The Far Above All Translation of the Old Testament / Tanakh

1 Samuel, 2 Samuel

Version 0.33.105, 15 February 2024


We offer a freely copyable translation of the Old Testament / Tanakh based on the Masoretic Text. The translation follows the Masoretic Text, ketiv or qeré (which will be indicated), and vowels (but we retain freedom regarding word grouping), except that the changes made by the Sopherim are reversed (see Companion Bible Appendices 32 and 33). Textual and explanatory remarks may be made in the notes. Our translation may be freely copied (see copyright notices below).


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The Introduction, the English translation and notes (referred to as "this text" below) Copyright © 2012-2022 by Graham G. Thomason. Anyone is permitted to copy and distribute this text or any portion of this text. It may be incorporated in a larger work, and/or quoted from, stored in a database retrieval system, photocopied, reprinted, or otherwise duplicated by anyone without prior notification, permission, compensation to the holder, or any other restrictions. All rights to this text are released to everyone and no-one can reduce these rights at any time. The permitted use or reproduction of the above-mentioned text does not imply doctrinal or theological agreement by the present translator and publisher with whatever views may be maintained or promulgated by other publishers. For the purpose of assigning responsibility, it is requested that the present translator's name and the title associated with this text and its availability at as well as this disclaimer be retained in any subsequent reproduction of this material.
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Please see the separate Introduction to this Hebrew / Aramaic text and translation.

1 Sam 1:1 ‫וַיְהִי֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶחָ֜ד מִן־הָרָמָתַ֛יִם צוֹפִ֖ים מֵהַ֣ר אֶפְרָ֑יִם וּשְׁמ֡וֹ אֶ֠לְקָנָה בֶּן־יְרֹחָ֧ם בֶּן־אֱלִיה֛וּא בֶּן־תֹּ֥חוּ בֶן־צ֖וּף אֶפְרָתִֽי׃‬ Now there was a certain man from Ramathaim-Zophim, from Mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite, Ramathaim-Zophim ← the Ramathaim-Zophim.
1 Sam 1:2 ‫וְלוֹ֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י נָשִׁ֔ים שֵׁ֤ם אַחַת֙ חַנָּ֔ה וְשֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית פְּנִנָּ֑ה וַיְהִ֤י לִפְנִנָּה֙ יְלָדִ֔ים וּלְחַנָּ֖ה אֵ֥ין יְלָדִֽים׃‬ and he had two wives. The name of the first was Hannah and the name of the second was Peninnah. And Peninnah had children, but Hannah did not have any children. of the first ← of one.
1 Sam 1:3 ‫וְעָלָה֩ הָאִ֨ישׁ הַה֤וּא מֵֽעִירוֹ֙ מִיָּמִ֣ים ׀ יָמִ֔ימָה לְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֧ת וְלִזְבֹּ֛חַ לַיהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת בְּשִׁלֹ֑ה וְשָׁ֞ם שְׁנֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עֵלִ֗י חָפְנִי֙ וּפִ֣נְחָ֔ס כֹּהֲנִ֖ים לַיהוָֽה׃‬ And this man went up from his city every year to worship and to sacrifice to the Lord of hosts in Shiloh, where Eli's two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests to the Lord, were. this man ← that man.

every year ← from days to days. Elucidated as yearly in 1 Sam 1:7.

Phinehas: see Ex 6:25.
1 Sam 1:4 ‫וַיְהִ֣י הַיּ֔וֹם וַיִּזְבַּ֖ח אֶלְקָנָ֑ה וְנָתַ֞ן לִפְנִנָּ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֗וֹ וּֽלְכָל־בָּנֶ֛יהָ וּבְנוֹתֶ֖יהָ מָנֽוֹת׃‬ And the day came when Elkanah made his sacrifice, and he gave portions to Peninnah his wife and to each of her sons and her daughters. portions: i.e. of the sacrificed animal.
1 Sam 1:5 ‫וּלְחַנָּ֕ה יִתֵּ֛ן מָנָ֥ה אַחַ֖ת אַפָּ֑יִם כִּ֤י אֶת־חַנָּה֙ אָהֵ֔ב וַֽיהוָ֖ה סָגַ֥ר רַחְמָֽהּ׃‬ And to Hannah he gave a double portion, because he loved Hannah, but the Lord had closed her womb. double portion ← one portion two faces.
1 Sam 1:6 ‫וְכִֽעֲסַ֤תָּה צָֽרָתָהּ֙ גַּם־כַּ֔עַס בַּעֲב֖וּר הַרְּעִמָ֑הּ כִּֽי־סָגַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה בְּעַ֥ד רַחְמָֽהּ׃‬ And her rival provoked her dreadfully, so as to torment her, for the Lord had closed her womb. provoked her dreadfully ← provoked her also a provocation.

torment ← cause to thunder.
1 Sam 1:7 ‫וְכֵ֨ן יַעֲשֶׂ֜ה שָׁנָ֣ה בְשָׁנָ֗ה מִדֵּ֤י עֲלֹתָהּ֙ בְּבֵ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה כֵּ֖ן תַּכְעִסֶ֑נָּה וַתִּבְכֶּ֖ה וְלֹ֥א תֹאכַֽל׃‬ And just as he did this from year to year, every time she went up to the house of the Lord, so she for her part provoked her, and she wept and would not eat.
1 Sam 1:8 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לָ֜הּ אֶלְקָנָ֣ה אִישָׁ֗הּ חַנָּה֙ לָ֣מֶה תִבְכִּ֗י וְלָ֙מֶה֙ לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְלִ֔י וְלָ֖מֶה יֵרַ֣ע לְבָבֵ֑ךְ הֲל֤וֹא אָֽנֹכִי֙ ט֣וֹב לָ֔ךְ מֵעֲשָׂרָ֖ה בָּנִֽים׃‬ And Elkanah her husband said to her, “Hannah, why are you crying, and why will you not eat, and why does your heart grieve? Am I not better to you than ten sons?”
1 Sam 1:9 ‫וַתָּ֣קָם חַנָּ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֛י אָכְלָ֥ה בְשִׁלֹ֖ה וְאַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁתֹ֑ה וְעֵלִ֣י הַכֹּהֵ֗ן יֹשֵׁב֙ עַל־הַכִּסֵּ֔א עַל־מְזוּזַ֖ת הֵיכַ֥ל יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then Hannah got up after they had eaten in Shiloh and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat at the gatepost of the temple of the Lord. they had drunk: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.
1 Sam 1:10 ‫וְהִ֖יא מָ֣רַת נָ֑פֶשׁ וַתִּתְפַּלֵּ֥ל עַל־יְהוָ֖ה וּבָכֹ֥ה תִבְכֶּֽה׃‬ But she was very bitter, and she prayed to the Lord and wept profusely. very bitter ← bitter of soul.

wept profusely: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 1:11 ‫וַתִּדֹּ֨ר נֶ֜דֶר וַתֹּאמַ֗ר יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אִם־רָאֹ֥ה תִרְאֶ֣ה ׀ בָּעֳנִ֣י אֲמָתֶ֗ךָ וּזְכַרְתַּ֙נִי֙ וְלֹֽא־תִשְׁכַּ֣ח אֶת־אֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְנָתַתָּ֥ה לַאֲמָתְךָ֖ זֶ֣רַע אֲנָשִׁ֑ים וּנְתַתִּ֤יו לַֽיהוָה֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חַיָּ֔יו וּמוֹרָ֖ה לֹא־יַעֲלֶ֥ה עַל־רֹאשֽׁוֹ׃‬ And she made a vow and said, “O Lord of hosts, if only you would make a point of attending to the affliction of your maidservant and would remember me and not forget your maidservant and give your maidservant progeny, then I would give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor would pass over his head.” made ← vowed.

would make a point of attending ← to see would see. Infinitive absolute.

progeny ← seed of men.
1 Sam 1:12 ‫וְהָיָה֙ כִּ֣י הִרְבְּתָ֔ה לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֖ל לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וְעֵלִ֖י שֹׁמֵ֥ר אֶת־פִּֽיהָ׃‬ And it came to pass that she was praying intensively before the Lord when Eli observed her mouth.
1 Sam 1:13 ‫וְחַנָּ֗ה הִ֚יא מְדַבֶּ֣רֶת עַל־לִבָּ֔הּ רַ֚ק שְׂפָתֶ֣יהָ נָּע֔וֹת וְקוֹלָ֖הּ לֹ֣א יִשָּׁמֵ֑עַ וַיַּחְשְׁבֶ֥הָ עֵלִ֖י לְשִׁכֹּרָֽה׃‬ Now Hannah was speaking in her heart – only her lips were moving and her voice was not heard – and Eli thought she was drunk.
1 Sam 1:14 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ עֵלִ֔י עַד־מָתַ֖י תִּשְׁתַּכָּרִ֑ין הָסִ֥ירִי אֶת־יֵינֵ֖ךְ מֵעָלָֽיִךְ׃‬ And Eli said to her, “How much longer will you keep getting drunk? Put your wine well away from you.” how much longer ← until when.

keep getting drunk ← act like one drunken.

put your wine well away from you: more idiomatically, keep off your wine.
1 Sam 1:15 ‫וַתַּ֨עַן חַנָּ֤ה וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אֲדֹנִ֔י אִשָּׁ֤ה קְשַׁת־ר֙וּחַ֙ אָנֹ֔כִי וְיַ֥יִן וְשֵׁכָ֖ר לֹ֣א שָׁתִ֑יתִי וָאֶשְׁפֹּ֥ךְ אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֖י לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬ But Hannah answered and said, “It's not that, my lord. I am a hard-pressed woman, and I have not drunk any wine or strong drink, but I have poured out my heart before the Lord. hard-pressed ← hard of spirit.

heart ← soul.
1 Sam 1:16 ‫אַל־תִּתֵּן֙ אֶת־אֲמָ֣תְךָ֔ לִפְנֵ֖י בַּת־בְּלִיָּ֑עַל כִּֽי־מֵרֹ֥ב שִׂיחִ֛י וְכַעְסִ֖י דִּבַּ֥רְתִּי עַד־הֵֽנָּה׃‬ Do not take your handmaid for a good-for-nothing girl, for it is with a lot of grievance and frustration on my part that I have spoken so far.” good-for-nothing girl ← daughter of Belialdaughter of without use.
1 Sam 1:17 ‫וַיַּ֧עַן עֵלִ֛י וַיֹּ֖אמֶר לְכִ֣י לְשָׁל֑וֹם וֵאלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל יִתֵּן֙ אֶת־שֵׁ֣לָתֵ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁאַ֖לְתְּ מֵעִמּֽוֹ׃‬ Then Eli answered and said, “Go in peace, and may the God of Israel grant your request which you have asked him for.”
1 Sam 1:18 ‫וַתֹּ֕אמֶר תִּמְצָ֧א שִׁפְחָתְךָ֛ חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֶ֑יךָ וַתֵּ֨לֶךְ הָאִשָּׁ֤ה לְדַרְכָּהּ֙ וַתֹּאכַ֔ל וּפָנֶ֥יהָ לֹא־הָיוּ־לָ֖הּ עֽוֹד׃‬ And she said, “May your maidservant find grace in your eyes.” And the woman went her way and ate, and her expression was no longer dejected. expression ← face.
1 Sam 1:19 ‫וַיַּשְׁכִּ֣מוּ בַבֹּ֗קֶר וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲווּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַיָּשֻׁ֛בוּ וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ אֶל־בֵּיתָ֖ם הָרָמָ֑תָה וַיֵּ֤דַע אֶלְקָנָה֙ אֶת־חַנָּ֣ה אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיִּֽזְכְּרֶ֖הָ יְהוָֽה׃‬ And they got up early in the morning and worshipped before the Lord, then they returned and went to their home in Ramah, and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife, and the Lord remembered her. in Ramah ← to the Ramah. Pregnant use of the locative of motion towards.
1 Sam 1:20 ‫וַיְהִי֙ לִתְקֻפ֣וֹת הַיָּמִ֔ים וַתַּ֥הַר חַנָּ֖ה וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַתִּקְרָ֤א אֶת־שְׁמוֹ֙ שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל כִּ֥י מֵיְהוָ֖ה שְׁאִלְתִּֽיו׃‬ And it came to pass in the course of time that Hannah conceived and bore a son, and she called him Samuel, “Because”, she said, “I asked for him from the Lord.” course of time ← periods of days.

Samuel ← Shemuel, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.
1 Sam 1:21 ‫וַיַּ֛עַל הָאִ֥ישׁ אֶלְקָנָ֖ה וְכָל־בֵּית֑וֹ לִזְבֹּ֧חַ לַֽיהוָ֛ה אֶת־זֶ֥בַח הַיָּמִ֖ים וְאֶת־נִדְרֽוֹ׃‬ And the man, Elkanah, and all of his household, went up to offer the yearly sacrifice and that of his vow to the Lord. offer ← sacrifice.

yearly ← of days. See 1 Sam 1:3.
1 Sam 1:22 ‫וְחַנָּ֖ה לֹ֣א עָלָ֑תָה כִּֽי־אָמְרָ֣ה לְאִישָׁ֗הּ עַ֣ד יִגָּמֵ֤ל הַנַּ֙עַר֙ וַהֲבִאֹתִ֗יו וְנִרְאָה֙ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וְיָ֥שַׁב שָׁ֖ם עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃‬ But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband, “Not until the young boy is weaned, and then I will bring him, and he will appear in the presence of the Lord, and he will stay there indefinitely.” indefinitely ← for the age.
1 Sam 1:23 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהּ֩ אֶלְקָנָ֨ה אִישָׁ֜הּ עֲשִׂ֧י הַטּ֣וֹב בְּעֵינַ֗יִךְ שְׁבִי֙ עַד־גָּמְלֵ֣ךְ אֹת֔וֹ אַ֛ךְ יָקֵ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־דְּבָר֑וֹ וַתֵּ֤שֶׁב הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ וַתֵּ֣ינֶק אֶת־בְּנָ֔הּ עַד־גָּמְלָ֖הּ אֹתֽוֹ׃‬ And Elkanah her husband said to her, “Do what is right in your sight. Stay until you have weaned him, only may the Lord establish his word.” So the woman stayed and suckled her son until she had weaned him.
1 Sam 1:24 ‫וַתַּעֲלֵ֨הוּ עִמָּ֜הּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר גְּמָלַ֗תּוּ בְּפָרִ֤ים שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ וְאֵיפָ֨ה אַחַ֥ת קֶ֙מַח֙ וְנֵ֣בֶל יַ֔יִן וַתְּבִאֵ֥הוּ בֵית־יְהוָ֖ה שִׁל֑וֹ וְהַנַּ֖עַר נָֽעַר׃‬ Then when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bulls and one ephah of flour and a bottle of wine, and she brought him to the house of the Lord in Shiloh, when he was just a boy. ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.

he was just a boy ← the boy (was) a boy.
1 Sam 1:25 ‫וַֽיִּשְׁחֲט֖וּ אֶת־הַפָּ֑ר וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ אֶת־הַנַּ֖עַר אֶל־עֵלִֽי׃‬ And they slaughtered the bull, and they brought the boy to Eli.
1 Sam 1:26 ‫וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ בִּ֣י אֲדֹנִ֔י חֵ֥י נַפְשְׁךָ֖ אֲדֹנִ֑י אֲנִ֣י הָאִשָּׁ֗ה הַנִּצֶּ֤בֶת עִמְּכָה֙ בָּזֶ֔ה לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֖ל אֶל־יְהוָֽה׃‬ And she said, “Please, my lord, as you yourself live, my lord, I am the woman who was standing with you here, praying to the Lord. you yourself ← your soul.

praying ← to pray, but not necessarily purposive.
1 Sam 1:27 ‫אֶל־הַנַּ֥עַר הַזֶּ֖ה הִתְפַּלָּ֑לְתִּי וַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהוָ֥ה לִי֙ אֶת־שְׁאֵ֣לָתִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁאַ֖לְתִּי מֵעִמּֽוֹ׃‬ I prayed for this boy, and the Lord granted my request which I asked for from him.
1 Sam 1:28 ‫וְגַ֣ם אָנֹכִ֗י הִשְׁאִלְתִּ֙הוּ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה כָּל־הַיָּמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיָ֔ה ה֥וּא שָׁא֖וּל לַֽיהוָ֑ה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ שָׁ֖ם לַיהוָֽה׃ פ‬ And I have also made him over to the Lord for all his days. He was a request made to the Lord.” And he worshipped the Lord there. all his days ← all his days (in) which he is. AV differs (as long as he liveth), with LXX, the Vulgate and some Hebrew manuscripts [BHS-CA]. A / heth issue.

made him over ← caused to request him, implying fulfilment of the vow. [BDB]= made him over.

a request made ← requested.
1 Sam 2:1 ‫וַתִּתְפַּלֵּ֤ל חַנָּה֙ וַתֹּאמַ֔ר עָלַ֤ץ לִבִּי֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה רָ֥מָה קַרְנִ֖י בַּֽיהוָ֑ה רָ֤חַב פִּי֙ עַל־א֣וֹיְבַ֔י כִּ֥י שָׂמַ֖חְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶֽךָ׃‬ And Hannah prayed and said,

“My heart exults in the Lord,

My horn has been raised by the Lord,

My mouth has become broad over my enemies,

For I have rejoiced in your salvation.

has been raised: qal for passive of hiphil. Compare Isa 49:11.

my mouth has become broad: i.e. I have become triumphant.
1 Sam 2:2 ‫אֵין־קָד֥וֹשׁ כַּיהוָ֖ה כִּ֣י אֵ֣ין בִּלְתֶּ֑ךָ וְאֵ֥ין צ֖וּר כֵּאלֹהֵֽינוּ׃‬

There is no-one holy like the Lord,

For there is no-one besides you,

Nor is there any rock like our God.

1 Sam 2:3 ‫אַל־תַּרְבּ֤וּ תְדַבְּרוּ֙ גְּבֹהָ֣ה גְבֹהָ֔ה יֵצֵ֥א עָתָ֖ק מִפִּיכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י אֵ֤ל דֵּעוֹת֙ יְהוָ֔ה *ולא **וְל֥וֹ נִתְכְּנ֖וּ עֲלִלֽוֹת׃‬

Do not speak profusely in lofty words,

Nor let insolence issue from your mouth,

For the Lord is a God of knowledge,

And {Q: by him deeds are weighed} [K: deeds are not weighed].

On the ketiv, see Ex 21:8.

lofty ← high, high.
1 Sam 2:4 ‫קֶ֥שֶׁת גִּבֹּרִ֖ים חַתִּ֑ים וְנִכְשָׁלִ֖ים אָ֥זְרוּ חָֽיִל׃‬

The bows of heroes are shattered,

But those who once stumbled

Have girded themselves with strength.

bows ← bow.

shattered: in agreement with heroes, by attraction. Compare [Ges-HG] §146a.
1 Sam 2:5 ‫שְׂבֵעִ֤ים בַּלֶּ֙חֶם֙ נִשְׂכָּ֔רוּ וּרְעֵבִ֖ים חָדֵ֑לּוּ עַד־עֲקָרָה֙ יָלְדָ֣ה שִׁבְעָ֔ה וְרַבַּ֥ת בָּנִ֖ים אֻמְלָֽלָה׃‬

The once satiated have hired themselves out for bread,

But the hungry are no more so.

Even the barren has borne seven,

Whereas she who had many sons is languishing.

1 Sam 2:6 ‫יְהוָ֖ה מֵמִ֣ית וּמְחַיֶּ֑ה מוֹרִ֥יד שְׁא֖וֹל וַיָּֽעַל׃‬

The Lord kills and makes alive;

He brings down to the grave and raises up.

1 Sam 2:7 ‫יְהוָ֖ה מוֹרִ֣ישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁ֑יר מַשְׁפִּ֖יל אַף־מְרוֹמֵֽם׃‬

The Lord disinherits and enriches;

He abases as well as exalts.

1 Sam 2:8 ‫מֵקִ֨ים מֵעָפָ֜ר דָּ֗ל מֵֽאַשְׁפֹּת֙ יָרִ֣ים אֶבְי֔וֹן לְהוֹשִׁיב֙ עִם־נְדִיבִ֔ים וְכִסֵּ֥א כָב֖וֹד יַנְחִלֵ֑ם כִּ֤י לַֽיהוָה֙ מְצֻ֣קֵי אֶ֔רֶץ וַיָּ֥שֶׁת עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם תֵּבֵֽל׃‬

He raises up the poor from the dust

And elevates the needy from the dung heap,

To house them with princes

And to endow them with a throne of honour.

For the pillars of the earth are the Lord's,

And on them he has set the world.

1 Sam 2:9 ‫רַגְלֵ֤י *חסידו **חֲסִידָיו֙ יִשְׁמֹ֔ר וּרְשָׁעִ֖ים בַּחֹ֣שֶׁךְ יִדָּ֑מּוּ כִּֽי־לֹ֥א בְכֹ֖חַ יִגְבַּר־אִֽישׁ׃‬

He will keep the feet of {K: the man} [Q: those] of his grace,

But the wicked will be destroyed in darkness,

For man will not prevail by force.

1 Sam 2:10 ‫יְהוָ֞ה יֵחַ֣תּוּ *מריבו **מְרִיבָ֗יו *עלו **עָלָיו֙ בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם יַרְעֵ֔ם יְהוָ֖ה יָדִ֣ין אַפְסֵי־אָ֑רֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹ֣ז לְמַלְכּ֔וֹ וְיָרֵ֖ם קֶ֥רֶן מְשִׁיחֽוֹ׃ פ‬

As for the Lord, his {Q: adversaries} [K: adversary] will be broken;

He will thunder against them in heaven.

The Lord will judge the ends of the earth

And give strength to his king

And raise the horn of his messiah.”

them ← him. The ketiv is in scriptio defectiva. See the plural verb below.

will be broken: plural verb.

messiah ← anointed.
1 Sam 2:11 ‫וַיֵּ֧לֶךְ אֶלְקָנָ֛ה הָרָמָ֖תָה עַל־בֵּית֑וֹ וְהַנַּ֗עַר הָיָ֤ה מְשָׁרֵת֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה אֶת־פְּנֵ֖י עֵלִ֥י הַכֹּהֵֽן׃‬ Then Elkanah went to Ramah, to his house. And the boy was serving the Lord before Eli the priest. Ramah ← the Ramah.
1 Sam 2:12 ‫וּבְנֵ֥י עֵלִ֖י בְּנֵ֣י בְלִיָּ֑עַל לֹ֥א יָדְע֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָֽה׃‬ But Eli's sons were good-for-nothing – they did not know the Lord. good-for-nothing ← sons of without use.
1 Sam 2:13 ‫וּמִשְׁפַּ֥ט הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים אֶת־הָעָ֑ם כָּל־אִ֞ישׁ זֹבֵ֣חַ זֶ֗בַח וּבָ֨א נַ֤עַר הַכֹּהֵן֙ כְּבַשֵּׁ֣ל הַבָּשָׂ֔ר וְהַמַּזְלֵ֛ג שְׁלֹ֥שׁ־הַשִּׁנַּ֖יִם בְּיָדֽוֹ׃‬ And it was the custom of the priests with the people that when any man offered a sacrifice, the priest's servant-boy would come while the meat was cooking, with a three-pronged fork in his hand. any ← every.

offered ← sacrificed.
1 Sam 2:14 ‫וְהִכָּ֨ה בַכִּיּ֜וֹר א֣וֹ בַדּ֗וּד א֤וֹ בַקַּלַּ֙חַת֙ א֣וֹ בַפָּר֔וּר כֹּ֚ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַעֲלֶ֣ה הַמַּזְלֵ֔ג יִקַּ֥ח הַכֹּהֵ֖ן בּ֑וֹ כָּ֚כָה יַעֲשׂ֣וּ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַבָּאִ֥ים שָׁ֖ם בְּשִׁלֹֽה׃‬ And he would plunge it into the pan or the cauldron or the kettle or the pot. Everything that the fork brought up, the priest would take for himself. So they did with all Israel which went there, to Shiloh. plunge ← strike.
1 Sam 2:15 ‫גַּם֮ בְּטֶרֶם֮ יַקְטִר֣וּן אֶת־הַחֵלֶב֒ וּבָ֣א ׀ נַ֣עַר הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְאָמַר֙ לָאִ֣ישׁ הַזֹּבֵ֔חַ תְּנָ֣ה בָשָׂ֔ר לִצְל֖וֹת לַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְלֹֽא־יִקַּ֧ח מִמְּךָ֛ בָּשָׂ֥ר מְבֻשָּׁ֖ל כִּ֥י אִם־חָֽי׃‬ Also, before they burned the fat, the priest's servant-boy would come and say to the man who was making a sacrifice, “Give the meat to the priest to roast. And he will not accept cooked meat from you, but rather, raw.” priest's: [CB] differs (priests').

raw ← alive, but also raw.
1 Sam 2:16 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו הָאִ֗ישׁ קַטֵּ֨ר יַקְטִיר֤וּן כַּיּוֹם֙ הַחֵ֔לֶב וְקַ֨ח־לְךָ֔ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר תְּאַוֶּ֖ה נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ וְאָמַ֥ר ׀ *לו **לֹא֙ כִּ֚י עַתָּ֣ה תִתֵּ֔ן וְאִם־לֹ֖א לָקַ֥חְתִּי בְחָזְקָֽה׃‬ And if the man said to him, “Be sure they burn the fat straightaway, then take for yourself whatever your heart desires”, then he would say {K: to him, “No,} [Q: “No,] for you must give it now, and if you do not, I will take it by force.” be sure they burn: infinitive absolute.

heart ← soul.
1 Sam 2:17 ‫וַתְּהִ֨י חַטַּ֧את הַנְּעָרִ֛ים גְּדוֹלָ֥ה מְאֹ֖ד אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה כִּ֤י נִֽאֲצוּ֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֵ֖ת מִנְחַ֥ת יְהוָֽה׃‬ And the young men's sin was very great before the Lord, for the men despised the Lord's offering.
1 Sam 2:18 ‫וּשְׁמוּאֵ֕ל מְשָׁרֵ֖ת אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה נַ֕עַר חָג֖וּר אֵפ֥וֹד בָּֽד׃‬ But Samuel served before the Lord – a boy girded with an ephod of fine linen.
1 Sam 2:19 ‫וּמְעִ֤יל קָטֹן֙ תַּעֲשֶׂה־לּ֣וֹ אִמּ֔וֹ וְהַעַלְתָ֥ה ל֖וֹ מִיָּמִ֣ים ׀ יָמִ֑ימָה בַּֽעֲלוֹתָהּ֙ אֶת־אִישָׁ֔הּ לִזְבֹּ֖חַ אֶת־זֶ֥בַח הַיָּמִֽים׃‬ And his mother would make him a little coat and bring it up to him each year when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice. each year ← from days to days.

offer ← sacrifice.

yearly ← of days.
1 Sam 2:20 ‫וּבֵרַ֨ךְ עֵלִ֜י אֶת־אֶלְקָנָ֣ה וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּ֗וֹ וְאָמַר֙ יָשֵׂם֩ יְהוָ֨ה לְךָ֥ זֶ֙רַע֙ מִן־הָאִשָּׁ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את תַּ֚חַת הַשְּׁאֵלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁאַ֖ל לַֽיהוָ֑ה וְהָלְכ֖וּ לִמְקֹמֽוֹ׃‬ And Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife, and he said, “May the Lord appoint you seed from this woman in return for the granted request – the boy who has been made over to the Lord.” Then they went home. has been made over ← he has asked, but here as passive of hiphil; see [BDB].

home ← to his place.
1 Sam 2:21 ‫כִּֽי־פָקַ֤ד יְהוָה֙ אֶת־חַנָּ֔ה וַתַּ֛הַר וַתֵּ֥לֶד שְׁלֹשָֽׁה־בָנִ֖ים וּשְׁתֵּ֣י בָנ֑וֹת וַיִּגְדַּ֛ל הַנַּ֥עַר שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל עִם־יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ Then the Lord visited Hannah, and she conceived and bore three sons and two daughters. And the boy, Samuel, grew up in fellowship with the Lord.
1 Sam 2:22 ‫וְעֵלִ֖י זָקֵ֣ן מְאֹ֑ד וְשָׁמַ֗ע אֵת֩ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַעֲשׂ֤וּן בָּנָיו֙ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֵ֤ת אֲשֶֽׁר־יִשְׁכְּבוּן֙ אֶת־הַנָּשִׁ֔ים הַצֹּ֣בְא֔וֹת פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד׃‬ Now Eli was very old, and he heard everything that his sons did to the whole of Israel, and that they lay with the women who served at the entrance to the tent of contact. the tent of contact: see Ex 27:21.
1 Sam 2:23 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֔ם לָ֥מָּה תַעֲשׂ֖וּן כַּדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֤י שֹׁמֵ֙עַ֙ אֶת־דִּבְרֵיכֶ֣ם רָעִ֔ים מֵאֵ֖ת כָּל־הָעָ֥ם אֵֽלֶּה׃‬ And he said to them, “Why are you doing such things? For I hear about your bad behaviour from all of this people. such things ← as these things.

behaviour ← things.
1 Sam 2:24 ‫אַ֖ל בָּנָ֑י כִּ֠י לֽוֹא־טוֹבָ֤ה הַשְּׁמֻעָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָנֹכִ֣י שֹׁמֵ֔עַ מַעֲבִרִ֖ים עַם־יְהוָֽה׃‬ No, my sons, for it is not a good report that I hear about you, making the Lord's people transgress.
1 Sam 2:25 ‫אִם־יֶחֱטָ֨א אִ֤ישׁ לְאִישׁ֙ וּפִֽלְל֣וֹ אֱלֹהִ֔ים וְאִ֤ם לַֽיהוָה֙ יֶֽחֱטָא־אִ֔ישׁ מִ֖י יִתְפַּלֶּל־ל֑וֹ וְלֹ֤א יִשְׁמְעוּ֙ לְק֣וֹל אֲבִיהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־חָפֵ֥ץ יְהוָ֖ה לַהֲמִיתָֽם׃‬ If a man sins against another, then God will judge him, but if a man sins against the Lord, who will pray for him?” But they would not heed their father, and consequently the Lord wished to put them to death. God: AV differs (the judge). The verb is singular, militating for God rather than judges. Contrast Ex 21:6, Ex 22:7 (Ex 22:8AV), Ex 22:8 (Ex 22:9AV), Ex 22:27 (Ex 22:28AV).

heed ← hear the voice of.

and consequently ← when, ↴
1 Sam 2:26 ‫וְהַנַּ֣עַר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל הֹלֵ֥ךְ וְגָדֵ֖ל וָט֑וֹב גַּ֚ם עִם־יְהוָ֔ה וְגַ֖ם עִם־אֲנָשִֽׁים׃ ס‬ And the boy, Samuel, kept growing and was approved of by both the Lord and men. because, but explicative and developmental rather than the causative because.
1 Sam 2:27 ‫וַיָּבֹ֥א אִישׁ־אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־עֵלִ֑י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה הֲנִגְלֹ֤ה נִגְלֵ֙יתִי֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔יךָ בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֥ם בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם לְבֵ֥ית פַּרְעֹֽה׃‬ And a man of God came to Eli and said to him, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Was I not clearly revealed to the house of your father when they were in Egypt in Pharaoh's house? this is whatthus.

