα, new + everything, RP-text P1904 TR F1859=8/13 vs. τὰ πάντα καινά, everything + new, RP-marg F1859=5/13 (Scrivener's bdfko).

creation: AV differs (creature).
2 Cor 5:18 Τὰ δὲ πάντα ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ, τοῦ καταλλάξαντος ἡμᾶς ἑαυτῷ διὰ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, καὶ δόντος ἡμῖν τὴν διακονίαν τῆς καταλλαγῆς· And all things are from God, who has reconciled us to himself through Jesus Christ and has given us the ministry of reconciliation,
2 Cor 5:19 ὡς ὅτι θεὸς ἦν ἐν χριστῷ κόσμον καταλλάσσων ἑαυτῷ, μὴ λογιζόμενος αὐτοῖς τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν, καὶ {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: θέμενος} [E1624: θήμενος] ἐν ἡμῖν τὸν λόγον τῆς καταλλαγῆς. in that God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, not imputing their transgressions to them, and he has placed the word of reconciliation among us to his own ends. θέμενος, having placed (middle voice), RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=13/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. θήμενος, having placed (middle voice, misspelled), E1624 F1859=0/13.

to his own ends: this comes from the middle voice of the verb.
2 Cor 5:20 Ὑπὲρ χριστοῦ οὖν πρεσβεύομεν, ὡς τοῦ θεοῦ παρακαλοῦντος δι' ἡμῶν· δεόμεθα ὑπὲρ χριστοῦ, καταλλάγητε τῷ θεῷ. So we are ambassadors for Christ, as if God pleads through us. We implore you on Christ's behalf, be reconciled to God.
2 Cor 5:21 Τὸν γὰρ μὴ γνόντα ἁμαρτίαν, ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἁμαρτίαν ἐποίησεν, ἵνα ἡμεῖς {RP P1904: γενώμεθα} [TR: γινώμεθα] δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ. For he made him who knew no sin to be sin for our sakes, in order that we might become the righteousness of God in him. γενώμεθα, we might become (aorist subjunctive, so perfective aspect), RP P1904 F1859=11/14 vs. γινώμεθα, we might become (present subjunctive, so imperfective aspect), TR F1859=1/14 (Scrivener's h) vs. another reading, probably a misspelling of the aorist subjunctive, F1859=2/14 (Scrivener's b*c).

sin: standing for a sin-offering; compare Gen 4:7.
2 Cor 6:1 Συνεργοῦντες δὲ καὶ παρακαλοῦμεν μὴ εἰς κενὸν τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ δέξασθαι ὑμᾶς - And as co-workers we also exhort you not to receive the grace of God in vain –
2 Cor 6:2 λέγει γάρ, Καιρῷ δεκτῷ ἐπήκουσά σου, καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σωτηρίας ἐβοήθησά σοι· ἰδού, νῦν καιρὸς εὐπρόσδεκτος, ἰδού, νῦν ἡμέρα σωτηρίας - for he says,

“At an acceptable time I heard you,

And on the day of salvation I helped you.”

Behold, the time is now most acceptable; behold, now is the day of salvation –
Isa 49:8.

behold (etc.): the main verb of this long sentence is we are alive in 2 Cor 6:9.
2 Cor 6:3 μηδεμίαν ἐν μηδενὶ διδόντες προσκοπήν, ἵνα μὴ μωμηθῇ ἡ διακονία· not giving any offence in anything, so that the ministry is not faulted,
2 Cor 6:4 ἀλλ' ἐν παντὶ συνιστῶντες ἑαυτοὺς ὡς θεοῦ διάκονοι, ἐν ὑπομονῇ πολλῇ, ἐν θλίψεσιν, ἐν ἀνάγκαις, ἐν στενοχωρίαις, but in everything commending ourselves as servants of God, with much endurance in tribulations, in constrained circumstances, in hardships, hardships ← straits.
2 Cor 6:5 ἐν πληγαῖς, ἐν φυλακαῖς, ἐν ἀκαταστασίαις, ἐν κόποις, ἐν ἀγρυπνίαις, ἐν νηστείαις, in stricken circumstances, in imprisonments, in commotions, in toils, in sleeplessness, in fastings,
2 Cor 6:6 ἐν ἁγνότητι, ἐν γνώσει, ἐν μακροθυμίᾳ, ἐν χρηστότητι, ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, ἐν ἀγάπῃ ἀνυποκρίτῳ, in purity, in knowledge, in longsuffering, in kindness, in holy spirit, in unfeigned love,
2 Cor 6:7 ἐν λόγῳ ἀληθείας, ἐν δυνάμει θεοῦ, διὰ τῶν ὅπλων τῆς δικαιοσύνης τῶν δεξιῶν καὶ ἀριστερῶν, in the word of truth, in the power of God through the right and left hand armour of righteousness, armour: or arms. Compare Eph 6:11. Spiritual arms, but a reference to offensive and defensive arms by analogy to the Greek and Roman soldiers who had a sword or spear in their right hand and a shield in their left hand.
2 Cor 6:8 διὰ δόξης καὶ ἀτιμίας, διὰ δυσφημίας καὶ εὐφημίας· ὡς πλάνοι καὶ ἀληθεῖς· through glory and dishonour, through defamations and acclamations, defamed as deceivers and acclaimed as tellers of the truth,
2 Cor 6:9 ὡς ἀγνοούμενοι, καὶ ἐπιγινωσκόμενοι· ὡς ἀποθνῄσκοντες, καὶ ἰδού, ζῶμεν· ὡς παιδευόμενοι, καὶ μὴ θανατούμενοι· as unrecognized and as recognized, as dying, but look, we are alive, as being chastised but not put to death,
2 Cor 6:10 ὡς λυπούμενοι, ἀεὶ δὲ χαίροντες· ὡς πτωχοί, πολλοὺς δὲ πλουτίζοντες· ὡς μηδὲν ἔχοντες, καὶ πάντα κατέχοντες. as grieving but always rejoicing, as poor but enriching many, as having nothing but possessing everything. but: adversative use of καί.
2 Cor 6:11 Τὸ στόμα ἡμῶν ἀνέῳγεν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, Κορίνθιοι, ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν πεπλάτυνται. Our communication stands open to you, you Corinthians; our heart stands wide open. communication ← mouth.
2 Cor 6:12 Οὐ στενοχωρεῖσθε ἐν ἡμῖν, στενοχωρεῖσθε δὲ ἐν τοῖς σπλάγχνοις ὑμῶν. You need not be under strain as far as we are concerned, but you are under strain in your feelings from your side. as far as we are concerned ← among us.

feelings ← bowels.
2 Cor 6:13 Τὴν δὲ αὐτὴν ἀντιμισθίαν - ὡς τέκνοις λέγω - πλατύνθητε καὶ ὑμεῖς. Show yourselves wide open as well – I speak as to children – so we have the same mutual benefit. show yourselves wide open ← be widened.

mutual benefit ← recompense in exchange.
2 Cor 6:14 Μὴ γίνεσθε ἑτεροζυγοῦντες ἀπίστοις· τίς γὰρ μετοχὴ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀνομίᾳ; Τίς δὲ κοινωνία φωτὶ πρὸς σκότος; Do not be disparately yoked to unbelievers, for what partnership do righteousness and lawlessness have? And what fellowship does light have with darkness?
2 Cor 6:15 Τίς δὲ συμφώνησις χριστῷ πρὸς {RP S1550: Βελίαρ} [P1904 E1624 S1894: Βελίαλ]; Ἢ τίς μερὶς πιστῷ μετὰ ἀπίστου; And what agreement does Christ have with Belial? Or what part does a believer have with an unbeliever? Βελίαρ, Beliar, RP S1550 F1859=12/13 vs. Βελίαλ, Belial, P1904 E1624 S1894 F1859=0/13 vs. Βελίαν, Belian, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's n). A case of collusion between P1904 and some editions of TR? The Hebrew is ‫בְּלִיַּעַל‬, Beliyaal (useless).
2 Cor 6:16 Τίς δὲ συγκατάθεσις ναῷ θεοῦ μετὰ εἰδώλων; Ὑμεῖς γὰρ ναὸς θεοῦ ἐστε ζῶντος, καθὼς εἶπεν ὁ θεὸς ὅτι Ἐνοικήσω ἐν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐμπεριπατήσω· καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτῶν θεός, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μοι λαός. And what compatibility is there between the sanctuary of God and idols? For you are the sanctuary of the living God, as God has said,

“I will dwell among them

And walk among them,

And I will be their God,

And they will be my people.”

Ex 29:45, Lev 26:12, Jer 30:22, Jer 31:1, Jer 32:38, Ezek 37:27, Hos 2:25MT (Hos 2:23AV), Zech 8:8.
2 Cor 6:17 Διό, {RP TR: Ἐξέλθετε} [P1904: Ἐξέλθατε] ἐκ μέσου αὐτῶν καὶ ἀφορίσθητε, λέγει κύριος, καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε· κἀγὼ εἰσδέξομαι ὑμᾶς, So

Go away from them

And be separate”,

Says the Lord,

“And do not touch anything unclean,

and I will receive you,
ἐξέλθετε, go out (classical form), RP TR F1859=13/13 vs. ἐξέλθατε, go out (non-classical form), P1904 F1859=0/13.

Isa 52:11.

away from them ← from their midst.
2 Cor 6:18 καὶ ἔσομαι ὑμῖν εἰς πατέρα, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔσεσθέ μοι εἰς υἱοὺς καὶ θυγατέρας, λέγει κύριος παντοκράτωρ.

And I will be a father to you,

And you will be sons and daughters to me”,

says the Lord Almighty.
2 Sam 7:14, 1 Chr 17:13.
2 Cor 7:1 Ταύτας οὖν ἔχοντες τὰς ἐπαγγελίας, ἀγαπητοί, καθαρίσωμεν ἑαυτοὺς ἀπὸ παντὸς μολυσμοῦ σαρκὸς καὶ πνεύματος, ἐπιτελοῦντες ἁγιωσύνην ἐν φόβῳ θεοῦ. So having these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from every defilement of flesh and spirit, bringing sanctification to completion in the fear of God.
2 Cor 7:2 Χωρήσατε ἡμᾶς· οὐδένα ἠδικήσαμεν, οὐδένα ἐφθείραμεν, οὐδένα ἐπλεονεκτήσαμεν. Make room for us; we have not wronged anyone, we have not corrupted anyone, we have not defrauded anyone. make room: i.e. in your hearts.
2 Cor 7:3 Οὐ πρὸς κατάκρισιν λέγω· προείρηκα γάρ, ὅτι ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν ἐστὲ εἰς τὸ συναποθανεῖν καὶ συζῇν. I do not say this as an accusation. For I have said before that you are in our hearts in dying with us and in living with us.
2 Cor 7:4 Πολλή μοι παρρησία πρὸς ὑμᾶς, πολλή μοι καύχησις ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· πεπλήρωμαι τῇ παρακλήσει, ὑπερπερισσεύομαι τῇ χαρᾷ ἐπὶ πάσῃ τῇ θλίψει ἡμῶν. I have great freedom of speech towards you; I have great exultation over you. I have been filled with comfort – I superabound in joy at all our tribulation. I superabound in joy at all our tribulation: perhaps this is explained by Acts 5:41, Phil 3:10, 2 Tim 3:12. The word ἐπί + dative gives grounds for an emotion and is not concessive.
2 Cor 7:5 Καὶ γὰρ ἐλθόντων ἡμῶν εἰς Μακεδονίαν οὐδεμίαν ἔσχηκεν ἄνεσιν ἡ σὰρξ ἡμῶν, ἀλλ' ἐν παντὶ θλιβόμενοι· ἔξωθεν μάχαι, ἔσωθεν φόβοι. For indeed, when we went to Macedonia, our flesh had no respite, but we suffered tribulation in every waystrife externally, fears internally. respite ← abatement, relaxation.

strife ← strifes.
2 Cor 7:6 Ἀλλ' ὁ παρακαλῶν τοὺς ταπεινοὺς παρεκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς, ὁ θεός, ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ Τίτου· But he, God, who comforts the downcast, has comforted us with the arrival of Titus. downcast ← lowly, but also dejected [LS].

arrival: or presence.
2 Cor 7:7 οὐ μόνον δὲ ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῇ παρακλήσει ᾗ παρεκλήθη ἐφ' ὑμῖν, ἀναγγέλλων ἡμῖν τὴν ὑμῶν ἐπιπόθησιν, τὸν ὑμῶν ὀδυρμόν, τὸν ὑμῶν ζῆλον ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ, ὥστε με μᾶλλον χαρῆναι. And not only with his arrival, but also in the comfort with which he had been comforted about you, as he related to us your longing, your lamentation, your zeal for me, with the result that I rejoiced all the more.
2 Cor 7:8 Ὅτι εἰ καὶ ἐλύπησα ὑμᾶς ἐν τῇ ἐπιστολῇ, οὐ μεταμέλομαι, εἰ καὶ μετεμελόμην· βλέπω γὰρ ὅτι ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ἐκείνη, εἰ καὶ πρὸς ὥραν, ἐλύπησεν ὑμᾶς. For even if I have grieved you with my epistle, I do not have regret now, even if I did have regret. For I see that that epistle grieved you, even if it was just for a while. while ← hour.
2 Cor 7:9 Νῦν χαίρω, οὐχ ὅτι ἐλυπήθητε, ἀλλ' ὅτι ἐλυπήθητε εἰς μετάνοιαν· ἐλυπήθητε γὰρ κατὰ θεόν, ἵνα ἐν μηδενὶ ζημιωθῆτε ἐξ ἡμῶν. I rejoice now, not because you grieved, but in that you grieved resulting in repentance. For you grieved in a godly way, so that you were not hurt through us in any way.
2 Cor 7:10 Ἡ γὰρ κατὰ θεὸν λύπη μετάνοιαν εἰς σωτηρίαν ἀμεταμέλητον κατεργάζεται· ἡ δὲ τοῦ κόσμου λύπη θάνατον κατεργάζεται. For godly grief engenders repentance leading to salvation without regrets. But worldly grief engenders death.
2 Cor 7:11 Ἰδοὺ γάρ, αὐτὸ τοῦτο, τὸ κατὰ θεὸν λυπηθῆναι ὑμᾶς, πόσην κατειργάσατο ὑμῖν σπουδήν, ἀλλὰ ἀπολογίαν, ἀλλὰ ἀγανάκτησιν, ἀλλὰ φόβον, ἀλλὰ ἐπιπόθησιν, ἀλλὰ ζῆλον, {RP P1904: ἀλλὰ} [TR: ἀλλ'] ἐκδίκησιν. Ἐν παντὶ συνεστήσατε ἑαυτοὺς ἁγνοὺς εἶναι ἐν τῷ πράγματι. For as regards this very thing – your godly grieving – see how much eagerness it has engendered for you, and also defence of the case, and indignation, and fear, and longing, and zeal and vindication! In every respect you proved yourselves to be pure in the matter. ἀλλὰ, but (unapocopated), RP P1904 F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's abdfmo) vs. ἀλλ', but (apocopated), TR F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's ceghkln). A weak disparity with RP, R=7:8.

as regards ... see ← behold.

and (6x) ← but.
2 Cor 7:12 Ἄρα εἰ καὶ ἔγραψα ὑμῖν, οὐχ {RP-text P1904 TR: εἵνεκεν} [RP-marg: ἕνεκεν] τοῦ ἀδικήσαντος, οὐδὲ {RP-text P1904 TR: εἵνεκεν} [RP-marg: ἕνεκεν] τοῦ ἀδικηθέντος, ἀλλ' {RP-text P1904 TR: εἵνεκεν} [RP-marg: ἕνεκεν] τοῦ φανερωθῆναι τὴν σπουδὴν {RP P1904 S1550: ὑμῶν} [E1624 S1894: ἡμῶν] τὴν ὑπὲρ {RP P1904 S1550: ἡμῶν} [E1624 S1894: ὑμῶν] πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ. Consequently, although I wrote to you, it was not on account of anyone doing wrong, or on account of anyone suffering wrong, but on account of {RP P1904 S1550: your} [E1624 S1894: our] eagerness towards {RP P1904 S1550: us} [E1624 S1894: you] to be manifested to you in the sight of God. First and second occurrence in verse: εἵνεκεν, on account of (1), RP-text P1904 TR F1859=9/13 vs. ἕνεκεν, on account of (2), RP-marg F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's adfk). The third occurrence is as above except that Scrivener's l defects to εἵνεκα.