was I not clearly revealed: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 2:28 ‫וּבָחֹ֣ר אֹ֠תוֹ מִכָּל־שִׁבְטֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל לִי֙ לְכֹהֵ֔ן לַעֲל֣וֹת עַֽל־מִזְבְּחִ֗י לְהַקְטִ֥יר קְטֹ֛רֶת לָשֵׂ֥את אֵפ֖וֹד לְפָנָ֑י וָֽאֶתְּנָה֙ לְבֵ֣ית אָבִ֔יךָ אֶת־כָּל־אִשֵּׁ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And did I not choose him from all the tribes of Israel to be a priest to me? – to offer on my altar, to burn incense, to wear the ephod before me, and did I not allocate all the fire-offerings of the sons of Israel to your father's house? choose: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.

allocate ← give.
1 Sam 2:29 ‫לָ֣מָּה תִבְעֲט֗וּ בְּזִבְחִי֙ וּבְמִנְחָתִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּ֖יתִי מָע֑וֹן וַתְּכַבֵּ֤ד אֶת־בָּנֶ֙יךָ֙ מִמֶּ֔נִּי לְהַבְרִֽיאֲכֶ֗ם מֵרֵאשִׁ֛ית כָּל־מִנְחַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְעַמִּֽי׃‬ Why are you recalcitrant about my sacrifice and my meal-offering which I commanded in my dwelling place, and why have you honoured your sons more than me by making yourselves fat with the beginning of all the offerings of my people Israel?’ by making yourselves fat: gerundial use of the infinitive.

offerings ← meal-offering, but sometimes wider usage.
1 Sam 2:30 ‫לָכֵ֗ן נְאֻם־יְהוָה֮ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ אָמ֣וֹר אָמַ֔רְתִּי בֵּֽיתְךָ֙ וּבֵ֣ית אָבִ֔יךָ יִתְהַלְּכ֥וּ לְפָנַ֖י עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם וְעַתָּ֤ה נְאֻם־יְהוָה֙ חָלִ֣ילָה לִּ֔י כִּֽי־מְכַבְּדַ֥י אֲכַבֵּ֖ד וּבֹזַ֥י יֵקָֽלּוּ׃‬ Therefore the Lord God of Israel says, ‘I have explicitly said to your house and to the house of your father that they should walk before me age-abidingly. And now, says the Lord, far be it from me, for I will honour those who honour me, and those who despise me will be held in contempt. I have explicitly said: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 2:31 ‫הִנֵּה֙ יָמִ֣ים בָּאִ֔ים וְגָֽדַעְתִּי֙ אֶת־זְרֹ֣עֲךָ֔ וְאֶת־זְרֹ֖עַ בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑יךָ מִֽהְי֥וֹת זָקֵ֖ן בְּבֵיתֶֽךָ׃‬ Behold, the days are coming when I will cut off your arm and the arm of the house of your father, so that there will not be an old man in your house. arm (2x): with different pointing, seed.
1 Sam 2:32 ‫וְהִבַּטְתָּ֙ צַ֣ר מָע֔וֹן בְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יֵיטִ֖יב אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה זָקֵ֛ן בְּבֵיתְךָ֖ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃‬ And you will see distress in my dwelling place, in everything regarding which it has been treating Israel well, and there will not be an old man in your house at any time. distress in: or an adversary of.

at any time ← all the days.
1 Sam 2:33 ‫וְאִ֗ישׁ לֹֽא־אַכְרִ֤ית לְךָ֙ מֵעִ֣ם מִזְבְּחִ֔י לְכַלּ֥וֹת אֶת־עֵינֶ֖יךָ וְלַאֲדִ֣יב אֶת־נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ וְכָל־מַרְבִּ֥ית בֵּיתְךָ֖ יָמ֥וּתוּ אֲנָשִֽׁים׃‬ But I will not cut anyone of yours off from my altar when I waste your eyes away and wear your heart down, and at every increase in your house, men will die. heart ← soul.
1 Sam 2:34 ‫וְזֶה־לְּךָ֣ הָא֗וֹת אֲשֶׁ֤ר יָבֹא֙ אֶל־שְׁנֵ֣י בָנֶ֔יךָ אֶל־חָפְנִ֖י וּפִֽינְחָ֑ס בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָ֖ד יָמ֥וּתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And this will be the sign to you, which will come on your two sons, on Hophni and Phinehas. On one day the two of them will die. Phinehas: see Ex 6:25.
1 Sam 2:35 ‫וַהֲקִימֹתִ֥י לִי֙ כֹּהֵ֣ן נֶאֱמָ֔ן כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר בִּלְבָבִ֥י וּבְנַפְשִׁ֖י יַעֲשֶׂ֑ה וּבָנִ֤יתִי לוֹ֙ בַּ֣יִת נֶאֱמָ֔ן וְהִתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ לִפְנֵֽי־מְשִׁיחִ֖י כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃‬ And I will raise up a faithful priest to myself, who will act according to what is in my heart and in my soul, and I will build a faithful house for him, and he will walk before my anointed at all times. anointed: or messiah.

at all times ← all the days.
1 Sam 2:36 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כָּל־הַנּוֹתָר֙ בְּבֵ֣יתְךָ֔ יָבוֹא֙ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֣ת ל֔וֹ לַאֲג֥וֹרַת כֶּ֖סֶף וְכִכַּר־לָ֑חֶם וְאָמַ֗ר סְפָחֵ֥נִי נָ֛א אֶל־אַחַ֥ת הַכְּהֻנּ֖וֹת לֶאֱכֹ֥ל פַּת־לָֽחֶם׃ ס‬ And it will come to pass that everyone who remains in your house will come to bow down before him for an agorah of silver and a loaf of bread, and he will say, «Admit me, please, to one of the priestly offices, so that I may eat a piece of bread.» ’ ” agorah: a small coin.
1 Sam 3:1 ‫וְהַנַּ֧עַר שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל מְשָׁרֵ֥ת אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י עֵלִ֑י וּדְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה הָיָ֤ה יָקָר֙ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם אֵ֥ין חָז֖וֹן נִפְרָֽץ׃ ס‬ And Samuel the boy served the Lord before Eli, and the word of the Lord was precious in those days, and visions were infrequent. visions were infrequent ← there was no vision bursting forth / common.
1 Sam 3:2 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וְעֵלִ֖י שֹׁכֵ֣ב בִּמְקֹמ֑וֹ *ועינו **וְעֵינָיו֙ הֵחֵ֣לּוּ כֵה֔וֹת לֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִרְאֽוֹת׃‬ And it came to pass at that time, when Eli was lying down in his place, and {Q: his eyes} [K: his eye] had begun to become dim, and he could not see, The ketiv could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré;. The verb is plural.

at that time ← on that day.
1 Sam 3:3 ‫וְנֵ֤ר אֱלֹהִים֙ טֶ֣רֶם יִכְבֶּ֔ה וּשְׁמוּאֵ֖ל שֹׁכֵ֑ב בְּהֵיכַ֣ל יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁ֖ם אֲר֥וֹן אֱלֹהִֽים׃ פ‬ and before the lamp of God went out, while Samuel was lying down in the temple of the Lord where the ark of God was, AV differs, associating the clauses differently.
1 Sam 3:4 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֧א יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הִנֵּֽנִי׃‬ that the Lord called out to Samuel. And he said, “Here I am”, here I ambehold me.
1 Sam 3:5 ‫וַיָּ֣רָץ אֶל־עֵלִ֗י וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הִנְנִי֙ כִּֽי־קָרָ֣אתָ לִּ֔י וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לֹֽא־קָרָ֖אתִי שׁ֣וּב שְׁכָ֑ב וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ וַיִּשְׁכָּֽב׃ ס‬ and he ran to Eli and said, “Here I am, for you have called me.” But he said, “I didn't call you. Lie down again.” So he went back and lay down. here I ambehold me.
1 Sam 3:6 ‫וַיֹּ֣סֶף יְהוָ֗ה קְרֹ֣א עוֹד֮ שְׁמוּאֵל֒ וַיָּ֤קָם שְׁמוּאֵל֙ וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אֶל־עֵלִ֔י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הִנְנִ֔י כִּ֥י קָרָ֖אתָ לִ֑י וַיֹּ֛אמֶר לֹֽא־קָרָ֥אתִי בְנִ֖י שׁ֥וּב שְׁכָֽב׃‬ Then the Lord called him again: “Samuel.” And Samuel got up and went to Eli and said, “Here I am, for you have called me.” But he said, “I did not call you, my son. Lie down again.” again ← yet again. The words reinforce each other, but they do not add a time. The third time is in 1 Sam 3:8.

here I ambehold me.
1 Sam 3:7 ‫וּשְׁמוּאֵ֕ל טֶ֖רֶם יָדַ֣ע אֶת־יְהוָ֑ה וְטֶ֛רֶם יִגָּלֶ֥ה אֵלָ֖יו דְּבַר־יְהוָֽה׃‬ Now Samuel did not yet know the Lord, and it was before the word of the Lord had been revealed to him.
1 Sam 3:8 ‫וַיֹּ֨סֶף יְהוָ֥ה קְרֹא־שְׁמוּאֵל֮ בַּשְּׁלִשִׁית֒ וַיָּ֙קָם֙ וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אֶל־עֵלִ֔י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הִנְנִ֔י כִּ֥י קָרָ֖אתָ לִ֑י וַיָּ֣בֶן עֵלִ֔י כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה קֹרֵ֥א לַנָּֽעַר׃‬ And the Lord called Samuel again – a third time. And he got up and went to Eli and said, “Here I am, for you have called me.” And Eli understood that the Lord had been calling the boy. here I ambehold me.
1 Sam 3:9 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר עֵלִ֣י לִשְׁמוּאֵל֮ לֵ֣ךְ שְׁכָב֒ וְהָיָה֙ אִם־יִקְרָ֣א אֵלֶ֔יךָ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֙ דַּבֵּ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י שֹׁמֵ֖עַ עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיִּשְׁכַּ֖ב בִּמְקוֹמֽוֹ׃‬ And Eli said to Samuel, “Go and lie down, and it will be the case that if he calls you, you will say, ‘Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening.’ ” So Samuel went back and lay down in his place.
1 Sam 3:10 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤א יְהוָה֙ וַיִּתְיַצַּ֔ב וַיִּקְרָ֥א כְפַֽעַם־בְּפַ֖עַם שְׁמוּאֵ֣ל ׀ שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ דַּבֵּ֔ר כִּ֥י שֹׁמֵ֖עַ עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃ פ‬ And the Lord came and stood there and called as the previous times, “Samuel, Samuel.” And Samuel said, “Speak, for your servant is listening.” as the previous times ← as time on time.
1 Sam 3:11 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל הִנֵּ֧ה אָנֹכִ֛י עֹשֶׂ֥ה דָבָ֖ר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲשֶׁר֙ כָּל־שֹׁ֣מְע֔וֹ תְּצִלֶּ֖ינָה שְׁתֵּ֥י אָזְנָֽיו׃‬ And the Lord said to Samuel, “I am about to do something in Israel at which the two ears of everyone who hears it will tingle. I am about to ← behold me.
1 Sam 3:12 ‫בַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ אָקִ֣ים אֶל־עֵלִ֔י אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ הָחֵ֖ל וְכַלֵּֽה׃‬ On that day I will fulfil everything against Eli which I have spoken against his house. I will make a start and I will bring it to its conclusion. against (2x): taking אֶלעַל, which is common. AV differs in the second case (concerning).

I will make a start and I will bring it to its conclusion: infinitives absolute ↴
1 Sam 3:13 ‫וְהִגַּ֣דְתִּי ל֔וֹ כִּֽי־שֹׁפֵ֥ט אֲנִ֛י אֶת־בֵּית֖וֹ עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם בַּעֲוֺ֣ן אֲשֶׁר־יָדַ֗ע כִּֽי־מְקַֽלְלִ֤ים לָהֶם֙ בָּנָ֔יו וְלֹ֥א כִהָ֖ה בָּֽם׃‬ For I have told him that I am about to judge his house age-abidingly for the iniquity which he has known about, for {P: his sons are cursing God} [M: his sons are bringing a curse on themselves], but he has not admonished them. ↳ in the role of finite verbs.

An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB] App. 33. P= מקללים אלהים בניו. AV differs.
1 Sam 3:14 ‫וְלָכֵ֥ן נִשְׁבַּ֖עְתִּי לְבֵ֣ית עֵלִ֑י אִֽם־יִתְכַּפֵּ֞ר עֲוֺ֧ן בֵּית־עֵלִ֛י בְּזֶ֥בַח וּבְמִנְחָ֖ה עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃‬ Therefore I have sworn to the house of Eli that the iniquity of the house of Eli will certainly not be expiated by sacrifice or offering age-abidingly.” will certainly not be expiated ← if it is expiated, standing for if it is ... may God do this to me. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.

offering: see 1 Sam 2:29.
1 Sam 3:15 ‫וַיִּשְׁכַּ֤ב שְׁמוּאֵל֙ עַד־הַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיִּפְתַּ֖ח אֶת־דַּלְת֣וֹת בֵּית־יְהוָ֑ה וּשְׁמוּאֵ֣ל יָרֵ֔א מֵהַגִּ֥יד אֶת־הַמַּרְאָ֖ה אֶל־עֵלִֽי׃‬ And Samuel lay down until the morning, when he opened the doors of the house of the Lord, but Samuel was afraid to tell the vision to Eli.
1 Sam 3:16 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֤א עֵלִי֙ אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיֹּ֖אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֣ל בְּנִ֑י וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הִנֵּֽנִי׃‬ And Eli called Samuel and said, “Samuel, my son”, and he said, “Here I am.” here I ambehold me.
1 Sam 3:17 ‫וַיֹּ֗אמֶר מָ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּ֣ר אֵלֶ֔יךָ אַל־נָ֥א תְכַחֵ֖ד מִמֶּ֑נִּי כֹּ֣ה יַעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ֤ אֱלֹהִים֙ וְכֹ֣ה יוֹסִ֔יף אִם־תְּכַחֵ֤ד מִמֶּ֙נִּי֙ דָּבָ֔ר מִכָּל־הַדָּבָ֖ר אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אֵלֶֽיךָ׃‬ And he said, “What is the thing which he has said to you? Please do not conceal it from me. May God do such-and-such to you and add such-and-such if you conceal from me anything of the whole thing which he said to you.” This verse and 2 Sam 3:35 contain the oath formula for strong denial in full (often abbreviated to simply if I do ... with no apodosis). The “do such-and-such” may refer to cutting in pieces, Gen 15:10.
1 Sam 3:18 ‫וַיַּגֶּד־ל֤וֹ שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֔ים וְלֹ֥א כִחֵ֖ד מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וַיֹּאמַ֕ר יְהוָ֣ה ה֔וּא הַטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינָ֖ו יַעֲשֶֽׂה׃ פ‬ So Samuel told him all the words, and he did not conceal anything from him. And he said, “It is the Lord. May he do what is right in his sight.”
1 Sam 3:19 ‫וַיִּגְדַּ֖ל שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל וַֽיהוָה֙ הָיָ֣ה עִמּ֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־הִפִּ֥יל מִכָּל־דְּבָרָ֖יו אָֽרְצָה׃‬ And Samuel grew up, and the Lord was with him, and he did not let any of his words fall on the ground. he ... his: (in view of the next verse) the Lord did not let any of Samuel's words fall on the ground.

any ← of every.
1 Sam 3:20 ‫וַיֵּ֙דַע֙ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִדָּ֖ן וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שָׁ֑בַע כִּ֚י נֶאֱמָ֣ן שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל לְנָבִ֖יא לַיהוָֽה׃‬ And all Israel from Dan to Beersheba knew that Samuel had been confirmed as a prophet of the Lord.
1 Sam 3:21 ‫וַיֹּ֥סֶף יְהוָ֖ה לְהֵרָאֹ֣ה בְשִׁלֹ֑ה כִּֽי־נִגְלָ֨ה יְהוָ֧ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל בְּשִׁל֖וֹ בִּדְבַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬ Then the Lord appeared again in Shiloh, for the Lord was revealed to Samuel in Shiloh with the word of the Lord.
1 Sam 4:1 ‫וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּצֵ֣א יִשְׂרָאֵל֩ לִקְרַ֨את פְּלִשְׁתִּ֜ים לַמִּלְחָמָ֗ה וַֽיַּחֲנוּ֙ עַל־הָאֶ֣בֶן הָעֵ֔זֶר וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים חָנ֥וּ בַאֲפֵֽק׃‬ And Samuel's word came to all of Israel, and Israel went out to war against the Philistines, and they encamped at Eben-Ezer, whereas the Philistines encamped in Aphek. came ← became.
1 Sam 4:2 ‫וַיַּעַרְכ֨וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֜ים לִקְרַ֣את יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וַתִּטֹּשׁ֙ הַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וַיִּנָּ֥גֶף יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לִפְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיַּכּ֤וּ בַמַּֽעֲרָכָה֙ בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה כְּאַרְבַּ֥עַת אֲלָפִ֖ים אִֽישׁ׃‬ And the Philistines lined themselves up against Israel, and the war spread, and Israel was defeated when confronting the Philistines, who struck down about four thousand men in battle-array in the field. spread: perhaps broke out, but the usual meaning of the verb is to leave, abandon.
1 Sam 4:3 ‫וַיָּבֹ֣א הָעָם֮ אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶה֒ וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ זִקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לָ֣מָּה נְגָפָ֧נוּ יְהוָ֛ה הַיּ֖וֹם לִפְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֑ים נִקְחָ֧ה אֵלֵ֣ינוּ מִשִּׁלֹ֗ה אֶת־אֲרוֹן֙ בְּרִ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה וְיָבֹ֣א בְקִרְבֵּ֔נוּ וְיֹשִׁעֵ֖נוּ מִכַּ֥ף אֹיְבֵֽינוּ׃‬ And the people went to the camp, and the elders of Israel asked, “Why has the Lord defeated us today when confronting the Philistines? Let us fetch the ark of the covenant of the Lord from Shiloh, so that it comes right in among us and saves us from the hand of our enemies.” fetch ← take to us.

right in among us ← into our midst.
1 Sam 4:4 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח הָעָם֙ שִׁלֹ֔ה וַיִּשְׂא֣וּ מִשָּׁ֗ם אֵ֣ת אֲר֧וֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָ֛ה צְבָא֖וֹת יֹשֵׁ֣ב הַכְּרֻבִ֑ים וְשָׁ֞ם שְׁנֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עֵלִ֗י עִם־אֲרוֹן֙ בְּרִ֣ית הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים חָפְנִ֖י וּפִֽינְחָֽס׃‬ So the people sent men to Shiloh, and they brought from there the ark of the covenant of the Lord of hosts – with him dwelling between the cherubim – and Eli's two sons were there with the ark of the covenant of God, Hophni and Phinehas. Phinehas: see Ex 6:25.
1 Sam 4:5 ‫וַיְהִ֗י כְּב֨וֹא אֲר֤וֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה֙ אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה וַיָּרִ֥עוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תְּרוּעָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה וַתֵּהֹ֖ם הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And it came to pass when the ark of the covenant of the Lord came to the camp that all Israel raised a loud shout, and the land was in commotion. raised ← shouted.

was in commotion: niphal of הוּם, not qal of הָמַם, the former lacking in [AnLx] p.750.
1 Sam 4:6 ‫וַיִּשְׁמְע֤וּ פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל הַתְּרוּעָ֔ה וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ מֶ֠ה ק֣וֹל הַתְּרוּעָ֧ה הַגְּדוֹלָ֛ה הַזֹּ֖את בְּמַחֲנֵ֣ה הָעִבְרִ֑ים וַיֵּ֣דְע֔וּ כִּ֚י אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֔ה בָּ֖א אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה׃‬ And the Philistines heard the sound of the shouting, and they said, “What is this sound of loud shouting in the camp of the Hebrews?” And they became aware that the ark of the Lord had come into the camp.
1 Sam 4:7 ‫וַיִּֽרְאוּ֙ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים כִּ֣י אָמְר֔וּ בָּ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה וַיֹּאמְרוּ֙ א֣וֹי לָ֔נוּ כִּ֣י לֹ֥א הָיְתָ֛ה כָּזֹ֖את אֶתְמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֹֽׁם׃‬ And the Philistines were afraid, for they said, “God has come into the camp.” And they said, “Woe to us, because it wasn't like this in the past. in the past ← yesterday (and) the day before yesterday.
1 Sam 4:8 ‫א֣וֹי לָ֔נוּ מִ֣י יַצִּילֵ֔נוּ מִיַּ֛ד הָאֱלֹהִ֥ים הָאַדִּירִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה אֵ֧לֶּה הֵ֣ם הָאֱלֹהִ֗ים הַמַּכִּ֧ים אֶת־מִצְרַ֛יִם בְּכָל־מַכָּ֖ה בַּמִּדְבָּֽר׃‬ Woe to us. Who can deliver us from the hand of these great gods? They are the gods which struck Egypt with every kind of blow in the desert.
1 Sam 4:9 ‫הִֽתְחַזְּק֞וּ וִֽהְי֤וּ לַֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים פֶּ֚ן תַּעַבְד֣וּ לָעִבְרִ֔ים כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָבְד֖וּ לָכֶ֑ם וִהְיִיתֶ֥ם לַאֲנָשִׁ֖ים וְנִלְחַמְתֶּֽם׃‬ Strengthen yourselves and become men, you Philistines, so as not to become servants to the Hebrews, in the way they have been servants to you, and become men, and fight.”
1 Sam 4:10 ‫וַיִּלָּחֲמ֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיִּנָּ֤גֶף יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיָּנֻ֙סוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ לְאֹהָלָ֔יו וַתְּהִ֥י הַמַּכָּ֖ה גְּדוֹלָ֣ה מְאֹ֑ד וַיִּפֹּל֙ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף רַגְלִֽי׃‬ And the Philistines fought, and Israel was defeated, and each fled to his tent, and the blow was very heavy, and thirty thousand of Israel's infantry fell. his tent ← his tents, the plural attracted by each.

heavy ← great.
1 Sam 4:11 ‫וַאֲר֥וֹן אֱלֹהִ֖ים נִלְקָ֑ח וּשְׁנֵ֤י בְנֵֽי־עֵלִי֙ מֵ֔תוּ חָפְנִ֖י וּפִֽינְחָֽס׃‬ And the ark of God was taken, and Eli's two sons died – Hophni and Phinehas. Phinehas: see Ex 6:25.
1 Sam 4:12 ‫וַיָּ֤רָץ אִישׁ־בִּנְיָמִן֙ מֵהַמַּ֣עֲרָכָ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֥א שִׁלֹ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וּמַדָּ֣יו קְרֻעִ֔ים וַאֲדָמָ֖ה עַל־רֹאשֽׁוֹ׃‬ Then a Benjaminite ran from the battle-line and came to Shiloh on that day, with his clothing torn and earth on his head.
1 Sam 4:13 ‫וַיָּב֗וֹא וְהִנֵּ֣ה עֵ֠לִי יֹשֵׁ֨ב עַֽל־הַכִּסֵּ֜א *יך **יַ֥ד דֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ מְצַפֶּ֔ה כִּֽי־הָיָ֤ה לִבּוֹ֙ חָרֵ֔ד עַ֖ל אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְהָאִ֗ישׁ בָּ֚א לְהַגִּ֣יד בָּעִ֔יר וַתִּזְעַ֖ק כָּל־הָעִֽיר׃‬ And when he arrived, he saw Eli sitting on a seat {Q: at the side of} [K: and he struck] the road keeping a look out, for his heart was trembling about the ark of God, and when the man came to give a report in the city, all the city shouted out. Many manuscripts support the qeré.

he saw ← behold.
1 Sam 4:14 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע עֵלִי֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל הַצְּעָקָ֔ה וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מֶ֛ה ק֥וֹל הֶהָמ֖וֹן הַזֶּ֑ה וְהָאִ֣ישׁ מִהַ֔ר וַיָּבֹ֖א וַיַּגֵּ֥ד לְעֵלִֽי׃‬ And Eli heard the sound of the shouting, and he said, “What is this sound of commotion?” And the man quickly came and told Eli. quickly came ← hastened and came.
1 Sam 4:15 ‫וְעֵלִ֕י בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִ֥ים וּשְׁמֹנֶ֖ה שָׁנָ֑ה וְעֵינָ֣יו קָ֔מָה וְלֹ֥א יָכ֖וֹל לִרְאֽוֹת׃‬ Now Eli was ninety-eight years old, and his eyes were unable to focus, and he could not see. unable to focus ← fixed.
1 Sam 4:16 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָאִ֜ישׁ אֶל־עֵלִ֗י אָֽנֹכִי֙ הַבָּ֣א מִן־הַמַּעֲרָכָ֔ה וַאֲנִ֕י מִן־הַמַּעֲרָכָ֖ה נַ֣סְתִּי הַיּ֑וֹם וַיֹּ֛אמֶר מֶֽה־הָיָ֥ה הַדָּבָ֖ר בְּנִֽי׃‬ And the man said to Eli, “I am the one who has come from the battle-line, and I fled from the battle-line today.” And he said, “What was the outcome, my son?” outcome ← thing, word.
1 Sam 4:17 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן הַֽמְבַשֵּׂ֜ר וַיֹּ֗אמֶר נָ֤ס יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לִפְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְגַ֛ם מַגֵּפָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה הָיְתָ֣ה בָעָ֑ם וְגַם־שְׁנֵ֨י בָנֶ֜יךָ מֵ֗תוּ חָפְנִי֙ וּפִ֣ינְחָ֔ס וַאֲר֥וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים נִלְקָֽחָה׃ פ‬ And the messenger replied and said, “Israel has fled before the Philistines, and there was also a great massacre among the people, and also your two sons died, Hophni and Phinehas, and the ark of God was captured.” Phinehas: see Ex 6:25.
1 Sam 4:18 ‫וַיְהִ֞י כְּהַזְכִּיר֣וֹ ׀ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֗ים וַיִּפֹּ֣ל מֵֽעַל־הַ֠כִּסֵּא אֲחֹ֨רַנִּ֜ית בְּעַ֣ד ׀ יַ֣ד הַשַּׁ֗עַר וַתִּשָּׁבֵ֤ר מַפְרַקְתּוֹ֙ וַיָּמֹ֔ת כִּֽי־זָקֵ֥ן הָאִ֖ישׁ וְכָבֵ֑ד וְה֛וּא שָׁפַ֥ט אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אַרְבָּעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה׃‬ And it came to pass, when he mentioned the ark of God, that he fell from his seat backwards through the side of the gate, and his neck was broken, and he died, for the man was old and heavy. And he had judged Israel for forty years.
1 Sam 4:19 ‫וְכַלָּת֣וֹ אֵֽשֶׁת־פִּינְחָס֮ הָרָ֣ה לָלַת֒ וַתִּשְׁמַ֣ע אֶת־הַשְּׁמֻעָ֔ה אֶל־הִלָּקַח֙ אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וּמֵ֥ת חָמִ֖יהָ וְאִישָׁ֑הּ וַתִּכְרַ֣ע וַתֵּ֔לֶד כִּֽי־נֶהֶפְכ֥וּ עָלֶ֖יהָ צִרֶֽיהָ׃‬ And his daughter-in-law, Phinehas's wife, was pregnant and was on the point of giving birth when she heard the report of the ark of God being captured, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead. Then she sank down and gave birth, for her labour pains had come on over her. Phinehas: see Ex 6:25.

giving birth ... of the ark of God being captured: gerundial use of the infinitive.

come on ← taken a turn.
1 Sam 4:20 ‫וּכְעֵ֣ת מוּתָ֗הּ וַתְּדַבֵּ֙רְנָה֙ הַנִּצָּב֣וֹת עָלֶ֔יהָ אַל־תִּֽירְאִ֖י כִּ֣י בֵ֣ן יָלָ֑דְתְּ וְלֹ֥א עָנְתָ֖ה וְלֹא־שָׁ֥תָה לִבָּֽהּ׃‬ And at the time of her death, the women standing around her said to her, “Do not be afraid, for you have given birth to a son.” But she did not answer, and she did not lay it to heart. at the time ← at about the time, but probably without force, or even denoting intensity. Compare Gen 24:28, Josh 7:3, Luke 9:28.

to heart ← (to) her heart.
1 Sam 4:21 ‫וַתִּקְרָ֣א לַנַּ֗עַר אִֽי־כָבוֹד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר גָּלָ֥ה כָב֖וֹד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֶל־הִלָּקַח֙ אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וְאֶל־חָמִ֖יהָ וְאִישָֽׁהּ׃‬ And she called the boy I-Chabod, for she said, “The glory has been removed from Israel with the ark of God being captured”, and because of her father-in-law and her husband. I-Chabod: i.e. where is the glory?

has been removed ← has been deported, has gone into exile.

AV differs in the extent of direct speech.
1 Sam 4:22 ‫וַתֹּ֕אמֶר גָּלָ֥ה כָב֖וֹד מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּ֥י נִלְקַ֖ח אֲר֥וֹן הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃ פ‬ And she said, “The glory has been removed from Israel, for the ark of God has been captured.” has been removed ← has been deported, has gone into exile.
1 Sam 5:1 ‫וּפְלִשְׁתִּים֙ לָֽקְח֔וּ אֵ֖ת אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיְבִאֻ֛הוּ מֵאֶ֥בֶן הָעֵ֖זֶר אַשְׁדּֽוֹדָה׃‬ So the Philistines captured the ark of God, and they brought it from Eben-Ezer to Ashdod. Eben-Ezer ← Eben-Haezer, = the Eben-Ezer, = the stone of help.
1 Sam 5:2 ‫וַיִּקְח֤וּ פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ אֹת֖וֹ בֵּ֣ית דָּג֑וֹן וַיַּצִּ֥יגוּ אֹת֖וֹ אֵ֥צֶל דָּגֽוֹן׃‬ And the Philistines took the ark of God and brought it to the house of Dagon, and they set it up next to Dagon.
1 Sam 5:3 ‫וַיַּשְׁכִּ֤מוּ אַשְׁדּוֹדִים֙ מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וְהִנֵּ֣ה דָג֗וֹן נֹפֵ֤ל לְפָנָיו֙ אַ֔רְצָה לִפְנֵ֖י אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֑ה וַיִּקְחוּ֙ אֶת־דָּג֔וֹן וַיָּשִׁ֥בוּ אֹת֖וֹ לִמְקוֹמֽוֹ׃‬ But when the Ashdodites got up early next day, what they saw was that Dagon had fallen face down to the ground before the ark of the Lord. And they took Dagon and restored him to his position. what they saw was that ← behold.

face down ← to his face.
1 Sam 5:4 ‫וַיַּשְׁכִּ֣מוּ בַבֹּקֶר֮ מִֽמָּחֳרָת֒ וְהִנֵּ֣ה דָג֗וֹן נֹפֵ֤ל לְפָנָיו֙ אַ֔רְצָה לִפְנֵ֖י אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֑ה וְרֹ֨אשׁ דָּג֜וֹן וּשְׁתֵּ֣י ׀ כַּפּ֣וֹת יָדָ֗יו כְּרֻתוֹת֙ אֶל־הַמִּפְתָּ֔ן רַ֥ק דָּג֖וֹן נִשְׁאַ֥ר עָלָֽיו׃‬ Then they got up early on the next day and saw that Dagon had fallen face down to the ground before the ark of the Lord, and Dagon's head and the two palms of his hands had been cut off at the threshold – only the trunk of Dagon was left to him. saw that ← behold.

face down ← to his face.
1 Sam 5:5 ‫עַל־כֵּ֡ן לֹֽא־יִדְרְכוּ֩ כֹהֲנֵ֨י דָג֜וֹן וְכָֽל־הַבָּאִ֧ים בֵּית־דָּג֛וֹן עַל־מִפְתַּ֥ן דָּג֖וֹן בְּאַשְׁדּ֑וֹד עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ ס‬ For this reason the priests of Dagon and all those who come to the house of Dagon have not been treading on the threshold of Dagon in Ashdod up to this day.
1 Sam 5:6 ‫וַתִּכְבַּ֧ד יַד־יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־הָאַשְׁדּוֹדִ֖ים וַיְשִׁמֵּ֑ם וַיַּ֤ךְ אֹתָם֙ *בעפלים **בַּטְּחֹרִ֔ים אֶת־אַשְׁדּ֖וֹד וְאֶת־גְּבוּלֶֽיהָ׃‬ And the hand of the Lord became very heavy on the Ashdodites, and he devastated them, and he struck them – the people of Ashdod and its outskirts – with {K: haemorrhoids} [Q: tumours]. On the ketiv / qeré, see Deut 28:27.

outskirts ← borders.
1 Sam 5:7 ‫וַיִּרְא֥וּ אַנְשֵֽׁי־אַשְׁדּ֖וֹד כִּֽי־כֵ֑ן וְאָמְר֗וּ לֹֽא־יֵשֵׁ֞ב אֲר֨וֹן אֱלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ עִמָּ֔נוּ כִּֽי־קָשְׁתָ֤ה יָדוֹ֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ וְעַ֖ל דָּג֥וֹן אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ׃‬ And when the men of Ashdod saw that it was like that, they said, “The ark of the God of Israel will not stay with us, for his hand has been harsh on us and on Dagon our god.”
1 Sam 5:8 ‫וַיִּשְׁלְח֡וּ וַיַּאַסְפוּ֩ אֶת־כָּל־סַרְנֵ֨י פְלִשְׁתִּ֜ים אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ מַֽה־נַּעֲשֶׂ֗ה לַֽאֲרוֹן֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ גַּ֣ת יִסֹּ֔ב אֲר֖וֹן אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיַּסֵּ֕בּוּ אֶת־אֲר֖וֹן אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬ So they sent word, and they had all the barons of the Philistines gather with them, and they asked, “What shall we do with the ark of the God of Israel?” And they said, “The ark of the God of Israel shall be transferred to Gath.” And they transferred the ark of the God of Israel. gather with ← gather to.

with the ark ← to the ark.

be transferred ← transfer (intransitive). Qal for passive of hiphil. Compare Isa 10:34.
1 Sam 5:9 ‫וַיְהִ֞י אַחֲרֵ֣י ׀ הֵסַ֣בּוּ אֹת֗וֹ וַתְּהִ֨י יַד־יְהוָ֤ה ׀ בָּעִיר֙ מְהוּמָה֙ גְּדוֹלָ֣ה מְאֹ֔ד וַיַּךְ֙ אֶת־אַנְשֵׁ֣י הָעִ֔יר מִקָּטֹ֖ן וְעַד־גָּד֑וֹל וַיִּשָּׂתְר֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם *עפלים **טְחֹרִֽים׃‬ Then it came to pass, after they had transferred it, that the hand of the Lord came on the city with very great turmoil, and he struck the men of the city, both great and small, and {K: haemorrhoids} [Q: tumours] broke out on them. On the ketiv / qeré, see Deut 28:27.

came ← became.

on them ← to them.
1 Sam 5:10 ‫וַֽיְשַׁלְּח֛וּ אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים עֶקְר֑וֹן וַיְהִ֗י כְּב֨וֹא אֲר֤וֹן הָאֱלֹהִים֙ עֶקְר֔וֹן וַיִּזְעֲק֨וּ הָֽעֶקְרֹנִ֜ים לֵאמֹ֗ר הֵסַ֤בּוּ אֵלַי֙ אֶת־אֲרוֹן֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לַהֲמִיתֵ֖נִי וְאֶת־עַמִּֽי׃‬ Then they sent the ark of God to Ekron, and it came to pass when the ark of God arrived at Ekron that the Ekronites shouted out and said, “They have transferred the ark of the God of Israel to me to kill me and my people.”
1 Sam 5:11 ‫וַיִּשְׁלְח֨וּ וַיַּאַסְפ֜וּ אֶת־כָּל־סַרְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ שַׁלְּח֞וּ אֶת־אֲר֨וֹן אֱלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לִמְקֹמ֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־יָמִ֥ית אֹתִ֖י וְאֶת־עַמִּ֑י כִּֽי־הָיְתָ֤ה מְהֽוּמַת־מָ֙וֶת֙ בְּכָל־הָעִ֔יר כָּבְדָ֥ה מְאֹ֛ד יַ֥ד הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים שָֽׁם׃‬ And they sent word, and they had all the barons of the Philistines gather, and they said, “Send the ark of the God of Israel away, and have it return to its place, so that it does not kill me and my people”, for there was a deadly turmoil in the whole of the city – the hand of God was very heavy there.
1 Sam 5:12 ‫וְהָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־מֵ֔תוּ הֻכּ֖וּ *בעפלים **בַּטְּחֹרִ֑ים וַתַּ֛עַל שַֽׁוְעַ֥ת הָעִ֖יר הַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃‬ And the men who did not die were struck with {K: haemorrhoids} [Q: tumours], and the outcry of the city went up to heaven. On the ketiv / qeré, see Deut 28:27.
1 Sam 6:1 ‫וַיְהִ֧י אֲרוֹן־יְהוָ֛ה בִּשְׂדֵ֥ה פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים שִׁבְעָ֥ה חֳדָשִֽׁים׃‬ And the ark of the Lord was in the Philistines' country for seven months.
1 Sam 6:2 ‫וַיִּקְרְא֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים לַכֹּהֲנִ֤ים וְלַקֹּֽסְמִים֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר מַֽה־נַּעֲשֶׂ֖ה לַאֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֑ה הוֹדִעֻ֕נוּ בַּמֶּ֖ה נְשַׁלְּחֶ֥נּוּ לִמְקוֹמֽוֹ׃‬ Then the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners, and they said, “What should we do with the ark of the Lord? Tell us in what way we should send it to its place.” with the ark ← to the ark.
1 Sam 6:3 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ אִֽם־מְשַׁלְּחִ֞ים אֶת־אֲר֨וֹן אֱלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אַל־תְּשַׁלְּח֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ רֵיקָ֔ם כִּֽי־הָשֵׁ֥ב תָּשִׁ֛יבוּ ל֖וֹ אָשָׁ֑ם אָ֤ז תֵּרָֽפְאוּ֙ וְנוֹדַ֣ע לָכֶ֔ם לָ֛מָּה לֹא־תָס֥וּר יָד֖וֹ מִכֶּֽם׃‬ And they said, “If you send the ark of the God of Israel back, do not send it back empty, but certainly return a guilt-offering to him, then you will be healed, and it will be made known to you why his hand would not depart from you.” empty: or in vain.

certainly return: infinitive absolute.

to him: or for it, but only to him fits well in 1 Sam 6:8.
1 Sam 6:4 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ מָ֣ה הָאָשָׁם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָשִׁ֣יב לוֹ֒ וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ מִסְפַּר֙ סַרְנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים חֲמִשָּׁה֙ *עפלי **טְחֹרֵ֣י זָהָ֔ב וַחֲמִשָּׁ֖ה עַכְבְּרֵ֣י זָהָ֑ב כִּֽי־מַגֵּפָ֥ה אַחַ֛ת לְכֻלָּ֖ם וּלְסַרְנֵיכֶֽם׃‬ And they said, “What is the guilt-offering which we should render to him?” And they said, “As the number of barons of the Philistines is: five golden {K: haemorrhoids} [Q: tumours] and five golden mice, for there is one plague on them all, including your barons. On the ketiv / qeré, see Deut 28:27.

to him: see 1 Sam 6:3.

them all: AV differs (all of you), perhaps reading לְכֻלְּכֶם.
1 Sam 6:5 ‫וַעֲשִׂיתֶם֩ צַלְמֵ֨י *עפליכם **טְחֹרֵיכֶ֜ם וְצַלְמֵ֣י עַכְבְּרֵיכֶ֗ם הַמַּשְׁחִיתִם֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּנְתַתֶּ֛ם לֵאלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כָּב֑וֹד אוּלַ֗י יָקֵ֤ל אֶת־יָדוֹ֙ מֵֽעֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וּמֵעַ֥ל אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם וּמֵעַ֥ל אַרְצְכֶֽם׃‬ And you shall make images of your {K: haemorrhoids} [Q: tumours] and images of your mice which infested the land, and you shall give honour to the God of Israel so that maybe he will relax his grip on you and on your god and on your land. On the ketiv / qeré, see Deut 28:27.

relax ← lighten.

his grip on you ← his hand from on you.

god: perhaps gods, but the god of the Philistines was Dagon (Judg 16:23, 1 Sam 5:2).
1 Sam 6:6 ‫וְלָ֤מָּה תְכַבְּדוּ֙ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶ֔ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֧ר כִּבְּד֛וּ מִצְרַ֥יִם וּפַרְעֹ֖ה אֶת־לִבָּ֑ם הֲלוֹא֙ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר הִתְעַלֵּ֣ל בָּהֶ֔ם וַֽיְשַׁלְּח֖וּם וַיֵּלֵֽכוּ׃‬ Why should you harden your heart in the way Egypt and Pharaoh hardened their heart? When he dealt forcefully with them, did they not let them go, and they departed?
1 Sam 6:7 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה קְח֨וּ וַעֲשׂ֜וּ עֲגָלָ֤ה חֲדָשָׁה֙ אֶחָ֔ת וּשְׁתֵּ֤י פָרוֹת֙ עָל֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־עָלָ֥ה עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם עֹ֑ל וַאֲסַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־הַפָּרוֹת֙ בָּעֲגָלָ֔ה וַהֲשֵׁיבֹתֶ֧ם בְּנֵיהֶ֛ם מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶ֖ם הַבָּֽיְתָה׃‬ So now, make one new wagon, and take two dairy cows on which no yoke has been put, and you will attach the cows to the wagon and have their calves remain at home, leaving them behind. has been put ← has gone up. Qal for passive of hiphil.

leaving them behind ← behind them.
1 Sam 6:8 ‫וּלְקַחְתֶּ֞ם אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֗ה וּנְתַתֶּ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ אֶל־הָ֣עֲגָלָ֔ה וְאֵ֣ת ׀ כְּלֵ֣י הַזָּהָ֗ב אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֲשֵׁבֹתֶ֥ם לוֹ֙ אָשָׁ֔ם תָּשִׂ֥ימוּ בָאַרְגַּ֖ז מִצִּדּ֑וֹ וְשִׁלַּחְתֶּ֥ם אֹת֖וֹ וְהָלָֽךְ׃‬ And you will take the ark of the Lord, and you will put it on the wagon, and you will put the golden items, which you are giving to him in return as a guilt-offering, in a box alongside it, and you will send it, and it will be dispatched. be dispatched ← go. Qal for passive of hiphil.
1 Sam 6:9 ‫וּרְאִיתֶ֗ם אִם־דֶּ֨רֶךְ גְּבוּל֤וֹ יַֽעֲלֶה֙ בֵּ֣ית שֶׁ֔מֶשׁ ה֚וּא עָ֣שָׂה לָ֔נוּ אֶת־הָרָעָ֥ה הַגְּדוֹלָ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את וְאִם־לֹ֗א וְיָדַ֙עְנוּ֙ כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יָדוֹ֙ נָ֣גְעָה בָּ֔נוּ מִקְרֶ֥ה ה֖וּא הָ֥יָה לָֽנוּ׃‬ And you will see whether it goes up by the way of his border to Beth-Shemesh, because then it was him who did this great evil to us, but if not, then we will know that it was not his hand which struck us, and that it was a coincidence that happened to us.” him: or, if the reader prefers, he.
1 Sam 6:10 ‫וַיַּעֲשׂ֤וּ הָאֲנָשִׁים֙ כֵּ֔ן וַיִּקְח֗וּ שְׁתֵּ֤י פָרוֹת֙ עָל֔וֹת וַיַּאַסְר֖וּם בָּעֲגָלָ֑ה וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֖ם כָּל֥וּ בַבָּֽיִת׃‬ And the men did this, and they took two dairy cows, and they attached them to the wagon, and they confined their calves at home. this ← thus.
1 Sam 6:11 ‫וַיָּשִׂ֛מוּ אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־הָעֲגָלָ֑ה וְאֵ֣ת הָאַרְגַּ֗ז וְאֵת֙ עַכְבְּרֵ֣י הַזָּהָ֔ב וְאֵ֖ת צַלְמֵ֥י טְחֹרֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And they put the ark of the Lord and the box and the golden mice and the images of their tumours on the wagon.
1 Sam 6:12 ‫וַיִשַּׁ֨רְנָה הַפָּר֜וֹת בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ עַל־דֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ בֵּ֣ית שֶׁ֔מֶשׁ בִּמְסִלָּ֣ה אַחַ֗ת הָלְכ֤וּ הָלֹךְ֙ וְגָע֔וֹ וְלֹא־סָ֖רוּ יָמִ֣ין וּשְׂמֹ֑אול וְסַרְנֵ֤י פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ הֹלְכִ֣ים אַחֲרֵיהֶ֔ם עַד־גְּב֖וּל בֵּ֥ית שָֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬ And the cows went straight down the road, on the road to Beth-Shemesh, and they went on the one highway, lowing as they went, and they did not turn to the right or left, while the barons of the Philistines followed them up to the border of Beth-Shemesh. lowing as they went: infinitive absolute of each verb.
1 Sam 6:13 ‫וּבֵ֣ית שֶׁ֔מֶשׁ קֹצְרִ֥ים קְצִיר־חִטִּ֖ים בָּעֵ֑מֶק וַיִּשְׂא֣וּ אֶת־עֵינֵיהֶ֗ם וַיִּרְאוּ֙ אֶת־הָ֣אָר֔וֹן וַֽיִּשְׂמְח֖וּ לִרְאֽוֹת׃‬ And at Beth-Shemesh they were reaping the wheat harvest in the valley, and they lifted up their eyes and saw the ark, and they rejoiced at seeing it.
1 Sam 6:14 ‫וְהָעֲגָלָ֡ה בָּ֠אָה אֶל־שְׂדֵ֨ה יְהוֹשֻׁ֤עַ בֵּֽית־הַשִּׁמְשִׁי֙ וַתַּעֲמֹ֣ד שָׁ֔ם וְשָׁ֖ם אֶ֣בֶן גְּדוֹלָ֑ה וַֽיְבַקְּעוּ֙ אֶת־עֲצֵ֣י הָעֲגָלָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַ֨פָּר֔וֹת הֶעֱל֥וּ עֹלָ֖ה לַיהוָֽה׃ ס‬ And the wagon came to the field of Joshua the Beth-Shemeshite, and it stopped there, where there is a large stone, and they chopped up the wood of the wagon and offered the cows as a burnt offering to the Lord. stopped ← stood.
1 Sam 6:15 ‫וְהַלְוִיִּ֞ם הוֹרִ֣ידוּ ׀ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֗ה וְאֶת־הָאַרְגַּ֤ז אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֣וֹ כְלֵֽי־זָהָ֔ב וַיָּשִׂ֖מוּ אֶל־הָאֶ֣בֶן הַגְּדוֹלָ֑ה וְאַנְשֵׁ֣י בֵֽית־שֶׁ֗מֶשׁ הֶעֱל֨וּ עֹל֜וֹת וַֽיִּזְבְּח֧וּ זְבָחִ֛ים בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא לַֽיהוָֽה׃‬ Then the Levites brought the ark of the Lord down, and the box which was with it, in which were the golden items, and they put them on the large stone. And the men of Beth-Shemesh offered burnt offerings and offered sacrifices to the Lord on that day. offered (second occurrence in verse)sacrificed.
1 Sam 6:16 ‫וַחֲמִשָּׁ֥ה סַרְנֵֽי־פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים רָא֑וּ וַיָּשֻׁ֥בוּ עֶקְר֖וֹן בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃ ס‬ And the five barons of the Philistines saw it and went back to Ekron on that day.
1 Sam 6:17 ‫וְאֵ֙לֶּה֙ טְחֹרֵ֣י הַזָּהָ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵשִׁ֧יבוּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֛ים אָשָׁ֖ם לַֽיהוָ֑ה לְאַשְׁדּ֨וֹד אֶחָ֜ד לְעַזָּ֤ה אֶחָד֙ לְאַשְׁקְל֣וֹן אֶחָ֔ד לְגַ֥ת אֶחָ֖ד לְעֶקְר֥וֹן אֶחָֽד׃ ס‬ And these are the golden tumours which the Philistines returned as a guilt-offering to the Lord: for Ashdod, one; for Gaza, one; for Ashkelon, one; for Gath, one; for Ekron, one.
1 Sam 6:18 ‫וְעַכְבְּרֵ֣י הַזָּהָ֗ב מִסְפַּ֞ר כָּל־עָרֵ֤י פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ לַחֲמֵ֣שֶׁת הַסְּרָנִ֔ים מֵעִ֣יר מִבְצָ֔ר וְעַ֖ד כֹּ֣פֶר הַפְּרָזִ֑י וְעַ֣ד ׀ אָבֵ֣ל הַגְּדוֹלָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִנִּ֤יחוּ עָלֶ֙יהָ֙ אֵ֚ת אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֔ה עַ֚ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה בִּשְׂדֵ֥ה יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ בֵּֽית־הַשִּׁמְשִֽׁי׃‬ And the golden mice were in number according to all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five barons, from fortified city to unwalled village, including the great meadow above which they placed the ark of the Lord, a place as it is up to this day, in the field of Joshua the Beth-Shemeshite. including ← and to.

meadow: AV differs (Abel). AV and many translations introduce the word stone here (compare 1 Sam 6:14, 1 Sam 6:15), the textual basis for which is mainly a few Hebrew manuscripts [BHS-CA] and the LXX.
1 Sam 6:19 ‫וַיַּ֞ךְ בְּאַנְשֵׁ֣י בֵֽית־שֶׁ֗מֶשׁ כִּ֤י רָאוּ֙ בַּאֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֔ה וַיַּ֤ךְ בָּעָם֙ שִׁבְעִ֣ים אִ֔ישׁ חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִ֑ישׁ וַיִּֽתְאַבְּל֣וּ הָעָ֔ם כִּֽי־הִכָּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה בָּעָ֖ם מַכָּ֥ה גְדוֹלָֽה ‬ Then he struck down the men of Beth-Shemesh, because they looked in the ark of the Lord, and among the people he struck down seventy men, and fifty thousand men. And the people mourned, for the Lord had inflicted a severe blow on the people.
1 Sam 6:20 ‫וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ אַנְשֵׁ֣י בֵֽית־שֶׁ֔מֶשׁ מִ֚י יוּכַ֣ל לַעֲמֹ֔ד לִפְנֵ֨י יְהוָ֧ה הָאֱלֹהִ֛ים הַקָּד֖וֹשׁ הַזֶּ֑ה וְאֶל־מִ֖י יַעֲלֶ֥ה מֵעָלֵֽינוּ׃ ס‬ And the men of Beth-Shemesh said, “Who can stand before this holy Lord God, and to whom will it go up away from us?” it go up: AV differs (he go up), but it is the ark that goes up (see next verse).
1 Sam 6:21 ‫וַֽיִּשְׁלְחוּ֙ מַלְאָכִ֔ים אֶל־יוֹשְׁבֵ֥י קִרְיַת־יְעָרִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר הֵשִׁ֤בוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֔ה רְד֕וּ הַעֲל֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ אֲלֵיכֶֽם׃‬ And they sent messengers to the inhabitants of Kiriath-Jearim and said, “The Philistines have returned the ark of the Lord. Come down and bring it up to where you are.” Kiriath-Jearim: see Josh 9:17.
1 Sam 7:1 ‫וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ אַנְשֵׁ֣י ׀ קִרְיַ֣ת יְעָרִ֗ים וַֽיַּעֲלוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֔ה וַיָּבִ֣אוּ אֹת֔וֹ אֶל־בֵּ֥ית אֲבִינָדָ֖ב בַּגִּבְעָ֑ה וְאֶת־אֶלְעָזָ֤ר בְּנוֹ֙ קִדְּשׁ֔וּ לִשְׁמֹ֖ר אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬ So the men of Kiriath-Jearim came and brought the ark of the Lord up, and they brought it to the house of Abinadab on the hill, and they sanctified Eleazar his son for him to keep the ark of the Lord. Kiriath-Jearim: see Josh 9:17.

on the hill: or in Gibeah. See 1 Sam 10:5, 1 Sam 10:10.

Eleazar: see Ex 6:23.
1 Sam 7:2 ‫וַיְהִ֗י מִיּ֞וֹם שֶׁ֤בֶת הָֽאָרוֹן֙ בְּקִרְיַ֣ת יְעָרִ֔ים וַיִּרְבּוּ֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וַיִּֽהְי֖וּ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיִּנָּה֛וּ כָּל־בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אַחֲרֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ And it came to pass, since the day when the ark remained in Kiriath-Jearim, that much time passed, and twenty years went by, and the whole house of Israel lamented before the Lord. Kiriath-Jearim: see Josh 9:17.

much time passed ← the days became many.

went by ← were, became.

lamented before ← lamented after. The next verse elucidates.
1 Sam 7:3 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל אֶל־כָּל־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵל֮ לֵאמֹר֒ אִם־בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶ֗ם אַתֶּ֤ם שָׁבִים֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה הָסִ֜ירוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֧י הַנֵּכָ֛ר מִתּוֹכְכֶ֖ם וְהָעַשְׁתָּר֑וֹת וְהָכִ֨ינוּ לְבַבְכֶ֤ם אֶל־יְהוָה֙ וְעִבְדֻ֣הוּ לְבַדּ֔וֹ וְיַצֵּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִיַּ֥ד פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ Then Samuel spoke to the whole house of Israel and said, “If you are returning to the Lord with all your heart, remove the foreign gods from your vicinity, including the images of Astarte, and prepare your heart for the Lord, and serve him alone, and may he deliver you from the hand of the Philistines.” images of Astarte ← Ashtaroth, i.e. Venuses.
1 Sam 7:4 ‫וַיָּסִ֙ירוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶת־הַבְּעָלִ֖ים וְאֶת־הָעַשְׁתָּרֹ֑ת וַיַּעַבְד֥וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה לְבַדּֽוֹ׃ פ‬ So the sons of Israel removed the images of Baal and the images of Astarte, and they served the Lord only. images of Astarte ← Ashtaroth, i.e. Venuses.
1 Sam 7:5 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל קִבְצ֥וּ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הַמִּצְפָּ֑תָה וְאֶתְפַּלֵּ֥ל בַּעַדְכֶ֖ם אֶל־יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then Samuel said, “Assemble all of Israel in Mizpah, and I will pray to the Lord for you.” in Mizpah ← to Mizpah. Pregnant use of locative of motion towards. AV differs (to Mizpeh). See Josh 11:3.
1 Sam 7:6 ‫וַיִּקָּבְצ֣וּ הַ֠מִּצְפָּתָה וַיִּֽשְׁאֲבוּ־מַ֜יִם וַֽיִּשְׁפְּכ֣וּ ׀ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֗ה וַיָּצ֙וּמוּ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וַיֹּ֣אמְרוּ שָׁ֔ם חָטָ֖אנוּ לַיהוָ֑ה וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֧ט שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בַּמִּצְפָּֽה׃‬ So they assembled in Mizpah, and they drew water and poured it before the Lord, and they fasted on that day, and they said there, “We have sinned against the Lord.” And Samuel judged the sons of Israel in Mizpah. in Mizpah ... Mizpah ← to Mizpah ... Mizpah. Pregnant use of locative of motion towards. AV differs (to Mizpeh ... in Mizpeh). See Josh 11:3.
1 Sam 7:7 ‫וַיִּשְׁמְע֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים כִּֽי־הִתְקַבְּצ֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ הַמִּצְפָּ֔תָה וַיַּעֲל֥וּ סַרְנֵֽי־פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַֽיִּשְׁמְעוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּֽרְא֖וּ מִפְּנֵ֥י פְלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And the Philistines heard that the sons of Israel had assembled in Mizpah, and the barons of the Philistines went up against Israel, and when the sons of Israel heard it, they were afraid of the Philistines. in Mizpah ← to Mizpah. Pregnant use of locative of motion towards. AV differs (to Mizpeh). See Josh 11:3.

against: or to.
1 Sam 7:8 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל אַל־תַּחֲרֵ֣שׁ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ מִזְּעֹ֖ק אֶל־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וְיֹשִׁעֵ֖נוּ מִיַּ֥ד פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And the sons of Israel said to Samuel, “Do not refrain in silence from crying out to the Lord our God on behalf of us, so that he saves us from the hand of the Philistines.” from crying out: gerundial use of the infinitive.

so that: purposive use of the vav.
1 Sam 7:9 ‫וַיִּקַּ֣ח שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל טְלֵ֤ה חָלָב֙ אֶחָ֔ד *ויעלה **וַיַּעֲלֵ֧הוּ עוֹלָ֛ה כָּלִ֖יל לַֽיהוָ֑ה וַיִּזְעַ֨ק שְׁמוּאֵ֤ל אֶל־יְהוָה֙ בְּעַ֣ד יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽיַּעֲנֵ֖הוּ יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then Samuel took a suckling lamb {K: and offered it} [Q: and offered it] as a complete burnt offering to the Lord, and Samuel cried out to the Lord on behalf of Israel, and the Lord answered him. a suckling lamb ← one lamb of milk.
1 Sam 7:10 ‫וַיְהִ֤י שְׁמוּאֵל֙ מַעֲלֶ֣ה הָעוֹלָ֔ה וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֣ים נִגְּשׁ֔וּ לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיַּרְעֵ֣ם יְהוָ֣ה ׀ בְּקוֹל־גָּ֠דוֹל בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֤וּא עַל־פְּלִשְׁתִּים֙ וַיְהֻמֵּ֔ם וַיִּנָּגְפ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And Samuel was performing the burnt offering when the Philistines approached to wage war on Israel, but the Lord made it thunder on the Philistines with a loud sound on that day, and he routed them, and they were struck down before Israel. performing ← offering.
1 Sam 7:11 ‫וַיֵּ֨צְא֜וּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִן־הַמִּצְפָּ֔ה וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֖וּ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיַּכּ֕וּם עַד־מִתַּ֖חַת לְבֵ֥ית כָּֽר׃‬ And the men of Israel went out from Mizpah and pursued the Philistines, and they struck them down as far as below Beth-Car. Mizpah: AV differs (Mizpeh). See Josh 11:3.
1 Sam 7:12 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל אֶ֣בֶן אַחַ֗ת וַיָּ֤שֶׂם בֵּֽין־הַמִּצְפָּה֙ וּבֵ֣ין הַשֵּׁ֔ן וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמָ֖הּ אֶ֣בֶן הָעָ֑זֶר וַיֹּאמַ֕ר עַד־הֵ֖נָּה עֲזָרָ֥נוּ יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then Samuel took a stone, and he put it between Mizpah and Shen, and he called it Eben-Ezer, and he said, “Up to this point the Lord has helped us.” a stone ← one stone.

Mizpah: AV differs (Mizpeh). See Josh 11:3.

Shen ← the Shen.

Eben-Ezer ← Eben-Haezer; see 1 Sam 5:1.
1 Sam 7:13 ‫וַיִּכָּֽנְעוּ֙ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְלֹא־יָסְפ֣וּ ע֔וֹד לָב֖וֹא בִּגְב֣וּל יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַתְּהִ֤י יַד־יְהוָה֙ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י שְׁמוּאֵֽל׃‬ So the Philistines were defeated, and they did not come into Israel's territory again, and the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines for all Samuel's days. territory ← border.
1 Sam 7:14 ‫וַתָּשֹׁ֣בְנָה הֶעָרִ֡ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לָֽקְחוּ־פְלִשְׁתִּים֩ מֵאֵ֨ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל ׀ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵעֶקְר֣וֹן וְעַד־גַּ֔ת וְאֶ֨ת־גְּבוּלָ֔ן הִצִּ֥יל יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִיַּ֣ד פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיְהִ֣י שָׁל֔וֹם בֵּ֥ין יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וּבֵ֥ין הָאֱמֹרִֽי׃‬ And the cities which the Philistines had captured from Israel returned to Israel, from Ekron to Gath, and Israel rescued their borders from the hand of the Philistines, and there was peace between Israel and the Amorite. Amorite: see Gen 10:16.
1 Sam 7:15 ‫וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֤ט שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י חַיָּֽיו׃‬ And Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life.
1 Sam 7:16 ‫וְהָלַ֗ךְ מִדֵּ֤י שָׁנָה֙ בְּשָׁנָ֔ה וְסָבַב֙ בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל וְהַגִּלְגָּ֖ל וְהַמִּצְפָּ֑ה וְשָׁפַט֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַמְּקוֹמ֖וֹת הָאֵֽלֶּה׃‬ And each year he went round Beth-El and Gilgal and Mizpah, and he judged Israel in all these places. Beth-El ... Gilgal ← the Beth-El ... the Gilgal.

Mizpah: AV differs (Mizpeh). See Josh 11:3.
1 Sam 7:17 ‫וּתְשֻׁבָת֤וֹ הָרָמָ֙תָה֙ כִּֽי־שָׁ֣ם בֵּית֔וֹ וְשָׁ֖ם שָׁפָ֣ט אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּֽבֶן־שָׁ֥ם מִזְבֵּ֖חַ לַֽיהוָֽה׃ פ‬ And his final stop was to Ramah, for that is where his house was, and he judged Israel there, and he built an altar to the Lord there. final stop ← return.