ὑμῶν, your, RP P1904 S1550 F1859=12/13 vs. ἡμῶν, our, E1624 S1894 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's d). AV differs textually.

ἡμῶν, our, RP P1904 S1550 F1859=12/13 vs. ὑμῶν, your, E1624 S1894 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's d). AV differs textually.
2 Cor 7:13 Διὰ τοῦτο παρακεκλήμεθα. Ἐπὶ {RP-text P1904: δὲ} [RP-marg TR: - ] τῇ παρακλήσει ὑμῶν {RP-text P1904: - } [RP-marg TR: ·] περισσοτέρως {RP-text P1904: - } [RP-marg TR: δὲ] μᾶλλον ἐχάρημεν ἐπὶ τῇ χαρᾷ Τίτου, ὅτι ἀναπέπαυται τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ πάντων ὑμῶν. For this reason we have been comforted. {RP-text P1904: But we} [RP-marg TR: We] rejoiced at your encouragement {RP-text P1904: - } [RP-marg TR: – but] all the more exuberantly at the joy of Titus, in that his spirit was refreshed by you all. First δὲ, but: absent in RP-text P1904 F1859=0/13 vs. present in RP-marg TR F1859=12/13 vs. another reading, F1859=1/13. A strong disparity (#1) with RP-text, R=1:13.

Second δὲ, but: absent in RP-text P1904 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's e) vs. present in RP-marg TR F1859=11/13 vs. another reading, F1859=1/13. A strong disparity (#2) with RP-text, R=2:12.

Punctuation: TBS-TR, AV, but not RP P1904, have no pause after παρακεκλήμεθα, we have been comforted, and associate at your encouragement with the preceding words. So AV differs.
2 Cor 7:14 Ὅτι εἴ τι αὐτῷ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν κεκαύχημαι, οὐ κατῃσχύνθην· ἀλλ' ὡς πάντα ἐν ἀληθείᾳ ἐλαλήσαμεν ὑμῖν, οὕτως καὶ ἡ καύχησις ἡμῶν ἡ ἐπὶ Τίτου ἀλήθεια ἐγενήθη. So if I have boasted to him about you in anything, I have not been put to shame, but just as we spoke everything in truth to you, so our boasting before Titus has been true. so if ← because if.

so our ← so also our (otiose καί).

true ← truth.
2 Cor 7:15 Καὶ τὰ σπλάγχνα αὐτοῦ περισσοτέρως εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐστίν, ἀναμιμνησκομένου τὴν πάντων ὑμῶν ὑπακοήν, ὡς μετὰ φόβου καὶ τρόμου ἐδέξασθε αὐτόν. And his affections are most exuberantly towards you, as he remembers the obedience of all of you – how you received him with fear and trembling. affections ← bowels.
2 Cor 7:16 Χαίρω {RP P1904 S1550: - } [E1624 S1894: οὖν] ὅτι ἐν παντὶ θαρρῶ ἐν ὑμῖν. {RP P1904 S1550: - } [E1624 S1894: So] I rejoice that in everything I have confidence in you. οὖν, therefore: absent in RP P1904 S1550 F1859=12/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. present in E1624 S1894 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's m).
2 Cor 8:1 {RP TR: Γνωρίζομεν} [P1904: Γνωρίζω] δὲ ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν δεδομένην ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Μακεδονίας· And, brothers, {RP TR: we} [P1904: I] make known to you the grace of God which has been given among the churches of Macedonia, γνωρίζομεν, we make known, RP TR F1859=11/13 vs. γνωρίζω, I make known, P1904 F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's ch).

which has been given: our italicization here indicates the supplying of a finite verb, not a tense change, aorist to perfect, as might be suspected. See the Introduction.

churches: see Matt 16:18.
2 Cor 8:2 ὅτι ἐν πολλῇ δοκιμῇ θλίψεως ἡ περισσεία τῆς χαρᾶς αὐτῶν καὶ ἡ κατὰ βάθους πτωχεία αὐτῶν ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς τὸν πλοῦτον τῆς ἁπλότητος αὐτῶν. for with a great trial in affliction, their exuberance of joy and their deep poverty abounded to the riches of their generosity. generosity ← singleness, but also liberality.
2 Cor 8:3 Ὅτι κατὰ δύναμιν, μαρτυρῶ, καὶ ὑπὲρ δύναμιν αὐθαίρετοι, For I testify that they acted voluntarily, according to their means, and beyond their means,
2 Cor 8:4 μετὰ πολλῆς παρακλήσεως δεόμενοι ἡμῶν, τὴν χάριν καὶ τὴν κοινωνίαν τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους {RP P1904: - } [TR: δέξασθαι ἡμᾶς]· and with much entreaty, imploring us {RP P1904: in respect of} [TR: that we should receive] the grace and the fellowship of the ministry to the saints, δέξασθαι ἡμᾶς, (of) us receiving: absent in RP P1904 F1859=10/14 (Scrivener's ab*defglmno) vs. present in TR F1859=3/14 (Scrivener's b**hk) vs. another reading, F1859=1/14 (Scrivener's c). AV differs textually.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
2 Cor 8:5 καὶ οὐ καθὼς ἠλπίσαμεν, ἀλλ' ἑαυτοὺς ἔδωκαν πρῶτον τῷ κυρίῳ, καὶ ἡμῖν διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ, and not as we had expected, but they gave themselves firstly to the Lord, and to us, through the will of God, expected ← hoped. Both senses are present in derivatives of the Hebrew root ‫קוה‬.
2 Cor 8:6 εἰς τὸ παρακαλέσαι ἡμᾶς Τίτον, ἵνα καθὼς προενήρξατο, οὕτως καὶ ἐπιτελέσῃ εἰς ὑμᾶς καὶ τὴν χάριν ταύτην. for us to exhort Titus, that just as he began before, so he should bring this grace towards you to a conclusion as well. exhort: AV differs somewhat, but within the semantic range, (desired).

so ← so also (otiose καί).
2 Cor 8:7 Ἀλλ' ὥσπερ ἐν παντὶ περισσεύετε, πίστει, καὶ λόγῳ, καὶ γνώσει, καὶ πάσῃ σπουδῇ, καὶ τῇ ἐξ ὑμῶν ἐν ἡμῖν ἀγάπῃ, ἵνα καὶ ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ χάριτι περισσεύητε. But as you abound in everything – in faith and word, and knowledge and all eagerness and in the love from your side among us – may you also abound in this grace. from your sideout of you.
2 Cor 8:8 Οὐ κατ' ἐπιταγὴν λέγω, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἑτέρων σπουδῆς καὶ τὸ τῆς {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: ὑμετέρας} [E1624: ἡμετέρας] ἀγάπης γνήσιον δοκιμάζων. I do not speak by commandment, but moved by the eagerness of others and as one approving the sincerity of {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: your} [E1624: our] love. ὑμετέρας, of your, RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=13/15 (Scrivener's a* (or a**) bc(tacite)defghk**lmno) vs. ἡμετέρας, of our, E1624 F1859=2/15 (Scrivener's a** (or a*) k*).
2 Cor 8:9 Γινώσκετε γὰρ τὴν χάριν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, ὅτι δι' ὑμᾶς ἐπτώχευσεν, πλούσιος ὤν, ἵνα ὑμεῖς τῇ ἐκείνου πτωχείᾳ πλουτήσητε. For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ – how on your account he became poor, though being rich, in order that you by his poverty might become rich. how ← that.

though: concessive use of the participle.

his ← of that (man).
2 Cor 8:10 Καὶ γνώμην ἐν τούτῳ δίδωμι· τοῦτο γὰρ ὑμῖν συμφέρει, οἵτινες οὐ μόνον τὸ ποιῆσαι ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ θέλειν προενήρξασθε ἀπὸ πέρυσι. And I give my opinion in this matter. For this is expedient for you, who last year took the lead not only in taking action, but also in having the will. took the lead ← started before.
2 Cor 8:11 Νυνὶ δὲ καὶ τὸ ποιῆσαι ἐπιτελέσατε, ὅπως, καθάπερ ἡ προθυμία τοῦ θέλειν, οὕτως καὶ τὸ ἐπιτελέσαι ἐκ τοῦ ἔχειν. And now, complete the execution of it, so that as your enthusiasm was when you made your mind up, so the completion may be, your resources permitting. when you made your mind up ← of wishing.

so ← so also (otiose καί).

your resources permitting ← out of the having.
2 Cor 8:12 Εἰ γὰρ ἡ προθυμία πρόκειται, καθὸ ἐὰν ἔχῃ τις, εὐπρόσδεκτος, οὐ καθὸ οὐκ ἔχει. For if the enthusiasm is present, it is appreciated when judged against one's means, not when judged against something beyond one's means. appreciated ← well acceptable.

when judged against one's means ← according to if one has (something).

when judged against something beyond one's means ← according to (what) he does not have.
2 Cor 8:13 Οὐ γὰρ ἵνα ἄλλοις ἄνεσις, ὑμῖν δὲ θλίψις· ἀλλ' ἐξ ἰσότητος, ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ τὸ ὑμῶν περίσσευμα εἰς τὸ ἐκείνων ὑστέρημα, For it is not in order that others may have ease, while you have tribulation, ¶ but it is on the basis of equality. At the present time, your surplus is a supply to their lack, ¶ Verse division: in AV and some TR editions, 2 Cor 8:14 begins here.

their ← of the former.
2 Cor 8:14 ἵνα καὶ τὸ ἐκείνων περίσσευμα γένηται εἰς τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα· ὅπως γένηται ἰσότης, so that their surplus might also become a supply to your lack, so that there may be equality, their ← of the former.
2 Cor 8:15 καθὼς γέγραπται, Ὁ τὸ πολύ, οὐκ ἐπλεόνασεν· καὶ ὁ τὸ ὀλίγον, οὐκ ἠλαττόνησεν. as it stands written: “He who had much did not have surplus, and he who had little did not suffer a lack.” Ex 16:18.
2 Cor 8:16 Χάρις δὲ τῷ θεῷ τῷ διδόντι τὴν αὐτὴν σπουδὴν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ Τίτου. And thanks be to God, who is putting the same concern for you in the heart of Titus.
2 Cor 8:17 Ὅτι τὴν μὲν παράκλησιν ἐδέξατο, σπουδαιότερος δὲ ὑπάρχων, αὐθαίρετος ἐξῆλθεν πρὸς ὑμᾶς. For he has received encouragement, and being very eager, he departed for you of his own accord. very eager ← more eager, quite eager, Greek comparative for superlative.
2 Cor 8:18 Συνεπέμψαμεν δὲ μετ' αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀδελφόν, οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ διὰ πασῶν τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν· And we have sent the brother with him, who has a good reputation for the gospel throughout all the churches, for ← in, with.

churches: see Matt 16:18.
2 Cor 8:19 οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ χειροτονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν συνέκδημος ἡμῶν σὺν τῇ χάριτι ταύτῃ τῇ διακονουμένῃ ὑφ' ἡμῶν πρὸς τὴν αὐτοῦ τοῦ κυρίου δόξαν καὶ προθυμίαν {RP P1904: ἡμῶν} [TR: ὑμῶν]· and not only so, but he was also elected by the churches as our travelling companion, collaborating in this grace being ministered by us for the glory of the Lord himself and {RP P1904: as an outlet for our} [TR: to stimulate your] enthusiasm, ἡμῶν, our, RP P1904 F1859=12/13 vs. ὑμῶν, your, TR F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's d). AV differs textually.

churches: see Matt 16:18.
2 Cor 8:20 στελλόμενοι τοῦτο, μή τις ἡμᾶς μωμήσηται ἐν τῇ ἁδρότητι ταύτῃ τῇ διακονουμένῃ ὑφ' ἡμῶν· avoiding this: that anyone should have cause to blame us in this tremendous project which is being undertaken by us, tremendous projectstrength, full growth.

undertaken ← ministered.
2 Cor 8:21 προνοούμενοι καλὰ οὐ μόνον ἐνώπιον κυρίου ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐνώπιον ἀνθρώπων. as we concern ourselves with things that are right not only in the sight of the Lord, but also in the sight of men.
2 Cor 8:22 Συνεπέμψαμεν δὲ αὐτοῖς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἡμῶν, ὃν ἐδοκιμάσαμεν ἐν πολλοῖς πολλάκις σπουδαῖον ὄντα, νυνὶ δὲ πολὺ σπουδαιότερον, πεποιθήσει πολλῇ τῇ εἰς ὑμᾶς. And we have sent our brother with them, whom we have often proved to be eager in many matters, and who is now much more eager, with much confidence in you. confidence: AV differs as to who has the confidence.
2 Cor 8:23 Εἴτε ὑπὲρ Τίτου, κοινωνὸς ἐμὸς καὶ εἰς ὑμᾶς συνεργός· εἴτε ἀδελφοὶ ἡμῶν, ἀπόστολοι ἐκκλησιῶν, δόξα χριστοῦ. If anyone inquires about Titus, he is my partner and co-worker for you, or if our brothers are inquired about, they are apostles of the churchesthe glory of Christ. churches: see Matt 16:18.
2 Cor 8:24 Τὴν οὖν ἔνδειξιν τῆς ἀγάπης ὑμῶν, καὶ ἡμῶν καυχήσεως ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, εἰς αὐτοὺς ἐνδείξασθε {RP P1904: - } [TR: καὶ] εἰς πρόσωπον τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν. So give them a display of your love, and of our exultation over you, {RP P1904: - } [TR: and this] in the sight of the churches. καὶ, and: absent in RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. present in TR F1859=0/13.

give ... a display ← show the showing, give proof (of what is one's own – middle voice).

churches: see Matt 16:18.
2 Cor 9:1 Περὶ μὲν γὰρ τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους περισσόν μοί ἐστιν τὸ γράφειν ὑμῖν· For concerning the relief to the saints, it is superfluous for me to write to you, relief ← ministry, but here relief, as in Acts 11:29. The context is also set by 2 Cor 9:5 - 9:7.

saints: see Matt 27:52.
2 Cor 9:2 οἶδα γὰρ τὴν προθυμίαν ὑμῶν, ἣν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν καυχῶμαι Μακεδόσιν, ὅτι Ἀχαΐα παρεσκεύασται ἀπὸ πέρυσι· καὶ ὁ ἐξ ὑμῶν ζῆλος ἠρέθισεν τοὺς πλείονας. for I know your enthusiasm, and I boast about it to the Macedonians on your behalf, in that Achaea has been prepared since last year, and the zeal from your side has stimulated quite a few of them. quite a few ← more, the greater part, but comparatives can mean rather, quite, and [MM] gives an example. Compare Acts 28:23.
2 Cor 9:3 Ἔπεμψα δὲ τοὺς ἀδελφούς, ἵνα μὴ τὸ καύχημα ἡμῶν τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν κενωθῇ ἐν τῷ μέρει τούτῳ· ἵνα, καθὼς ἔλεγον, παρεσκευασμένοι ἦτε· And I sent the brothers there, so that our boasting about you should not go unheard in this matter – so that, as I said, you are prepared – go unheard ← be emptied, be made of no effect.
2 Cor 9:4 μήπως, ἐὰν ἔλθωσιν σὺν ἐμοὶ Μακεδόνες καὶ εὕρωσιν ὑμᾶς ἀπαρασκευάστους, καταισχυνθῶμεν ἡμεῖς - ἵνα μὴ λέγωμεν ὑμεῖς - ἐν τῇ ὑποστάσει ταύτῃ τῆς καυχήσεως. so that, if any Macedonians come with me and find you unprepared, we – so that we don't say “you” – are not put to shame by these grounds of boasting.
2 Cor 9:5 Ἀναγκαῖον οὖν ἡγησάμην παρακαλέσαι τοὺς ἀδελφούς, ἵνα προέλθωσιν εἰς ὑμᾶς, καὶ προκαταρτίσωσιν τὴν προκατηγγελμένην εὐλογίαν ὑμῶν, ταύτην ἑτοίμην εἶναι, οὕτως ὡς εὐλογίαν καὶ μὴ {RP P1904: ὡς} [TR: ὥσπερ] πλεονεξίαν. So I considered it necessary to encourage the brothers to go on ahead to you and finalize your donation beforehand, which was announced in advance, so that it should be ready, so as a blessing, not as a matter of meanness. ὡς, as, RP P1904 F1859=11/13 vs. ὥσπερ, as (strengthened form), TR F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's bl).

donation ← blessing. [LS] gives a meaning of alms, citing Pindar (ca. 500 BC). We retain the fundamental sense blessing in the second occurrence in the verse, as Paul uses the word in the two senses, playing on the word. In 1 Sam 30:26, ‫בְּרָכָה‬, usually blessing, is used of a gift.

it ← this.

meanness ← covetousness, greed, so reluctant, stingy giving. Paul is ↴
2 Cor 9:6 Τοῦτο δέ, ὁ σπείρων φειδομένως, φειδομένως καὶ θερίσει· καὶ ὁ σπείρων ἐπ' εὐλογίαις, ἐπ' εὐλογίαις καὶ θερίσει. And I say this, he who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and he who sows generously will also reap generously. ↳ asking the Corinthians to have their donation ready, so he doesn't have to go round cap in hand collecting it, saying, “Come on, don't change your mind, don't be stingy.”

generously (2x)blessedly.
2 Cor 9:7 Ἕκαστος καθὼς προαιρεῖται τῇ καρδίᾳ· μὴ ἐκ λύπης ἢ ἐξ ἀνάγκης· ἱλαρὸν γὰρ δότην ἀγαπᾷ ὁ θεός. Each person should give as he has decided beforehand in his heart, not grudgingly or under constraint, for God loves a cheerful giver. Prov 22:9, adapted.

has decided ← decides.
2 Cor 9:8 Δυνατὸς δὲ ὁ θεὸς πᾶσαν χάριν περισσεῦσαι εἰς ὑμᾶς, ἵνα ἐν παντὶ πάντοτε πᾶσαν αὐτάρκειαν ἔχοντες περισσεύητε εἰς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθόν· For God is able to make all grace abound to you, in order that you, always being entirely self-sufficient in everything, might have something left over for every good work. have something left over ← abound; be surplus.
2 Cor 9:9 καθὼς γέγραπται, Ἐσκόρπισεν, ἔδωκεν τοῖς πένησιν· ἡ δικαιοσύνη αὐτοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. As it stands written:

“He has distributed;

He has given to the poor.