Ramah ← the Ramah.
1 Sam 8:1 ‫וַיְהִ֕י כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר זָקֵ֖ן שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל וַיָּ֧שֶׂם אֶת־בָּנָ֛יו שֹׁפְטִ֖ים לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And it came to pass, when Samuel was old, that he appointed his sons as Israel's judges.
1 Sam 8:2 ‫וַיְהִ֞י שֶׁם־בְּנ֤וֹ הַבְּכוֹר֙ יוֹאֵ֔ל וְשֵׁ֥ם מִשְׁנֵ֖הוּ אֲבִיָּ֑ה שֹׁפְטִ֖ים בִּבְאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע׃‬ And the name of his elder son was Joel, and the name of his second one was Abijah, and they were judges in Beersheba. Abijah: AV has Abiah for this name here and in 1 Chr 2:24, 1 Chr 6:13 (1 Chr 6:28AV), 1 Chr 7:8 and Abia in 1 Chr 3:10 and Abijah elsewhere, perhaps to distinguish different people. We ↴
1 Sam 8:3 ‫וְלֹֽא־הָלְכ֤וּ בָנָיו֙ *בדרכו **בִּדְרָכָ֔יו וַיִּטּ֖וּ אַחֲרֵ֣י הַבָּ֑צַע וַיִּ֨קְחוּ־שֹׁ֔חַד וַיַּטּ֖וּ מִשְׁפָּֽט׃ פ‬ But his sons did not walk in his {K: way} [Q: ways], and they turned aside after unjust gain, and they accepted bribes, and they perverted the course of justice. ↳ have one English spelling for the one Hebrew spelling. 1 Kings has Abijam for the king of Judah.

bribes ← a bribe, but also collective usage, bribery.
1 Sam 8:4 ‫וַיִּֽתְקַבְּצ֔וּ כֹּ֖ל זִקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל הָרָמָֽתָה׃‬ And all the elders of Israel gathered and came to Samuel in Ramah. in Ramah ← to Ramah.
1 Sam 8:5 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו הִנֵּה֙ אַתָּ֣ה זָקַ֔נְתָּ וּבָנֶ֕יךָ לֹ֥א הָלְכ֖וּ בִּדְרָכֶ֑יךָ עַתָּ֗ה שִֽׂימָה־לָּ֥נוּ מֶ֛לֶךְ לְשָׁפְטֵ֖נוּ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִֽם׃‬ And they said to him, “Look, you are old, but your sons don't walk in your ways. Now then, appoint us a king to judge us like all the Gentiles.” but: adversative use of the vav.
1 Sam 8:6 ‫וַיֵּ֤רַע הַדָּבָר֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמְר֔וּ תְּנָה־לָּ֥נוּ מֶ֖לֶךְ לְשָׁפְטֵ֑נוּ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּ֥ל שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אֶל־יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬ But the matter was wrong in Samuel's sight, when they said, “Give us a king to judge us.” And Samuel prayed to the Lord.
1 Sam 8:7 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל שְׁמַע֙ בְּק֣וֹל הָעָ֔ם לְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמְר֖וּ אֵלֶ֑יךָ כִּ֣י לֹ֤א אֹֽתְךָ֙ מָאָ֔סוּ כִּֽי־אֹתִ֥י מָאֲס֖וּ מִמְּלֹ֥ךְ עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And the Lord said to Samuel, “Heed the people – everything they say to you – for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected me reigning over them, heed ← hear the voice of.
1 Sam 8:8 ‫כְּכָֽל־הַמַּעֲשִׂ֣ים אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂ֗וּ מִיּוֹם֩ הַעֲלֹתִ֨י אֹתָ֤ם מִמִּצְרַ֙יִם֙ וְעַד־הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וַיַּ֣עַזְבֻ֔נִי וַיַּעַבְד֖וּ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים כֵּ֛ן הֵ֥מָּה עֹשִׂ֖ים גַּם־לָֽךְ׃‬ like all their deeds which they have perpetrated from the day when I brought them up out of Egypt up to this day, and they have abandoned me and served other gods, and so they are doing to you too.
1 Sam 8:9 ‫וְעַתָּ֖ה שְׁמַ֣ע בְּקוֹלָ֑ם אַ֗ךְ כִּֽי־הָעֵ֤ד תָּעִיד֙ בָּהֶ֔ם וְהִגַּדְתָּ֣ לָהֶ֔ם מִשְׁפַּ֣ט הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִמְלֹ֖ךְ עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃ ס‬ So now, heed them, but nevertheless testify solemnly against them, and tell them about the administration of the king who will reign over them.” heed ← hear the voice of.

testify solemnly: infinitive absolute.

administration: or justice, or customs, practices.
1 Sam 8:10 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל אֵ֖ת כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה אֶל־הָעָ֕ם הַשֹּׁאֲלִ֥ים מֵאִתּ֖וֹ מֶֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ And Samuel spoke all the words of the Lord to the people who were asking him for a king.
1 Sam 8:11 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר זֶ֗ה יִֽהְיֶה֙ מִשְׁפַּ֣ט הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִמְלֹ֖ךְ עֲלֵיכֶ֑ם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶ֣ם יִקָּ֗ח וְשָׂ֥ם לוֹ֙ בְּמֶרְכַּבְתּ֣וֹ וּבְפָרָשָׁ֔יו וְרָצ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י מֶרְכַּבְתּֽוֹ׃‬ And he said, “This will be the administration of the king who will reign over you: he will take your sons and appoint them in his interest in his chariot fleet and his cavalry, and some of them will run before his chariot fleet. administration: or justice, or customs, practices.
1 Sam 8:12 ‫וְלָשׂ֣וּם ל֔וֹ שָׂרֵ֥י אֲלָפִ֖ים וְשָׂרֵ֣י חֲמִשִּׁ֑ים וְלַחֲרֹ֤שׁ חֲרִישׁוֹ֙ וְלִקְצֹ֣ר קְצִיר֔וֹ וְלַעֲשׂ֥וֹת כְּלֵֽי־מִלְחַמְתּ֖וֹ וּכְלֵ֥י רִכְבּֽוֹ׃‬ And he will appoint himself commanders of a thousand and commanders of fifty, and men to plough his fields and to reap his harvest and to make his armaments and his chariot equipment. plough his fields ← plough his ploughing. [ST] infers the sense of fields (labourer ses champs).
1 Sam 8:13 ‫וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם יִקָּ֑ח לְרַקָּח֥וֹת וּלְטַבָּח֖וֹת וּלְאֹפֽוֹת׃‬ And he will take your daughters to be perfumers and cooks and bakers.
1 Sam 8:14 ‫וְאֶת־שְׂ֠דֽוֹתֵיכֶם וְאֶת־כַּרְמֵיכֶ֧ם וְזֵיתֵיכֶ֛ם הַטּוֹבִ֖ים יִקָּ֑ח וְנָתַ֖ן לַעֲבָדָֽיו׃‬ And he will take your best fields and vineyards and olive groves, and he will give them to his servants.
1 Sam 8:15 ‫וְזַרְעֵיכֶ֥ם וְכַרְמֵיכֶ֖ם יַעְשֹׂ֑ר וְנָתַ֥ן לְסָרִיסָ֖יו וְלַעֲבָדָֽיו׃‬ And he will tithe your seed and your vineyards and give them to his courtiers and his servants. courtiers ← eunuchs, but perhaps not all castrated.
1 Sam 8:16 ‫וְאֶת־עַבְדֵיכֶם֩ וְֽאֶת־שִׁפְח֨וֹתֵיכֶ֜ם וְאֶת־בַּחוּרֵיכֶ֧ם הַטּוֹבִ֛ים וְאֶת־חֲמוֹרֵיכֶ֖ם יִקָּ֑ח וְעָשָׂ֖ה לִמְלַאכְתּֽוֹ׃‬ And he will take your menservants and your maidservants and your best young men, and your donkeys, and he will engage them in his work.
1 Sam 8:17 ‫צֹאנְכֶ֖ם יַעְשֹׂ֑ר וְאַתֶּ֖ם תִּֽהְיוּ־ל֥וֹ לַעֲבָדִֽים׃‬ He will tithe your sheep, and you will become his servants.
1 Sam 8:18 ‫וּזְעַקְתֶּם֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא מִלִּפְנֵ֣י מַלְכְּכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּחַרְתֶּ֖ם לָכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־יַעֲנֶ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃‬ And you will cry out on that day because of your king whom you chose for yourselves, but the Lord will not answer you on that day.”
1 Sam 8:19 ‫וַיְמָאֲנ֣וּ הָעָ֔ם לִשְׁמֹ֖עַ בְּק֣וֹל שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ לֹּ֔א כִּ֥י אִם־מֶ֖לֶךְ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה עָלֵֽינוּ׃‬ But the people refused to heed Samuel, and they said, “No, on the contrary, we will have a king over us. heed ← hear the voice of.
1 Sam 8:20 ‫וְהָיִ֥ינוּ גַם־אֲנַ֖חְנוּ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וּשְׁפָטָ֤נוּ מַלְכֵּ֙נוּ֙ וְיָצָ֣א לְפָנֵ֔ינוּ וְנִלְחַ֖ם אֶת־מִלְחֲמֹתֵֽנוּ׃‬ And we too will be like all the Gentiles, and our king will judge us, and he will go out before us and fight our wars.”
1 Sam 8:21 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל אֵ֖ת כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם וַֽיְדַבְּרֵ֖ם בְּאָזְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬ And Samuel heard all the words of the people, and he spoke them in the audience of the Lord. audience ← ears.
1 Sam 8:22 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֤ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל֙ שְׁמַ֣ע בְּקוֹלָ֔ם וְהִמְלַכְתָּ֥ לָהֶ֖ם מֶ֑לֶךְ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־אַנְשֵׁ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לְכ֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ לְעִירֽוֹ׃ פ‬ And the Lord said to Samuel, “Heed them and appoint them a king.” Then Samuel said to the men of Israel, “Depart, each of you, to your city.” heed them ← hear their voice.

your city ← his city.
1 Sam 9:1 ‫וַֽיְהִי־אִ֣ישׁ *מבן־*ימין **מִבִּנְיָמִ֗ין וּ֠שְׁמוֹ קִ֣ישׁ בֶּן־אֲבִיאֵ֞ל בֶּן־צְר֧וֹר בֶּן־בְּכוֹרַ֛ת בֶּן־אֲפִ֖יחַ בֶּן־אִ֣ישׁ יְמִינִ֑י גִּבּ֖וֹר חָֽיִל׃‬ Now there was a Benjaminite whose name was Kish, the son of Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of Bechorath, the son of Aphiah, a Benjaminite, who was a valiant warrior. Benjaminite (first occurrence in verse): the ketiv spells this as two words; the qeré as one.
1 Sam 9:2 ‫וְלוֹ־הָיָ֨ה בֵ֜ן וּשְׁמ֤וֹ שָׁאוּל֙ בָּח֣וּר וָט֔וֹב וְאֵ֥ין אִ֛ישׁ מִבְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל ט֣וֹב מִמֶּ֑נּוּ מִשִּׁכְמ֣וֹ וָמַ֔עְלָה גָּבֹ֖הַּ מִכָּל־הָעָֽם׃‬ And he had a son, whose name was Saul, a fine young man, and there was no man among the sons of Israel who was better than him. He was taller than any of the people from his shoulders upwards. Saul ← Shaul, or better Sha'ul, but we retain the AV / traditional name.

fine young man ← choice youth and good.

than him: or, if the reader prefers, than he.

any ← all.
1 Sam 9:3 ‫וַתֹּאבַ֙דְנָה֙ הָאֲתֹנ֔וֹת לְקִ֖ישׁ אֲבִ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וַיֹּ֨אמֶר קִ֜ישׁ אֶל־שָׁא֣וּל בְּנ֗וֹ קַח־נָ֤א אִתְּךָ֙ אֶת־אַחַ֣ד מֵֽהַנְּעָרִ֔ים וְק֣וּם לֵ֔ךְ בַּקֵּ֖שׁ אֶת־הָאֲתֹנֹֽת׃‬ And the donkeys of Kish, Saul's father, got lost, and Kish said to Saul his son, “Take one of the servant-lads with you, and get up and go and look for the donkeys.” donkeys (2x)she-asses, and likewise throughout this episode.

take ← take, please, but without emphatic entreaty.
1 Sam 9:4 ‫וַיַּעֲבֹ֧ר בְּהַר־אֶפְרַ֛יִם וַיַּעֲבֹ֥ר בְּאֶֽרֶץ־שָׁלִ֖שָׁה וְלֹ֣א מָצָ֑אוּ וַיַּעַבְר֤וּ בְאֶֽרֶץ־שַׁעֲלִים֙ וָאַ֔יִן וַיַּעֲבֹ֥ר בְּאֶֽרֶץ־יְמִינִ֖י וְלֹ֥א מָצָֽאוּ׃‬ And he crossed over at Mount Ephraim, and he crossed into the land of Shalishah, but they did not find them, and they crossed into the land of Shaalim, but they were not there. Then he crossed into the land of the Benjaminites, but they did not find them. Shalishah: AV= Shalisha.

Shaalim ← Sha'alim. AV= Shalim.
1 Sam 9:5 ‫הֵ֗מָּה בָּ֚אוּ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ צ֔וּף וְשָׁא֥וּל אָמַ֛ר לְנַעֲר֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־עִמּ֖וֹ לְכָ֣ה וְנָשׁ֑וּבָה פֶּן־יֶחְדַּ֥ל אָבִ֛י מִן־הָאֲתֹנ֖וֹת וְדָ֥אַג לָֽנוּ׃‬ And they came into the land of Zuph, and Saul said to his servant-lad who was with him, “Come, let us return in case my father stops worrying about the donkeys and worries about us.”
1 Sam 9:6 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ הִנֵּה־נָ֤א אִישׁ־אֱלֹהִים֙ בָּעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֔את וְהָאִ֣ישׁ נִכְבָּ֔ד כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יְדַבֵּ֖ר בּ֣וֹא יָב֑וֹא עַתָּה֙ נֵ֣לֲכָה שָּׁ֔ם אוּלַי֙ יַגִּ֣יד לָ֔נוּ אֶת־דַּרְכֵּ֖נוּ אֲשֶׁר־הָלַ֥כְנוּ עָלֶֽיהָ׃‬ And he said to him, “Look now, there is a man of God in this city, and the man is honoured. Everything he says absolutely comes to pass. Now let's go there; maybe he can tell us the way which we should go.” absolutely comes to pass: infinitive absolute.

the way ← our way.
1 Sam 9:7 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל לְנַעֲר֗וֹ וְהִנֵּ֣ה נֵלֵךְ֮ וּמַה־נָּבִ֣יא לָאִישׁ֒ כִּ֤י הַלֶּ֙חֶם֙ אָזַ֣ל מִכֵּלֵ֔ינוּ וּתְשׁוּרָ֥ה אֵין־לְהָבִ֖יא לְאִ֣ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים מָ֖ה אִתָּֽנוּ׃‬ Then Saul said to his servant-lad, “Well look, we will go, but what shall we bring for the man, for we have run out of bread, and there is no gift to bring to the man of God. What do we have?” we have run out of bread ← bread has ceased from our vessels.
1 Sam 9:8 ‫וַיֹּ֤סֶף הַנַּ֙עַר֙ לַעֲנ֣וֹת אֶת־שָׁא֔וּל וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּה֙ נִמְצָ֣א בְיָדִ֔י רֶ֖בַע שֶׁ֣קֶל כָּ֑סֶף וְנָֽתַתִּי֙ לְאִ֣ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וְהִגִּ֥יד לָ֖נוּ אֶת־דַּרְכֵּֽנוּ׃‬ And the servant-lad answered Saul again, and he said, “Look, here is a quarter shekel of silver in my hand. So I will give it to the man of God, and he will tell us our way.” here is ← there is found.
1 Sam 9:9 ‫לְפָנִ֣ים ׀ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר הָאִישׁ֙ בְּלֶכְתּוֹ֙ לִדְר֣וֹשׁ אֱלֹהִ֔ים לְכ֥וּ וְנֵלְכָ֖ה עַד־הָרֹאֶ֑ה כִּ֤י לַנָּבִיא֙ הַיּ֔וֹם יִקָּרֵ֥א לְפָנִ֖ים הָרֹאֶֽה׃‬ Previously in Israel, this is what a man said when he went to inquire of God: “Come, let us go to the seer”, for he who is called a prophet today was previously called a seer. this is whatthus.

The verse may be giving the origin of the Hebrew for a prophet. Verse 7 has the word for we will bring, נָבִיא, which is the word for a prophet. Alternatively, it is a play on words.
1 Sam 9:10 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֧וּל לְנַעֲר֛וֹ ט֥וֹב דְּבָרְךָ֖ לְכָ֣ה ׀ נֵלֵ֑כָה וַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ אֶל־הָעִ֔יר אֲשֶׁר־שָׁ֖ם אִ֥ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃‬ And Saul said to his servant-lad, “Your proposal is fine. Come on, let's go.” So they went to the city where the man of God was. proposal ← word.
1 Sam 9:11 ‫הֵ֗מָּה עֹלִים֙ בְּמַעֲלֵ֣ה הָעִ֔יר וְהֵ֙מָּה֙ מָצְא֣וּ נְעָר֔וֹת יֹצְא֖וֹת לִשְׁאֹ֣ב מָ֑יִם וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ לָהֶ֔ן הֲיֵ֥שׁ בָּזֶ֖ה הָרֹאֶֽה׃‬ As they went on the way up to the city, they found some girls on their way out to draw water, and they said to them, “Is the seer here?” went ← went up.
1 Sam 9:12 ‫וַתַּעֲנֶ֧ינָה אוֹתָ֛ם וַתֹּאמַ֥רְנָה יֵּ֖שׁ הִנֵּ֣ה לְפָנֶ֑יךָ מַהֵ֣ר ׀ עַתָּ֗ה כִּ֤י הַיּוֹם֙ בָּ֣א לָעִ֔יר כִּ֣י זֶ֧בַח הַיּ֛וֹם לָעָ֖ם בַּבָּמָֽה׃‬ And they answered them and said, “He is – here ahead of you. Go quickly now, because he came to the city today, for there is a sacrifice today for the people, on the raised site. here ← behold.
1 Sam 9:13 ‫כְּבֹאֲכֶ֣ם הָעִ֣יר כֵּ֣ן תִּמְצְא֣וּן אֹת֡וֹ בְּטֶרֶם֩ יַעֲלֶ֨ה הַבָּמָ֜תָה לֶאֱכֹ֗ל כִּ֠י לֹֽא־יֹאכַ֤ל הָעָם֙ עַד־בֹּא֔וֹ כִּֽי־הוּא֙ יְבָרֵ֣ךְ הַזֶּ֔בַח אַחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן יֹאכְל֣וּ הַקְּרֻאִ֑ים וְעַתָּ֣ה עֲל֔וּ כִּֽי־אֹת֥וֹ כְהַיּ֖וֹם תִּמְצְא֥וּן אֹתֽוֹ׃‬ As soon as you go into the city, you will find him before he goes up to the raised site to eat, for the people will not eat until he comes, because he will bless the sacrifice. After that, those invited will eat, so go up now, for at this time of day you will find him.” as soon as ← as (you go) ... so (you will find).

at this time of ← the same as.
1 Sam 9:14 ‫וַֽיַּעֲל֖וּ הָעִ֑יר הֵ֗מָּה בָּאִים֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הָעִ֔יר וְהִנֵּ֤ה שְׁמוּאֵל֙ יֹצֵ֣א לִקְרָאתָ֔ם לַעֲל֖וֹת הַבָּמָֽה׃ ס‬ So they went up to the city, and as they went into the city, it so happened that Samuel was coming out towards them to go up to the raised site. it so happened that ← and behold.
1 Sam 9:15 ‫וַֽיהוָ֔ה גָּלָ֖ה אֶת־אֹ֣זֶן שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל י֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד לִפְנֵ֥י בֽוֹא־שָׁא֖וּל לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ Now the Lord had informed Samuel privately one day before Saul came, and he had said, informed Samuel privately ← uncovered Samuel's ear.
1 Sam 9:16 ‫כָּעֵ֣ת ׀ מָחָ֡ר אֶשְׁלַח֩ אֵלֶ֨יךָ אִ֜ישׁ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ בִּנְיָמִ֗ן וּמְשַׁחְתּ֤וֹ לְנָגִיד֙ עַל־עַמִּ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אֶת־עַמִּ֖י מִיַּ֣ד פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים כִּ֤י רָאִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־עַמִּ֔י כִּ֛י בָּ֥אָה צַעֲקָת֖וֹ אֵלָֽי׃‬ “At about this time tomorrow, I will send a man from the land of Benjamin to you, and you will anoint him as leader over my people Israel, and he will deliver my people from the hands of the Philistines, for I have seen my people, for their cry has come to me.” their cry ← its cry.
1 Sam 9:17 ‫וּשְׁמוּאֵ֖ל רָאָ֣ה אֶת־שָׁא֑וּל וַיהוָ֣ה עָנָ֔הוּ הִנֵּ֤ה הָאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֣רְתִּי אֵלֶ֔יךָ זֶ֖ה יַעְצֹ֥ר בְּעַמִּֽי׃‬ So Samuel saw Saul, and the Lord affirmed to him, “Here is the man concerning whom I said to you, ‘This man will rule my people.’ ” affirmed ← answered, but the usage is wider, e.g. when no question asked.

here isbehold.

rule ← restrain, but also rule, have authority.
1 Sam 9:18 ‫וַיִּגַּ֥שׁ שָׁא֛וּל אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל בְּת֣וֹךְ הַשָּׁ֑עַר וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הַגִּֽידָה־נָּ֣א לִ֔י אֵי־זֶ֖ה בֵּ֥ית הָרֹאֶֽה׃‬ Then Saul drew near to Samuel inside the gated area and said, “Please tell me, where is the seer's house?” gated area ← gate.
1 Sam 9:19 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל אֶת־שָׁא֗וּל וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אָנֹכִ֣י הָרֹאֶ֔ה עֲלֵ֤ה לְפָנַי֙ הַבָּמָ֔ה וַאֲכַלְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י הַיּ֑וֹם וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֣יךָ בַבֹּ֔קֶר וְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּֽלְבָבְךָ֖ אַגִּ֥יד לָֽךְ׃‬ Then Samuel answered Saul and said, “I am the seer. Come up before me to the raised site, and you will eat with me today, and I will send you on your way in the morning, and I will tell you everything that is on your heart. come up ... you ... you ... your: singular ... plural ... singular ... singular. Saul is with his servant-lad (v. 22).
1 Sam 9:20 ‫וְלָאֲתֹנ֞וֹת הָאֹבְד֣וֹת לְךָ֗ הַיּוֹם֙ שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת הַיָּמִ֔ים אַל־תָּ֧שֶׂם אֶֽת־לִבְּךָ֛ לָהֶ֖ם כִּ֣י נִמְצָ֑אוּ וּלְמִי֙ כָּל־חֶמְדַּ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הֲל֣וֹא לְךָ֔ וּלְכֹ֖ל בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיךָ׃ ס‬ And as for your donkeys which you lost three days ago, do not concern yourself with them, for they have been found. And for whom is all the desire of Israel? Is it not for you and for the whole house of your father?” concern yourself with them ← lay your heart to them.
1 Sam 9:21 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן שָׁא֜וּל וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הֲל֨וֹא בֶן־יְמִינִ֤י אָ֙נֹכִי֙ מִקַּטַנֵּי֙ שִׁבְטֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִשְׁפַּחְתִּי֙ הַצְּעִרָ֔ה מִכָּֽל־מִשְׁפְּח֖וֹת שִׁבְטֵ֣י בִנְיָמִ֑ן וְלָ֙מָּה֙ דִּבַּ֣רְתָּ אֵלַ֔י כַּדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה׃ ס‬ And Saul answered and said, “Am I not a Benjaminite, from the smallest of the tribes of Israel, and is not my family the lowliest of all the families of the tribe of Benjamin? So why have you spoken to me in this way?” in this way ← as this word.
1 Sam 9:22 ‫וַיִּקַּ֤ח שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶת־שָׁא֣וּל וְאֶֽת־נַעֲר֔וֹ וַיְבִיאֵ֖ם לִשְׁכָּ֑תָה וַיִּתֵּ֨ן לָהֶ֤ם מָקוֹם֙ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ הַקְּרוּאִ֔ים וְהֵ֖מָּה כִּשְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים אִֽישׁ׃‬ Then Samuel took Saul and his servant-lad, and he brought them to the reception room, and he gave them a place at the head of those invited, of whom there were about thirty. thirty ← thirty men.
1 Sam 9:23 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ לַטַּבָּ֔ח תְּנָה֙ אֶת־הַמָּנָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לָ֑ךְ אֲשֶׁר֙ אָמַ֣רְתִּי אֵלֶ֔יךָ שִׂ֥ים אֹתָ֖הּ עִמָּֽךְ׃‬ And Samuel said to the cook, “Serve the portion which I gave to you, about which I said to you, ‘Keep it aside.’ ” serve ← give; put.

keep it aside ← put it with you.
1 Sam 9:24 ‫וַיָּ֣רֶם הַ֠טַּבָּח אֶת־הַשּׁ֨וֹק וְהֶעָלֶ֜יהָ וַיָּ֣שֶׂם ׀ לִפְנֵ֣י שָׁא֗וּל וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הִנֵּ֤ה הַנִּשְׁאָר֙ שִׂים־לְפָנֶ֣יךָ אֱכֹ֔ל כִּ֧י לַמּוֹעֵ֛ד שָֽׁמוּר־לְךָ֥ לֵאמֹ֖ר הָעָ֣ם ׀ קָרָ֑אתִי וַיֹּ֧אכַל שָׁא֛וּל עִם־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃‬ So the cook brought up the leg and what was on it and placed it before Saul. And Samuel said, “Here is what was reserved. Put it in front of you and eat, for it was kept for you for this occasion when I said, ‘I have invited the people.’ ” So Saul ate with Samuel on that day. Samuel: on the liberal use of the third person pronouns (he, him, his), see the note to Gen 41:13. Here the pronoun he is implicit in the verb, and neither the cook nor Saul is the antecedent.

here isbehold.

occasion ← set time, season.
1 Sam 9:25 ‫וַיֵּרְד֥וּ מֵהַבָּמָ֖ה הָעִ֑יר וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר עִם־שָׁא֖וּל עַל־הַגָּֽג׃‬ Then they went down from the raised site to the city, and he spoke with Saul on the roof-top.
1 Sam 9:26 ‫וַיַּשְׁכִּ֗מוּ וַיְהִ֞י כַּעֲל֤וֹת הַשַּׁ֙חַר֙ וַיִּקְרָ֨א שְׁמוּאֵ֤ל אֶל־שָׁאוּל֙ *הגג **הַגָּ֣גָה לֵאמֹ֔ר ק֖וּמָה וַאֲשַׁלְּחֶ֑ךָּ וַיָּ֣קָם שָׁא֗וּל וַיֵּצְא֧וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֛ם ה֥וּא וּשְׁמוּאֵ֖ל הַחֽוּצָה׃‬ And they got up early, and as it was dawning, Samuel called to Saul {K: on} [Q: on] the roof-top and said, “Get up, and I will see you off.” So Saul got up and the two of them went out, he and Samuel, into the open. it was dawning ← dawn was arising.

on (qeré)onto.

see you off ← send you.
1 Sam 9:27 ‫הֵ֗מָּה יֽוֹרְדִים֙ בִּקְצֵ֣ה הָעִ֔יר וּשְׁמוּאֵ֞ל אָמַ֣ר אֶל־שָׁא֗וּל אֱמֹ֥ר לַנַּ֛עַר וְיַעֲבֹ֥ר לְפָנֵ֖ינוּ וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֑ר וְאַתָּה֙ עֲמֹ֣ד כַּיּ֔וֹם וְאַשְׁמִיעֲךָ֖ אֶת־דְּבַ֥ר אֱלֹהִֽים׃ פ‬ And as they were going at the edge of the city, Samuel said to Saul, “Tell the servant-lad to move on ahead of us” – and he moved on – “but you stand still now, and I will proclaim the word of God to you.” now ← about the day, but also now.
1 Sam 10:1 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל אֶת־פַּ֥ךְ הַשֶּׁ֛מֶן וַיִּצֹ֥ק עַל־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וַיִּשָּׁקֵ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הֲל֗וֹא כִּֽי־מְשָׁחֲךָ֧ יְהוָ֛ה עַל־נַחֲלָת֖וֹ לְנָגִֽיד׃‬ And Samuel took the flask of oil and poured it on his head, and he kissed him, and he said, “Is it not the case that the Lord has anointed you as leader over his inheritance? the flask: [CB] wrongly rejects the definite article. The word is made definite by the nomen rectum of the construct state. But the definiteness is surprising. Compare Gen 22:9.
1 Sam 10:2 ‫בְּלֶכְתְּךָ֤ הַיּוֹם֙ מֵעִמָּדִ֔י וּמָצָאתָ֩ שְׁנֵ֨י אֲנָשִׁ֜ים עִם־קְבֻרַ֥ת רָחֵ֛ל בִּגְב֥וּל בִּנְיָמִ֖ן בְּצֶלְצַ֑ח וְאָמְר֣וּ אֵלֶ֗יךָ נִמְצְא֤וּ הָאֲתֹנוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָלַ֣כְתָּ לְבַקֵּ֔שׁ וְהִנֵּ֨ה נָטַ֤שׁ אָבִ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֣י הָאֲתֹנ֔וֹת וְדָאַ֤ג לָכֶם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר מָ֥ה אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה לִבְנִֽי׃‬ When you depart from me today, you will find two men at Rachel's tomb, at the border of Benjamin's territory at Zelzah, and they will say to you, ‘The donkeys which you went to look for have been found, and look, your father dropped the matter of the donkeys and became concerned for you, and he said, «What can I do for my son?» ’
1 Sam 10:3 ‫וְחָלַפְתָּ֨ מִשָּׁ֜ם וָהָ֗לְאָה וּבָ֙אתָ֙ עַד־אֵל֣וֹן תָּב֔וֹר וּמְצָא֤וּךָ שָּׁם֙ שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה אֲנָשִׁ֔ים עֹלִ֥ים אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים בֵּֽית־אֵ֑ל אֶחָ֞ד נֹשֵׂ֣א ׀ שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה גְדָיִ֗ים וְאֶחָד֙ נֹשֵׂ֗א שְׁלֹ֙שֶׁת֙ כִּכְּר֣וֹת לֶ֔חֶם וְאֶחָ֥ד נֹשֵׂ֖א נֵֽבֶל־יָֽיִן׃‬ And you will pass on from there and go further on, and when you arrive at the oak tree of Tabor, there three men will meet you, going up to God in Beth-El, one leading three goat-kids, and one carrying three loaves of bread, and one carrying a skin-bottle of wine. leading: the same word as carrying elsewhere in the sentence. [AnLx] III has to lead.
1 Sam 10:4 ‫וְשָׁאֲל֥וּ לְךָ֖ לְשָׁל֑וֹם וְנָתְנ֤וּ לְךָ֙ שְׁתֵּי־לֶ֔חֶם וְלָקַחְתָּ֖ מִיָּדָֽם׃‬ And they will ask you how you are, and they will give you two loaves of bread, and you will take them from them. how you areabout (your) peace.

from them ← from their hand.
1 Sam 10:5 ‫אַ֣חַר כֵּ֗ן תָּבוֹא֙ גִּבְעַ֣ת הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־שָׁ֖ם נְצִבֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וִיהִי֩ כְבֹאֲךָ֨ שָׁ֜ם הָעִ֗יר וּפָגַעְתָּ֞ חֶ֤בֶל נְבִיאִים֙ יֹרְדִ֣ים מֵֽהַבָּמָ֔ה וְלִפְנֵיהֶ֞ם נֵ֤בֶל וְתֹף֙ וְחָלִ֣יל וְכִנּ֔וֹר וְהֵ֖מָּה מִֽתְנַבְּאִֽים׃‬ After that you will come to the hill of God where there are garrisons of Philistines, and it will come to pass when you arrive there at the city that you will meet a company of prophets coming down from the raised site, and in front of them will be a lute and a drum and a pipe and a harp, and they will prophesy.
1 Sam 10:6 ‫וְצָלְחָ֤ה עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֔ה וְהִתְנַבִּ֖יתָ עִמָּ֑ם וְנֶהְפַּכְתָּ֖ לְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵֽר׃‬ And the spirit of the Lord will come over you, and you will prophesy with them, and you will be turned into another man.
1 Sam 10:7 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כִּ֥י *תבאינה **תָבֹ֛אנָה הָאֹת֥וֹת הָאֵ֖לֶּה לָ֑ךְ עֲשֵׂ֤ה לְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּמְצָ֣א יָדֶ֔ךָ כִּ֥י הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים עִמָּֽךְ׃‬ And it will come to pass, when these signs come on you, that you will do whatever presents itself to you, for God is with you. come: the ketiv and qeré are different spellings of the same word.

presents itself to you ← your hand finds.
1 Sam 10:8 ‫וְיָרַדְתָּ֣ לְפָנַי֮ הַגִּלְגָּל֒ וְהִנֵּ֤ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ יֹרֵ֣ד אֵלֶ֔יךָ לְהַעֲל֣וֹת עֹל֔וֹת לִזְבֹּ֖חַ זִבְחֵ֣י שְׁלָמִ֑ים שִׁבְעַ֨ת יָמִ֤ים תּוֹחֵל֙ עַד־בּוֹאִ֣י אֵלֶ֔יךָ וְהוֹדַעְתִּ֣י לְךָ֔ אֵ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּעֲשֶֽׂה׃‬ And you will go down before me to Gilgal, and look, I am coming down to you to make burnt offerings and to offer peace-sacrifices. You will wait for seven days for me to come to you, and I will make known to you what you will do.” Gilgal ← the Gilgal.

offer ← sacrifice.
1 Sam 10:9 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כְּהַפְנֹת֤וֹ שִׁכְמוֹ֙ לָלֶ֙כֶת֙ מֵעִ֣ם שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיַּהֲפָךְ־ל֥וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים לֵ֣ב אַחֵ֑ר וַיָּבֹ֛אוּ כָּל־הָאֹת֥וֹת הָאֵ֖לֶּה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃ ס‬ And it came to pass when he turned his back to depart from Samuel that God replaced his heart by a different one, and all these signs came about on that day. back ← shoulder.

replaced his heart by a different onechanged for him another heart.

these signs ← those signs.
1 Sam 10:10 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ שָׁם֙ הַגִּבְעָ֔תָה וְהִנֵּ֥ה חֶֽבֶל־נְבִאִ֖ים לִקְרָאת֑וֹ וַתִּצְלַ֤ח עָלָיו֙ ר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיִּתְנַבֵּ֖א בְּתוֹכָֽם׃‬ And when they came there – to the hillit so happened that a group of prophets came towards him, and the spirit of God descended on him, and he prophesied among them. the hill: or Gibeah, as in Josh 15:57. We take it as the hill of 1 Sam 10:5.

it so happened that ← and behold.

among them ← in their midst.
1 Sam 10:11 ‫וַיְהִ֗י כָּל־יֽוֹדְעוֹ֙ מֵאִתְּמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשׁ֔וֹם וַיִּרְא֕וּ וְהִנֵּ֥ה עִם־נְבִאִ֖ים נִבָּ֑א וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָעָ֜ם אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֗הוּ מַה־זֶּה֙ הָיָ֣ה לְבֶן־קִ֔ישׁ הֲגַ֥ם שָׁא֖וּל בַּנְּבִיאִֽים׃‬ And it came to pass that everyone who had known him for some time looked and saw that he prophesied with the prophets, and the people said to one another, “What is this that has happened to the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?” for some time ← from yesterday (and) the day before yesterday.

saw that ← behold.
1 Sam 10:12 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן אִ֥ישׁ מִשָּׁ֛ם וַיֹּ֖אמֶר וּמִ֣י אֲבִיהֶ֑ם עַל־כֵּן֙ הָיְתָ֣ה לְמָשָׁ֔ל הֲגַ֥ם שָׁא֖וּל בַּנְּבִאִֽים׃‬ And a man from there answered and said, “And who is their father?” Because of that it became a saying: “Is Saul also among the prophets?” and who is their father?: perhaps with stress on their, making the point that ancestry isn't relevant in the office of a prophet.
1 Sam 10:13 ‫וַיְכַל֙ מֵֽהִתְנַבּ֔וֹת וַיָּבֹ֖א הַבָּמָֽה׃‬ Then he finished prophesying, and he went to the raised site.
1 Sam 10:14 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ דּ֨וֹד שָׁא֥וּל אֵלָ֛יו וְאֶֽל־נַעֲר֖וֹ אָ֣ן הֲלַכְתֶּ֑ם וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לְבַקֵּשׁ֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲתֹנ֔וֹת וַנִּרְאֶ֣ה כִי־אַ֔יִן וַנָּב֖וֹא אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵֽל׃‬ Then Saul's uncle said to him and to his servant-lad, “Where did you go?” And he said, “To look for the donkeys. And when we saw that they weren't around, we went to Samuel.”
1 Sam 10:15 ‫וַיֹּ֖אמֶר דּ֣וֹד שָׁא֑וּל הַגִּֽידָה־נָּ֣א לִ֔י מָֽה־אָמַ֥ר לָכֶ֖ם שְׁמוּאֵֽל׃‬ And Saul's uncle said, “Please tell me, what did Samuel say to you?”
1 Sam 10:16 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־דּוֹד֔וֹ הַגֵּ֤ד הִגִּיד֙ לָ֔נוּ כִּ֥י נִמְצְא֖וּ הָאֲתֹנ֑וֹת וְאֶת־דְּבַ֤ר הַמְּלוּכָה֙ לֹֽא־הִגִּ֣יד ל֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֖ר אָמַ֥ר שְׁמוּאֵֽל׃ פ‬ And Saul said to his uncle, “He emphatically told us that the donkeys had been found.” But he did not tell him about the matter of the kingdom which Samuel had spoken about. emphatically told: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 10:17 ‫וַיַּצְעֵ֤ק שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה הַמִּצְפָּֽה׃‬ Meanwhile Samuel called the people together to the Lord in Mizpah. Mizpah ← the Mizpah. AV differs (Mizpeh). See Josh 11:3.
1 Sam 10:18 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל פ כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אָנֹכִ֛י הֶעֱלֵ֥יתִי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וָאַצִּ֤יל אֶתְכֶם֙ מִיַּ֣ד מִצְרַ֔יִם וּמִיַּד֙ כָּל־הַמַּמְלָכ֔וֹת הַלֹּחֲצִ֖ים אֶתְכֶֽם׃‬ And he said to the sons of Israel, “The Lord God of Israel says this: ‘I brought Israel up from Egypt, and I delivered you from the grip of Egypt and the grip of all the kingdoms which were oppressing you. this ← thus.

grip (2x)hand.
1 Sam 10:19 ‫וְאַתֶּ֨ם הַיּ֜וֹם מְאַסְתֶּ֣ם אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁר־ה֣וּא מוֹשִׁ֣יעַ לָכֶם֮ מִכָּל־רָעוֹתֵיכֶ֣ם וְצָרֹֽתֵיכֶם֒ וַתֹּ֣אמְרוּ ל֔וֹ כִּי־מֶ֖לֶךְ תָּשִׂ֣ים עָלֵ֑ינוּ וְעַתָּ֗ה הִֽתְיַצְּבוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶ֖ם וּלְאַלְפֵיכֶֽם׃‬ But you today have rejected your God, who saves you from all your troubles and adversities, and you have said to him, «So appoint a king over us.» And now stand before the Lord according to your tribes and according to your thousands.’ ” your thousands: or subdivisions of your tribes.
1 Sam 10:20 ‫וַיַּקְרֵ֣ב שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל אֵ֖ת כָּל־שִׁבְטֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּלָּכֵ֖ד שֵׁ֥בֶט בִּנְיָמִֽן׃‬ And Samuel had all the tribes of Israel approach, and the tribe of Benjamin was selected. selected ← taken.
1 Sam 10:21 ‫וַיַּקְרֵ֞ב אֶת־שֵׁ֤בֶט בִּנְיָמִן֙ *למשפחתו **לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֔יו וַתִּלָּכֵ֖ד מִשְׁפַּ֣חַת הַמַּטְרִ֑י וַיִּלָּכֵד֙ שָׁא֣וּל בֶּן־קִ֔ישׁ וַיְבַקְשֻׁ֖הוּ וְלֹ֥א נִמְצָֽא׃‬ Then he had the tribe of Benjamin approach according to its {Q: families} [K: family], and the family of Matri was selected, and Saul the son of Kish was selected. And they looked for him, but he was not found. selected (2x)taken.

but: adversative use of the vav.
1 Sam 10:22 ‫וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ־עוֹד֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה הֲבָ֥א ע֖וֹד הֲלֹ֣ם אִ֑ישׁ ס וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה הִנֵּה־ה֥וּא נֶחְבָּ֖א אֶל־הַכֵּלִֽים׃‬ Then they inquired of the Lord again, “Has the man come here yet?” And the Lord said, “Look, he has hidden among the equipment.”
1 Sam 10:23 ‫וַיָּרֻ֙צוּ֙ וַיִּקָּחֻ֣הוּ מִשָּׁ֔ם וַיִּתְיַצֵּ֖ב בְּת֣וֹךְ הָעָ֑ם וַיִּגְבַּהּ֙ מִכָּל־הָעָ֔ם מִשִּׁכְמ֖וֹ וָמָֽעְלָה׃‬ So they ran and took him from there, and he stood among the people, and he was taller than any of the people from his shoulders upwards. among ← in the midst of.

any ← all.
1 Sam 10:24 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל אֶל־כָּל־הָעָ֗ם הַרְּאִיתֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּֽחַר־בּ֣וֹ יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֛י אֵ֥ין כָּמֹ֖הוּ בְּכָל־הָעָ֑ם וַיָּרִ֧עוּ כָל־הָעָ֛ם וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ יְחִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ פ‬ And Samuel said to all the people, “Do you see whom the Lord has chosen? For there is no-one like him among all the people.” And all the people shouted and said, “May the king live.” whom the Lord has chosen: perhaps ironic, or standing for whom the Lord has let you choose.

may the king live: AV differs (God save the king).
1 Sam 10:25 ‫וַיְדַבֵּ֨ר שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל אֶל־הָעָ֗ם אֵ֚ת מִשְׁפַּ֣ט הַמְּלֻכָ֔ה וַיִּכְתֹּ֣ב בַּסֵּ֔פֶר וַיַּנַּ֖ח לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וַיְשַׁלַּ֧ח שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אִ֥ישׁ לְבֵיתֽוֹ׃‬ And Samuel told the people the decision on the kingship, and he wrote it in a book and deposited it before the Lord. Then Samuel sent all the people away – each one to his home. decision ← judgment.
1 Sam 10:26 ‫וְגַ֨ם־שָׁא֔וּל הָלַ֥ךְ לְבֵית֖וֹ גִּבְעָ֑תָה וַיֵּלְכ֣וּ עִמּ֔וֹ הַחַ֕יִל אֲשֶׁר־נָגַ֥ע אֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּלִבָּֽם׃‬ And Saul went home to Gibeah, and with him went the army whose heart God had motivated so to do. Gibeah: see Josh 15:57. Perhaps here the hill of 1 Sam 10:5. The place is probably in any case named after the hill there.
1 Sam 10:27 ‫וּבְנֵ֧י בְלִיַּ֣עַל אָמְר֗וּ מַה־יֹּשִׁעֵ֙נוּ֙ זֶ֔ה וַיִּבְזֻ֕הוּ וְלֹֽא־הֵבִ֥יאוּ ל֖וֹ מִנְחָ֑ה וַיְהִ֖י כְּמַחֲרִֽישׁ׃ פ‬ But the riff-raff said, “How can this man save us?” And they despised him and did not bring him any offering. But he remained silent. riff-raff ← sons of Belialsons of without use.

silent ← as (one) silent.
1 Sam 11:1 ‫וַיַּ֗עַל נָחָשׁ֙ הָֽעַמּוֹנִ֔י וַיִּ֖חַן עַל־יָבֵ֣שׁ גִּלְעָ֑ד וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ כָּל־אַנְשֵׁ֤י יָבֵישׁ֙ אֶל־נָחָ֔שׁ כְּרָת־לָ֥נוּ בְרִ֖ית וְנַעַבְדֶֽךָּ׃‬ Then Nahash the Ammonite went up and encamped against Jabesh-Gilead. And all the men of Jabesh said to Nahash, “Make a covenant with us, and we will serve you.” Jabesh-Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
1 Sam 11:2 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם נָחָשׁ֙ הָעַמּוֹנִ֔י בְּזֹאת֙ אֶכְרֹ֣ת לָכֶ֔ם בִּנְק֥וֹר לָכֶ֖ם כָּל־עֵ֣ין יָמִ֑ין וְשַׂמְתִּ֥יהָ חֶרְפָּ֖ה עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And Nahash the Ammonite said to them, “On this condition I will make a covenant with you: that I gouge out every right eye of yours and make it a reproach on all Israel.”
1 Sam 11:3 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֨וּ אֵלָ֜יו זִקְנֵ֣י יָבֵ֗ישׁ הֶ֤רֶף לָ֙נוּ֙ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים וְנִשְׁלְחָה֙ מַלְאָכִ֔ים בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֣וּל יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְאִם־אֵ֥ין מוֹשִׁ֛יעַ אֹתָ֖נוּ וְיָצָ֥אנוּ אֵלֶֽיךָ׃‬ And the elders of Jabesh said to him, “Give us seven days, and we will send envoys to every territory of Israel, and if we don't have anyone to save us, we will come out to you.” give ← desist, leave alone.

territory ← border.
1 Sam 11:4 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים֙ גִּבְעַ֣ת שָׁא֔וּל וַיְדַבְּר֥וּ הַדְּבָרִ֖ים בְּאָזְנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם וַיִּשְׂא֧וּ כָל־הָעָ֛ם אֶת־קוֹלָ֖ם וַיִּבְכּֽוּ׃‬ And the envoys came to Gibeah of Saul, and they spoke the words in the audience of the people. And all the people raised their voice and wept. Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.

audience ← ears.
1 Sam 11:5 ‫וְהִנֵּ֣ה שָׁא֗וּל בָּ֣א אַחֲרֵ֤י הַבָּקָר֙ מִן־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל מַה־לָּעָ֖ם כִּ֣י יִבְכּ֑וּ וַיְסַ֨פְּרוּ־ל֔וֹ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֖י אַנְשֵׁ֥י יָבֵֽישׁ׃‬ And it so happened that Saul came following the cattle from the field, and Saul said, “What is the matter with the people making them weep?” And they told him the words of the men of Jabesh. it so happened that ← behold.

making them weep ← that they weep.
1 Sam 11:6 ‫וַתִּצְלַ֤ח רֽוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים֙ עַל־שָׁא֔וּל *בשמעו **כְּשָׁמְע֖וֹ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיִּ֥חַר אַפּ֖וֹ מְאֹֽד׃‬ Then the spirit of God came on Saul {K: when} [Q: as] he heard these words, and his anger was very much kindled.
1 Sam 11:7 ‫וַיִּקַּח֩ צֶ֨מֶד בָּקָ֜ר וַֽיְנַתְּחֵ֗הוּ וַיְשַׁלַּ֞ח בְּכָל־גְּב֣וּל יִשְׂרָאֵל֮ בְּיַ֣ד הַמַּלְאָכִ֣ים ׀ לֵאמֹר֒ אֲשֶׁר֩ אֵינֶ֨נּוּ יֹצֵ֜א אַחֲרֵ֤י שָׁאוּל֙ וְאַחַ֣ר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל כֹּ֥ה יֵעָשֶׂ֖ה לִבְקָר֑וֹ וַיִּפֹּ֤ל פַּֽחַד־יְהוָה֙ עַל־הָעָ֔ם וַיֵּצְא֖וּ כְּאִ֥ישׁ אֶחָֽד׃‬ And he took a yoke of oxen and divided them in pieces and sent them to every territory of Israel by the hand of envoys and said, “As for anyone who does not come out behind Saul and behind Samuel, so shall it be done to his oxen.” And the fear of the Lord fell on the people, and they came out in unison. territory ← border.

in unison ← as one man.
1 Sam 11:8 ‫וַֽיִּפְקְדֵ֖ם בְּבָ֑זֶק וַיִּהְי֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ שְׁלֹ֣שׁ מֵא֣וֹת אֶ֔לֶף וְאִ֥ישׁ יְהוּדָ֖ה שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים אָֽלֶף׃‬ And he counted them in Bezek, and the sons of Israel were three hundred thousand in number, and the men of Judah came to thirty thousand.
1 Sam 11:9 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֞וּ לַמַּלְאָכִ֣ים הַבָּאִ֗ים כֹּ֤ה תֹֽאמְרוּן֙ לְאִישׁ֙ יָבֵ֣ישׁ גִּלְעָ֔ד מָחָ֛ר תִּהְיֶֽה־לָכֶ֥ם תְּשׁוּעָ֖ה *בחם **כְּחֹ֣ם הַשָּׁ֑מֶשׁ וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ הַמַּלְאָכִ֗ים וַיַּגִּ֛ידוּ לְאַנְשֵׁ֥י יָבֵ֖ישׁ וַיִּשְׂמָֽחוּ׃‬ And they said to the envoys who came, “This is what you will say to the men of Jabesh-Gilead: ‘Tomorrow {K: in} [Q: at the time of] the heat of the sun, you will have salvation.’ ” So the envoys went back and reported it to the men of Jabesh, and they rejoiced at it. this is whatthus.

Jabesh-Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
1 Sam 11:10 ‫וַֽיֹּאמְרוּ֙ אַנְשֵׁ֣י יָבֵ֔ישׁ מָחָ֖ר נֵצֵ֣א אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֣ם לָּ֔נוּ כְּכָל־הַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶֽם׃ ס‬ And the men of Jabesh said, “Tomorrow we will go out to you, and you will do to us whatever is right in your sight.”
1 Sam 11:11 ‫וַיְהִ֣י מִֽמָּחֳרָ֗ת וַיָּ֨שֶׂם שָׁא֣וּל אֶת־הָעָם֮ שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה רָאשִׁים֒ וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ בְתוֹךְ־הַֽמַּחֲנֶה֙ בְּאַשְׁמֹ֣רֶת הַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיַּכּ֥וּ אֶת־עַמּ֖וֹן עַד־חֹ֣ם הַיּ֑וֹם וַיְהִ֤י הַנִּשְׁאָרִים֙ וַיָּפֻ֔צוּ וְלֹ֥א נִשְׁאֲרוּ־בָ֖ם שְׁנַ֥יִם יָֽחַד׃‬ And it came to pass on the next day that Saul arranged the people in three contingents, and they went into the camp during the morning-watch, and they struck the Ammonites down until the heat of the day. And it came to pass that those remaining were scattered, and no two among them remained together. contingents ← heads.

the Ammonites ← Ammon.
1 Sam 11:12 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הָעָם֙ אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל מִ֣י הָאֹמֵ֔ר שָׁא֖וּל יִמְלֹ֣ךְ עָלֵ֑ינוּ תְּנ֥וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֖ים וּנְמִיתֵֽם׃‬ And the people said to Samuel, “Who is it that said, ‘Shall Saul reign over us?’ Give us the men so we can put them to death.” so: purposive use of the vav.
1 Sam 11:13 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל לֹֽא־יוּמַ֥ת אִ֖ישׁ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֥י הַיּ֛וֹם עָשָֽׂה־יְהוָ֥ה תְּשׁוּעָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬ Then Saul said, “No-one shall be put to death on this day, for today the Lord accomplished salvation in Israel.”
1 Sam 11:14 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם לְכ֖וּ וְנֵלְכָ֣ה הַגִּלְגָּ֑ל וּנְחַדֵּ֥שׁ שָׁ֖ם הַמְּלוּכָֽה׃‬ And Samuel said to the people, “Come, let us go to Gilgal and renew the kingship there.” Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
1 Sam 11:15 ‫וַיֵּלְכ֨וּ כָל־הָעָ֜ם הַגִּלְגָּ֗ל וַיַּמְלִכוּ֩ שָׁ֨ם אֶת־שָׁא֜וּל לִפְנֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ בַּגִּלְגָּ֔ל וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־שָׁ֛ם זְבָחִ֥ים שְׁלָמִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וַיִּשְׂמַ֨ח שָׁ֥ם שָׁא֛וּל וְכָל־אַנְשֵׁ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עַד־מְאֹֽד׃ פ‬ So all the people went to Gilgal, and they made Saul king there before the Lord at Gilgal, and they offered peace-sacrifices there before the Lord, and Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly. Gilgal (2x)the Gilgal.

offered ← sacrificed.
1 Sam 12:1 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הִנֵּה֙ שָׁמַ֣עְתִּי בְקֹֽלְכֶ֔ם לְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־אֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם לִ֑י וָאַמְלִ֥יךְ עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם מֶֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Samuel said to the whole of Israel, “Look, I have given heed to your voice – everything you have said to me – and I have appointed a king over you.
1 Sam 12:2 ‫וְעַתָּ֞ה הִנֵּ֥ה הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ ׀ מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ לִפְנֵיכֶ֗ם וַאֲנִי֙ זָקַ֣נְתִּי וָשַׂ֔בְתִּי וּבָנַ֖י הִנָּ֣ם אִתְּכֶ֑ם וַאֲנִי֙ הִתְהַלַּ֣כְתִּי לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם מִנְּעֻרַ֖י עַד־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃‬ So now, look, the king walks before you, but I have grown old and become grey-haired, but here are my sons with you, and I have walked before you from my youth up to this day. here arebehold.
1 Sam 12:3 ‫הִנְנִ֣י עֲנ֣וּ בִי֩ נֶ֨גֶד יְהוָ֜ה וְנֶ֣גֶד מְשִׁיח֗וֹ אֶת־שׁוֹר֩ ׀ מִ֨י לָקַ֜חְתִּי וַחֲמ֧וֹר מִ֣י לָקַ֗חְתִּי וְאֶת־מִ֤י עָשַׁ֙קְתִּי֙ אֶת־מִ֣י רַצּ֔וֹתִי וּמִיַּד־מִי֙ לָקַ֣חְתִּי כֹ֔פֶר וְאַעְלִ֥ים עֵינַ֖י בּ֑וֹ וְאָשִׁ֖יב לָכֶֽם׃‬ Here I am – testify against me in the presence of the Lord and in the presence of his anointed. Whose ox have I taken? Or whose donkey have I taken? Or whom have I oppressed? Whom have I maltreated? Or from whose hand have I received a bribe to turn a blind eye with it? – and I will restore it to you.” here I ambehold me.

donkey: here it is a male (contrast 1 Sam 9:3).

to turn a blind eye with it ← and I have hidden my eye with it.
1 Sam 12:4 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ לֹ֥א עֲשַׁקְתָּ֖נוּ וְלֹ֣א רַצּוֹתָ֑נוּ וְלֹֽא־לָקַ֥חְתָּ מִיַּד־אִ֖ישׁ מְאֽוּמָה׃‬ And they said, “You have not oppressed us, and you have not maltreated us, and you have not taken anything from anyone's hand.”
1 Sam 12:5 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֜ם עֵ֧ד יְהוָ֣ה בָּכֶ֗ם וְעֵ֤ד מְשִׁיחוֹ֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה כִּ֣י לֹ֧א מְצָאתֶ֛ם בְּיָדִ֖י מְא֑וּמָה וַיֹּ֖אמֶר עֵֽד׃ פ‬ And he said to them, “The Lord is a witness to you, and his anointed is a witness on this day that you have not found anything in my hand.” And each said, “He is a witness.” witness to: or witness against.
1 Sam 12:6 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אֶל־הָעָ֑ם יְהוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹ֔ן וַאֲשֶׁ֧ר הֶעֱלָ֛ה אֶת־אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬ Then Samuel said to the people, “It is the Lord who made Moses and Aaron, and who brought your fathers up out of the land of Egypt. made: AV differs (advanced).
1 Sam 12:7 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה הִֽתְיַצְּב֛וּ וְאִשָּׁפְטָ֥ה אִתְּכֶ֖ם לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה אֵ֚ת כָּל־צִדְק֣וֹת יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה אִתְּכֶ֖ם וְאֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶֽם׃‬ And now, stand there and let me join issue with you before the Lord about all the righteous acts of the Lord which he did with you and with your fathers, join issue ← contend (in law).
1 Sam 12:8 ‫כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א יַעֲקֹ֖ב מִצְרָ֑יִם וַיִּזְעֲק֤וּ אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶם֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹ֗ן וַיּוֹצִ֤יאוּ אֶת־אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם וַיֹּשִׁב֖וּם בַּמָּק֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃‬ when Jacob went to Egypt, and your fathers cried out to the Lord, and the Lord sent Moses and Aaron, and they brought your fathers out of Egypt and settled them in this place.
1 Sam 12:9 ‫וַֽיִּשְׁכְּח֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּמְכֹּ֣ר אֹתָ֡ם בְּיַ֣ד סִֽיסְרָא֩ שַׂר־צְבָ֨א חָצ֜וֹר וּבְיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וּבְיַד֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מוֹאָ֔ב וַיִּֽלָּחֲמ֖וּ בָּֽם׃‬ But they forgot the Lord their God, so he sold them into the hand of Sisera, the commander of the army of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab, and they fought against them.
1 Sam 12:10 ‫וַיִּזְעֲק֤וּ אֶל־יְהוָה֙ *ויאמר **וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ חָטָ֔אנוּ כִּ֤י עָזַ֙בְנוּ֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה וַנַּעֲבֹ֥ד אֶת־הַבְּעָלִ֖ים וְאֶת־הָעַשְׁתָּר֑וֹת וְעַתָּ֗ה הַצִּילֵ֛נוּ מִיַּ֥ד אֹיְבֵ֖ינוּ וְנַעַבְדֶֽךָּ׃‬ Then they cried out to the Lord, and {K: each said} [Q: they said], ‘We have sinned, for we have left the Lord and served the images of Baal and images of Astarte, but save us now from the hand of our enemies, and we will serve you.’ The ketiv has the same construction as 1 Sam 12:5.

images of Astarte ← Ashtaroth, i.e. Venuses.
1 Sam 12:11 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח יְהוָה֙ אֶת־יְרֻבַּ֣עַל וְאֶת־בְּדָ֔ן וְאֶת־יִפְתָּ֖ח וְאֶת־שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל וַיַּצֵּ֨ל אֶתְכֶ֜ם מִיַּ֤ד אֹֽיְבֵיכֶם֙ מִסָּבִ֔יב וַתֵּשְׁב֖וּ בֶּֽטַח׃‬ And the Lord sent Jerubbaal and Bedan and Jephthah, and Samuel, and he delivered you from your enemies round about, and you lived in security. Jerubbaal: i.e. Gideon. See Judg 7:1.

Bedan: it is hard to not suspect a scribal error for Barak. Bedan, בדן, is similar to ברך, which could ↴

Jephthah: see Judg 11:1.
1 Sam 12:12 ‫וַתִּרְא֗וּ כִּֽי־נָחָ֞שׁ מֶ֣לֶךְ בְּנֵֽי־עַמּוֹן֮ בָּ֣א עֲלֵיכֶם֒ וַתֹּ֣אמְרוּ לִ֔י לֹ֕א כִּי־מֶ֖לֶךְ יִמְלֹ֣ךְ עָלֵ֑ינוּ וַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם מַלְכְּכֶֽם׃‬ And when you saw that Nahash king of the sons of Ammon had come against you, you said to me, ‘No, for a king will reign over us’, although the Lord your God is your king. ↳ be misscribed from ברק, Barak, as the pronunciation is similar; note the softened qoph in Matt 27:46 (σαβαχθανί from Aramaic שְׁבַק).

although: concessive use of the vav.
1 Sam 12:13 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה הִנֵּ֥ה הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּחַרְתֶּ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר שְׁאֶלְתֶּ֑ם וְהִנֵּ֨ה נָתַ֧ן יְהוָ֛ה עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם מֶֽלֶךְ׃‬ And now here is the king whom you chose, whom you asked for, and you see that the Lord has assigned a king over you. here isbehold.

you see that ← behold.

assigned ← given; appointed, but in this case on sufferance.
1 Sam 12:14 ‫אִם־תִּֽירְא֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֗ה וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ וּשְׁמַעְתֶּ֣ם בְּקֹל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א תַמְר֖וּ אֶת־פִּ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וִהְיִתֶ֣ם גַּם־אַתֶּ֗ם וְגַם־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָלַ֣ךְ עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אַחַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃‬ If you fear the Lord and serve him and heed his voice and do not resist the Lord's instructions, then both you and the king who reigns over you will be in the wake of the Lord your God. instructions ← mouth.

in the wake of ← after.
1 Sam 12:15 ‫וְאִם־לֹ֤א תִשְׁמְעוּ֙ בְּק֣וֹל יְהוָ֔ה וּמְרִיתֶ֖ם אֶת־פִּ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וְהָיְתָ֧ה יַד־יְהוָ֛ה בָּכֶ֖ם וּבַאֲבֹתֵיכֶֽם׃‬ But if you don't heed the voice of the Lord, and you rebel against the instructions of the Lord, then the hand of the Lord will be against you and against your fathers. instructions ← mouth.

and: perhaps, allowing for a change in tense, as (it was against your fathers).
1 Sam 12:16 ‫גַּם־עַתָּה֙ הִתְיַצְּב֣וּ וּרְא֔וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַגָּד֖וֹל הַזֶּ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עֹשֶׂ֖ה לְעֵינֵיכֶֽם׃‬ Now too, stand and see this great proceeding which the Lord is about to do before your eyes. proceeding ← thing.

is about to do ← doing, but also admitting the immediate future.
1 Sam 12:17 ‫הֲל֤וֹא קְצִיר־חִטִּים֙ הַיּ֔וֹם אֶקְרָא֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וְיִתֵּ֥ן קֹל֖וֹת וּמָטָ֑ר וּדְע֣וּ וּרְא֗וּ כִּֽי־רָעַתְכֶ֤ם רַבָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר עֲשִׂיתֶם֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה לִשְׁא֥וֹל לָכֶ֖ם מֶֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ Is it not the wheat-harvest today? I will call out to the Lord, and he will produce rolls of thunder and rain, so be aware and see that your wickedness which you have committed is great in the eyes of the Lord in asking for a king for yourselves.” produce ← give, emit.

rolls of thundervoices, sounds.

in asking: gerundial use of the infinitive.
1 Sam 12:18 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּתֵּ֧ן יְהוָ֛ה קֹלֹ֥ת וּמָטָ֖ר בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיִּירָ֨א כָל־הָעָ֥ם מְאֹ֛ד אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה וְאֶת־שְׁמוּאֵֽל׃‬ Then Samuel called out to the Lord, and the Lord produced rolls of thunder and rain on that day, and all the people feared the Lord and Samuel greatly. produced: see 1 Sam 12:17.