His righteousness remains throughout the age.”

Ps 112:9.
2 Cor 9:10 Ὁ δὲ ἐπιχορηγῶν σπέρμα τῷ σπείροντι, καὶ ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν χορηγήσαι, καὶ πληθύναι τὸν σπόρον ὑμῶν, καὶ αὐξήσαι τὰ {RP P1904: γενήματα} [TR: γεννήματα] τῆς δικαιοσύνης ὑμῶν· Now may he who supplies seed to the sower also supply bread for food, and may he multiply your seed sown and increase the yield of your righteousness, γενήματα, that which comes into being, produce (1- non-classical spelling, as if from γίνομαι), RP P1904 F1859=11/13 vs. γεννήματα, that which is begotten, produce (2- classical spelling, from γεννάω), TR F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's ck). Compare Luke 12:18.

Isa 55:10.

yield of your righteousness: subjective genitive of righteousness, what your righteousness yields.
2 Cor 9:11 ἐν παντὶ πλουτιζόμενοι εἰς πᾶσαν ἁπλότητα, ἥτις κατεργάζεται δι' ἡμῶν εὐχαριστίαν τῷ θεῷ. as you become rich in every respect, in all generosity, which engenders thanksgiving to God through us. generosity ← simplicity. [LS] gives liberality. See James 1:5 for the adverb.
2 Cor 9:12 Ὅτι ἡ διακονία τῆς λειτουργίας ταύτης οὐ μόνον ἐστὶν προσαναπληροῦσα τὰ ὑστερήματα τῶν ἁγίων, ἀλλὰ καὶ περισσεύουσα διὰ πολλῶν εὐχαριστιῶν τῷ θεῷ· For administering this service not only supplies the saints' lack, but also abounds to God through much thanksgiving, administering ← the ministry of.

saints': see Matt 27:52.
2 Cor 9:13 διὰ τῆς δοκιμῆς τῆς διακονίας ταύτης δοξάζοντες τὸν θεὸν ἐπὶ τῇ ὑποταγῇ τῆς ὁμολογίας ὑμῶν εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ χριστοῦ, καὶ ἁπλότητι τῆς κοινωνίας εἰς αὐτοὺς καὶ εἰς πάντας· as they glorify God through the tried character of this service acquired in subjection to your profession of the gospel of Christ, and for the generosity in contributing to them and to all, service ← ministry.

your profession: AV differs in the function of these words in the sentence.

of the gospel ← into the gospel.

generosity: See 2 Cor 9:11.
2 Cor 9:14 καὶ αὐτῶν δεήσει ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐπιποθούντων ὑμᾶς διὰ τὴν ὑπερβάλλουσαν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐφ' ὑμῖν. while they also long for you in supplication for you on account of the exceeding grace of God bestowed on you. while they ... long: we take αὐτῶν ἐπιποθούντων as genitive absolute. AV differs ([prayer] for you which long).
2 Cor 9:15 Χάρις δὲ τῷ θεῷ ἐπὶ τῇ ἀνεκδιηγήτῳ αὐτοῦ δωρεᾷ. Thanks be to God for his indescribable gift. thanks ← and grace. See Rom 6:17.

indescribable ← ineffable.
2 Cor 10:1 Αὐτὸς δὲ ἐγὼ Παῦλος παρακαλῶ ὑμᾶς διὰ τῆς πρᾳότητος καὶ ἐπιεικείας τοῦ χριστοῦ, ὃς κατὰ πρόσωπον μὲν ταπεινὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, ἀπὼν δὲ θαρρῶ εἰς ὑμᾶς· Now I Paul myself call upon you, through the meekness and fairness of Christ – I who am lowly when face to face among you, but being absent, I have confidence in you – call upon: the next verse gives the appeal.
2 Cor 10:2 δέομαι δέ, τὸ μὴ παρὼν θαρρῆσαι τῇ πεποιθήσει ᾗ λογίζομαι τολμῆσαι ἐπί τινας τοὺς λογιζομένους ἡμᾶς ὡς κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦντας. and I appeal to you that when I am present, I do not have to be audacious, in the confidence which I count on, to stand up to some who consider us to be walking according to the flesh. audacious: or courageous.

to stand up to ← dare, be daring.
2 Cor 10:3 Ἐν σαρκὶ γὰρ περιπατοῦντες, οὐ κατὰ σάρκα στρατευόμεθα - For although we walk in the flesh, we do not serve as soldiers according to the flesh – although: concessive use of the participle.
2 Cor 10:4 τὰ γὰρ ὅπλα τῆς στρατείας ἡμῶν οὐ σαρκικά, ἀλλὰ δυνατὰ τῷ θεῷ πρὸς καθαίρεσιν ὀχυρωμάτων - for the weapons of our campaign are not fleshly, but are extremely powerful in demolishing strongholds – extremely ← to God. Compare Acts 7:20.
2 Cor 10:5 λογισμοὺς καθαιροῦντες καὶ πᾶν ὕψωμα ἐπαιρόμενον κατὰ τῆς γνώσεως τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ αἰχμαλωτίζοντες πᾶν νόημα εἰς τὴν ὑπακοὴν τοῦ χριστοῦ, as we demolish arguments, and all arrogance exalted against knowledge of God, and as we take every thought captive to obedience to Christ, arguments ← reasonings.
2 Cor 10:6 καὶ ἐν ἑτοίμῳ ἔχοντες ἐκδικῆσαι πᾶσαν παρακοήν, ὅταν πληρωθῇ ὑμῶν ἡ ὑπακοή. and as we are ready to avenge all disobedience, when your obedience is made complete. when ← whenever.
2 Cor 10:7 Τὰ κατὰ πρόσωπον βλέπετε; Εἴ τις πέποιθεν ἑαυτῷ χριστοῦ εἶναι, τοῦτο λογιζέσθω πάλιν ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ, ὅτι καθὼς αὐτὸς χριστοῦ, οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς χριστοῦ. Do you look at the things that are before your eyes? If anyone is convinced that he is Christ's, let him consider this again: that just as he is Christ's, so also are we Christ's. do you look: or imperative, look.

eyes ← face.

is convinced ← trusts himself.

let him consider this ← let him reason this from himself.
2 Cor 10:8 Ἐάν τε γὰρ καὶ περισσότερόν τι καυχήσωμαι περὶ τῆς ἐξουσίας ἡμῶν - ἧς ἔδωκεν ὁ κύριος ἡμῖν εἰς οἰκοδομήν, καὶ οὐκ εἰς καθαίρεσιν ὑμῶν - οὐκ αἰσχυνθήσομαι· For even if I should boast somewhat exceedingly about our authority – which the Lord gave us for your edification and not for your demolition – I shall not be ashamed,
2 Cor 10:9 ἵνα μὴ δόξω ὡς ἂν ἐκφοβεῖν ὑμᾶς διὰ τῶν ἐπιστολῶν. in order that I should not seem, as it were, to terrify you with the epistles.
2 Cor 10:10 Ὅτι, Αἱ μὲν ἐπιστολαί, φησίν, βαρεῖαι καὶ ἰσχυραί· ἡ δὲ παρουσία τοῦ σώματος ἀσθενής, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἐξουθενημένος. For, “The epistles”, they say, “are weighty and forcible, but his presence in the body is weak, and his speech is deplorable.” they say ← (one) says. Impersonal usage.

deplorable ← made nothing.
2 Cor 10:11 Τοῦτο λογιζέσθω ὁ τοιοῦτος, ὅτι οἷοί ἐσμεν τῷ λόγῳ δι' ἐπιστολῶν ἀπόντες, τοιοῦτοι καὶ παρόντες τῷ ἔργῳ. Let such a person consider this: that as we are in word through epistles when we are absent, so we are in deed when physically present. so ← so also (otiose καί).
2 Cor 10:12 Οὐ γὰρ τολμῶμεν ἐγκρῖναι ἢ συγκρῖναι ἑαυτούς τισιν τῶν ἑαυτοὺς συνιστανόντων· ἀλλὰ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἑαυτοὺς μετροῦντες, καὶ συγκρίνοντες ἑαυτοὺς ἑαυτοῖς, οὐ συνιοῦσιν. For we are not so bold as to reckon ourselves among – or compare ourselves with – some of those who commend themselves. But they who measure themselves by their own standards and compare themselves with each other do not show understanding. by their own standardswith themselves.

with each other ← with themselves. Reflexive pronoun (ἑαυτούς) standing for reciprocal pronoun (ἀλλήλους). Compare John 12:19.
2 Cor 10:13 Ἡμεῖς δὲ οὐχὶ εἰς τὰ ἄμετρα καυχησόμεθα, ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τοῦ κανόνος οὗ ἐμέρισεν ἡμῖν ὁ θεός, μέτρου, ἐφικέσθαι ἄχρι καὶ ὑμῶν. But we will not boast outside our limits, but within the limits of the area which God has apportioned us – limits reaching you as well. outside our limits ← in off-limits, unmeasuredly.

limits (2x)measure.

area ← rule (as in Gal 6:16).
2 Cor 10:14 Οὐ γὰρ ὡς μὴ ἐφικνούμενοι εἰς ὑμᾶς ὑπερεκτείνομεν ἑαυτούς· ἄχρι γὰρ καὶ ὑμῶν ἐφθάσαμεν ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ τοῦ χριστοῦ· For we are not overstretching ourselves as if we did not reach as far as you previously, for we have been quick in coming to you as well with the gospel of Christ. did ← do, but an unreal comparison, requiring a past tense in English.

previously: an earlier visit is mentioned in 2 Cor 1:16, 2 Cor 2:1, 2 Cor 12:14.

been quick: or been first.
2 Cor 10:15 οὐκ εἰς τὰ ἄμετρα καυχώμενοι, ἐν ἀλλοτρίοις κόποις, ἐλπίδα δὲ ἔχοντες, αὐξανομένης τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν, ἐν ὑμῖν μεγαλυνθῆναι κατὰ τὸν κανόνα ἡμῶν εἰς περισσείαν, We do not boast outside our limits, in the labours of others, but we do have hope, as your faith grows, that our labour will greatly grow in stature among you within our area, outside our limits: see 2 Cor 10:13.

greatly grow in stature ← be made great to abundance.

area: see 2 Cor 10:13.
2 Cor 10:16 εἰς τὰ ὑπερέκεινα ὑμῶν εὐαγγελίσασθαι, οὐκ ἐν ἀλλοτρίῳ κανόνι εἰς τὰ ἕτοιμα καυχήσασθαι. progressing to preaching the gospel in places beyond your region, but not to do so in another's area, so boasting about places already evangelized. area: see 2 Cor 10:13.
2 Cor 10:17 Ὁ δὲ καυχώμενος, ἐν κυρίῳ καυχάσθω. But let him who boasts boast in the Lord. Jer 9:23MT (Jer 9:24AV).
2 Cor 10:18 Οὐ γὰρ ὁ ἑαυτὸν συνιστῶν, ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν δόκιμος, ἀλλ' ὃν ὁ κύριος συνίστησιν. For it is not he who commends himself who is approved, but he whom the Lord commends. who ← that (one).
2 Cor 11:1 Ὄφελον {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: ἀνείχεσθέ} [E1624: ἠνείχεσθέ] μου {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: μικρὸν} [E1624: μικρόν τι] {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: τῇ ἀφροσύνῃ} [E1624: τῆς ἀφροσύνης]· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀνέχεσθέ μου. If only you would bear with me for a short time {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: in} [E1624: of] foolishness. But actually, you do bear with me. ἀνείχεσθέ, you would bear (imperfect, single augment), RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=11/14 (Scrivener's abc(tacite)efghkln**o) vs. ἠνείχεσθέ, you would bear (imperfect, double augment, also acceptable classically), E1624 F1859=0/14 vs. other readings, F1859=3/14 (Scrivener's dmn*).

τι, any, some: absent in RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=12/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. present in E1624 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's n).

τῇ ἀφροσύνῃ, in foolishness, RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=11/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. τῆς ἀφροσύνης, of foolishness, E1624 F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's ad).
2 Cor 11:2 Ζηλῶ γὰρ ὑμᾶς θεοῦ ζήλῳ· ἡρμοσάμην γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἑνὶ ἀνδρὶ παρθένον ἁγνὴν παραστῆσαι τῷ χριστῷ. For I am zealous for you with a tremendous zeal, for I have betrothed you to one man, so as to present you as a chaste virgin to Christ. a tremendous zeal ← a zeal of God. See Acts 7:20.
2 Cor 11:3 Φοβοῦμαι δὲ μήπως ὡς ὁ ὄφις Εὔαν ἐξηπάτησεν ἐν τῇ πανουργίᾳ αὐτοῦ, οὕτως φθαρῇ τὰ νοήματα ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἁπλότητος τῆς εἰς τὸν χριστόν. But I fear that, as the serpent deceived Eve with his trickery, so your minds may be drawn away to corruption from the simplicity which is in Christ. drawn away to corruption ← corrupted.
2 Cor 11:4 Εἰ μὲν γὰρ ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἄλλον Ἰησοῦν κηρύσσει ὃν οὐκ ἐκηρύξαμεν, ἢ πνεῦμα ἕτερον λαμβάνετε ὃ οὐκ ἐλάβετε, ἢ εὐαγγέλιον ἕτερον ὃ οὐκ ἐδέξασθε, καλῶς {RP-text TR: ἠνείχεσθε} [RP-marg P1904: ἀνείχεσθε]. For if he who is coming proclaims another Jesus, whom we have not proclaimed, or you receive a different spirit, which you have not received, or if you accept a different gospel, which you have not accepted, then that's a fine way to bear up! ἠνείχεσθε, you were bearing up (double augment), RP-text TR F1859=9/14 (Scrivener's ab**cdhklmn) vs. ἀνείχεσθε, you were bearing up (single augment), RP-marg P1904 F1859=5/14 (Scrivener's b*efgo).

that's a fine way to bear up ← you were bearing up well. Ironic.
2 Cor 11:5 Λογίζομαι γὰρ μηδὲν ὑστερηκέναι τῶν ὑπὲρ λίαν ἀποστόλων. For I consider myself in no way to have fallen short of the most superlative apostles. most superlative: the Greek supports a pleonastic translation. Compare Shakespeare's most unkindest cut. See also Eph 3:8.
2 Cor 11:6 Εἰ δὲ καὶ ἰδιώτης τῷ λόγῳ, ἀλλ' οὐ τῇ γνώσει· ἀλλ' ἐν παντὶ φανερωθέντες ἐν πᾶσιν εἰς ὑμᾶς. And even if we are an amateur in speech, we are not in knowledge, for we have been made known to you in every respect and in all regards. we are not ← but not.