rolls of thunder: see 1 Sam 12:17.
1 Sam 12:19 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֨וּ כָל־הָעָ֜ם אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל הִתְפַּלֵּ֧ל בְּעַד־עֲבָדֶ֛יךָ אֶל־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ וְאַל־נָמ֑וּת כִּֽי־יָסַ֤פְנוּ עַל־כָּל־חַטֹּאתֵ֙ינוּ֙ רָעָ֔ה לִשְׁאֹ֥ל לָ֖נוּ מֶֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ And all the people said to Samuel, “Pray to the Lord your God on behalf of your servants that we don't die, for we have added to all our sins a wicked thing in asking for a king for us.” in asking: gerundial use of the infinitive.
1 Sam 12:20 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֤ל אֶל־הָעָם֙ אַל־תִּירָ֔אוּ אַתֶּ֣ם עֲשִׂיתֶ֔ם אֵ֥ת כָּל־הָרָעָ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את אַ֗ךְ אַל־תָּס֙וּרוּ֙ מֵאַחֲרֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֥ם אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶֽם׃‬ And Samuel said to the people, “Do not fear – you have all done this wrong, but do not depart from following the Lord, and serve the Lord with all your heart. from following ← from behind.
1 Sam 12:21 ‫וְלֹ֖א תָּס֑וּרוּ כִּ֣י ׀ אַחֲרֵ֣י הַתֹּ֗הוּ אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־יוֹעִ֛ילוּ וְלֹ֥א יַצִּ֖ילוּ כִּי־תֹ֥הוּ הֵֽמָּה׃‬ And you shall not depart, for that would be to follow vain things which will not be of benefit and will not save you, for they are vain things. vain (2x): the same word as desolate in Gen 1:2.
1 Sam 12:22 ‫כִּ֠י לֹֽא־יִטֹּ֤שׁ יְהוָה֙ אֶת־עַמּ֔וֹ בַּעֲב֖וּר שְׁמ֣וֹ הַגָּד֑וֹל כִּ֚י הוֹאִ֣יל יְהוָ֔ה לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת אֶתְכֶ֛ם ל֖וֹ לְעָֽם׃‬ For the Lord will not abandon his people, for the sake of his great name, for the Lord is willing to make you his people.
1 Sam 12:23 ‫גַּ֣ם אָנֹכִ֗י חָלִ֤ילָה לִּי֙ מֵחֲטֹ֣א לַֽיהוָ֔ה מֵחֲדֹ֖ל לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֣ל בַּעַדְכֶ֑ם וְהוֹרֵיתִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ הַטּוֹבָ֖ה וְהַיְשָׁרָֽה׃‬ Also as for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the Lord by stopping praying on your behalf. And I will teach you the right and upright way. by stopping: gerundial use of the infinitive.

the ... way ← in the way.
1 Sam 12:24 ‫אַ֣ךְ ׀ יְר֣אוּ אֶת־יְהוָ֗ה וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֥ם אֹת֛וֹ בֶּאֱמֶ֖ת בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י רְא֔וּ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־הִגְדִּ֖ל עִמָּכֶֽם׃‬ But fear the Lord and serve him in truth with all your heart, for see how he has done great things with you. see how ← see that which.
1 Sam 12:25 ‫וְאִם־הָרֵ֖עַ תָּרֵ֑עוּ גַּם־אַתֶּ֥ם גַּֽם־מַלְכְּכֶ֖ם תִּסָּפֽוּ׃ פ‬ But if you for your part decidedly act wickedly, both you and your king will perish.” decidedly act wickedly: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 13:1 ‫בֶּן־שָׁנָ֖ה שָׁא֣וּל בְּמָלְכ֑וֹ וּשְׁתֵּ֣י שָׁנִ֔ים מָלַ֖ךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ Saul was one year old when he started to reign, and he reigned over Israel for two years. was one year old: we take this as his age as another man (see 1 Sam 10:6 and 10:9). This is a foreshadowing (being only temporary) of “being born again” (John 3:3 - 3:5). The LXX omits the verse, but the Vulgate translates correctly. AV differs (reigned one year).

when he started to reign: the same construction as in 2 Sam 5:4.
1 Sam 13:2 ‫וַיִּבְחַר־ל֨וֹ שָׁא֜וּל שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִים֮ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיִּהְי֨וּ עִם־שָׁא֜וּל אַלְפַּ֗יִם בְּמִכְמָשׂ֙ וּבְהַ֣ר בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל וְאֶ֗לֶף הָיוּ֙ עִם־י֣וֹנָתָ֔ן בְּגִבְעַ֖ת בִּנְיָמִ֑ין וְיֶ֣תֶר הָעָ֔ם שִׁלַּ֖ח אִ֥ישׁ לְאֹהָלָֽיו׃‬ And Saul chose for himself three thousand men from Israel, and there were two thousand men with Saul in Michmas and at the mountain of Beth-El, and one thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin, and he sent each of the rest of the people to his tent. Michmas: AV= Michmash. Spelled with a samech in Neh 7:31.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.

his tent ← his tents, the plural attracted by each.
1 Sam 13:3 ‫וַיַּ֣ךְ יוֹנָתָ֗ן אֵ֣ת נְצִ֤יב פְּלִשְׁתִּים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּגֶ֔בַע וַֽיִּשְׁמְע֖וּ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וְשָׁאוּל֩ תָּקַ֨ע בַּשּׁוֹפָ֤ר בְּכָל־הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יִשְׁמְע֖וּ הָעִבְרִֽים׃‬ And Jonathan attacked the Philistines' garrison which was in Geba, and the Philistines heard about it, and Saul blew the ramshorn throughout all the land, and he said, “Let the Hebrews hear.”
1 Sam 13:4 ‫וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֞ל שָׁמְע֣וּ לֵאמֹ֗ר הִכָּ֤ה שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־נְצִ֣יב פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְגַם־נִבְאַשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיִּצָּעֲק֥וּ הָעָ֛ם אַחֲרֵ֥י שָׁא֖וּל הַגִּלְגָּֽל׃‬ And all Israel heard it said, “Saul has defeated the Philistines' garrison, and also Israel has become odious among the Philistines.” And the people were called together behind Saul in Gilgal. Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
1 Sam 13:5 ‫וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֞ים נֶאֶסְפ֣וּ ׀ לְהִלָּחֵ֣ם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שְׁלֹשִׁ֨ים אֶ֤לֶף רֶ֙כֶב֙ וְשֵׁ֤שֶׁת אֲלָפִים֙ פָּרָשִׁ֔ים וְעָ֕ם כַּח֛וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־שְׂפַֽת־הַיָּ֖ם לָרֹ֑ב וַֽיַּעֲלוּ֙ וַיַּחֲנ֣וּ בְמִכְמָ֔שׂ קִדְמַ֖ת בֵּ֥ית אָֽוֶן׃‬ And the Philistines gathered to fight against Israel – thirty thousand chariots and six thousand horsemen, and people like the sand on the sea-shore in profusion – and they came up and encamped at Michmas, to the east of Beth-Aven. against ← with. See Gen 14:8.

Michmas: see 1 Sam 13:2.
1 Sam 13:6 ‫וְאִ֨ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל רָאוּ֙ כִּ֣י צַר־ל֔וֹ כִּ֥י נִגַּ֖שׂ הָעָ֑ם וַיִּֽתְחַבְּא֣וּ הָעָ֗ם בַּמְּעָר֤וֹת וּבַֽחֲוָחִים֙ וּבַסְּלָעִ֔ים וּבַצְּרִחִ֖ים וּבַבֹּרֽוֹת׃‬ And the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait, for the people were distressed, and the people hid in caves and in thorn bushes and in rocks and in watchtowers and in pits.
1 Sam 13:7 ‫וְעִבְרִ֗ים עָֽבְרוּ֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן אֶ֥רֶץ גָּ֖ד וְגִלְעָ֑ד וְשָׁאוּל֙ עוֹדֶ֣נּוּ בַגִּלְגָּ֔ל וְכָל־הָעָ֖ם חָרְד֥וּ אַחֲרָֽיו׃‬ And the Hebrews crossed the Jordan, to the land of Gad and Gilead, whereas Saul was still in Gilgal, and all the people were trembling behind him. Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
1 Sam 13:8 ‫*וייחל **וַיּ֣וֹחֶל ׀ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֗ים לַמּוֹעֵד֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וְלֹא־בָ֥א שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל הַגִּלְגָּ֑ל וַיָּ֥פֶץ הָעָ֖ם מֵעָלָֽיו׃‬ And he waited seven days, for the time which Samuel had said, but Samuel did not come to Gilgal, and the people dispersed away from him. waited: the ketiv (piel stem-formation) is a variant of the qeré (hiphil stem-formation). There is no difference in meaning.

Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
1 Sam 13:9 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל הַגִּ֣שׁוּ אֵלַ֔י הָעֹלָ֖ה וְהַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וַיַּ֖עַל הָעֹלָֽה׃‬ Then Saul said, “Bring me a burnt offering and a peace-offering.” And he performed a burnt offering.
1 Sam 13:10 ‫וַיְהִ֗י כְּכַלֹּתוֹ֙ לְהַעֲל֣וֹת הָעֹלָ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֥ה שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל בָּ֑א וַיֵּצֵ֥א שָׁא֛וּל לִקְרָאת֖וֹ לְבָרֲכֽוֹ׃‬ And it came to pass when he had finished offering the burnt offering that he saw Samuel coming, and Saul went out to meet him to bless him. he saw ← behold.
1 Sam 13:11 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֑יתָ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֡וּל כִּֽי־רָאִיתִי֩ כִֽי־נָפַ֨ץ הָעָ֜ם מֵעָלַ֗י וְאַתָּה֙ לֹא־בָ֙אתָ֙ לְמוֹעֵ֣ד הַיָּמִ֔ים וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים נֶאֱסָפִ֥ים מִכְמָֽשׂ׃‬ And Samuel said, “What have you done?” And Saul said, “When I saw that the people had dispersed away from me, and that you had not come after the appointed number of days, and that the Philistines were assembled in Michmas, Michmas: see 1 Sam 13:2.
1 Sam 13:12 ‫וָאֹמַ֗ר עַ֠תָּה יֵרְד֨וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֤ים אֵלַי֙ הַגִּלְגָּ֔ל וּפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה לֹ֣א חִלִּ֑יתִי וָֽאֶתְאַפַּ֔ק וָאַעֲלֶ֖ה הָעֹלָֽה׃ ס‬ I then said, ‘Now the Philistines will descend on me in Gilgal, and I have not entreated the Lord.’ Then I constrained myself and offered a burnt offering.” Gilgal ← the Gilgal.

entreated ← appeased the face of.
1 Sam 13:13 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל אֶל־שָׁא֖וּל נִסְכָּ֑לְתָּ לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֗רְתָּ אֶת־מִצְוַ֞ת יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֔ךְ כִּ֣י עַתָּ֗ה הֵכִ֨ין יְהוָ֧ה אֶת־מַֽמְלַכְתְּךָ֛ אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃‬ At this Samuel said to Saul, “You have acted foolishly. You have not kept the commandments of the Lord your God which he commanded you, for the Lord would have now appointed your kingdom over Israel age-abidingly. commandments ← commandment, standing for body of commandments.

appointed ← prepared, directed.
1 Sam 13:14 ‫וְעַתָּ֖ה מַמְלַכְתְּךָ֣ לֹא־תָק֑וּם בִּקֵּשׁ֩ יְהוָ֨ה ל֜וֹ אִ֣ישׁ כִּלְבָב֗וֹ וַיְצַוֵּ֨הוּ יְהוָ֤ה לְנָגִיד֙ עַל־עַמּ֔וֹ כִּ֚י לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֔רְתָּ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶֽׁר־צִוְּךָ֖ יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬ But now your kingdom will not stand. The Lord has sought a man for himself according to his heart, and the Lord will command him as leader of his people, for you have not kept what the Lord commanded you.” Acts 13:22.
1 Sam 13:15 ‫וַיָּ֣קָם שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל וַיַּ֛עַל מִן־הַגִּלְגָּ֖ל גִּבְעַ֣ת בִּנְיָמִ֑ן וַיִּפְקֹ֣ד שָׁא֗וּל אֶת־הָעָם֙ הַנִּמְצְאִ֣ים עִמּ֔וֹ כְּשֵׁ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת אִֽישׁ׃‬ Then Samuel arose and went up from Gilgal to Gibeah of Benjamin. And Saul counted the people who were present with him – about six hundred men. Gilgal ← the Gilgal.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.

present ← found.
1 Sam 13:16 ‫וְשָׁא֞וּל וְיוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֗וֹ וְהָעָם֙ הַנִּמְצָ֣א עִמָּ֔ם יֹשְׁבִ֖ים בְּגֶ֣בַע בִּנְיָמִ֑ן וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים חָנ֥וּ בְמִכְמָֽשׂ׃‬ Then while Saul and Jonathan his son and the people who were present with them were living in Geba of Benjamin, the Philistines encamped at Michmas. present ← found.

Geba: AV differs (Gibeah). See Josh 18:24, Judg 20:10.

Michmas: see 1 Sam 13:2.
1 Sam 13:17 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֧א הַמַּשְׁחִ֛ית מִמַּחֲנֵ֥ה פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה רָאשִׁ֑ים הָרֹ֨אשׁ אֶחָ֥ד יִפְנֶ֛ה אֶל־דֶּ֥רֶךְ עָפְרָ֖ה אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ שׁוּעָֽל׃‬ And the fighting force came out from the Philistines' camp in three contingents. One contingent turned into the road to Ophrah, to the land of Shual, fighting force ← corrupter; destroyer.

contingents ... contingent ← heads ... head.
1 Sam 13:18 ‫וְהָרֹ֤אשׁ אֶחָד֙ יִפְנֶ֔ה דֶּ֖רֶךְ בֵּ֣ית חֹר֑וֹן וְהָרֹ֨אשׁ אֶחָ֤ד יִפְנֶה֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַגְּב֔וּל הַנִּשְׁקָ֛ף עַל־גֵּ֥י הַצְּבֹעִ֖ים הַמִּדְבָּֽרָה׃ ס‬ and one contingent turned into the road to Beth-Horon, and one contingent turned into the road to the border which overlooks the Valley of Zeboim, going towards the desert.
1 Sam 13:19 ‫וְחָרָשׁ֙ לֹ֣א יִמָּצֵ֔א בְּכֹ֖ל אֶ֣רֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּֽי־*אמר **אָמְר֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים פֶּ֚ן יַעֲשׂ֣וּ הָעִבְרִ֔ים חֶ֖רֶב א֥וֹ חֲנִֽית׃‬ Now there was no blacksmith to be found in all the land of Israel, for the Philistines had said, “Prevent them, in case the Hebrews make swords or spears.” had said: the ketiv is singular, perhaps indicating each said.

swords or spears ← a sword or a spear.
1 Sam 13:20 ‫וַיֵּרְד֥וּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים לִ֠לְטוֹשׁ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־מַחֲרַשְׁתּ֤וֹ וְאֶת־אֵתוֹ֙ וְאֶת־קַרְדֻּמּ֔וֹ וְאֵ֖ת מַחֲרֵשָׁתֽוֹ׃‬ So all Israel went down to the Philistines for each to sharpen his ploughshare and his coulter and his axe and his mattock.
1 Sam 13:21 ‫וְֽהָיְתָ֞ה הַפְּצִ֣ירָה פִ֗ים לַמַּֽחֲרֵשֹׁת֙ וְלָ֣אֵתִ֔ים וְלִשְׁלֹ֥שׁ קִלְּשׁ֖וֹן וּלְהַקַּרְדֻּמִּ֑ים וּלְהַצִּ֖יב הַדָּרְבָֽן׃‬ And there was a file for the mattocks and coulters and for the three-pronged pitchfork and the axes, and to sharpen the goad. and there was a file ← and the edge-rubbing (device) was edges, or when bluntness was the edges.

sharpen ← set up, prepare. But the context requires sharpen, or perhaps shape.
1 Sam 13:22 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בְּי֣וֹם מִלְחֶ֔מֶת וְלֹ֨א נִמְצָ֜א חֶ֤רֶב וַחֲנִית֙ בְּיַ֣ד כָּל־הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל וְאֶת־יוֹנָתָ֑ן וַתִּמָּצֵ֣א לְשָׁא֔וּל וּלְיוֹנָתָ֖ן בְּנֽוֹ׃‬ And it came to pass on the day of war that no sword or spear was to be found in the hand of any of the people who were with Saul and Jonathan, but with Saul and Jonathan his son themselves each item was to be found. any of ← all.

but: adversative use of the vav.
1 Sam 13:23 ‫וַיֵּצֵא֙ מַצַּ֣ב פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אֶֽל־מַעֲבַ֖ר מִכְמָֽשׂ׃ ס‬ And the Philistines' garrison went out to the pass of Michmas. Michmas: see 1 Sam 13:2.
1 Sam 14:1 ‫וַיְהִ֣י הַיּ֗וֹם וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יוֹנָתָ֤ן בֶּן־שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־הַנַּ֙עַר֙ נֹשֵׂ֣א כֵלָ֔יו לְכָ֗ה וְנַעְבְּרָה֙ אֶל־מַצַּ֣ב פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר מֵעֵ֣בֶר הַלָּ֑ז וּלְאָבִ֖יו לֹ֥א הִגִּֽיד׃‬ Then it came to pass on a certain day that Jonathan the son of Saul said to his servant-lad carrying his arms, “Come, let us cross to the Philistines' garrison which is beyond this place.” And he did not tell his father.
1 Sam 14:2 ‫וְשָׁא֗וּל יוֹשֵׁב֙ בִּקְצֵ֣ה הַגִּבְעָ֔ה תַּ֥חַת הָרִמּ֖וֹן אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּמִגְר֑וֹן וְהָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֔וֹ כְּשֵׁ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת אִֽישׁ׃‬ And Saul remained at the edge of Gibeah under the pomegranate tree which is in Migron, and the people who were with him were about six hundred in number. Gibeah ← the Gibeah. See Josh 15:57.

six hundred ← six hundred men.
1 Sam 14:3 ‫וַאֲחִיָּ֣ה בֶן־אֲחִט֡וּב אֲחִ֡י אִיכָב֣וֹד ׀ בֶּן־פִּינְחָ֨ס בֶּן־עֵלִ֜י כֹּהֵ֧ן ׀ יְהוָ֛ה בְּשִׁל֖וֹ נֹשֵׂ֣א אֵפ֑וֹד וְהָעָם֙ לֹ֣א יָדַ֔ע כִּ֥י הָלַ֖ךְ יוֹנָתָֽן׃‬ And Ahiah the son of Ahitub, the brother of I-Chabod the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, the priest of the Lord in Shiloh, wearing the ephod, remained there, and the people did not know that Jonathan had gone. Phinehas: see Ex 6:25.
1 Sam 14:4 ‫וּבֵ֣ין הַֽמַּעְבְּר֗וֹת אֲשֶׁ֨ר בִּקֵּ֤שׁ יֽוֹנָתָן֙ לַֽעֲבֹר֙ עַל־מַצַּ֣ב פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים שֵׁן־הַסֶּ֤לַע מֵהָעֵ֙בֶר֙ מִזֶּ֔ה וְשֵׁן־הַסֶּ֥לַע מֵהָעֵ֖בֶר מִזֶּ֑ה וְשֵׁ֤ם הָֽאֶחָד֙ בּוֹצֵ֔ץ וְשֵׁ֥ם הָאֶחָ֖ד סֶֽנֶּה׃‬ Now among the passes which Jonathan undertook to cross to the Philistines' garrison was one with a precipice on each side of the pass, and the name of one side was Bozez, and the name of the other side was Senneh. among ← between.

undertook ← tried ← sought.

precipice ← tooth of rock.

on each side ← from this side and from this side.

Senneh: AV= Seneh.
1 Sam 14:5 ‫הַשֵּׁ֧ן הָאֶחָ֛ד מָצ֥וּק מִצָּפ֖וֹן מ֣וּל מִכְמָ֑שׂ וְהָאֶחָ֥ד מִנֶּ֖גֶב מ֥וּל גָּֽבַע׃ ס‬ And one precipice was a sheer edge to the north, facing Michmas, and the other was to the south, facing Geba. Michmas: see 1 Sam 13:2.

Geba: AV differs (Gibeah). See Josh 18:24, Judg 20:10.
1 Sam 14:6 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֜ן אֶל־הַנַּ֣עַר ׀ נֹשֵׂ֣א כֵלָ֗יו לְכָה֙ וְנַעְבְּרָ֗ה אֶל־מַצַּב֙ הָעֲרֵלִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה אוּלַ֛י יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה לָ֑נוּ כִּ֣י אֵ֤ין לַֽיהוָה֙ מַעְצ֔וֹר לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ בְּרַ֖ב א֥וֹ בִמְעָֽט׃‬ And Jonathan said to the servant-lad who was carrying his arms, “Come, and let us cross to the garrison of these uncircumcised men. Perhaps the Lord will act for us, for the Lord is not under any constraint to save by means of many or few.”
1 Sam 14:7 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ נֹשֵׂ֣א כֵלָ֔יו עֲשֵׂ֖ה כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּלְבָבֶ֑ךָ נְטֵ֣ה לָ֔ךְ הִנְנִ֥י עִמְּךָ֖ כִּלְבָבֶֽךָ׃ ס‬ And his arms-bearer said to him, “Do everything that is in your heart. Be resolutehere I am with you according to your intention.” be resolute ← incline your (heart).

here I ambehold me.

intention ← heart.
1 Sam 14:8 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן הִנֵּ֛ה אֲנַ֥חְנוּ עֹבְרִ֖ים אֶל־הָאֲנָשִׁ֑ים וְנִגְלִ֖ינוּ אֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And Jonathan said, “Look, we will cross over to the men and reveal ourselves to them.
1 Sam 14:9 ‫אִם־כֹּ֤ה יֹֽאמְרוּ֙ אֵלֵ֔ינוּ דֹּ֕מּוּ עַד־הַגִּיעֵ֖נוּ אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וְעָמַ֣דְנוּ תַחְתֵּ֔ינוּ וְלֹ֥א נַעֲלֶ֖ה אֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ If they say this to us: ‘Wait until we have come to you’, then we will stay on the spot, and we will not go up to them. this ← thus.

wait ← stop. Also be silent.

come ← arrived.

on the spot ← on our spotunder us.
1 Sam 14:10 ‫וְאִם־כֹּ֨ה יֹאמְר֜וּ עֲל֤וּ עָלֵ֙ינוּ֙ וְעָלִ֔ינוּ כִּֽי־נְתָנָ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה בְּיָדֵ֑נוּ וְזֶה־לָּ֖נוּ הָאֽוֹת׃‬ But if they say this: ‘Come up to us’, then we will go up, for then the Lord will have delivered them into our hand, and this will be a sign to us.” this ← thus.
1 Sam 14:11 ‫וַיִּגָּל֣וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם אֶל־מַצַּ֖ב פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים הִנֵּ֤ה עִבְרִים֙ יֹֽצְאִ֔ים מִן־הַחֹרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִתְחַבְּאוּ־שָֽׁם׃‬ And the two of them revealed themselves to the Philistines' garrison, and the Philistines said, “Look, the Hebrews are coming out of their holes where they hid themselves.”
1 Sam 14:12 ‫וַיַּעֲנוּ֩ אַנְשֵׁ֨י הַמַּצָּבָ֜ה אֶת־יוֹנָתָ֣ן ׀ וְאֶת־נֹשֵׂ֣א כֵלָ֗יו וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ עֲל֣וּ אֵלֵ֔ינוּ וְנוֹדִ֥יעָה אֶתְכֶ֖ם דָּבָ֑ר פ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יוֹנָתָ֜ן אֶל־נֹשֵׂ֤א כֵלָיו֙ עֲלֵ֣ה אַחֲרַ֔י כִּֽי־נְתָנָ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה בְּיַ֥ד יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And the men of the garrison answered Jonathan and his arms-bearer, and they said, “Come up to us, and we will make a thing known to you.” And Jonathan said to his arms-bearer, “Go up behind me, for the Lord has delivered them into Israel's hand.”
1 Sam 14:13 ‫וַיַּ֣עַל יוֹנָתָ֗ן עַל־יָדָיו֙ וְעַל־רַגְלָ֔יו וְנֹשֵׂ֥א כֵלָ֖יו אַחֲרָ֑יו וַֽיִּפְּלוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יוֹנָתָ֔ן וְנֹשֵׂ֥א כֵלָ֖יו מְמוֹתֵ֥ת אַחֲרָֽיו׃‬ So Jonathan went up on his hands and feet with his arms-bearer behind him. And they fell before Jonathan, and his arms-bearer killed them after him. after: or behind.
1 Sam 14:14 ‫וַתְּהִ֞י הַמַּכָּ֣ה הָרִאשֹׁנָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכָּ֧ה יוֹנָתָ֛ן וְנֹשֵׂ֥א כֵלָ֖יו כְּעֶשְׂרִ֣ים אִ֑ישׁ כְּבַחֲצִ֥י מַעֲנָ֖ה צֶ֥מֶד שָׂדֶֽה׃‬ And the first attack which Jonathan and his arms-bearer made was on about twenty men in the narrow space of about half a furrow which a yoke of oxen would plough in a field.
1 Sam 14:15 ‫וַתְּהִי֩ חֲרָדָ֨ה בַמַּחֲנֶ֤ה בַשָּׂדֶה֙ וּבְכָל־הָעָ֔ם הַמַּצָּב֙ וְהַמַּשְׁחִ֔ית חָרְד֖וּ גַּם־הֵ֑מָּה וַתִּרְגַּ֣ז הָאָ֔רֶץ וַתְּהִ֖י לְחֶרְדַּ֥ת אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬ And there was trembling in the camp, in the field, and among all the people. The garrison and the fighting force also trembled, and the land shook, and it was a tremendous trembling. tremendous trembling ← trembling of God, an idiom using Elohim, God, for an extreme quality. See Gen 23:6. But perhaps here trembling (caused by) God.
1 Sam 14:16 ‫וַיִּרְא֤וּ הַצֹּפִים֙ לְשָׁא֔וּל בְּגִבְעַ֖ת בִּנְיָמִ֑ן וְהִנֵּ֧ה הֶהָמ֛וֹן נָמ֖וֹג וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ וַהֲלֹֽם׃ פ‬ And Saul's watchmen in Gibeah of Benjamin looked and saw a crowd melt away this way and that way. Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.

saw ← behold.

this way and that way ← and they went, and to here. AV differs (beating down one another).
1 Sam 14:17 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֗וּל לָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ פִּקְדוּ־נָ֣א וּרְא֔וּ מִ֖י הָלַ֣ךְ מֵעִמָּ֑נוּ וַֽיִּפְקְד֔וּ וְהִנֵּ֛ה אֵ֥ין יוֹנָתָ֖ן וְנֹשֵׂ֥א כֵלָֽיו׃‬ Then Saul said to the people who were with him, “Count now, and see who has gone away from us.” So they counted, and it turned out that Jonathan and his arms-bearer were absent. it turned out that ← behold.

absent ← not (there).
1 Sam 14:18 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שָׁאוּל֙ לַֽאֲחִיָּ֔ה הַגִּ֖ישָׁה אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים כִּֽי־הָיָ֞ה אֲר֧וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֛ים בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וּבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And Saul said to Ahiah, “Bring the ark of God here”, for at that time the ark of God was with the sons of Israel. here ← near.

at that time ← on that day.

with ← and.
1 Sam 14:19 ‫וַיְהִ֗י עַ֣ד דִּבֶּ֤ר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהֶהָמ֗וֹן אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּמַחֲנֵ֣ה פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ הָל֖וֹךְ וָרָ֑ב פ וַיֹּ֧אמֶר שָׁא֛וּל אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֖ן אֱסֹ֥ף יָדֶֽךָ׃‬ And it came to pass, while Saul was speaking to the priest, that the noise in the Philistines' camp became louder and louder, and Saul said to the priest, “Stay your hand.” while ← up to (when).

stay your hand: or withdraw your hand, i.e., [CB], from the ephod.
1 Sam 14:20 ‫וַיִּזָּעֵ֣ק שָׁא֗וּל וְכָל־הָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ עַד־הַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וְהִנֵּ֨ה הָיְתָ֜ה חֶ֤רֶב אִישׁ֙ בְּרֵעֵ֔הוּ מְהוּמָ֖ה גְּדוֹלָ֥ה מְאֹֽד׃‬ And Saul and all the people with him assembled and went to the battle, and it ensued that each man's sword was against his neighbour, and there was very great confusion. it ensued that ← behold.
1 Sam 14:21 ‫וְהָעִבְרִ֗ים הָי֤וּ לַפְּלִשְׁתִּים֙ כְּאֶתְמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשׁ֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָל֥וּ עִמָּ֛ם בַּֽמַּחֲנֶ֖ה סָבִ֑יב וְגַם־הֵ֗מָּה לִֽהְיוֹת֙ עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עִם־שָׁא֖וּל וְיוֹנָתָֽן׃‬ And moreover the Hebrews who had been in favour with the Philistines for some time, who had gone up with them in the camp, in the surroundings, re-joined Israel, which was with Saul and Jonathan. moreover: this comes from גַּם in 14:21b.

for some time ← as (of) yesterday (and) the day before yesterday.

re-joined ← (assembled) to be with.
1 Sam 14:22 ‫וְכֹל֩ אִ֨ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל הַמִּֽתְחַבְּאִ֤ים בְּהַר־אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ שָֽׁמְע֔וּ כִּֽי־נָ֖סוּ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַֽיַּדְבְּק֥וּ גַם־הֵ֛מָּה אַחֲרֵיהֶ֖ם בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬ And when every man of Israel who had been hiding in Mount Ephraim heard that the Philistines had fled, they too joined in pursuing them in the battle. in pursuing ← after.
1 Sam 14:23 ‫וַיּ֧וֹשַׁע יְהוָ֛ה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהַ֨מִּלְחָמָ֔ה עָבְרָ֖ה אֶת־בֵּ֥ית אָֽוֶן׃‬ And the Lord saved Israel on that day, and the battle moved across to Beth-Aven.
1 Sam 14:24 ‫וְאִֽישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל נִגַּ֖שׂ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיֹּאֶל֩ שָׁא֨וּל אֶת־הָעָ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר אָר֣וּר הָ֠אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יֹ֨אכַל לֶ֜חֶם עַד־הָעֶ֗רֶב וְנִקַּמְתִּי֙ מֵאֹ֣יְבַ֔י וְלֹֽא טָעַ֥ם כָּל־הָעָ֖ם לָֽחֶם׃ ס‬ But the men of Israel were distressed on that day, and Saul adjured the people and said, “Cursed be the man who eats bread before this evening, so that I may be avenged of my enemies.” So none of the people tasted any bread. bread (2x): standing for food in general, including honey (see 1 Sam 14:27 - 28).

any ← all.
1 Sam 14:25 ‫וְכָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ בָּ֣אוּ בַיָּ֑עַר וַיְהִ֥י דְבַ֖שׁ עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬ And the whole country went to a wood, and there was honey throughout the terrain. throughout ← on the surface of.

terrain ← field, but also countryside.
1 Sam 14:26 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤א הָעָם֙ אֶל־הַיַּ֔עַר וְהִנֵּ֖ה הֵ֣לֶךְ דְּבָ֑שׁ וְאֵין־מַשִּׂ֤יג יָדוֹ֙ אֶל־פִּ֔יו כִּֽי־יָרֵ֥א הָעָ֖ם אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָֽה׃‬ And when the people came to the wood, they saw that there was a supply of honey, but no-one brought his hand to his mouth, for the people feared the oath. there wasbehold.