for ← but.

made known ← made manifest.
2 Cor 11:7 Ἢ ἁμαρτίαν ἐποίησα ἐμαυτὸν ταπεινῶν ἵνα ὑμεῖς ὑψωθῆτε, ὅτι δωρεὰν τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ εὐαγγέλιον εὐηγγελισάμην ὑμῖν; Or have I committed a sin in lowering myself so that you might be exalted, because I have preached the gospel of God to you freely?
2 Cor 11:8 Ἄλλας ἐκκλησίας ἐσύλησα, λαβὼν ὀψώνιον πρὸς τὴν ὑμῶν διακονίαν· I have plundered other churches, taking pay from them for your relief, Punctuation: perhaps this verse is a question: Have I plundered ...? Otherwise, it is a jocular way of saying that other churches have supported this relief.

churches: see Matt 16:18.

relief: See 2 Cor 9:1.
2 Cor 11:9 καὶ παρὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς καὶ ὑστερηθείς, οὐ κατενάρκησα οὐδενός· τὸ γὰρ ὑστέρημά μου προσανεπλήρωσαν οἱ ἀδελφοί, ἐλθόντες ἀπὸ Μακεδονίας· καὶ ἐν παντὶ ἀβαρῆ ὑμῖν ἐμαυτὸν ἐτήρησα καὶ τηρήσω. and when I was present with you and having run short, I did not press heavily on anyone, for the brothers who came from Macedonia made up for my shortage, and I guarded – and will guard – myself against being a burden to you in any way. any ← every.
2 Cor 11:10 Ἔστιν ἀλήθεια χριστοῦ ἐν ἐμοί, ὅτι ἡ καύχησις αὕτη οὐ {RP P1904 E1624 S1894: φραγήσεται} [S1550: σφραγίσεται] εἰς ἐμὲ ἐν τοῖς κλίμασιν τῆς Ἀχαΐας. As the truth of Christ is in me, so this boasting will not be {RP P1904 E1624 S1894: stifled} [S1550: sealed up] with me in the regions of Achaea. φραγήσεται, will be fenced in, hemmed in, barred, RP P1904 E1624 S1894 F1859=12/13 (incl. k misspelled, c, i.e. explicitly, not tacite) vs. σφραγίσεται, will be sealed, S1550 F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's d).

with me ← against me, but the sense is from my side letting it happen against me.
2 Cor 11:11 Διὰ τί; Ὅτι οὐκ ἀγαπῶ ὑμᾶς; Ὁ θεὸς οἶδεν. Why? Because I don't love you? God knows the truth. God knows the truth: we supply the ellipsis to avoid what could otherwise be taken as an uncouth English idiom in this context (but not so in 2 Cor 12:2 and 2 Cor 12:3).
2 Cor 11:12 Ὃ δὲ ποιῶ, καὶ ποιήσω, ἵνα ἐκκόψω τὴν ἀφορμὴν τῶν θελόντων ἀφορμήν, ἵνα ἐν ᾧ καυχῶνται, εὑρεθῶσιν καθὼς καὶ ἡμεῖς. And this I do, and will do, in order to eliminate any opportunity for those wanting an opportunity to be found as equal to us in what they boast of. as equal to us ← also like us.
2 Cor 11:13 Οἱ γὰρ τοιοῦτοι ψευδαπόστολοι, ἐργάται δόλιοι, μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλους χριστοῦ. For such people are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into apostles of Christ. transforming themselves: middle or passive for reflexive. Compare 2 Cor 12:7.
2 Cor 11:14 Καὶ οὐ θαυμαστόν· αὐτὸς γὰρ ὁ Σατανᾶς μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός. And it is not a thing to marvel at, for Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light. transforms himself: See 2 Cor 11:13.
2 Cor 11:15 Οὐ μέγα οὖν εἰ καὶ οἱ διάκονοι αὐτοῦ μετασχηματίζονται ὡς διάκονοι δικαιοσύνης, ὧν τὸ τέλος ἔσται κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν. So it is not a great thing then if his servants also transform themselves, as if they were servants of righteousness, whose end will be according to their works. transform themselves: See 2 Cor 11:13.

Note how fallen angels are judged by their works.
2 Cor 11:16 Πάλιν λέγω, μή τίς με δόξῃ ἄφρονα εἶναι· εἰ δὲ μήγε, κἂν ὡς ἄφρονα δέξασθέ με, ἵνα {RP P1904: κἀγὼ μικρόν τι} [TR: μικρόν τι κἀγὼ] καυχήσωμαι. Again I say it, in case anyone considers me to be foolish. Otherwise, receive me even as a fool, so that I too have some small grounds for boasting. κἀγὼ μικρόν τι, I too + some small, RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. μικρόν τι κἀγὼ, some small + I too, TR F1859=0/13.
2 Cor 11:17 Ὃ λαλῶ, οὐ λαλῶ κατὰ κύριον, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐν ἀφροσύνῃ, ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ ὑποστάσει τῆς καυχήσεως. What I say, I do not say from the Lord's perspective, but as it were in foolishness, on these boastful grounds. from the Lord's perspective ← according to (the) Lord.

boastful grounds ← grounds of boasting, a Hebraic genitive.
2 Cor 11:18 Ἐπεὶ πολλοὶ καυχῶνται κατὰ τὴν σάρκα, κἀγὼ καυχήσομαι. Since many boast according to the flesh, I too will boast.
2 Cor 11:19 Ἡδέως γὰρ ἀνέχεσθε τῶν ἀφρόνων, φρόνιμοι ὄντες. For you bear with fools courteously, being wise yourselves. courteously ← pleasantly, in a well-disposed way.
2 Cor 11:20 Ἀνέχεσθε γάρ, εἴ τις ὑμᾶς καταδουλοῖ, εἴ τις κατεσθίει, εἴ τις λαμβάνει, εἴ τις ἐπαίρεται, εἴ τις ὑμᾶς εἰς πρόσωπον δέρει. For you bear up if anyone domineers over you, if anyone exploits you, if anyone arrests you, if anyone is overbearing, if anyone hits you on the face. exploits ← devours.

arrests ← takes, but the word is used in the temple inscription forbidding Gentile entry – see [MM]. [MG] suggests takes advantage of.

is overbearing ← is lifted up.

hits ← flays.
2 Cor 11:21 Κατὰ ἀτιμίαν λέγω, ὡς ὅτι ἡμεῖς ἠσθενήσαμεν· ἐν ᾧ δ' ἄν τις τολμᾷ - ἐν ἀφροσύνῃ λέγω - τολμῶ κἀγώ. I speak to my shame, as if we were taken ill. And in whatever way someone might be daring – I speak in foolishness – I myself am daring too.
2 Cor 11:22 Ἑβραῖοί εἰσιν; Κἀγώ. Ἰσραηλῖταί εἰσιν; Κἀγώ. Σπέρμα Ἀβραάμ εἰσιν; Κἀγώ. Are they Hebrews? I am too. Are they Israelites? I am too. Are they the seed of Abraham? I am too.
2 Cor 11:23 Διάκονοι χριστοῦ εἰσιν; - παραφρονῶν λαλῶ - ὑπὲρ ἐγώ· ἐν κόποις περισσοτέρως, ἐν πληγαῖς ὑπερβαλλόντως, ἐν φυλακαῖς περισσοτέρως, ἐν θανάτοις πολλάκις, Are they ministers of Christ? – I speak as if deranged – I go further: in labours more prolifically, in beatings more exceedingly, in imprisonments more frequently, in situations in danger of death, often;
2 Cor 11:24 ὑπὸ Ἰουδαίων πεντάκις τεσσαράκοντα παρὰ μίαν ἔλαβον. five times I received forty minus one lashes from the Jews,
2 Cor 11:25 Τρὶς {RP: ἐραβδίσθην} [P1904 TR: ἐρραβδίσθην], ἅπαξ ἐλιθάσθην, τρὶς ἐναυάγησα, νυχθήμερον ἐν τῷ βυθῷ πεποίηκα· three times I was beaten with sticks, once I was stoned, three times I was shipwrecked, and I have spent a night and a day in the deep; ἐραβδίσθην, I was beaten with sticks (without the classical doubling of the ρ after the augment), RP F1859=8/13 vs. ἐρραβδίσθην, I was beaten with sticks (with the classical doubling of the ρ), P1904 TR F1859=5/13 (Scrivener's beghl). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=8:7.
2 Cor 11:26 ὁδοιπορίαις πολλάκις, κινδύνοις ποταμῶν, κινδύνοις λῃστῶν, κινδύνοις ἐκ γένους, κινδύνοις ἐξ ἐθνῶν, κινδύνοις ἐν πόλει, κινδύνοις ἐν ἐρημίᾳ, κινδύνοις ἐν θαλάσσῃ, κινδύνοις ἐν ψευδαδέλφοις· in travels often, in dangers of rivers, in dangers of robbers, in dangers from my race, in dangers from the Gentiles, in dangers in the city, in dangers in the desert, in dangers at sea, in dangers among false brothers;
2 Cor 11:27 ἐν κόπῳ καὶ μόχθῳ, ἐν ἀγρυπνίαις πολλάκις, ἐν λιμῷ καὶ δίψει, ἐν νηστείαις πολλάκις, ἐν ψύχει καὶ γυμνότητι. in toil and hardship, in sleepless nights often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness.
2 Cor 11:28 Χωρὶς τῶν παρεκτός, ἡ ἐπισύστασίς μου ἡ καθ' ἡμέραν, ἡ μέριμνα πασῶν τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν. Apart from all else, there is my daily mental turmoil: the care of all the churches. all else ← (things) external / (things) besides.

churches: see Matt 16:18.
2 Cor 11:29 Τίς ἀσθενεῖ, καὶ οὐκ ἀσθενῶ; Τίς σκανδαλίζεται, καὶ οὐκ ἐγὼ πυροῦμαι; Who is ill, and I am not ill with him? Who is offended, and I am not ablaze with indignation?
2 Cor 11:30 Εἰ καυχᾶσθαι δεῖ, τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας μου καυχήσομαι. If it is necessary to boast, I will boast of the things concerning my ills.
2 Cor 11:31 Ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου {RP: - } [P1904 TR: ἡμῶν] Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ οἶδεν, ὁ ὢν εὐλογητὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ὅτι οὐ ψεύδομαι. The God and father of {RP: the} [P1904 TR: our] Lord Jesus Christ, who is blessed throughout the ages, knows that I do not lie. ἡμῶν, our: absent in RP F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's eghlmn) vs. present in P1904 TR F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's abcdfko). A disparity with RP, R=6:9. AV differs textually.
2 Cor 11:32 Ἐν Δαμασκῷ ὁ ἐθνάρχης Ἀρέτα τοῦ βασιλέως ἐφρούρει τὴν Δαμασκηνῶν πόλιν, πιάσαι με θέλων· In Damascus the governor under King Aretas was guarding the city of the Damascenes, wishing to lay hold of me, under ← of.
2 Cor 11:33 καὶ διὰ θυρίδος ἐν σαργάνῃ ἐχαλάσθην διὰ τοῦ τείχους καὶ ἐξέφυγον τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ. but through a window I was lowered in a basket alongside the wall, and I escaped his clutches. alongside: See Acts 9:25.

clutches ← hands.
2 Cor 12:1 Καυχᾶσθαι δὴ οὐ συμφέρει μοι· ἐλεύσομαι γὰρ εἰς ὀπτασίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεις κυρίου. Boasting is actually of no advantage to me, for I will enter into visions and revelations of the Lord.
2 Cor 12:2 Οἶδα ἄνθρωπον ἐν χριστῷ πρὸ ἐτῶν δεκατεσσάρων - εἴτε ἐν σώματι οὐκ οἶδα· εἴτε ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματος οὐκ οἶδα· ὁ θεὸς οἶδεν - ἁρπαγέντα τὸν τοιοῦτον ἕως τρίτου οὐρανοῦ. I know a man in Christ – whether in the body, I don't know, or whether out of the body, I don't know, God knows – who fourteen years ago was caught up as far as the third heaven. I know: AV differs (I knew).

who ← such a (one).
2 Cor 12:3 Καὶ οἶδα τὸν τοιοῦτον ἄνθρωπον - εἴτε ἐν σώματι, εἴτε ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματος, οὐκ οἶδα· ὁ θεὸς οἶδεν - And I know this man – whether in the body or out of the body, I don't know, God knows – this ← such a.
2 Cor 12:4 ὅτι ἡρπάγη εἰς τὸν παράδεισον, καὶ ἤκουσεν ἄρρητα ῥήματα, ἃ οὐκ ἐξὸν ἀνθρώπῳ λαλῆσαι. how he was caught up in Paradise and heard unspeakable words, which it is not permitted for man to speak. how ← that.
2 Cor 12:5 Ὑπὲρ τοῦ τοιούτου καυχήσομαι· ὑπὲρ δὲ ἐμαυτοῦ οὐ καυχήσομαι, εἰ μὴ ἐν ταῖς ἀσθενείαις μου· I will boast about such a person, but I will not boast about myself except in my weaknesses.
2 Cor 12:6 ἐὰν γὰρ θελήσω καυχήσασθαι, οὐκ ἔσομαι ἄφρων· ἀλήθειαν γὰρ ἐρῶ· φείδομαι δέ, μή τις εἰς ἐμὲ λογίσηται ὑπὲρ ὃ βλέπει με, ἢ ἀκούει τι ἐξ ἐμοῦ. For even if I were to want to boast, I would not be a fool, for I would speak the truth. But I will restrain myself in case anyone should consider me to be above what he observes me to be, or what he hears from me. if I were to want: constructed as if a real condition.

restrain myself ← spare.

what (he hears) ← anything.
2 Cor 12:7 Καὶ τῇ ὑπερβολῇ τῶν ἀποκαλύψεων ἵνα μὴ ὑπεραίρωμαι, ἐδόθη μοι σκόλοψ τῇ σαρκί, ἄγγελος Σατᾶν, ἵνα με κολαφίζῃ, ἵνα μὴ ὑπεραίρωμαι. And so that I do not exalt myself in the special nature of revelations, a thorn in the flesh has been given to me – a messenger of Satan – to harass me so that I do not exalt myself. exalt myself (2x): middle or passive for reflexive. Compare 2 Cor 11:13.

in the special nature: AV differs (above measure).

a thorn in the flesh: perhaps referring to his eyes; compare Acts 23:5, Gal 4:15, Gal 6:11.
2 Cor 12:8 Ὑπὲρ τούτου τρὶς τὸν κύριον παρεκάλεσα ἵνα ἀποστῇ ἀπ' ἐμοῦ. I pleaded with the Lord three times about this, that it might depart from me.
2 Cor 12:9 Καὶ εἴρηκέν μοι, Ἀρκεῖ σοι ἡ χάρις μου· ἡ γὰρ δύναμίς μου ἐν ἀσθενείᾳ τελειοῦται. Ἥδιστα οὖν μᾶλλον καυχήσομαι ἐν ταῖς ἀσθενείαις μου, ἵνα ἐπισκηνώσῃ ἐπ' ἐμὲ ἡ δύναμις τοῦ χριστοῦ. And he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you. For my strength is brought to completion in weakness.” So I will most gladly boast rather in my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may reside on me. said ← has said, giving a sense of finality about the matter.

most gladly ← most sweetly.
2 Cor 12:10 Διὸ εὐδοκῶ ἐν ἀσθενείαις, ἐν ὕβρεσιν, ἐν ἀνάγκαις, ἐν διωγμοῖς, ἐν στενοχωρίαις, ὑπὲρ χριστοῦ· ὅταν γὰρ ἀσθενῶ, τότε δυνατός εἰμι. Therefore I am content in weaknesses, in maltreatment, in constrained circumstances, in persecution, in straits, for Christ's sake. For it is when I am weak that I am strong. it is when I am weak that I am strong ← when I am weak, then I am strong.
2 Cor 12:11 Γέγονα ἄφρων καυχώμενος· ὑμεῖς με ἠναγκάσατε· ἐγὼ γὰρ ὤφειλον ὑφ' ὑμῶν συνίστασθαι· οὐδὲν γὰρ ὑστέρησα τῶν ὑπὲρ λίαν ἀποστόλων, εἰ καὶ οὐδέν εἰμι. I have become foolish in boasting. You forced it on me, for I should have been commended by you. For in no way have I fallen short of the most superlative apostles, even if I am nothing. forced it on me ← compelled me.