supply ← flow.
1 Sam 14:27 ‫וְיוֹנָתָ֣ן לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֗ע בְּהַשְׁבִּ֣יעַ אָבִיו֮ אֶת־הָעָם֒ וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח אֶת־קְצֵ֤ה הַמַּטֶּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּיָד֔וֹ וַיִּטְבֹּ֥ל אוֹתָ֖הּ בְּיַעְרַ֣ת הַדְּבָ֑שׁ וַיָּ֤שֶׁב יָדוֹ֙ אֶל־פִּ֔יו *ותראנה **וַתָּאֹ֖רְנָה עֵינָֽיו׃‬ But Jonathan had not heard his father adjuring the people, and he poked with the end of the stick which was in his hand and dipped it in the honeycomb, and he put his hand to his mouth, and his eyes {K: saw a vision} [Q: were enlightened]. The qeré may be an attempt to align the word with the word used in 1 Sam 14:29. AV differs, reading the qeré.

put ← returned.
1 Sam 14:28 ‫וַיַּעַן֩ אִ֨ישׁ מֵֽהָעָ֜ם וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הַשְׁבֵּעַ֩ הִשְׁבִּ֨יעַ אָבִ֤יךָ אֶת־הָעָם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אָר֥וּר הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יֹ֥אכַל לֶ֖חֶם הַיּ֑וֹם וַיָּ֖עַף הָעָֽם׃‬ And a man from the people reacted and said, “Your father solemnly adjured the people and said, ‘Cursed be the man who eats bread today.’ ” And the people became faint. reacted ← answered, but no question asked. See Gen 18:27.

solemnly adjured: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 14:29 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יֽוֹנָתָ֔ן עָכַ֥ר אָבִ֖י אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ רְאוּ־נָא֙ כִּֽי־אֹ֣רוּ עֵינַ֔י כִּ֣י טָעַ֔מְתִּי מְעַ֖ט דְּבַ֥שׁ הַזֶּֽה׃‬ And Jonathan said, “My father has caused the land sorrow. Look now, for my eyes have been enlightened, because I tasted a little of this honey.
1 Sam 14:30 ‫אַ֗ף כִּ֡י לוּא֩ אָכֹ֨ל אָכַ֤ל הַיּוֹם֙ הָעָ֔ם מִשְּׁלַ֥ל אֹיְבָ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָצָ֑א כִּ֥י עַתָּ֛ה לֹֽא־רָבְתָ֥ה מַכָּ֖ה בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ How much better it would have been if only the people had eaten today from the spoil of their enemies which they found! For would there not now have been a greater defeat of the Philistines?” eaten: infinitive absolute, contributing to the sense of our ellipsis supplied.

their ... they ← its ... it.
1 Sam 14:31 ‫וַיַּכּ֞וּ בַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים מִמִּכְמָ֖שׂ אַיָּלֹ֑נָה וַיָּ֥עַף הָעָ֖ם מְאֹֽד׃‬ And they struck the Philistines down on that day from Michmas to Aijalon, but the people were very faint. Michmas: see 1 Sam 13:2.
1 Sam 14:32 ‫*ויעש **וַיַּ֤עַט הָעָם֙ אֶל־*שלל **הַשָּׁלָ֔ל וַיִּקְח֨וּ צֹ֧אן וּבָקָ֛ר וּבְנֵ֥י בָקָ֖ר וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ־אָ֑רְצָה וַיֹּ֥אכַל הָעָ֖ם עַל־הַדָּֽם׃‬ And the people {K: acquired} [Q: covered themselves in] {K: spoil} [Q: the spoil], and they took sheep and oxen and calves, and they slaughtered them on the ground, and the people ate them with the blood. covered themselves (qeré): from עָטָה, fitting with spoil being clothing, which was very expensive in antiquity. Alternatively, read swooped, from עוּט.

on ← onto. Pregnant usage of the preposition.
1 Sam 14:33 ‫וַיַּגִּ֤ידוּ לְשָׁאוּל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִנֵּ֥ה הָעָ֛ם חֹטִ֥אים לַֽיהוָ֖ה לֶאֱכֹ֣ל עַל־הַדָּ֑ם וַיֹּ֣אמֶר בְּגַדְתֶּ֔ם גֹּֽלּוּ־אֵלַ֥י הַיּ֖וֹם אֶ֥בֶן גְּדוֹלָֽה׃‬ And they reported it to Saul, and they said, “Look, the people are sinning against the Lord by eating with the blood.” And he said, “You have dealt treacherously. Roll a large stone up to me this day.” by eating: gerundial use of the infinitive.
1 Sam 14:34 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֣וּל פֻּ֣צוּ בָעָ֡ם וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֣ם לָהֶ֡ם הַגִּ֣ישׁוּ אֵלַי֩ אִ֨ישׁ שׁוֹר֜וֹ וְאִ֣ישׁ שְׂיֵ֗הוּ וּשְׁחַטְתֶּ֤ם בָּזֶה֙ וַאֲכַלְתֶּ֔ם וְלֹֽא־תֶחֶטְא֥וּ לַֽיהוָ֖ה לֶאֱכֹ֣ל אֶל־הַדָּ֑ם וַיַּגִּ֨שׁוּ כָל־הָעָ֜ם אִ֣ישׁ שׁוֹר֧וֹ בְיָד֛וֹ הַלַּ֖יְלָה וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ־שָֽׁם׃‬ And Saul said, “Disperse among the people and say to them, ‘Let each man bring to me his ox, or let each man bring his sheep, and slaughter them here and eat them, and do not sin against the Lord by eating with the blood.’ ” So all the people brought their ox in their hand that night, and they slaughtered them there. bring ← bring near.

or: disjunctive use of the vav. Only the ox mentioned in the words following.

by eating: gerundial use of the infinitive.

their ... their ← its ... its.

that night ← the night / tonight.
1 Sam 14:35 ‫וַיִּ֧בֶן שָׁא֛וּל מִזְבֵּ֖חַ לַֽיהוָ֑ה אֹת֣וֹ הֵחֵ֔ל לִבְנ֥וֹת מִזְבֵּ֖חַ לַֽיהוָֽה׃ פ‬ And Saul built an altar to the Lord. He began with this one in building altars to the Lord. this oneit.

in building: gerundial use of the infinitive.

altars ← an altar.
1 Sam 14:36 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֡וּל נֵרְדָ֣ה אַחֲרֵי֩ פְלִשְׁתִּ֨ים ׀ לַ֜יְלָה וְֽנָבֹ֥זָה בָהֶ֣ם ׀ עַד־א֣וֹר הַבֹּ֗קֶר וְלֹֽא־נַשְׁאֵ֤ר בָּהֶם֙ אִ֔ישׁ וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ כָּל־הַטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֶ֖יךָ עֲשֵׂ֑ה ס וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן נִקְרְבָ֥ה הֲלֹ֖ם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃‬ And Saul said, “Let us go down after the Philistines at night and plunder them until the light of the morning, and let us not leave a man among them remaining.” And they said, “Do whatever is right in your sight.” And the priest said, “Let us draw near here to God.”
1 Sam 14:37 ‫וַיִּשְׁאַ֤ל שָׁאוּל֙ בֵּֽאלֹהִ֔ים הַֽאֵרֵד֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים הֲתִתְּנֵ֖ם בְּיַ֣ד יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹ֥א עָנָ֖הוּ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃‬ And Saul inquired of God, “Shall I go down after the Philistines? Will you deliver them into the hand of Israel?” But he did not answer him on that day.
1 Sam 14:38 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל גֹּ֣שֽׁוּ הֲלֹ֔ם כֹּ֖ל פִּנּ֣וֹת הָעָ֑ם וּדְע֣וּ וּרְא֔וּ בַּמָּ֗ה הָֽיְתָ֛ה הַחַטָּ֥את הַזֹּ֖את הַיּֽוֹם׃‬ Then Saul said, “Come over here, all you princes of the people, and know and see what this sin today consisted of. princes ← corners, but also princes.

what this sin ... consisted of ← in what this sin was.
1 Sam 14:39 ‫כִּ֣י חַי־יְהוָ֗ה הַמּוֹשִׁ֙יעַ֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּ֧י אִם־יֶשְׁנ֛וֹ בְּיוֹנָתָ֥ן בְּנִ֖י כִּ֣י מ֣וֹת יָמ֑וּת וְאֵ֥ין עֹנֵ֖הוּ מִכָּל־הָעָֽם׃‬ For as the Lord, the saviour of Israel, lives, even if it is Jonathan my son who committed it, he will surely die.” But there was no-one among all the people who answered him. it is Jonathan ... who committed itit is in Jonathan.
1 Sam 14:40 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אַתֶּם֙ תִּֽהְיוּ֙ לְעֵ֣בֶר אֶחָ֔ד וַֽאֲנִי֙ וְיוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנִ֔י נִהְיֶ֖ה לְעֵ֣בֶר אֶחָ֑ד וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ הָעָם֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל הַטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֶ֖יךָ עֲשֵֽׂה׃ ס‬ And he said to the whole of Israel, “You be on one side, and Jonathan and I will be on the other side.” And the people said to Saul, “Do what is right in your sight.” one side ... the other side ← one side ... one side.
1 Sam 14:41 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֗וּל אֶל־יְהוָ֛ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הָ֣בָה תָמִ֑ים וַיִּלָּכֵ֧ד יוֹנָתָ֛ן וְשָׁא֖וּל וְהָעָ֥ם יָצָֽאוּ׃‬ Then Saul said to the Lord God of Israel, “Give the verdict of the Thummim.” And Jonathan and Saul were indicted, whereas the people were exonerated. Thummim: here pointed as perfect (ones). Consonantally also Thummim, as in Ex 28:30, with the same meaning. See [CB].

indicted ... exonerated ← taken ... went out.
1 Sam 14:42 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל הַפִּ֕ילוּ בֵּינִ֕י וּבֵ֖ין יוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנִ֑י וַיִּלָּכֵ֖ד יוֹנָתָֽן׃‬ Then Saul said, “Draw the lot between me and Jonathan my son.” And Jonathan was indicted. indicted ← taken.
1 Sam 14:43 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־י֣וֹנָתָ֔ן הַגִּ֥ידָה לִּ֖י מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֑יתָה וַיַּגֶּד־ל֣וֹ יוֹנָתָ֗ן וַיֹּאמֶר֩ טָעֹ֨ם טָעַ֜מְתִּי בִּקְצֵ֨ה הַמַּטֶּ֧ה אֲשֶׁר־בְּיָדִ֛י מְעַ֥ט דְּבַ֖שׁ הִנְנִ֥י אָמֽוּת׃‬ Then Saul said to Jonathan, “Tell me what you have done.” And Jonathan told him and said, “I did indeed taste a little honey with the end of my staff which is in my hand, and in consequence I will die.” I did indeed taste: infinitive absolute.

in consequence ← behold me.
1 Sam 14:44 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל כֹּֽה־יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים וְכֹ֣ה יוֹסִ֑ף כִּֽי־מ֥וֹת תָּמ֖וּת יוֹנָתָֽן׃‬ And Saul said, “May God do this and add more otherwise, for you will surely die, Jonathan.” This is the oath formula as in 2 Sam 19:14 (2 Sam 19:13AV).

this ... more ← thus ... thus.
1 Sam 14:45 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָעָ֜ם אֶל־שָׁא֗וּל הֲ‍ֽיוֹנָתָ֤ן ׀ יָמוּת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָ֠שָׂה הַיְשׁוּעָ֨ה הַגְּדוֹלָ֣ה הַזֹּאת֮ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל֒ חָלִ֗ילָה חַי־יְהוָה֙ אִם־יִפֹּ֞ל מִשַּׂעֲרַ֤ת רֹאשׁוֹ֙ אַ֔רְצָה כִּֽי־עִם־אֱלֹהִ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ה הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וַיִּפְדּ֥וּ הָעָ֛ם אֶת־יוֹנָתָ֖ן וְלֹא־מֵֽת׃ ס‬ And the people said to Saul, “Must Jonathan die, who achieved this great salvation in Israel? Far be itas the Lord lives – no hair from his head shall fall to the ground, for he acted with God on this day. So the people delivered Jonathan, and he did not die.” no hair from his head shall fall ← if from the hair of his head shall fall, standing for if (it) falls ... may God do this to me. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.

delivered ← redeemed.
1 Sam 14:46 ‫וַיַּ֣עַל שָׁא֔וּל מֵאַחֲרֵ֖י פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים הָלְכ֥וּ לִמְקוֹמָֽם׃‬ Then Saul withdrew after the encounter with the Philistines, and the Philistines went to their own place. withdrew ← went up. See [BDB] № 2e for examples of withdraw, retreat.
1 Sam 14:47 ‫וְשָׁא֛וּל לָכַ֥ד הַמְּלוּכָ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּלָּ֣חֶם סָבִ֣יב ׀ בְּֽכָל־אֹיְבָ֡יו בְּמוֹאָ֣ב ׀ וּבִבְנֵי־עַמּ֨וֹן וּבֶאֱד֜וֹם וּבְמַלְכֵ֤י צוֹבָה֙ וּבַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וּבְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יִפְנֶ֖ה יַרְשִֽׁיעַ׃‬ And Saul took the kingship over Israel, and he fought against all his enemies round about, against Moab, and against the sons of Ammon, and against Edom, and against the kings of Zobah, and against the Philistines. And everywhere he turned, he caused harm.
1 Sam 14:48 ‫וַיַּ֣עַשׂ חַ֔יִל וַיַּ֖ךְ אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֑ק וַיַּצֵּ֥ל אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִיַּ֥ד שֹׁסֵֽהוּ׃ ס‬ And he acted valiantly, and he struck Amalek down, and he delivered Israel from the hand of those who plundered it. those who ← him who.
1 Sam 14:49 ‫וַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י שָׁא֔וּל יוֹנָתָ֥ן וְיִשְׁוִ֖י וּמַלְכִּי־שׁ֑וּעַ וְשֵׁם֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י בְנֹתָ֔יו שֵׁ֤ם הַבְּכִירָה֙ מֵרַ֔ב וְשֵׁ֥ם הַקְּטַנָּ֖ה מִיכַֽל׃‬ And Saul's sons were Jonathan and Jishvi and Malchi-Shua, and as for the names of his two daughters, the name of the elder was Merab and the name of the younger was Michal. || 1 Chr 8:33, 1 Chr 9:39.

Jishvi: AV= Ishui.

Malchi-Shua: AV= Melchi-shua here, but elsewhere Malchi-Shua.
1 Sam 14:50 ‫וְשֵׁם֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת שָׁא֔וּל אֲחִינֹ֖עַם בַּת־אֲחִימָ֑עַץ וְשֵׁ֤ם שַׂר־צְבָאוֹ֙ אֲבִינֵ֔ר בֶּן־נֵ֖ר דּ֥וֹד שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ And the name of Saul's wife was Ahinoam the daughter of Ahimaaz, and the name of the commander of his army was Abner the son of Ner, Saul's uncle. Abner ← Abiner, here, but elsewhere Abner.
1 Sam 14:51 ‫וְקִ֧ישׁ אֲבִֽי־שָׁא֛וּל וְנֵ֥ר אֲבִֽי־אַבְנֵ֖ר בֶּן־אֲבִיאֵֽל׃ ס‬ And Kish was Saul's father, and Ner the father of Abner was the son of Abiel.
1 Sam 14:52 ‫וַתְּהִ֤י הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ חֲזָקָ֣ה עַל־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וְרָאָ֨ה שָׁא֜וּל כָּל־אִ֤ישׁ גִּבּוֹר֙ וְכָל־בֶּן־חַ֔יִל וַיַּאַסְפֵ֖הוּ אֵלָֽיו׃ ס‬ And the war against the Philistines was fierce, for all Saul's days, and when Saul saw any heroic man or any valiant man, he recruited him. fierce ← strong.

any (2x)every.

valiant man ← son of valiance.

recruited him ← gathered him to himself.
1 Sam 15:1 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל אֹתִ֨י שָׁלַ֤ח יְהוָה֙ לִמְשָׁחֳךָ֣ לְמֶ֔לֶךְ עַל־עַמּ֖וֹ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְעַתָּ֣ה שְׁמַ֔ע לְק֖וֹל דִּבְרֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ And Samuel said to Saul, “The Lord has sent me to anoint you as king over his people, over Israel, so now, listen to the voice of the words of the Lord.
1 Sam 15:2 ‫כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת פָּקַ֕דְתִּי אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה עֲמָלֵ֖ק לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֥ם לוֹ֙ בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ בַּעֲלֹת֖וֹ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃‬ The Lord of hosts says this: ‘I have examined what Amalek did to Israel, how he took a position on the way when Israel came up out of Egypt. this ← thus.

how ← that.

took a positionset himself.
1 Sam 15:3 ‫עַתָּה֩ לֵ֨ךְ וְהִכִּֽיתָ֜ה אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֗ק וְהַֽחֲרַמְתֶּם֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א תַחְמֹ֖ל עָלָ֑יו וְהֵמַתָּ֞ה מֵאִ֣ישׁ עַד־אִשָּׁ֗ה מֵֽעֹלֵל֙ וְעַד־יוֹנֵ֔ק מִשּׁ֣וֹר וְעַד־שֶׂ֔ה מִגָּמָ֖ל וְעַד־חֲמֽוֹר׃ ס‬ Now go and strike Amalek down, and obliterate everything of his, and do not show mercy to him, and put to death both men and women, both child and baby, both ox and sheep, both camel and donkey.’ ” The Hebrew idiom translated both ... and is literally from ... to, as if covering everything in a range, but there often is no range – just two discrete entities. Compare Gen 6:7.
1 Sam 15:4 ‫וַיְשַׁמַּ֤ע שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַֽיִּפְקְדֵם֙ בַּטְּלָאִ֔ים מָאתַ֥יִם אֶ֖לֶף רַגְלִ֑י וַעֲשֶׂ֥רֶת אֲלָפִ֖ים אֶת־אִ֥ישׁ יְהוּדָֽה׃‬ And Saul summoned the people and counted them in Telaim – two hundred thousand infantrymen and ten thousand men of Judah.
1 Sam 15:5 ‫וַיָּבֹ֥א שָׁא֖וּל עַד־עִ֣יר עֲמָלֵ֑ק וַיָּ֖רֶב בַּנָּֽחַל׃‬ And Saul came to the city of Amalek, and he contended with him in the ravine. contended: AV differs (laid wait), apparently reading וַיֶּאֱרֹב for וַיָּרֶב.

ravine ← stream, or wadi.
1 Sam 15:6 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֣וּל אֶֽל־הַקֵּינִ֡י לְכוּ֩ סֻּ֨רוּ רְד֜וּ מִתּ֣וֹךְ עֲמָלֵקִ֗י פֶּן־אֹֽסִפְךָ֙ עִמּ֔וֹ וְאַתָּ֞ה עָשִׂ֤יתָה חֶ֙סֶד֙ עִם־כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּעֲלוֹתָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַיָּ֥סַר קֵינִ֖י מִתּ֥וֹךְ עֲמָלֵֽק׃‬ And Saul said to the Kenites, “Go, depart, go down away from the Amalekites, so that I don't destroy you with them, for you acted kindly towards all the sons of Israel when they came up out of Egypt.” And the Kenites departed and went away from Amalek. for: causal use of the vav.

from ← from inside / among.
1 Sam 15:7 ‫וַיַּ֥ךְ שָׁא֖וּל אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֑ק מֵֽחֲוִילָה֙ בּוֹאֲךָ֣ שׁ֔וּר אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬ And Saul attacked the Amalekites from Havilah to where you come to Shur which is opposite Egypt.
1 Sam 15:8 ‫וַיִּתְפֹּ֛שׂ אֶת־אֲגַ֥ג מֶֽלֶךְ־עֲמָלֵ֖ק חָ֑י וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם הֶחֱרִ֥ים לְפִי־חָֽרֶב׃‬ And he captured Agag king of the Amalekites alive, but he obliterated all the people by the edge of the sword.
1 Sam 15:9 ‫וַיַּחְמֹל֩ שָׁא֨וּל וְהָעָ֜ם עַל־אֲגָ֗ג וְעַל־מֵיטַ֣ב הַצֹּאן֩ וְהַבָּקָ֨ר וְהַמִּשְׁנִ֤ים וְעַל־הַכָּרִים֙ וְעַל־כָּל־הַטּ֔וֹב וְלֹ֥א אָב֖וּ הַחֲרִימָ֑ם וְכָל־הַמְּלָאכָ֛ה נְמִבְזָ֥ה וְנָמֵ֖ס אֹתָ֥הּ הֶחֱרִֽימוּ׃ פ‬ But Saul and the people spared Agag and the best of the sheep, and the cattle, and the second best of them, and the fatted lambs, and all the goods, for they were not willing to obliterate them. But they obliterated all the despised artisanry, and it was all melted down and they obliterated it. the second best: AV differs (fatlings), reading וְהַמִּשְׁמַנִּים for וְהַמִּשְׁנִים.

for: causal use of the vav.
1 Sam 15:10 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ Then the word of the Lord came to Samuel and said, came ← became.
1 Sam 15:11 ‫נִחַ֗מְתִּי כִּֽי־הִמְלַ֤כְתִּי אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ לְמֶ֔לֶךְ כִּֽי־שָׁב֙ מֵאַֽחֲרַ֔י וְאֶת־דְּבָרַ֖י לֹ֣א הֵקִ֑ים וַיִּ֙חַר֙ לִשְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיִּזְעַ֥ק אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה כָּל־הַלָּֽיְלָה׃‬ “I regret making Saul king, for he has turned away from following me, and he has not fulfilled my words.” And it infuriated Samuel, and he cried out to the Lord all night. from following me ← from behind me.
1 Sam 15:12 ‫וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֧ם שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל לִקְרַ֥את שָׁא֖וּל בַּבֹּ֑קֶר וַיֻּגַּ֨ד לִשְׁמוּאֵ֜ל לֵאמֹ֗ר בָּֽא־שָׁא֤וּל הַכַּרְמֶ֙לָה֙ וְהִנֵּ֨ה מַצִּ֥יב לוֹ֙ יָ֔ד וַיִּסֹּב֙ וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֔ר וַיֵּ֖רֶד הַגִּלְגָּֽל׃‬ And Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning, and the matter was reported to Samuel with the words, “Saul came to Carmel, and behold, he set up a landmark for himself, and he went round the perimeter, and he passed across, and he went down to Gilgal.” with the words ← saying.

landmark ← hand, but also memorial; place.

Carmel ... Gilgal ← the Carmel ... the Gilgal.
1 Sam 15:13 ‫וַיָּבֹ֥א שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אֶל־שָׁא֑וּל וַיֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ שָׁא֗וּל בָּר֤וּךְ אַתָּה֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה הֲקִימֹ֖תִי אֶת־דְּבַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then Samuel went to Saul, and Saul said to him, “Be blessed by the Lord. I have fulfilled the word of the Lord.”
1 Sam 15:14 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וּמֶ֛ה קֽוֹל־הַצֹּ֥אן הַזֶּ֖ה בְּאָזְנָ֑י וְק֣וֹל הַבָּקָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י שֹׁמֵֽעַ׃‬ But Samuel said, “Now what is this sound of sheep in my ears, and the sound of oxen which I hear?”
1 Sam 15:15 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל מֵעֲמָלֵקִ֣י הֱבִיא֗וּם אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָמַ֤ל הָעָם֙ עַל־מֵיטַ֤ב הַצֹּאן֙ וְהַבָּקָ֔ר לְמַ֥עַן זְבֹ֖חַ לַיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְאֶת־הַיּוֹתֵ֖ר הֶחֱרַֽמְנוּ׃ ס‬ And Saul said, “They have brought them from the Amalekites, because the people spared the best of the sheep and the oxen in order to sacrifice to the Lord your God, but we have obliterated the remainder.”
1 Sam 15:16 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל הֶ֚רֶף וְאַגִּ֣ידָה לְּךָ֔ אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה אֵלַ֖י הַלָּ֑יְלָה *ויאמרו **וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ דַּבֵּֽר׃ ס‬ And Samuel said to Saul, “Stop, and I will tell you what the Lord said to me last night.” And {Q: he said} [K: they said] to him, “Speak.”
1 Sam 15:17 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל הֲל֗וֹא אִם־קָטֹ֤ן אַתָּה֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ רֹ֛אשׁ שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אָ֑תָּה וַיִּמְשָׁחֲךָ֧ יְהוָ֛ה לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ Then Samuel said, “Is it not so, that when you were unimportant in your own sight, you became the head of the tribes of Israel, and that the Lord anointed you as king over Israel? unimportant ← small.
1 Sam 15:18 ‫וַיִּשְׁלָחֲךָ֥ יְהוָ֖ה בְּדָ֑רֶךְ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לֵ֣ךְ וְהַחֲרַמְתָּ֞ה אֶת־הַֽחַטָּאִים֙ אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֔ק וְנִלְחַמְתָּ֣ ב֔וֹ עַ֥ד כַּלּוֹתָ֖ם אֹתָֽם׃‬ And the Lord sent you on an expedition and said, ‘Go and obliterate the sinners – the Amalekites – and fight them until you have finished them off.’ expedition ← road.

the Amalekites ... them ← Amalek ... him.

you have finished ← their (= your men's) finishing of them.
1 Sam 15:19 ‫וְלָ֥מָּה לֹא־שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ בְּק֣וֹל יְהוָ֑ה וַתַּ֙עַט֙ אֶל־הַשָּׁלָ֔ל וַתַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ So why did you not obey the Lord, for you swooped on the spoil, and you did wrong in the sight of the Lord?” obey ← hear the voice of.

for: causal use of the vav.
1 Sam 15:20 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֤ר שָׁמַ֙עְתִּי֙ בְּק֣וֹל יְהוָ֔ה וָאֵלֵ֕ךְ בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־שְׁלָחַ֣נִי יְהוָ֑ה וָאָבִ֗יא אֶת־אֲגַג֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמָלֵ֔ק וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵ֖ק הֶחֱרַֽמְתִּי׃‬ And Saul said to Samuel, “I maintain that I have obeyed the Lord, and I went on the way which the Lord sent me, and I led Agag king of the Amalekites captive, and I obliterated the Amalekites. obeyed ← heard the voice of.

the Amalekites (2x)Amalek.
1 Sam 15:21 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח הָעָ֧ם מֵהַשָּׁלָ֛ל צֹ֥אן וּבָקָ֖ר רֵאשִׁ֣ית הַחֵ֑רֶם לִזְבֹּ֛חַ לַֽיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בַּגִּלְגָּֽל׃‬ But the people took sheep and oxen from the spoil – the firstlings of the condemned animals to sacrifice to the Lord your God in Gilgal.” Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
1 Sam 15:22 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל הַחֵ֤פֶץ לַֽיהוָה֙ בְּעֹל֣וֹת וּזְבָחִ֔ים כִּשְׁמֹ֖עַ בְּק֣וֹל יְהוָ֑ה הִנֵּ֤ה שְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ מִזֶּ֣בַח ט֔וֹב לְהַקְשִׁ֖יב מֵחֵ֥לֶב אֵילִֽים׃‬ Then Samuel said,

“The Lord's pleasure in the offering of sacrifices

Is as that of obeying the Lord's voice.

Look, to obey is better than a sacrifice,

And heeding him is better than the fat of rams.

Mark 12:33 (allusion).

obeying: gerundial use of the infinitive.
1 Sam 15:23 ‫כִּ֤י חַטַּאת־קֶ֙סֶם֙ מֶ֔רִי וְאָ֥וֶן וּתְרָפִ֖ים הַפְצַ֑ר יַ֗עַן מָאַ֙סְתָּ֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּמְאָסְךָ֖ מִמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬

For rebellion is as the sin of divination,

And stubbornness is as the wickedness of amulets.

Since you have rejected the word of the Lord,

He has rejected you as king.”

stubbornness: infinitive absolute in the role of a noun or gerund.

amulets: see Gen 31:19.

as ← from.
1 Sam 15:24 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֤וּל אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל֙ חָטָ֔אתִי כִּֽי־עָבַ֥רְתִּי אֶת־פִּֽי־יְהוָ֖ה וְאֶת־דְּבָרֶ֑יךָ כִּ֤י יָרֵ֙אתִי֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וָאֶשְׁמַ֖ע בְּקוֹלָֽם׃‬ Then Saul said to Samuel, “I have sinned, for I have transgressed the utterance of the Lord and your words, for I feared the people and I obeyed them. I obeyed them ← I listened to their voice.
1 Sam 15:25 ‫וְעַתָּ֕ה שָׂ֥א נָ֖א אֶת־חַטָּאתִ֑י וְשׁ֣וּב עִמִּ֔י וְאֶֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֖ה לַֽיהוָֽה׃‬ So now, please forgive my sin, and turn back with me, and I will worship the Lord.”
1 Sam 15:26 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל לֹ֥א אָשׁ֖וּב עִמָּ֑ךְ כִּ֤י מָאַ֙סְתָּה֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּמְאָסְךָ֣ יְהוָ֔ה מִהְי֥וֹת מֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬ But Samuel said to Saul, “I will not turn back with you, for you rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord has rejected you from being king over Israel.”
1 Sam 15:27 ‫וַיִּסֹּ֥ב שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל לָלֶ֑כֶת וַיַּחֲזֵ֥ק בִּכְנַף־מְעִיל֖וֹ וַיִּקָּרַֽע׃‬ Then when Samuel turned to depart, he grasped the hem of his coat, and it tore. he grasped ... his coat: i.e. Saul grasped ... Samuel's coat.
1 Sam 15:28 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל קָרַ֨ע יְהוָ֜ה אֶֽת־מַמְלְכ֧וּת יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵעָלֶ֖יךָ הַיּ֑וֹם וּנְתָנָ֕הּ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ הַטּ֥וֹב מִמֶּֽךָּ׃‬ Then Samuel said to him, “The Lord has torn the kingdom of Israel away from you today, and he has given it to a compatriot of yours who is better than you. compatriot ← neighbour.
1 Sam 15:29 ‫וְגַם֙ נֵ֣צַח יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א יְשַׁקֵּ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִנָּחֵ֑ם כִּ֣י לֹ֥א אָדָ֛ם ה֖וּא לְהִנָּחֵֽם׃‬ And moreover the perpetual one of Israel will not lie and will not relent, for he is not a man to relent.”
1 Sam 15:30 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חָטָ֔אתִי עַתָּ֗ה כַּבְּדֵ֥נִי נָ֛א נֶ֥גֶד זִקְנֵֽי־עַמִּ֖י וְנֶ֣גֶד יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְשׁ֣וּב עִמִּ֔י וְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֵ֖יתִי לַֽיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ׃‬ Then he said, “I have sinned. Now honour me, please, before the elders of my people and before Israel, and turn back with me, and I will worship the Lord your God.”
1 Sam 15:31 ‫וַיָּ֥שָׁב שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ שָׁא֖וּל לַֽיהוָֽה׃ ס‬ Then Samuel turned back to Saul, and Saul worshipped the Lord. to ← after.
1 Sam 15:32 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל הַגִּ֤ישׁוּ אֵלַי֙ אֶת־אֲגַג֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמָלֵ֔ק וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אֵלָ֔יו אֲגַ֖ג מַעֲדַנֹּ֑ת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲגָ֔ג אָכֵ֖ן סָ֥ר מַר־הַמָּֽוֶת׃ ס‬ And Samuel said, “Bring me Agag king of the Amalekites.” Then Agag came to him winsomely, and Agag said, “Surely the bitterness of death has gone.” the Amalekites ← Amalek.

gone ← departed.
1 Sam 15:33 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר שִׁכְּלָ֤ה נָשִׁים֙ חַרְבֶּ֔ךָ כֵּן־תִּשְׁכַּ֥ל מִנָּשִׁ֖ים אִמֶּ֑ךָ וַיְשַׁסֵּ֨ף שְׁמוּאֵ֧ל אֶת־אֲגָ֛ג לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה בַּגִּלְגָּֽל׃ ס‬ But Samuel said,

“As your sword has bereaved women,

So your mother will be bereaved among women.”