most superlative: see 2 Cor 11:5.
2 Cor 12:12 Τὰ μὲν σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου κατειργάσθη ἐν ὑμῖν ἐν πάσῃ ὑπομονῇ, ἐν σημείοις καὶ τέρασιν καὶ δυνάμεσιν. The signs of the apostle were performed among you with all endurance, with signs and miracles and deeds of power.
2 Cor 12:13 Τί γάρ ἐστιν ὃ ἡττήθητε ὑπὲρ τὰς λοιπὰς ἐκκλησίας, εἰ μὴ ὅτι αὐτὸς ἐγὼ οὐ κατενάρκησα ὑμῶν; Χαρίσασθέ μοι τὴν ἀδικίαν ταύτην. For in what way were you inferior to the other churches, if not in that I myself did not press heavily on you? Forgive me this wrong. in what waywhat is it in respect of which.

churches: see Matt 16:18.
2 Cor 12:14 Ἰδού, τρίτον ἑτοίμως ἔχω ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, καὶ οὐ καταναρκήσω ὑμῶν· οὐ γὰρ ζητῶ τὰ ὑμῶν, {RP P1904: ἀλλὰ} [TR: ἀλλ'] ὑμᾶς· οὐ γὰρ ὀφείλει τὰ τέκνα τοῖς γονεῦσιν θησαυρίζειν, ἀλλ' οἱ γονεῖς τοῖς τέκνοις. Look, I am prepared to come to you a third time, and I will not press heavily on you. For I do not seek what is yours, but you. For it is not that children ought to save up for their parents, but parents for their children. ἀλλὰ, but (unapocopated), RP P1904 F1859=7/13 (Scrivener's adefkmn) vs. ἀλλ', but (apocopated), TR F1859=6/13 (Scrivener's bcghlo). Nearly a disparity with RP, R=8:7.
2 Cor 12:15 Ἐγὼ δὲ ἥδιστα δαπανήσω καὶ ἐκδαπανηθήσομαι ὑπὲρ τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν, εἰ καὶ περισσοτέρως ὑμᾶς ἀγαπῶν, ἧττον ἀγαπῶμαι. For I will very gladly spend money and be spent for yourselves, even if the more intensely I love you, the less I am loved. gladly ← sweetly.

yourselves ← your souls.
2 Cor 12:16 Ἔστω δέ, ἐγὼ οὐ κατεβάρησα ὑμᾶς· ἀλλ' ὑπάρχων πανοῦργος, δόλῳ ὑμᾶς ἔλαβον. Well so be it: “I have not weighed you down, but being crafty, I have taken you in with deceit.” This verse is ironic. Paul uses the words of his opponents (though adapted to the grammatical first person) which we make clear by our punctuation. See 2 Cor 6:8, 2 Cor 11:9, Rom 3:8.
2 Cor 12:17 Μή τινα ὧν ἀπέσταλκα πρὸς ὑμᾶς, δι' αὐτοῦ ἐπλεονέκτησα ὑμᾶς; I did not defraud you through any of those I sent to you, did I?
2 Cor 12:18 Παρεκάλεσα Τίτον, καὶ συναπέστειλα τὸν ἀδελφόν· μή τι ἐπλεονέκτησεν ὑμᾶς Τίτος; Οὐ τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι περιεπατήσαμεν; Οὐ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἴχνεσιν; I exhorted Titus and sent a brother with him. Surely Titus did not defraud you in any respect? Did we not walk in the same spirit? Was it not in the same tracks? We have translated μή τι as an interrogative word + an indefinite pronoun. If μήτι is taken as one interrogative word, the sense is simply surely Titus did not defraud you?

a brother ← the brother. Possibly (his) brother. But see Gen 22:9.
2 Cor 12:19 Πάλιν δοκεῖτε ὅτι ὑμῖν ἀπολογούμεθα; Κατενώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν χριστῷ λαλοῦμεν· τὰ δὲ πάντα, ἀγαπητοί, ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑμῶν οἰκοδομῆς. Do you again think we are defending ourselves to you? We speak in the presence of God in Christ, and all these things, my beloved, are for your edification.
2 Cor 12:20 Φοβοῦμαι γάρ, μήπως ἐλθὼν οὐχ οἵους θέλω εὕρω ὑμᾶς, κἀγὼ εὑρεθῶ ὑμῖν οἷον οὐ θέλετε· μήπως ἔρεις, ζῆλοι, θυμοί, ἐριθεῖαι, καταλαλιαί, ψιθυρισμοί, φυσιώσεις, ἀκαταστασίαι· For I am afraid that, if I come, I will not find you as I wish, and I will be found by you not as you wish – that there will be rivalries, jealousies, angry exchanges, strife-ridden situations, backbitings, gossip, conceit, acts of disorder – if: conditional use of the participle.
2 Cor 12:21 μὴ πάλιν ἐλθόντα με {RP-text: ταπεινώσει} [RP-marg P1904 TR: ταπεινώσῃ] ὁ θεός μου πρὸς ὑμᾶς, καὶ πενθήσω πολλοὺς τῶν προημαρτηκότων, καὶ μὴ μετανοησάντων ἐπὶ τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ καὶ πορνείᾳ καὶ ἀσελγείᾳ ᾗ ἔπραξαν. {RP-text: surely my God will not humble me before you when I come again, and I shall not} [RP-marg P1904 TR: may my God not humble me before you when I come again, and I should] mourn many of those who sinned previously and have not repented of their uncleanness and fornication and debauchery which they have committed. ταπεινώσει, he will humble (future, non-classical if it is a conjunction after φοβοῦμαι) RP-text F1859=5/12 (Scrivener's dfgkn + c?) vs. ταπεινώσῃ, he will humble (classical aorist subjunctive), RP-marg P1904 TR F1859=7/12 (Scrivener's abehlmo). Scrivener's c is excluded as it is doubtful. A disparity with RP-text, R=5:9.

The word μή could be taken as a repeated conjunction after φοβοῦμαι in the previous verse: (and) that my God will humble me ....
2 Cor 13:1 Τρίτον τοῦτο ἔρχομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς. Ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ τριῶν σταθήσεται πᾶν ῥῆμα. I am coming to you this third time. Every matter shall be established at the attestation of two or three witnesses. Deut 19:15.

attestation ← mouth.
2 Cor 13:2 Προείρηκα καὶ προλέγω, ὡς παρὼν τὸ δεύτερον, καὶ ἀπὼν νῦν γράφω τοῖς προημαρτηκόσιν καὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς πᾶσιν, ὅτι ἐὰν ἔλθω εἰς τὸ πάλιν, οὐ φείσομαι· I have spoken beforehand, and I am speaking beforehand, as when I was present on the second occasion, and being now absent, I am writing to those who previously sinned, and all the others, that if I come again, I will not spare you,
2 Cor 13:3 ἐπεὶ δοκιμὴν ζητεῖτε τοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ λαλοῦντος χριστοῦ, ὃς εἰς ὑμᾶς οὐκ ἀσθενεῖ, ἀλλὰ δυνατεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν· since you seek a proof of Christ who speaks in me, who is not weak towards you, but is powerful in you. in me: or by (agent).

in you: or among. Christ “in” Paul in Gal 2:20.
2 Cor 13:4 καὶ γὰρ εἰ ἐσταυρώθη ἐξ ἀσθενείας, ἀλλὰ ζῇ ἐκ δυνάμεως θεοῦ. Καὶ γὰρ {RP P1904 S1550: - } [E1624 S1894: καὶ] ἡμεῖς ἀσθενοῦμεν ἐν αὐτῷ, ἀλλὰ ζησόμεθα σὺν αὐτῷ ἐκ δυνάμεως θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς. For in fact, if he was crucified through weakness, then he lives through the power of God. And indeed, we are {RP P1904 S1550: - } [E1624 S1894: also] weak in him, but we shall live with him through the power of God towards you. καὶ, also: absent in RP P1904 S1550 F1859=11/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. present in E1624 S1894 F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's fg).

then ← but. Compare Rom 6:5.
2 Cor 13:5 Ἑαυτοὺς πειράζετε εἰ ἐστὲ ἐν τῇ πίστει, ἑαυτοὺς δοκιμάζετε. Ἢ οὐκ ἐπιγινώσκετε ἑαυτούς, ὅτι Ἰησοῦς χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐστίν; εἰ μή τι ἀδόκιμοί ἐστε. Examine yourselves as to whether you are in the faith – test yourselves. Or do you not realize that Jesus Christ is in you? – unless, that is, you are unauthenticated in some way. realize ← acknowledge yourselves.

in: or among. See 2 Cor 13:3, Gal 2:20.
2 Cor 13:6 Ἐλπίζω δὲ ὅτι γνώσεσθε ὅτι ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἐσμὲν ἀδόκιμοι. And I hope that you will know that we are not unauthenticated.
2 Cor 13:7 Εὔχομαι δὲ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, μὴ ποιῆσαι ὑμᾶς κακὸν μηδέν, οὐχ ἵνα ἡμεῖς δόκιμοι φανῶμεν, ἀλλ' ἵνα ὑμεῖς τὸ καλὸν ποιῆτε, ἡμεῖς δὲ ὡς ἀδόκιμοι ὦμεν. And I pray to God that you will do nothing wrong, not so that we appear authenticated, but so that you do what is right, whereas we should be as it were unauthenticated. pray ← vow, but sometimes for προσεύχομαι pray.
2 Cor 13:8 Οὐ γὰρ δυνάμεθά τι κατὰ τῆς ἀληθείας, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ τῆς ἀληθείας. For we cannot do anything against the truth, only for the truth. only ← but.
2 Cor 13:9 Χαίρομεν γὰρ ὅταν ἡμεῖς ἀσθενῶμεν, ὑμεῖς δὲ δυνατοὶ ἦτε· τοῦτο δὲ καὶ εὐχόμεθα, τὴν ὑμῶν κατάρτισιν. For we rejoice whenever we are weak, but you are strong. But this we also pray for: your restoration. pray: see 2 Cor 13:7.

restoration: AV differs somewhat (perfection).
2 Cor 13:10 Διὰ τοῦτο ταῦτα ἀπὼν γράφω, ἵνα παρὼν μὴ ἀποτόμως χρήσωμαι, κατὰ τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἣν ἔδωκέν μοι ὁ κύριος εἰς οἰκοδομήν, καὶ οὐκ εἰς καθαίρεσιν. On this account I, being absent, am writing these things, so that when I am present I shall not have to deal with matters severely, according to the authority which the Lord gave me for edification and not for demolition.
2 Cor 13:11 Λοιπόν, ἀδελφοί, χαίρετε· καταρτίζεσθε, παρακαλεῖσθε, τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖτε, εἰρηνεύετε· καὶ ὁ θεὸς τῆς ἀγάπης καὶ εἰρήνης ἔσται μεθ' ὑμῶν. Finally, brothers, rejoice, amend your ways, be encouraged, be of one mind, be peaceful, and the God of love and peace will be with you. amend your ways: AV differs somewhat (be perfect).

be of one mind ← be the same minded.
2 Cor 13:12 Ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν ἁγίῳ φιλήματι. Greet each other with a holy kiss. ¶ ¶ Verse division: in P1904 E1624 numbering, our (with RP S1550 S1894) 2 Cor 13:12 and 2 Cor 13:13 are one verse (2 Cor 13:12), and our 2 Cor 13:14 is numbered 2 Cor 13:13.
2 Cor 13:13 Ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς οἱ ἅγιοι πάντες. All the saints greet you. saints: see Matt 27:52.
2 Cor 13:14 Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, καὶ ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ ἡ κοινωνία τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν. Ἀμήν. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the holy spirit, be with you all. Amen.
Gal 1:1 Παῦλος ἀπόστολος οὐκ ἀπ' ἀνθρώπων, οὐδὲ δι' ἀνθρώπου, ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν, From Paul, an apostle, not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the father who raised him from the dead, through (2x): i.e. through the appointment of.
Gal 1:2 καὶ οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντες ἀδελφοί, ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας· and all the brothers with me, to the churches of Galatia, churches: see Matt 16:18.
Gal 1:3 χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρός, καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, grace to you, and peace, from God the father and Lord of ours, Jesus Christ, Lord: no article in the Greek. See Rom 1:7, showing why we repunctuate; AV differs.
Gal 1:4 τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν {RP: περὶ} [P1904 TR: ὑπὲρ] τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν, ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος αἰῶνος πονηροῦ, κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν· who gave himself for our sins, in order to deliver us out of the present evil age, according to the will of our God and father, περὶ, concerning, for, RP F1859=6/13 vs. ὑπὲρ, on behalf of, for, P1904 TR F1859=7/13. A disparity with RP, R=6:9.

for: the sense is as a propitiation for, as in 1 John 2:2 in full.
Gal 1:5 ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν. to whom may there be glory throughout the durations of the ages. Amen.
Gal 1:6 Θαυμάζω ὅτι οὕτως ταχέως μετατίθεσθε ἀπὸ τοῦ καλέσαντος ὑμᾶς ἐν χάριτι χριστοῦ εἰς ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον· I am astonished that you are so quickly switching from him who called you in the grace of Christ to another gospel,
Gal 1:7 ὃ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο, εἰ μή τινές εἰσιν οἱ ταράσσοντες ὑμᾶς καὶ θέλοντες μεταστρέψαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ χριστοῦ. while there is no other, except that there are some who are troubling you and wishing to distort the gospel of Christ. while there is no other ← which other there is not or which is not another (real one).
Gal 1:8 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐὰν ἡμεῖς ἢ ἄγγελος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ {RP-text P1904 TR: εὐαγγελίζηται} [RP-marg: εὐαγγελίζεται] ὑμῖν παρ' ὃ εὐηγγελισάμεθα ὑμῖν, ἀνάθεμα ἔστω. But even if we or an angel from heaven preach a gospel to you contrary to that which we have preached to you, let him be accursed. εὐαγγελίζηται, preaches (classical subjunctive), RP-text P1904 TR F1859=9/13 vs. εὐαγγελίζεται, preaches (non-classical indicative), RP-marg F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's ckn) vs. another reading, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's d).

preach ← preaches (third person singular). The word implies a gospel.

accursed ← an accursed thing; a curse.
Gal 1:9 Ὡς προειρήκαμεν, καὶ ἄρτι πάλιν λέγω, εἴ τις ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελίζεται παρ' ὃ παρελάβετε, ἀνάθεμα ἔστω. As we have said before, and I say again now, if anyone preaches a gospel to you contrary to that which you received, let him be accursed. accursed: see Gal 1:8.
Gal 1:10 Ἄρτι γὰρ ἀνθρώπους πείθω ἢ τὸν θεόν; Ἢ ζητῶ ἀνθρώποις ἀρέσκειν; Εἰ γὰρ ἔτι ἀνθρώποις ἤρεσκον, χριστοῦ δοῦλος οὐκ ἂν ἤμην. For do I now persuade men, or God? Or do I aim to please men? Well, if I were still trying to please men, I would not be a servant of Christ. aim ← seek.

trying to please: conative imperfect.
Gal 1:11 Γνωρίζω δὲ ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τὸ εὐαγγελισθὲν ὑπ' ἐμοῦ, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον. But I am making known to you, brothers, that the gospel which was preached by me is not according to man, according to man: i.e. according to man's doctrines.
Gal 1:12 Οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐγὼ παρὰ ἀνθρώπου παρέλαβον αὐτό, οὔτε ἐδιδάχθην, ἀλλὰ δι' ἀποκαλύψεως Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ. for I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came through Jesus Christ's revelation.
Gal 1:13 Ἠκούσατε γὰρ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀναστροφήν ποτε ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ, ὅτι καθ' ὑπερβολὴν ἐδίωκον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ ἐπόρθουν αὐτήν· For you have heard of my previous manner of life in Judaism, how I used to persecute the church of God wantonly and ravage it, previous ← at one time.

how ← that.

church: see Matt 16:18.

wantonly ← exceedingly.
Gal 1:14 καὶ προέκοπτον ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς συνηλικιώτας ἐν τῷ γένει μου, περισσοτέρως ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τῶν πατρικῶν μου παραδόσεων. and how I progressed in Judaism beyond many contemporaries of my race, being exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. exceedingly zealous for ← excessively a zealot of.
Gal 1:15 Ὅτε δὲ εὐδόκησεν ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἀφορίσας με ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός μου καὶ καλέσας διὰ τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ, But when God, who set me apart from my mother's womb and called me through his grace, was pleased
Gal 1:16 ἀποκαλύψαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ ἵνα εὐαγγελίζωμαι αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, εὐθέως οὐ προσανεθέμην σαρκὶ καὶ αἵματι· to reveal his son within me – in order that I should preach him among the Gentiles – I immediately made a point of not consulting with flesh and blood, immediately made a point of not consulting ← immediately did not consult. Note that this is a different nuance to did not immediately consult.
Gal 1:17 οὐδὲ ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα πρὸς τοὺς πρὸ ἐμοῦ ἀποστόλους, {RP P1904: ἀλλὰ} [TR: ἀλλ'] ἀπῆλθον εἰς Ἀραβίαν, καὶ πάλιν ὑπέστρεψα εἰς Δαμασκόν. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to the apostles who were before me, but I went away into Arabia and returned again to Damascus. ἀλλὰ, but (unapocopated), RP P1904 F1859=12/13 vs. ἀλλ', but (apocopated), TR F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's d).
Gal 1:18 Ἔπειτα μετὰ ἔτη τρία ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἱστορῆσαι Πέτρον, καὶ ἐπέμεινα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡμέρας δεκαπέντε. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to acquaint myself with Peter, and I remained with him for fifteen days,
Gal 1:19 Ἕτερον δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων οὐκ εἶδον, εἰ μὴ Ἰάκωβον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ κυρίου. but I did not see any other of the apostles except James, the Lord's brother.
Gal 1:20 Ἃ δὲ γράφω ὑμῖν, ἰδοὺ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ ὅτι οὐ ψεύδομαι. Now with respect to what I am writing to you, look, I swear before God that I am not lying.
Gal 1:21 Ἔπειτα ἦλθον εἰς τὰ κλίματα τῆς Συρίας καὶ τῆς Κιλικίας. Then I went to the districts of Syria and Cilicia,
Gal 1:22 Ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν χριστῷ· and I was unknown by sight to the churches of Judaea which are in Christ, churches: see Matt 16:18.
Gal 1:23 μόνον δὲ ἀκούοντες ἦσαν ὅτι Ὁ διώκων ἡμᾶς ποτέ, νῦν εὐαγγελίζεται τὴν πίστιν ἥν ποτε ἐπόρθει. except that they kept hearing, “He who persecuted us at one time is now preaching the faith which previously he ravaged.” previously ← at one time .
Gal 1:24 Καὶ ἐδόξαζον ἐν ἐμοὶ τὸν θεόν. And they glorified God because of me.
Gal 2:1 Ἔπειτα διὰ δεκατεσσάρων ἐτῶν πάλιν ἀνέβην εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα μετὰ Βαρνάβα, συμπαραλαβὼν καὶ Τίτον· Then after fourteen years I went up to Jerusalem again with Barnabas, taking Titus along too, taking ← having taken, a good example of a contemporaneous aorist participle. Compare Matt 23:20.
Gal 2:2 ἀνέβην δὲ κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν, καὶ ἀνεθέμην αὐτοῖς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ὃ κηρύσσω ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, κατ' ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς δοκοῦσιν, μήπως εἰς κενὸν τρέχω ἢ ἔδραμον. and I went up by revelation, and I put the gospel which I proclaim among the Gentiles to them, but privately to those who are held in regard, so that I might not run or have run in vain.
Gal 2:3 Ἀλλ' οὐδὲ Τίτος ὁ σὺν ἐμοί, Ἕλλην ὤν, ἠναγκάσθη περιτμηθῆναι· Moreover, Titus, who was with me, although he was a Greek, was not compelled to be circumcised at all, although: concessive use of the participle.

not ... at all ← not even, but the word can simply be a negative, somewhat stronger than just οὐ.
Gal 2:4 διὰ δὲ τοὺς παρεισάκτους ψευδαδέλφους, οἵτινες παρεισῆλθον κατασκοπῆσαι τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἡμῶν ἣν ἔχομεν ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ἵνα ἡμᾶς καταδουλώσωνται· but we watched out because of the false brothers who had been brought in surreptitiously, who had come in stealthily to spy out our freedom which we have in Christ Jesus, in order to enslave us to themselves, to themselves: from the middle voice of the verb.
Gal 2:5 οἷς οὐδὲ πρὸς ὥραν εἴξαμεν τῇ ὑποταγῇ, ἵνα ἡ ἀλήθεια τοῦ εὐαγγελίου διαμείνῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς. to whom we did not yield in submission even for an hour, in order that the truth of the gospel might maintain its ground for you.
Gal 2:6 Ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν δοκούντων εἶναί τι - ὁποῖοί ποτε ἦσαν οὐδέν μοι διαφέρει· πρόσωπον θεὸς ἀνθρώπου οὐ λαμβάνει - ἐμοὶ γὰρ οἱ δοκοῦντες οὐδὲν προσανέθεντο· Then of those considered to be of importance – whatever they once were doesn't make any difference to me; God does not show partiality to anyone – for those who were held in high regard did not contribute anything as far as I'm concerned, of importance ← something.

show partiality to anyonetake (the) face of a man.

as far as I'm concerned ← to / for me. We take it as dative of reference rather than an indirect object or dative of advantage.

The main clause in this long ↴
Gal 2:7 ἀλλὰ τοὐναντίον, ἰδόντες ὅτι πεπίστευμαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς ἀκροβυστίας, καθὼς Πέτρος τῆς περιτομῆς - but on the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel of the uncircumcision, as Peter with that of the circumcision ↳ sentence is of those considered to be of importance, James and Cephas and John gave ... (Gal 2:9).

uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.
Gal 2:8 ὁ γὰρ ἐνεργήσας Πέτρῳ εἰς ἀποστολὴν τῆς περιτομῆς, ἐνήργησεν καὶ ἐμοὶ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη - (for he who had been active in Peter for the apostleship of the circumcision had also been active in me for the Gentiles),
Gal 2:9 καὶ γνόντες τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι, Ἰάκωβος καὶ Κηφᾶς καὶ Ἰωάννης, οἱ δοκοῦντες στύλοι εἶναι, δεξιὰς ἔδωκαν ἐμοὶ καὶ Βαρνάβᾳ κοινωνίας, ἵνα ἡμεῖς {RP-text: μὲν} [RP-marg P1904 TR: - ] εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, αὐτοὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν περιτομήν· and when they knew the grace which had been given to me, of these people James and Cephas and John, who were considered to be pillars, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, so that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision, μὲν, (we) on the one hand: present in RP-text F1859=6/14 vs. absent in RP-marg P1904 TR F1859=8/14. A disparity with RP-text, R=6:10.

when they knew: we regard γνόντες, as ἰδόντες in Gal 2:7, as referring back to all in Gal 2:6, not forward to just James and Cephas and John.

of these people: we supply this phrase as a clear clause divider in this long sentence, thus preventing misreading such as given to me, James and Cephas ....

right handright hands.
Gal 2:10 μόνον τῶν πτωχῶν ἵνα μνημονεύωμεν, ὃ καὶ ἐσπούδασα αὐτὸ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι. only saying that we should remember the poor, just a thing which I indeed made a point of doing. indeed ← also.

made a point of doing ← was diligent (aorist) to do (aorist).
Gal 2:11 Ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν Πέτρος εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν, κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτῷ ἀντέστην, ὅτι κατεγνωσμένος ἦν. But when Peter came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he was at fault,
Gal 2:12 Πρὸ τοῦ γὰρ ἐλθεῖν τινας ἀπὸ Ἰακώβου, μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν· ὅτε δὲ ἦλθον, ὑπέστελλεν καὶ ἀφώριζεν ἑαυτόν, φοβούμενος τοὺς ἐκ περιτομῆς. because prior to some others coming from James, he was eating with the Gentiles. But when they came, he set about drawing away and separating himself, fearing those of the circumcision, set about drawing away: inceptive imperfect.
Gal 2:13 Καὶ συνυπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ Ἰουδαῖοι, ὥστε καὶ Βαρνάβας συναπήχθη αὐτῶν τῇ ὑποκρίσει. and the remaining Jews also joined him in the hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was actually led away with them by their hypocrisy. even ← also.

actually: from the indicative verb (as opposed to the less emphatic infinitive construction).
Gal 2:14 Ἀλλ' ὅτε εἶδον ὅτι οὐκ ὀρθοποδοῦσιν πρὸς τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, εἶπον τῷ Πέτρῳ ἔμπροσθεν πάντων, Εἰ σύ, Ἰουδαῖος ὑπάρχων, ἐθνικῶς ζῇς καὶ οὐκ Ἰουδαϊκῶς, τί τὰ ἔθνη ἀναγκάζεις Ἰουδαΐζειν; But when I saw that they were not progressing straight towards the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter in the presence of them all, “If you, being a Jew, live in the Gentile way and not in the Jewish way, why do you compel the Gentiles to act in the Jewish way?” Punctuation: the direct speech which we close here could extend to verse 17 or verse 21.
Gal 2:15 Ἡμεῖς φύσει Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἐθνῶν ἁμαρτωλοί, We are Jews by nature and not sinners of Gentile stock,
Gal 2:16 εἰδότες {RP TR: - } [P1904: δὲ] ὅτι οὐ δικαιοῦται ἄνθρωπος ἐξ ἔργων νόμου, ἐὰν μὴ διὰ πίστεως Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐπιστεύσαμεν, ἵνα δικαιωθῶμεν ἐκ πίστεως χριστοῦ, καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου· διότι οὐ δικαιωθήσεται ἐξ ἔργων νόμου πᾶσα σάρξ. {RP TR: and} [P1904: and] we are aware that a man is not justified by works of the law but by faith in Jesus Christ, and we have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified through faith in Christ and not by works of the law, because no flesh will be justified by works of the law. δὲ, but: absent in RP TR F1859=12/13 vs. present in P1904 F1859=0/13 vs. οὖν, therefore, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's f).

in (2x)of, which we take as an objective genitive.

Christ Jesus: AV differs in word order, Jesus Christ.
Gal 2:17 Εἰ δέ, ζητοῦντες δικαιωθῆναι ἐν χριστῷ, εὑρέθημεν καὶ αὐτοὶ ἁμαρτωλοί, ἆρα χριστὸς ἁμαρτίας διάκονος; Μὴ γένοιτο. But if while we seek to be justified in Christ, we ourselves are for our part identified as sinners, is then Christ a minister of sin? Far from it! for our part ← also.

identified ← found.

far from it ← may it not become / be.
Gal 2:18 Εἰ γὰρ ἃ κατέλυσα, ταῦτα πάλιν οἰκοδομῶ, παραβάτην ἐμαυτὸν συνίστημι. For if I rebuild those things which I demolished, I countenance myself as a transgressor.
Gal 2:19 Ἐγὼ γὰρ διὰ νόμου νόμῳ ἀπέθανον, ἵνα θεῷ ζήσω. For I through the law have died to the law in order that I might live to God. have died ← died, but see Matt 2:2.
Gal 2:20 Χριστῷ συνεσταύρωμαι· ζῶ δέ, οὐκέτι ἐγώ, ζῇ δὲ ἐν ἐμοὶ χριστός· ὃ δὲ νῦν ζῶ ἐν σαρκί, ἐν πίστει ζῶ τῇ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ, τοῦ ἀγαπήσαντός με καὶ παραδόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ. I have been crucified with Christ. I live, but no longer I, but Christ lives in me. The life I now lead in the flesh, I lead in faith in the son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me. lead (2x)live.

faith in ← faith of, as in Gal 2:16.
Gal 2:21 Οὐκ ἀθετῶ τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ· εἰ γὰρ διὰ νόμου δικαιοσύνη, ἄρα χριστὸς δωρεὰν ἀπέθανεν. I am not setting aside the grace of God, for if righteousness is through the law, then Christ died in vain.
Gal 3:1 Ὦ ἀνόητοι Γαλάται, τίς ὑμᾶς ἐβάσκανεν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ μὴ πείθεσθαι, οἷς κατ' ὀφθαλμοὺς Ἰησοῦς χριστὸς προεγράφη ἐν ὑμῖν ἐσταυρωμένος; O foolish Galatians, who has spellbound you into not obeying the truth, you before whose eyes Jesus Christ was exhibited, crucified among you? obeying: or believing.
Gal 3:2 Τοῦτο μόνον θέλω μαθεῖν ἀφ' ὑμῶν, ἐξ ἔργων νόμου τὸ πνεῦμα ἐλάβετε, ἢ ἐξ ἀκοῆς πίστεως; I just want to learn this from you: did you receive the spirit by works of the law or by heeding the principle of faith? by heeding the principle of faith ← out of a report of faith.
Gal 3:3 Οὕτως ἀνόητοί ἐστε; Ἐναρξάμενοι πνεύματι, νῦν σαρκὶ ἐπιτελεῖσθε; Are you so foolish? Having started in the spirit are you now going to finish in the flesh?
Gal 3:4 Τοσαῦτα ἐπάθετε εἰκῇ; Εἴγε καὶ εἰκῇ. Have you suffered so much in vain? – if it was in vain, at least. so much ← so many (things).

at least: this comes from the suffix γε, with καὶ contributing to the idiom.
Gal 3:5 Ὁ οὖν ἐπιχορηγῶν ὑμῖν τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ ἐνεργῶν δυνάμεις ἐν ὑμῖν, ἐξ ἔργων νόμου, ἢ ἐξ ἀκοῆς πίστεως; So he who provides you with the spirit, and who works deeds of power among you, is it all by works of the law or by heeding the principle of faith?
Gal 3:6 Καθὼς Ἀβραὰμ ἐπίστευσεν τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. Just as Abraham believed God, and it was imputed to him as righteousness, Gen 15:6.
Gal 3:7 Γινώσκετε ἄρα ὅτι οἱ ἐκ πίστεως, οὗτοί εἰσιν υἱοὶ Ἀβραάμ. so know that it is those who are of faith who are the sons of Abraham, who ← these.
Gal 3:8 Προϊδοῦσα δὲ ἡ γραφὴ ὅτι ἐκ πίστεως δικαιοῖ τὰ ἔθνη ὁ θεός, προευηγγελίσατο τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ὅτι {RP P1904 S1550: Ἐνευλογηθήσονται} [E1624 S1894: Ἐυλογηθήσονται] ἐν σοὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη. and the scripture, having foreseen that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, proclaimed the gospel beforehand to Abraham and said, “All the Gentiles will be blessed through you”, ἐνευλογηθήσονται, would be blessed in (compound verb in addition to preposition), RP P1904 S1550 F1859=11/13 (incl. c(tacite)) vs. εὐλογηθήσονται, would be blessed, E1624 S1894 F1859=2/13 (Scrivener's hn).

Gen 12:3, Gen 22:18.

through ← in.
Gal 3:9 Ὥστε οἱ ἐκ πίστεως εὐλογοῦνται σὺν τῷ πιστῷ Ἀβραάμ. so that those who are of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham. of ← out of.
Gal 3:10 Ὅσοι γὰρ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἰσίν, ὑπὸ κατάραν εἰσίν· γέγραπται γάρ, Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου, τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά. For all who are of works of the law are under a curse, for it stands written: “Cursed is everyone who does not remain in all the things written in the book of the law, to do them.” Deut 27:26.

all ← as many as.
Gal 3:11 Ὅτι δὲ ἐν νόμῳ οὐδεὶς δικαιοῦται παρὰ τῷ θεῷ, δῆλον· ὅτι Ὁ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται· But that no-one is justified with God by the law is clear, because the righteous shall live by faith. Hab 2:4.
Gal 3:12 ὁ δὲ νόμος οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ πίστεως, ἀλλ' Ὁ ποιήσας αὐτὰ ἄνθρωπος ζήσεται ἐν αὐτοῖς. However, the law is not by faith, but the man who does the requirements will live by them. RP TBS-TR make the quotation direct speech; we and P1904 take it as indirect speech.

Lev 18:5.

the requirementsthem (neuter).
Gal 3:13 Χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ἐξηγόρασεν ἐκ τῆς κατάρας τοῦ νόμου, γενόμενος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατάρα· γέγραπται γάρ, Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου· Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for our sakes. For it stands written: “Cursed is everyone who hangs on wood”, Deut 21:23.

hangs ← is hung, is suspended.
Gal 3:14 ἵνα εἰς τὰ ἔθνη ἡ εὐλογία τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ γένηται ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ἵνα τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ πνεύματος λάβωμεν διὰ τῆς πίστεως. this being in order that the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles by Christ Jesus, so that we might receive the promise of the spirit through faith. by ← in.

Christ Jesus: AV differs in word order, Jesus Christ.
Gal 3:15 Ἀδελφοί, κατὰ ἄνθρωπον λέγω· ὅμως ἀνθρώπου κεκυρωμένην διαθήκην οὐδεὶς ἀθετεῖ ἢ ἐπιδιατάσσεται. Brothers, I speak humanly: it is just like the way no-one annuls or adds to a man's covenant which has been confirmed. it is just like the way: For our translation (though not in our reproduction of the RP Greek text) here and 1 Cor 14:7, but not John 12:42, we re-accent the Greek as ὁμῶς, likewise, so not ὅμως, although, nevertheless. RP P1904 and TBS-TR differ, but given that the original Greek was unaccented (we presume), we supply accents as seems most consistent with the syntax and context. AV differs (though it be but a man's covenant ...), which introduces an artificial apodosis to the concessive clause and strains the accusative διαθήκην. An accentuation divergence from RP P1904 TBS-TR.
Gal 3:16 Τῷ δὲ Ἀβραὰμ {RP TR: ἐρρήθησαν} [P1904: ἐρρέθησαν] αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι, καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ. Οὐ λέγει, Καὶ τοῖς σπέρμασιν, ὡς ἐπὶ πολλῶν, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐφ' ἑνός, Καὶ τῷ σπέρματί σου, ὅς ἐστιν χριστός. Now the promises were made to Abraham and his seed. It does not say, “And to the seeds”, as speaking of many, but as speaking of one, “And to your seed”, which is Christ. ἐρρήθησαν, were spoken (classical spelling), RP TR F1859=8/13 vs. ἐρρέθησαν, were spoken (non-classical spelling), P1904 F1859=4/13 (Scrivener's cefh) vs. another spelling, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's d).

Gen 21:12.

promises: note the plural. The promise expounded by Paul here does not exclude other promises, which ↴

which ← who.
Gal 3:17 Τοῦτο δὲ λέγω, διαθήκην προκεκυρωμένην ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς χριστὸν ὁ μετὰ ἔτη τετρακόσια καὶ τριάκοντα γεγονὼς νόμος οὐκ ἀκυροῖ, εἰς τὸ καταργῆσαι τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν. And I say this: the law, which came four hundred and thirty years afterwards, does not annul a covenant confirmed beforehand by God until Christ, an annulment which would break the promise. ↳ certainly involve Abraham's natural seed, as in, e.g., Gen 12:2, where Abraham is to be made a great nation, and Gen 15:5, where the seed is as innumerable as the stars. See also Luke 1:55, referring to the fathers.

until ← into, but also until, up to, as in Eph 1:14 (also AV), Gal 3:23, 1 Thes 4:15, 2 Tim 1:12, 2 Pet 3:7.

which wouldto (the intent of).
Gal 3:18 Εἰ γὰρ ἐκ νόμου ἡ κληρονομία, οὐκέτι ἐξ {RP P1904c TR: ἐπαγγελίας} [P1904u: ἐπαγγγελίας]· τῷ δὲ Ἀβραὰμ δι' ἐπαγγελίας κεχάρισται ὁ θεός. For if the inheritance is by the law, it is no longer by a promise. But God has bestowed a gift on Abraham through a promise.
Gal 3:19 Τί οὖν ὁ νόμος; Τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη, ἄχρι οὗ ἔλθῃ τὸ σπέρμα ᾧ ἐπήγγελται, διαταγεὶς δι' ἀγγέλων ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου. What about the law, then? It was added on account of transgressions, until the seed should come to him to whom the promise was made, the law having been ratified by angels through the agency of a mediator. agency ← hand.
Gal 3:20 Ὁ δὲ μεσίτης ἑνὸς οὐκ ἔστιν, ὁ δὲ θεὸς εἷς ἐστίν. Now the mediator is not of one party or the other, but God is one of the parties.
Gal 3:21 Ὁ οὖν νόμος κατὰ τῶν ἐπαγγελιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ; Μὴ γένοιτο. Εἰ γὰρ ἐδόθη νόμος ὁ δυνάμενος ζῳοποιῆσαι, ὄντως ἂν ἐκ νόμου ἦν ἡ δικαιοσύνη. Is then the law contrary to the promises of God? Far from it. For if a law had been given which was able to give life, then righteousness really would have been by the law. far from it ← may it not become / be.
Gal 3:22 Ἀλλὰ συνέκλεισεν ἡ γραφὴ τὰ πάντα ὑπὸ ἁμαρτίαν, ἵνα ἡ ἐπαγγελία ἐκ πίστεως Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ δοθῇ τοῖς πιστεύουσιν. But the scripture has concluded everything under sin, in order that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe, in ← of, as in Gal 2:16.
Gal 3:23 Πρὸ {RP TR: τοῦ δὲ} [P1904: δὲ τοῦ] ἐλθεῖν τὴν πίστιν, ὑπὸ νόμον ἐφρουρούμεθα, συγκεκλεισμένοι εἰς τὴν μέλλουσαν πίστιν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι. whereas before faith had come, we were kept under the law, held in check until the coming principle of faith should be revealed. τοῦ δὲ, the (faith) + but, RP TR F1859=11/14 vs. δὲ τοῦ, but + the (faith), P1904 F1859=1/14 (Scrivener's g) vs. another reading, F1859=2/14 (Scrivener's ad*).

held in check ← shut up, confined.
Gal 3:24 Ὥστε ὁ νόμος παιδαγωγὸς ἡμῶν γέγονεν εἰς χριστόν, ἵνα ἐκ πίστεως δικαιωθῶμεν. So as a result, the law became our educator to Christ, in order that we should be justified by faith. educator: in earlier usage, a guardian, an escort to school; later the tutor himself.
Gal 3:25 Ἐλθούσης δὲ τῆς πίστεως, οὐκέτι ὑπὸ παιδαγωγόν ἐσμεν. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under an educator. educator: see Gal 3:24.
Gal 3:26 Πάντες γὰρ υἱοὶ θεοῦ ἐστὲ διὰ τῆς πίστεως ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.
Gal 3:27 Ὅσοι γὰρ εἰς χριστὸν ἐβαπτίσθητε, χριστὸν ἐνεδύσασθε. For any of you who have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. any of you who ← as many as ... you.
Gal 3:28 Οὐκ ἔνι Ἰουδαῖος οὐδὲ Ἕλλην, οὐκ ἔνι δοῦλος οὐδὲ ἐλεύθερος, οὐκ ἔνι ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ· πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς εἷς ἐστὲ ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
Gal 3:29 Εἰ δὲ ὑμεῖς χριστοῦ, ἄρα τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ σπέρμα ἐστέ, καὶ κατ' ἐπαγγελίαν κληρονόμοι. And if you are of Christ, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to the promise.
Gal 4:1 Λέγω δέ, ἐφ' ὅσον χρόνον ὁ κληρονόμος νήπιός ἐστιν, οὐδὲν διαφέρει δούλου, κύριος πάντων ὤν· Now I say that as long as the heir is a child, he is in no way different to a slave, although he may be lord of all, child ← infant, literally not yet able to speak, but presumably extending into later childhood.

although: concessive use of the participle.
Gal 4:2 ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ ἐπιτρόπους ἐστὶν καὶ οἰκονόμους, ἄχρι τῆς προθεσμίας τοῦ πατρός. but he is under guardians and custodians until the day appointed beforehand by the father.
Gal 4:3 Οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς, ὅτε ἦμεν νήπιοι, ὑπὸ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου ἦμεν δεδουλωμένοι· So we too, when we were children, were enslaved under the rudiments of the world.
Gal 4:4 ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον, But when the fulness of time had come, God sent out his son, born of a woman, born under the law, born (2x): not the usual word for born in the NT (γεννάωγεγεννημένος or γεννηθείς), but from γίνομαι, a word often meaning come, become, be made.
Gal 4:5 ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον ἐξαγοράσῃ, ἵνα τὴν υἱοθεσίαν ἀπολάβωμεν. to redeem those under the law, so that we might receive the adoption, adoption: or sonship.
Gal 4:6 Ὅτι δέ ἐστε υἱοί, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν, κρᾶζον, Ἀββᾶ, ὁ πατήρ. and in that you are sons, God has sent the spirit of his son into your hearts, crying out, “Abba, father”, abba ← father (Aramaic, determined state, used as the vocative, as in the Greek that follows).
Gal 4:7 Ὥστε οὐκέτι εἶ δοῦλος, ἀλλ' υἱός· εἰ δὲ υἱός, καὶ κληρονόμος θεοῦ διὰ χριστοῦ. so that you are no longer a slave but a son, and if a son, then an heir of God's through Christ.
Gal 4:8 Ἀλλὰ τότε μέν, οὐκ εἰδότες θεόν, ἐδουλεύσατε τοῖς μὴ φύσει οὖσιν θεοῖς· But at that time, when you did not know God, you served gods who by nature do not exist.
Gal 4:9 νῦν δέ, γνόντες θεόν, μᾶλλον δὲ γνωσθέντες ὑπὸ θεοῦ, πῶς ἐπιστρέφετε πάλιν ἐπὶ τὰ ἀσθενῆ καὶ πτωχὰ στοιχεῖα, οἷς πάλιν ἄνωθεν δουλεύειν θέλετε; But now that you do know God, or rather are known by God, how can you turn again to the powerless and weak rudiments which you wish to serve all over again? do know ... are known: aorist participles, but in NT may refer to a present timeframe (as in Matt 23:20).
Gal 4:10 Ἡμέρας παρατηρεῖσθε, καὶ μῆνας, καὶ καιρούς, καὶ ἐνιαυτούς. You wrongly observe days and months and seasons and years. wrongly observe: either observe, though you shouldn't, or minutely observe (whether it is right to observe at all or not). [JWB-II] p.xxii translates misobserve.
Gal 4:11 Φοβοῦμαι ὑμᾶς, μήπως εἰκῇ κεκοπίακα εἰς ὑμᾶς. I fear for you, that I may have toiled for you in vain. I fear for you ← I fear you.
Gal 4:12 Γίνεσθε ὡς ἐγώ, ὅτι κἀγὼ ὡς ὑμεῖς, ἀδελφοί, δέομαι ὑμῶν. Οὐδέν με ἠδικήσατε· Be like me, for I was also as you are, brothers, I beseech you. You haven't wronged me in any way. was also as you are: or am as you were, or perhaps am as you ought to be, or am human as you are.
Gal 4:13 οἴδατε δὲ ὅτι δι' ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς εὐηγγελισάμην ὑμῖν τὸ πρότερον. And you know that I preached the gospel to you the first time on account of a physical ailment. on account of: perhaps during, at the time of.

a physical ailment ← a weakness of the flesh.
Gal 4:14 Καὶ τὸν πειρασμόν μου τὸν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου οὐκ ἐξουθενήσατε οὐδὲ ἐξεπτύσατε, ἀλλ' ὡς ἄγγελον θεοῦ ἐδέξασθέ με, ὡς χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν. And you did not disdain my physical trial, nor did you eject me, but you received me like an angel of God, as Christ Jesus even. my physical trial ← my trial in my flesh.

eject ← spit out.

an angel: or messenger.
Gal 4:15 Τίς οὖν ἦν ὁ μακαρισμὸς ὑμῶν; Μαρτυρῶ γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι, εἰ δυνατόν, τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ὑμῶν ἐξορύξαντες ἂν ἐδώκατέ μοι. What then was your blessing? For I bear witness that if it had been possible you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me. There is reason to believe Paul's eyesight was very poor: Acts 23:5, 2 Cor 12:7, Gal 6:11.
Gal 4:16 Ὥστε ἐχθρὸς ὑμῶν γέγονα ἀληθεύων ὑμῖν; Have I as a result become your enemy by telling you the truth? by telling: gerundial use of the participle.
Gal 4:17 Ζηλοῦσιν ὑμᾶς οὐ καλῶς, ἀλλὰ ἐκκλεῖσαι {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: ὑμᾶς} [E1624: ἡμᾶς] θέλουσιν, ἵνα αὐτοὺς ζηλοῦτε. There are those who are zealous for you in a way which is not good. Rather, they wish to isolate {RP P1904 S1550 S1894: you} [E1624: us] so that you should be zealous for them. ὑμᾶς, you, RP P1904 S1550 S1894 F1859=13/13 vs. ἡμᾶς, us, E1624 F1859=0/13.

there are those whothey.

isolate ← exclude, either from Paul, or from his gospel.
Gal 4:18 Καλὸν δὲ τὸ ζηλοῦσθαι ἐν καλῷ πάντοτε, καὶ μὴ μόνον ἐν τῷ παρεῖναί με πρὸς ὑμᾶς. But it is good to be impelled by zeal for a good thing at all times, and not only while I am present with you, RP TBS-TR AV end the sentence at this verse, not at Gal 4:19. We, with P1904, take Gal 4:19 with this verse and end the sentence there. So AV differs.
Gal 4:19 Τεκνία μου, οὓς πάλιν ὠδίνω, ἄχρι οὗ μορφωθῇ χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, my little children, you with whom I am again in labour, until Christ takes shape in you. Punctuation: see previous verse.

takes shape ← is formed, is given shape.
Gal 4:20 ἤθελον δὲ παρεῖναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἄρτι, καὶ ἀλλάξαι τὴν φωνήν μου, ὅτι ἀποροῦμαι ἐν ὑμῖν. And I could wish to be present with you now, and to change my tone, because I am at a loss with you. could wish ← was wishing, but we take it as a potential clause without ἄν. Compare Rom 9:3.
Gal 4:21 Λέγετέ μοι, οἱ ὑπὸ νόμον θέλοντες εἶναι, τὸν νόμον οὐκ ἀκούετε; Tell me, you who wish to be under the law, do you not hear what the law says?
Gal 4:22 Γέγραπται γάρ, ὅτι Ἀβραὰμ δύο υἱοὺς ἔσχεν· ἕνα ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης, καὶ ἕνα ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. For it stands written that Abraham had two sons, one from the maidservant and one from the free woman.
Gal 4:23 Ἀλλ' ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται, ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας διὰ τῆς ἐπαγγελίας. But while he who was from the maidservant was born according to the flesh, he who was from the free woman, was born through the promise.
Gal 4:24 Ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα· αὗται γάρ εἰσιν {RP P1904: - } [TR: αἱ] δύο διαθῆκαι· μία μὲν ἀπὸ ὄρους Σινᾶ, εἰς δουλείαν γεννῶσα, ἥτις ἐστὶν Ἅγαρ. Now these things are allegorical. For these two women represent {RP P1904: - } [TR: the] two covenants, one from Mount Sinai, giving birth into bondage, and she is Hagar. αἱ, the (two): absent in RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. present in TR F1859=0/13.

represent ← are.
Gal 4:25 Τὸ γὰρ Ἅγαρ Σινᾶ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ, συστοιχεῖ δὲ τῇ νῦν Ἱερουσαλήμ, δουλεύει δὲ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς. For Hagar represents Mount Sinai in Arabia, and corresponds to Jerusalem of the present, and she is in bondage with her children. represents ← is.
Gal 4:26 Ἡ δὲ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστίν, ἥτις ἐστὶν μήτηρ πάντων ἡμῶν· But Jerusalem of above is free, and she is the mother of us all.
Gal 4:27 γέγραπται γάρ, Εὐφράνθητι, στεῖρα, ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα· ῥῆξον καὶ βόησον, ἡ οὐκ ὠδίνουσα· ὅτι πολλὰ τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐρήμου μᾶλλον ἢ τῆς ἐχούσης τὸν ἄνδρα. For it stands written:

“Rejoice, you who are barren

And cannot give birth;

Break out and cry out,

You who cannot go into labour,

Because the children of the desolate will be many more

Than those of her who has a husband.”

Isa 54:1.
Gal 4:28 Ἡμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, κατὰ Ἰσαάκ, ἐπαγγελίας τέκνα ἐσμέν. And we, brothers, are children of the promise, consistently with Isaac. consistently with Isaac ← Isaac-wise. Periphrasis for an adverb.
Gal 4:29 Ἀλλ' ὥσπερ τότε ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθεὶς ἐδίωκεν τὸν κατὰ πνεῦμα, οὕτως καὶ νῦν. But as at that time the one born according to the flesh persecuted the one according to the spirit, so it is now too.
Gal 4:30 Ἀλλὰ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή; Ἔκβαλε τὴν παιδίσκην καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς, οὐ {RP TR: γὰρ μὴ} [P1904: μὴ γὰρ] {RP TR: κληρονομήσῃ} [P1904: κληρονομήσει] ὁ υἱὸς τῆς παιδίσκης μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. But what does the scripture say? “Cast out the maidservant and her son. For the son of the maidservant will certainly not have any inheritance with the son of the free woman.” γὰρ μὴ, for + not, RP TR F1859=12/13 vs. μὴ γὰρ, not + for, P1904 F1859=0/13 vs. another reading, F1859=1/13 (Scrivener's m).

κληρονομήσῃ, will inherit (classical subjunctive), RP TR F1859=11/14 vs. κληρονομήσει, will inherit (non-classical future indicative), P1904 F1859=3/14 (Scrivener's k*mn).

Gen 21:10.
Gal 4:31 Ἄρα, ἀδελφοί, οὐκ ἐσμὲν παιδίσκης τέκνα, ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. So then, brothers, we are not children of a maidservant, but of the free woman.
Gal 5:1 Τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ οὖν ᾗ χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ἠλευθέρωσεν, στήκετε, καὶ μὴ πάλιν ζυγῷ δουλείας ἐνέχεσθε. Stand, therefore, in the freedom in which Christ has made us free, and do not be held again by the yoke of bondage.
Gal 5:2 Ἴδε, ἐγὼ Παῦλος λέγω ὑμῖν, ὅτι ἐὰν περιτέμνησθε, χριστὸς ὑμᾶς οὐδὲν ὠφελήσει. Look, I Paul say to you that if you become circumcised, Christ will not benefit you in any way.
Gal 5:3 Μαρτύρομαι δὲ πάλιν παντὶ ἀνθρώπῳ περιτεμνομένῳ, ὅτι ὀφειλέτης ἐστὶν ὅλον τὸν νόμον ποιῆσαι. And I testify again to every man who undergoes circumcision that he is a debtor to carry out the whole law.
Gal 5:4 Κατηργήθητε ἀπὸ τοῦ χριστοῦ, οἵτινες ἐν νόμῳ δικαιοῦσθε· τῆς χάριτος {RP-text P1904 TR: ἐξεπέσατε} [RP-marg: ἐξεπέσετε]. You who are justified by the law have become disconnected from Christ; you have fallen away from grace. ἐξεπέσατε, you fell (non-classical weak aorist), RP-text P1904 TR F1859=4/14 (Scrivener's b*lno) vs. ἐξεπέσετε, you fell (classical strong aorist), RP-marg F1859=10/14. A disparity with RP-text, R=6:10.
Gal 5:5 Ἡμεῖς γὰρ πνεύματι ἐκ πίστεως ἐλπίδα δικαιοσύνης ἀπεκδεχόμεθα. For we by the spirit await the hope of righteousness from faith.
Gal 5:6 Ἐν γὰρ χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ οὔτε περιτομή τι ἰσχύει, οὔτε ἀκροβυστία, ἀλλὰ πίστις δι' ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη. For in Christ Jesus neither does circumcision effect anything, nor uncircumcision, but faith put in action through love does. Christ Jesus: AV differs in word order, Jesus Christ.

uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.

put in action ← worked in.
Gal 5:7 Ἐτρέχετε καλῶς· τίς ὑμᾶς {RP P1904: ἐνέκοψεν} [TR: ἀνέκοψεν] τῇ ἀληθείᾳ μὴ πείθεσθαι; You were running well. Who has {RP P1904: undermined you in} [TR: stopped you from] obeying the truth? ἐνέκοψεν, hindered, RP P1904 F1859=13/13 vs. ἀνέκοψεν, stopped, TR F1859=0/13.

{RP P1904: undermined ← hindered, thwarted [LS]; impeded (so not quite as strong as prevented).}
Gal 5:8 Ἡ πεισμονὴ οὐκ ἐκ τοῦ καλοῦντος ὑμᾶς. That persuasion is not from the one who called you. that ← the.

called ← (is) calling, but the backdrop is a past tense context.
Gal 5:9 Μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ. A little leaven leavens the whole lump.
Gal 5:10 Ἐγὼ πέποιθα εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐν κυρίῳ, ὅτι οὐδὲν ἄλλο φρονήσετε· ὁ δὲ ταράσσων ὑμᾶς βαστάσει τὸ κρίμα, ὅστις ἂν ᾖ. I trust in you through the Lord that you have no other frame of mind, but he who is subverting you will bear his judgment, whoever he is.
Gal 5:11 Ἐγὼ δέ, ἀδελφοί, εἰ περιτομὴν ἔτι κηρύσσω, τί ἔτι διώκομαι; Ἄρα κατήργηται τὸ σκάνδαλον τοῦ σταυροῦ. And as for me, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? In that case the offensiveness of the cross would have been made inapplicable.
Gal 5:12 Ὄφελον καὶ ἀποκόψονται οἱ ἀναστατοῦντες ὑμᾶς. If only those who are unsettling you would dismember themselves! dismember themselves ← cut themselves off or be cut off, as AV, or smite the breast; [MG] has have themselves castrated. So AV differs somewhat. We take our ↴
Gal 5:13 Ὑμεῖς γὰρ ἐπ' ἐλευθερίᾳ ἐκλήθητε, ἀδελφοί· μόνον μὴ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν εἰς ἀφορμὴν τῇ σαρκί, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης δουλεύετε ἀλλήλοις. For you were called on the basis of freedom, brothers – only do not use freedom as an opportunity for the flesh, but serve one another with love. ↳ translation from [CB], which refers to a rite practiced in the Phrygian worship of Cybele, where self-castration was practised.
Gal 5:14 Ὁ γὰρ πᾶς νόμος ἐν ἑνὶ λόγῳ πληροῦται, ἐν τῷ, Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς {RP TR: ἑαυτόν} [P1904: σεαυτόν]. For the whole law is fulfilled in one saying, in, “You shall love your neighbour as yourself.” ἑαυτόν, self (non-classical third person for second person reflexive pronoun), RP TR F1859=7/13 vs. σεαυτόν, yourself (classical second person), P1904 F1859=6/13. Nearly a disparity with RP, R=8:7.

Lev 19:18.
Gal 5:15 Εἰ δὲ ἀλλήλους δάκνετε καὶ κατεσθίετε, βλέπετε μὴ {RP TR: ὑπὸ} [P1904: ὑπ'] ἀλλήλων ἀναλωθῆτε. But if you bite and devour one another, watch out that you are not destroyed by one another. ὑπὸ, by (unapocopated), RP TR F1859=10/13 vs. ὑπ', (apocopated), P1904 F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's agm).
Gal 5:16 Λέγω δέ, πνεύματι περιπατεῖτε, καὶ ἐπιθυμίαν σαρκὸς οὐ μὴ τελέσητε. And I say, walk in the spirit and do not fulfil a desire of the flesh at all.
Gal 5:17 Ἡ γὰρ σὰρξ ἐπιθυμεῖ κατὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα κατὰ τῆς σαρκός· ταῦτα δὲ ἀντίκειται ἀλλήλοις, ἵνα μὴ ἃ ἂν θέλητε, ταῦτα ποιῆτε. For the flesh has desires against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh; these are in opposition to each other, so that it is not what you want to do that you do. what ← whatever ... these (things).

that ← these (things).
Gal 5:18 Εἰ δὲ πνεύματι ἄγεσθε, οὐκ ἐστὲ ὑπὸ νόμον. But if you are led by the spirit, you are not under the law.
Gal 5:19 Φανερὰ δέ ἐστιν τὰ ἔργα τῆς σαρκός, ἅτινά ἐστιν μοιχεία, πορνεία, ἀκαθαρσία, ἀσέλγεια, And the works of the flesh are evident; they are adultery, fornication, uncleanness, licentiousness,
Gal 5:20 {RP TR: εἰδωλολατρεία} [P1904: εἰδωλολατρία], φαρμακεία, ἔχθραι, ἔρεις, ζῆλοι, θυμοί, ἐριθεῖαι, διχοστασίαι, αἱρέσεις, idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strifes, rivalries, rage, contentions, dissensions, factions, εἰδωλολατρεία, idolatry (1), RP TR F1859=4/14 (Scrivener's a*emn) vs. εἰδωλολατρία, idolatry (2), P1904 F1859=10/14. A disparity with RP, R=5:11.
Gal 5:21 φθόνοι, φόνοι, μέθαι, κῶμοι, καὶ τὰ ὅμοια τούτοις· ἃ προλέγω ὑμῖν, καθὼς καὶ προεῖπον, ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες βασιλείαν θεοῦ οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν. envyings, murders, drunkenness, orgies and similar things to these, which I am telling you about beforehand as I have also told you before, namely that those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God.
Gal 5:22 Ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη, χαρά, εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία, χρηστότης, ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστις, But the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faith,
Gal 5:23 πρᾳότης, ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος. meekness, self-control. Against such things there is no law. We deliberately retain the asyndeton in English for its (solemnizing, emotive) effect.
Gal 5:24 Οἱ δὲ τοῦ χριστοῦ, τὴν σάρκα ἐσταύρωσαν σὺν τοῖς παθήμασιν καὶ ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις. And those who are Christ's have crucified the flesh with its passions and its desires.
Gal 5:25 Εἰ ζῶμεν πνεύματι, πνεύματι καὶ στοιχῶμεν. If we live in the spirit, let us also march in line with the spirit.
Gal 5:26 Μὴ γινώμεθα κενόδοξοι, ἀλλήλους προκαλούμενοι, ἀλλήλοις φθονοῦντες. Let us not become vainglorious, challenging one another, envying one another. As in Gal 5:23, we deliberately retain the asyndeton.
Gal 6:1 Ἀδελφοί, ἐὰν καὶ προληφθῇ ἄνθρωπος ἔν τινι παραπτώματι, ὑμεῖς οἱ πνευματικοὶ καταρτίζετε τὸν τοιοῦτον ἐν πνεύματι πρᾳότητος, σκοπῶν σεαυτὸν μὴ καὶ σὺ πειρασθῇς. Brothers, if, even so, a man is caught up in some transgression, you who are spiritual restore such a person in a spirit of meekness, watching yourself, in case you too are tempted. caught up: or caught up unexpectedly / by surprise, but this sense is not clearly supported by the example in [MM].
Gal 6:2 Ἀλλήλων τὰ βάρη βαστάζετε, καὶ οὕτως ἀναπληρώσατε τὸν νόμον τοῦ χριστοῦ. Bear each other's burdens, and fulfil in this way the law of Christ. burdens ← weights, the sense being, we suggest, life's troubles. Compare Gal 6:5.
Gal 6:3 Εἰ γὰρ δοκεῖ τις εἶναί τι, μηδὲν ὤν, ἑαυτὸν φρεναπατᾷ· For if anyone thinks he is something important when he is nothing, he is deluding himself,
Gal 6:4 τὸ δὲ ἔργον ἑαυτοῦ δοκιμαζέτω ἕκαστος, καὶ τότε εἰς ἑαυτὸν μόνον τὸ καύχημα ἕξει, καὶ οὐκ εἰς τὸν ἕτερον. but let each one test his own work, and then he will have something to be proud of on his own account only, and not on that of another. something to be proud of ← boasting.
Gal 6:5 Ἕκαστος γὰρ τὸ ἴδιον φορτίον βαστάσει. For every person will bear responsibility for his own workload. workload: or burden (e.g. as borne by a beast of burden). Compare Gal 6:2 (AV translates burden in both verses). The context from Gal 6:4 justifies the words we supply here.
Gal 6:6 Κοινωνείτω δὲ ὁ κατηχούμενος τὸν λόγον τῷ κατηχοῦντι ἐν πᾶσιν ἀγαθοῖς. And let him who has the word imparted to him share with him who imparts it in all good things.
Gal 6:7 Μὴ πλανᾶσθε, θεὸς οὐ μυκτηρίζεται· ὃ γὰρ ἐὰν σπείρῃ ἄνθρωπος, τοῦτο καὶ θερίσει. Do not be led astray; God is not mocked. For whatever a man sows, that he will by the same token reap. be led astray: or go astray.

by the same token ← also.
Gal 6:8 Ὅτι ὁ σπείρων εἰς τὴν σάρκα ἑαυτοῦ, ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς θερίσει φθοράν· ὁ δὲ σπείρων εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα, ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος θερίσει ζωὴν αἰώνιον. For he who sows in his own flesh will reap corruption from his flesh, but he who sows in the spirit will reap age-abiding life from the spirit.
Gal 6:9 Τὸ δὲ καλὸν ποιοῦντες μὴ ἐκκακῶμεν· καιρῷ γὰρ ἰδίῳ θερίσομεν, μὴ ἐκλυόμενοι. And let us not be weary as we do good. For in our own time we will reap, providing we do not flag. providing: conditional use of the participle.
Gal 6:10 Ἄρα οὖν ὡς καιρὸν ἔχομεν, ἐργαζώμεθα τὸ ἀγαθὸν πρὸς πάντας, μάλιστα δὲ πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους τῆς πίστεως. So then, when we have an opportunity, let us do good work towards all, especially to those of the household of the faith. do good work ← work good.
Gal 6:11 Ἴδετε πηλίκοις ὑμῖν γράμμασιν ἔγραψα τῇ ἐμῇ χειρί. See with what large letters I have written to you in my own hand! This is consistent with Paul having very poor eyesight; see Acts 23:5, 2 Cor 12:7, Gal 4:15.
Gal 6:12 Ὅσοι θέλουσιν εὐπροσωπῆσαι ἐν σαρκί, οὗτοι ἀναγκάζουσιν ὑμᾶς περιτέμνεσθαι, μόνον ἵνα μὴ τῷ σταυρῷ τοῦ χριστοῦ διώκωνται. Those who wish to make a good showing in the flesh are the ones who are compelling you to be circumcised, but only so as not to be persecuted for the cross of Christ. those who ← as many as ... these.
Gal 6:13 Οὐδὲ γὰρ οἱ {RP P1904: περιτετμημένοι} [TR: περιτεμνόμενοι] αὐτοὶ νόμον φυλάσσουσιν, ἀλλὰ θέλουσιν ὑμᾶς περιτέμνεσθαι, ἵνα ἐν τῇ ὑμετέρᾳ σαρκὶ καυχήσωνται. For those who {RP P1904: have been} [TR: are] circumcised themselves do not even keep the law, yet they want you to be circumcised so that they may boast about your flesh. περιτετμημένοι, having been circumcised (perfect participle), RP P1904 F1859=10/13 vs. περιτεμνόμενοι, being circumcised (present participle), TR F1859=3/13 (Scrivener's dhl).
Gal 6:14 Ἐμοὶ δὲ μὴ γένοιτο καυχᾶσθαι εἰ μὴ ἐν τῷ σταυρῷ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ· δι' οὗ ἐμοὶ κόσμος ἐσταύρωται, κἀγὼ τῷ κόσμῳ. But far be it from me to boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom the world was crucified to me, and I to the world. far be it from me ← let it not be for me.
Gal 6:15 Ἐν γὰρ χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ οὔτε περιτομή τι ἰσχύει, οὔτε ἀκροβυστία, ἀλλὰ καινὴ κτίσις. For in Christ Jesus neither does circumcision effect anything nor does uncircumcision, but a new creation does. uncircumcision: see Rom 2:25.

creation: AV differs (creature).
Gal 6:16 Καὶ ὅσοι τῷ κανόνι τούτῳ στοιχήσουσιν, εἰρήνη ἐπ' αὐτούς, καὶ ἔλεος, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ τοῦ θεοῦ. And for all who march by this rule, may there be peace and mercy on them and on the Israel of God. all ← as many as.

march ← shall march (future tense).
Gal 6:17 Τοῦ λοιποῦ, κόπους μοι μηδεὶς παρεχέτω· ἐγὼ γὰρ τὰ στίγματα τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματί μου βαστάζω. From now on let no-one cause me trouble, for I bear the marks of the Lord Jesus on my body.
Gal 6:18 Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοί. Ἀμήν. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brothers. Amen.