And Samuel hacked Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal.
has bereaved: in a Hebrew “VOS” (verb-object-subject) sentence.

among women ← from women.

Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
1 Sam 15:34 ‫וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל הָרָמָ֑תָה וְשָׁא֛וּל עָלָ֥ה אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ גִּבְעַ֥ת שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ Then Samuel went to Ramah, and Saul went up to his house in Gibeah of Saul. Ramah ← the Ramah.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.
1 Sam 15:35 ‫וְלֹא־יָסַ֨ף שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל לִרְא֤וֹת אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ עַד־י֣וֹם מוֹת֔וֹ כִּֽי־הִתְאַבֵּ֥ל שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אֶל־שָׁא֑וּל וַיהוָ֣ה נִחָ֔ם כִּֽי־הִמְלִ֥יךְ אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ פ‬ And Samuel did not see Saul any more up to the day of his death, for Samuel mourned for Saul, and the Lord regretted having made Saul king over Israel.
1 Sam 16:1 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל עַד־מָתַי֙ אַתָּה֙ מִתְאַבֵּ֣ל אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וַאֲנִ֣י מְאַסְתִּ֔יו מִמְּלֹ֖ךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מַלֵּ֨א קַרְנְךָ֜ שֶׁ֗מֶן וְלֵ֤ךְ אֶֽשְׁלָחֲךָ֙ אֶל־יִשַׁ֣י בֵּֽית־הַלַּחְמִ֔י כִּֽי־רָאִ֧יתִי בְּבָנָ֛יו לִ֖י מֶֽלֶךְ׃‬ And the Lord said to Samuel, “How long will you mourn for Saul, whereas I have rejected him from reigning over Israel? Fill your horn with oil and go. I will send you to Jesse the Bethlehemite, for I have provided myself with a king from among his sons.” Jesse ← Jishai, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.

Bethlehemite: see Gen 35:19.
1 Sam 16:2 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֵ֣יךְ אֵלֵ֔ךְ וְשָׁמַ֥ע שָׁא֖וּל וַהֲרָגָ֑נִי ס וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֗ה עֶגְלַ֤ת בָּקָר֙ תִּקַּ֣ח בְּיָדֶ֔ךָ וְאָ֣מַרְתָּ֔ לִזְבֹּ֥חַ לַֽיהוָ֖ה בָּֽאתִי׃‬ Then Samuel said, “How can I go? If Saul hears of it, he will kill me.” And the Lord said, “Take a calf with you and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ calf ← calf of the oxen.

with you ← in your hand.
1 Sam 16:3 ‫וְקָרָ֥אתָ לְיִשַׁ֖י בַּזָּ֑בַח וְאָֽנֹכִ֗י אוֹדִֽיעֲךָ֙ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶֽׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂ֔ה וּמָשַׁחְתָּ֣ לִ֔י אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַ֖ר אֵלֶֽיךָ׃‬ And invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will make known to you what you must do, and anoint for me him whom I tell you.”
1 Sam 16:4 ‫וַיַּ֣עַשׂ שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל אֵ֚ת אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֖א בֵּ֣ית לָ֑חֶם וַיֶּחֶרְד֞וּ זִקְנֵ֤י הָעִיר֙ לִקְרָאת֔וֹ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר שָׁלֹ֥ם בּוֹאֶֽךָ׃‬ And Samuel did what the Lord had told him, and he went to Bethlehem. And the elders of the city trembled at meeting him, and they said, “Is it in peace that you have come?” Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.

they said ← he, or one said.
1 Sam 16:5 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ שָׁל֗וֹם לִזְבֹּ֤חַ לַֽיהוָה֙ בָּ֔אתִי הִֽתְקַדְּשׁ֔וּ וּבָאתֶ֥ם אִתִּ֖י בַּזָּ֑בַח וַיְקַדֵּ֤שׁ אֶת־יִשַׁי֙ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֔יו וַיִּקְרָ֥א לָהֶ֖ם לַזָּֽבַח׃‬ And he said, “It is in peace, to sacrifice to the Lord, that I have come. Sanctify yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice.” And he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and he invited them to the sacrifice.
1 Sam 16:6 ‫וַיְהִ֣י בְּבוֹאָ֔ם וַיַּ֖רְא אֶת־אֱלִיאָ֑ב וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אַ֛ךְ נֶ֥גֶד יְהוָ֖ה מְשִׁיחֽוֹ׃‬ And it came to pass, when they came, that he saw Eliab, and he said, “Surely his anointed is before the Lord.” || 1 Chr 2:13.
1 Sam 16:7 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל אַל־תַּבֵּ֧ט אֶל־מַרְאֵ֛הוּ וְאֶל־גְּבֹ֥הַּ קוֹמָת֖וֹ כִּ֣י מְאַסְתִּ֑יהוּ כִּ֣י ׀ לֹ֗א אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִרְאֶה֙ הָאָדָ֔ם כִּ֤י הָֽאָדָם֙ יִרְאֶ֣ה לַעֵינַ֔יִם וַיהוָ֖ה יִרְאֶ֥ה לַלֵּבָֽב׃‬ But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not consider his appearance and the height of his stature, for I have rejected him, for it is not a matter of how man sees it, for man sees with his eyes, but the Lord looks at the heart.” Rev 2:23.
1 Sam 16:8 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֤א יִשַׁי֙ אֶל־אֲבִ֣ינָדָ֔ב וַיַּעֲבִרֵ֖הוּ לִפְנֵ֣י שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֕אמֶר גַּם־בָּזֶ֖ה לֹֽא־בָחַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then Jesse called for Abinadab, and they brought him for review before Samuel, but he said, “The Lord has not chosen this one either.” || 1 Chr 2:13.

brought him for review ← made him pass.
1 Sam 16:9 ‫וַיַּעֲבֵ֥ר יִשַׁ֖י שַׁמָּ֑ה וַיֹּ֕אמֶר גַּם־בָּזֶ֖ה לֹא־בָחַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬ And Jesse brought Shammah for review, but he said, “The Lord has not chosen this one either.” || 1 Chr 2:13.

brought ... for review ← made pass.
1 Sam 16:10 ‫וַיַּעֲבֵ֥ר יִשַׁ֛י שִׁבְעַ֥ת בָּנָ֖יו לִפְנֵ֣י שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־יִשַׁ֔י לֹא־בָחַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה בָּאֵֽלֶּה׃‬ So Jesse brought his seven sons before Samuel for review, and Samuel said to Jesse, “The Lord has not chosen these.” brought ... for review ← made pass.
1 Sam 16:11 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֣ל אֶל־יִשַׁי֮ הֲתַ֣מּוּ הַנְּעָרִים֒ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר ע֚וֹד שָׁאַ֣ר הַקָּטָ֔ן וְהִנֵּ֥ה רֹעֶ֖ה בַּצֹּ֑אן וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֤ל אֶל־יִשַׁי֙ שִׁלְחָ֣ה וְקָחֶ֔נּוּ כִּ֥י לֹא־נָסֹ֖ב עַד־בֹּא֥וֹ פֹֽה׃‬ And Samuel said to Jesse, “Do these lads complete the number?” And he said, “The youngest still remains, and there he is tending the sheep.” Then Samuel said to Jesse, “Send for him and get him, for we will not wend our way until he comes here.” || 1 Chr 2:15, Ruth 4:22.

youngest ← smallest.

there he isbehold.

wend our way: AV differs (sit down), apparently reading נָסֹב as נֵשֵׁב.
1 Sam 16:12 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח וַיְבִיאֵ֙הוּ֙ וְה֣וּא אַדְמוֹנִ֔י עִם־יְפֵ֥ה עֵינַ֖יִם וְט֣וֹב רֹ֑אִי פ וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוָ֛ה ק֥וּם מְשָׁחֵ֖הוּ כִּֽי־זֶ֥ה הֽוּא׃‬ So he sent for him and brought him. Now he was red-haired with handsome eyes and of fine appearance, and the Lord said, “Get up, anoint him, for this is him.” || 1 Chr 2:15, Ruth 4:22.

red-haired: compare Gen 25:25.

him: or, if the reader prefers, he.
1 Sam 16:13 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל אֶת־קֶ֣רֶן הַשֶּׁ֗מֶן וַיִּמְשַׁ֣ח אֹתוֹ֮ בְּקֶ֣רֶב אֶחָיו֒ וַתִּצְלַ֤ח רֽוּחַ־יְהוָה֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד מֵהַיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וָמָ֑עְלָה וַיָּ֣קָם שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ הָרָמָֽתָה׃ ס‬ So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in full view of his brothers, and the spirit of the Lord came on David from that day on. Then Samuel arose and went to Ramah. || 1 Chr 2:15, Ruth 4:22.

in full view of ← in the midst of.

Ramah ← the Ramah.
1 Sam 16:14 ‫וְר֧וּחַ יְהוָ֛ה סָ֖רָה מֵעִ֣ם שָׁא֑וּל וּבִֽעֲתַ֥תּוּ רֽוּחַ־רָעָ֖ה מֵאֵ֥ת יְהוָֽה׃‬ And the spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord alarmed him. alarmed: or came upon suddenly, but elsewhere the word and its derivatives have to do with terror, alarm.
1 Sam 16:15 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ עַבְדֵֽי־שָׁא֖וּל אֵלָ֑יו הִנֵּה־נָ֧א רֽוּחַ־אֱלֹהִ֛ים רָעָ֖ה מְבַעִתֶּֽךָ׃‬ And Saul's servants said to him, “It is apparent that an evil spirit of God is alarming you. it is apparent that ← behold, please.
1 Sam 16:16 ‫יֹאמַר־נָ֤א אֲדֹנֵ֙נוּ֙ עֲבָדֶ֣יךָ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ יְבַקְשׁ֕וּ אִ֕ישׁ יֹדֵ֖עַ מְנַגֵּ֣ן בַּכִּנּ֑וֹר וְהָיָ֗ה בִּֽהְי֨וֹת עָלֶ֤יךָ רֽוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים֙ רָעָ֔ה וְנִגֵּ֥ן בְּיָד֖וֹ וְט֥וֹב לָֽךְ׃ פ‬ Please let our lord tell your servants before you to seek a man who is skilled in playing the harp, and it will come to pass when there is an evil spirit of God on you that he will play music plucking with his hand, and you will feel better.” skilled ← knowing.

you will feel better ← good to you.
1 Sam 16:17 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר שָׁא֖וּל אֶל־עֲבָדָ֑יו רְאוּ־נָ֣א לִ֗י אִ֚ישׁ מֵיטִ֣יב לְנַגֵּ֔ן וַהֲבִיאוֹתֶ֖ם אֵלָֽי׃‬ Then Saul said to his servants, “Provide me, then, with a man who is good at playing music, and bring him to me.”
1 Sam 16:18 ‫וַיַּעַן֩ אֶחָ֨ד מֵהַנְּעָרִ֜ים וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֨ה רָאִ֜יתִי בֵּ֣ן לְיִשַׁי֮ בֵּ֣ית הַלַּחְמִי֒ יֹדֵ֣עַ נַ֠גֵּן וְגִבּ֨וֹר חַ֜יִל וְאִ֧ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֛ה וּנְב֥וֹן דָּבָ֖ר וְאִ֣ישׁ תֹּ֑אַר וַיהוָ֖ה עִמּֽוֹ׃‬ And one of the servant-lads answered and said, “Look, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite who is skilled in playing music and who is a valiant warrior and a man of war, and with common sense and who is a man of handsome appearance, and the Lord is with him.” Bethlehemite: see Gen 35:19.

is skilled ← knows.

with common sense ← intelligent of a word / matter.
1 Sam 16:19 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח שָׁא֛וּל מַלְאָכִ֖ים אֶל־יִשָׁ֑י וַיֹּ֕אמֶר שִׁלְחָ֥ה אֵלַ֛י אֶת־דָּוִ֥ד בִּנְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּצֹּֽאן׃‬ So Saul sent messengers to Jesse, who said, “Send me David your son who is with the sheep.”
1 Sam 16:20 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח יִשַׁ֜י חֲמ֥וֹר לֶ֙חֶם֙ וְנֹ֣אד יַ֔יִן וּגְדִ֥י עִזִּ֖ים אֶחָ֑ד וַיִּשְׁלַ֛ח בְּיַד־דָּוִ֥ד בְּנ֖וֹ אֶל־שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ Then Jesse took a donkey, and bread and a skin-bottle of wine, and one kid of the goats, and he sent them under the charge of David his son to Saul. under the charge ← by the hand.
1 Sam 16:21 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤א דָוִד֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וַֽיַּעֲמֹ֖ד לְפָנָ֑יו וַיֶּאֱהָבֵ֣הֽוּ מְאֹ֔ד וַֽיְהִי־ל֖וֹ נֹשֵׂ֥א כֵלִֽים׃‬ And David came to Saul and stood before him, and Saul liked David a lot, and he became his arms-bearer. Saul liked Davidhe liked him. On the liberal use of the third person pronouns (he, him, his), see the note to Gen 41:13.
1 Sam 16:22 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח שָׁא֔וּל אֶל־יִשַׁ֖י לֵאמֹ֑ר יַעֲמָד־נָ֤א דָוִד֙ לְפָנַ֔י כִּֽי־מָ֥צָא חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינָֽי׃‬ And Saul sent a messenger to Jesse to say, “Please let David stand before me, for he has pleased me.” pleased me ← found grace in my eyes.
1 Sam 16:23 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה בִּֽהְי֤וֹת רֽוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וְלָקַ֥ח דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־הַכִּנּ֖וֹר וְנִגֵּ֣ן בְּיָד֑וֹ וְרָוַ֤ח לְשָׁאוּל֙ וְט֣וֹב ל֔וֹ וְסָ֥רָה מֵעָלָ֖יו ר֥וּחַ הָרָעָֽה׃ פ‬ And it came to pass, when the spirit from God was on Saul, that David took the harp and played it plucking it with his hand, and Saul had relief and felt better, and the evil spirit departed from him. spirit from God ← spirit of God. “From” is given in 1 Sam 16:14. Wider use of the construct state.

felt better ← (it was) good to him.
1 Sam 17:1 ‫וַיַּאַסְפ֨וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֤ים אֶת־מַֽחֲנֵיהֶם֙ לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וַיֵּאָ֣סְפ֔וּ שֹׂכֹ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר לִיהוּדָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֛וּ בֵּין־שׂוֹכֹ֥ה וּבֵין־עֲזֵקָ֖ה בְּאֶ֥פֶס דַּמִּֽים׃‬ Then the Philistines mobilized their battalions for war, and they were assembled in Sochoh which is in Judah, and they encamped between Sochoh and Azekah in Ephes-Dammim. mobilized ← gathered.

battalions ← camps.

Sochoh (2x): AV= Shochoh. Sometimes AV= Socoh, once Shocho (2 Chr 28:18). MT does not always have the final , reflected in AV, but we harmonize the English.
1 Sam 17:2 ‫וְשָׁא֤וּל וְאִֽישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ נֶאֶסְפ֔וּ וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּעֵ֣מֶק הָאֵלָ֑ה וַיַּעַרְכ֥וּ מִלְחָמָ֖ה לִקְרַ֥את פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And Saul and the men of Israel assembled and encamped in the Valley of Elah, and they drew up for war against the Philistines.
1 Sam 17:3 ‫וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֞ים עֹמְדִ֤ים אֶל־הָהָר֙ מִזֶּ֔ה וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל עֹמְדִ֥ים אֶל־הָהָ֖ר מִזֶּ֑ה וְהַגַּ֖יְא בֵּינֵיהֶֽם׃‬ Now the Philistines were stationed on one side of the mountain, and Israel was stationed on the other side of the mountain, and there was a valley between them. stationed (2x)standing.

on one side ... on the other side ← from this ... from this.
1 Sam 17:4 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֤א אִֽישׁ־הַבֵּנַ֙יִם֙ מִמַּחֲנ֣וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים גָּלְיָ֥ת שְׁמ֖וֹ מִגַּ֑ת גָּבְה֕וֹ שֵׁ֥שׁ אַמּ֖וֹת וָזָֽרֶת׃‬ And a duellist went out from the Philistines' camps, whose name was Goliath, from Gath, and his height was six cubits and a span. cubit: about 18 inches or 45 cm.

span: see Ex 28:16.
1 Sam 17:5 ‫וְכ֤וֹבַע נְחֹ֙שֶׁת֙ עַל־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְשִׁרְי֥וֹן קַשְׂקַשִּׂ֖ים ה֣וּא לָב֑וּשׁ וּמִשְׁקַל֙ הַשִּׁרְי֔וֹן חֲמֵשֶׁת־אֲלָפִ֥ים שְׁקָלִ֖ים נְחֹֽשֶֽׁת׃‬ And there was a copper helmet on his head, and he wore scaled armour, and the weight of his armour was five thousand shekels of copper. wore ← (was) clothed in.
1 Sam 17:6 ‫וּמִצְחַ֥ת נְחֹ֖שֶׁת עַל־רַגְלָ֑יו וְכִיד֥וֹן נְחֹ֖שֶׁת בֵּ֥ין כְּתֵפָֽיו׃‬ And he had copper leg-armour on his legs, and a copper javelin between his shoulders. javelin: AV differs (target), in the old sense of a shield.

between his shoulders: probably on his back; perhaps across his shoulders.
1 Sam 17:7 ‫*וחץ **וְעֵ֣ץ חֲנִית֗וֹ כִּמְנוֹר֙ אֹֽרְגִ֔ים וְלַהֶ֣בֶת חֲנִית֔וֹ שֵׁשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת שְׁקָלִ֖ים בַּרְזֶ֑ל וְנֹשֵׂ֥א הַצִּנָּ֖ה הֹלֵ֥ךְ לְפָנָֽיו׃‬ And his spear was {K: an arrow} [Q: of wood] like a weaver's beam, and the head of his spear weighed six hundred iron shekels, and his shield-bearer went in front of him. weaver's beam ← beam of weavers.
1 Sam 17:8 ‫וַֽיַּעֲמֹ֗ד וַיִּקְרָא֙ אֶל־מַעַרְכֹ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֔ם לָ֥מָּה תֵצְא֖וּ לַעֲרֹ֣ךְ מִלְחָמָ֑ה הֲל֧וֹא אָנֹכִ֣י הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֗י וְאַתֶּם֙ עֲבָדִ֣ים לְשָׁא֔וּל בְּרוּ־לָכֶ֥ם אִ֖ישׁ וְיֵרֵ֥ד אֵלָֽי׃‬ And he stood and called to the regiments of Israel, and he said to them, “Why have you come out to draw up for war? Am I not a Philistine, and you Saul's servants? Choose a man for yourselves, and let him come down against me. against: or to.
1 Sam 17:9 ‫אִם־יוּכַ֞ל לְהִלָּחֵ֤ם אִתִּי֙ וְהִכָּ֔נִי וְהָיִ֥ינוּ לָכֶ֖ם לַעֲבָדִ֑ים וְאִם־אֲנִ֤י אֽוּכַל־לוֹ֙ וְהִכִּיתִ֔יו וִהְיִ֤יתֶם לָ֙נוּ֙ לַעֲבָדִ֔ים וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֖ם אֹתָֽנוּ׃‬ If he is able to fight with me, and he strikes me down, then we will be your servants, but if I prevail over him and strike him down, then you will be our servants, and you will serve us.”
1 Sam 17:10 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י אֲנִ֗י חֵרַ֛פְתִּי אֶת־מַעַרְכ֥וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה תְּנוּ־לִ֣י אִ֔ישׁ וְנִֽלָּחֲמָ֖ה יָֽחַד׃‬ And the Philistine said, “I defy the regiments of Israel this day. Give me a man and let us fight together!”
1 Sam 17:11 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע שָׁאוּל֙ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיֵּחַ֥תּוּ וַיִּֽרְא֖וּ מְאֹֽד׃ פ‬ And Saul and the whole of Israel heard these words of the Philistine, and they were very fearful and afraid.
1 Sam 17:12 ‫וְדָוִד֩ בֶּן־אִ֨ישׁ אֶפְרָתִ֜י הַזֶּ֗ה מִבֵּ֥ית לֶ֙חֶם֙ יְהוּדָ֔ה וּשְׁמ֣וֹ יִשַׁ֔י וְל֖וֹ שְׁמֹנָ֣ה בָנִ֑ים וְהָאִישׁ֙ בִּימֵ֣י שָׁא֔וּל זָקֵ֖ן בָּ֥א בַאֲנָשִֽׁים׃‬ Now David was the son of this Ephrathite man from Bethlehem Judah whose name was Jesse, who had eight sons, and the man was becoming old in the days of Saul, going about his affairs among men. Ephrathite ... Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19, both for the equivalent names and the transliteration.
1 Sam 17:13 ‫וַיֵּ֨לְכ֜וּ שְׁלֹ֤שֶׁת בְּנֵֽי־יִשַׁי֙ הַגְּדֹלִ֔ים הָלְכ֥וּ אַחֲרֵי־שָׁא֖וּל לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וְשֵׁ֣ם ׀ שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת בָּנָ֗יו אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָלְכוּ֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה אֱלִיאָ֣ב הַבְּכ֗וֹר וּמִשְׁנֵ֙הוּ֙ אֲבִ֣ינָדָ֔ב וְהַשְּׁלִשִׁ֖י שַׁמָּֽה׃‬ And the eldest three sons of Jesse had gone to follow Saul to battle, and the names of his three sons who went to battle were Eliab the firstborn, and his second-born Abinadab, and the third one, Shammah. had gone to follow ← went ... went behind.
1 Sam 17:14 ‫וְדָוִ֖ד ה֣וּא הַקָּטָ֑ן וּשְׁלֹשָׁה֙ הַגְּדֹלִ֔ים הָלְכ֖וּ אַחֲרֵ֥י שָׁאֽוּל׃ ס‬ And David was the youngest, and the three eldest went behind Saul.
1 Sam 17:15 ‫וְדָוִ֛ד הֹלֵ֥ךְ וָשָׁ֖ב מֵעַ֣ל שָׁא֑וּל לִרְע֛וֹת אֶת־צֹ֥אן אָבִ֖יו בֵּֽית־לָֽחֶם׃‬ Now David had departed and was returning from Saul to tend his father's sheep at Bethlehem. Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.
1 Sam 17:16 ‫וַיִּגַּ֥שׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י הַשְׁכֵּ֣ם וְהַעֲרֵ֑ב וַיִּתְיַצֵּ֖ב אַרְבָּעִ֥ים יֽוֹם׃ פ‬ And the Philistine approached early in the morning and in the evening, and he took a stand for forty days. early in the morning ... in the evening: infinitive absolute in the role of an adverb in both cases.
1 Sam 17:17 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יִשַׁ֜י לְדָוִ֣ד בְּנ֗וֹ קַח־נָ֤א לְאַחֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵיפַ֤ת הַקָּלִיא֙ הַזֶּ֔ה וַעֲשָׂרָ֥ה לֶ֖חֶם הַזֶּ֑ה וְהָרֵ֥ץ הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֖ה לְאַחֶֽיךָ׃‬ Meanwhile Jesse said to David his son, “Please take this ephah of roasted corn and these ten loaves to your brothers, and bring them quickly to the encampment for your brothers. meanwhile: wider use of the vav.

ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.
1 Sam 17:18 ‫וְ֠אֵת עֲשֶׂ֜רֶת חֲרִצֵ֤י הֶֽחָלָב֙ הָאֵ֔לֶּה תָּבִ֖יא לְשַׂר־הָאָ֑לֶף וְאֶת־אַחֶ֙יךָ֙ תִּפְקֹ֣ד לְשָׁל֔וֹם וְאֶת־עֲרֻבָּתָ֖ם תִּקָּֽח׃‬ And bring these ten slices of cheese to the commander of a thousand, and bid your brothers good fortune, and take their pledge.” cheese ← milk.

good fortune ← peace, but also welfare, prosperity.

pledge: of faithfulness? [BDB]= token (of welfare). See also [CB].
1 Sam 17:19 ‫וְשָׁא֤וּל וְהֵ֙מָּה֙ וְכָל־אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּעֵ֖מֶק הָֽאֵלָ֑ה נִלְחָמִ֖ים עִם־פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And Saul and they and every man of Israel were in the Valley of Elah, fighting against the Philistines. against ← with. See Gen 14:8.
1 Sam 17:20 ‫וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם דָּוִ֜ד בַּבֹּ֗קֶר וַיִּטֹּ֤שׁ אֶת־הַצֹּאן֙ עַל־שֹׁמֵ֔ר וַיִּשָּׂ֣א וַיֵּ֔לֶךְ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֖הוּ יִשָׁ֑י וַיָּבֹא֙ הַמַּעְגָּ֔לָה וְהַחַ֗יִל הַיֹּצֵא֙ אֶל־הַמַּ֣עֲרָכָ֔ה וְהֵרֵ֖עוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬ And David rose early in the morning and left the sheep to a guardian, and he loaded up and departed as Jesse had commanded him, and he arrived at the entrenchment, and the army was going out to the opposing regiment, and they sounded a call to battle. loaded up ← lifted, carried.
1 Sam 17:21 ‫וַתַּעֲרֹ֤ךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים מַעֲרָכָ֖ה לִקְרַ֥את מַעֲרָכָֽה׃‬ And Israel drew up its lines, as did the Philistines – regiment against regiment.
1 Sam 17:22 ‫וַיִּטֹּשׁ֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶת־הַכֵּלִ֜ים מֵעָלָ֗יו עַל־יַד֙ שׁוֹמֵ֣ר הַכֵּלִ֔ים וַיָּ֖רָץ הַמַּעֲרָכָ֑ה וַיָּבֹ֕א וַיִּשְׁאַ֥ל לְאֶחָ֖יו לְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ And David left his equipment behind him in the hands of his equipment-guardian, and he ran to the regiment, and when he arrived, he asked his brothers how they were faring. how they were faring ← about peace.
1 Sam 17:23 ‫וְה֣וּא ׀ מְדַבֵּ֣ר עִמָּ֗ם וְהִנֵּ֣ה אִ֣ישׁ הַבֵּנַ֡יִם עוֹלֶ֞ה גָּלְיָת֩ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֨י שְׁמ֤וֹ מִגַּת֙ *ממערות **מִמַּעַרְכ֣וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיְדַבֵּ֖ר כַּדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיִּשְׁמַ֖ע דָּוִֽד׃‬ And just as he was speaking with them, the duellist came up, whose name was Goliath the Philistine from Gath, {K: from the caves} [Q: from the regiments] of the Philistines, and he spoke similar words to the previous ones, and David heard them. just ← behold, in the next clause.

similar words to the previous onesas these words.
1 Sam 17:24 ‫וְכֹל֙ אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בִּרְאוֹתָ֖ם אֶת־הָאִ֑ישׁ וַיָּנֻ֙סוּ֙ מִפָּנָ֔יו וַיִּֽירְא֖וּ מְאֹֽד׃‬ And when they saw the man, all the men of Israel fled from him and were very afraid. from him ← from his presence.
1 Sam 17:25 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל הַרְּאִיתֶם֙ הָאִ֤ישׁ הָֽעֹלֶה֙ הַזֶּ֔ה כִּ֛י לְחָרֵ֥ף אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עֹלֶ֑ה וְֽ֠הָיָה הָאִ֨ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַכֶּ֜נּוּ יַעְשְׁרֶ֥נּוּ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ ׀ עֹ֣שֶׁר גָּד֗וֹל וְאֶת־בִּתּוֹ֙ יִתֶּן־ל֔וֹ וְאֵת֙ בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔יו יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה חָפְשִׁ֖י בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ Now the men of Israel had said, “Have you seen this man who has come up, for he comes up to defy Israel, and the king would make the man who could strike him down rich with great wealth, and he would give him his daughter, and he would make his father's house free in Israel.” the king would make ← it will be that the king (would) make.
1 Sam 17:26 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֗ד אֶֽל־הָאֲנָשִׁ֞ים הָעֹמְדִ֣ים עִמּוֹ֮ לֵאמֹר֒ מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂ֗ה לָאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַכֶּה֙ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֣י הַלָּ֔ז וְהֵסִ֥יר חֶרְפָּ֖ה מֵעַ֣ל יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּ֣י מִ֗י הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֤י הֶֽעָרֵל֙ הַזֶּ֔ה כִּ֣י חֵרֵ֔ף מַעַרְכ֖וֹת אֱלֹהִ֥ים חַיִּֽים׃‬ And David spoke to the men who were standing with him and said, “What will be done for the man who strikes this Philistine down and removes the reproach from Israel, for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, for he has defied the regiments of the living God?”
1 Sam 17:27 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ הָעָ֔ם כַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר כֹּ֣ה יֵעָשֶׂ֔ה לָאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַכֶּֽנּוּ׃‬ And the people spoke to him as described above and said, “So shall it be done for the man who strikes him down.” as described above ← as this word.
1 Sam 17:28 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע אֱלִיאָב֙ אָחִ֣יו הַגָּד֔וֹל בְּדַבְּר֖וֹ אֶל־הָאֲנָשִׁ֑ים וַיִּֽחַר־אַף֩ אֱלִיאָ֨ב בְּדָוִ֜ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ לָמָּה־זֶּ֣ה יָרַ֗דְתָּ וְעַל־מִ֨י נָטַ֜שְׁתָּ מְעַ֨ט הַצֹּ֤אן הָהֵ֙נָּה֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר אֲנִ֧י יָדַ֣עְתִּי אֶת־זְדֹנְךָ֗ וְאֵת֙ רֹ֣עַ לְבָבֶ֔ךָ כִּ֗י לְמַ֛עַן רְא֥וֹת הַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה יָרָֽדְתָּ׃‬ And Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spoke to the men, and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, “Why is it that you have come down, and to whom have you left those few sheep in the desert? I know your insolence and the wickedness of your heart, for you came down to watch the battle.” eldest ← biggest / greatest.
1 Sam 17:29 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד מֶ֥ה עָשִׂ֖יתִי עָ֑תָּה הֲל֖וֹא דָּבָ֥ר הֽוּא׃‬ Then David said, “What have I done now? Isn't there business to attend to?” isn't there business to attend to: AV differs (is there not a cause), which is also possible.
1 Sam 17:30 ‫וַיִּסֹּ֤ב מֵֽאֶצְלוֹ֙ אֶל־מ֣וּל אַחֵ֔ר וַיֹּ֖אמֶר כַּדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַיְשִׁבֻ֤הוּ הָעָם֙ דָּבָ֔ר כַּדָּבָ֖ר הָרִאשֽׁוֹן׃‬ And he turned away from him towards someone else, and he spoke in the same way, and the people answered him in a similar way to the first time. answered him ← returned him word.

in a similar way to the first timeas the first word.
1 Sam 17:31 ‫וַיְּשָּֽׁמְעוּ֙ הַדְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֣ר דָּוִ֑ד וַיַּגִּ֥דוּ לִפְנֵֽי־שָׁא֖וּל וַיִּקָּחֵֽהוּ׃‬ And when the words which David spoke were heard, they reported them in Saul's presence, and he fetched him.
1 Sam 17:32 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל אַל־יִפֹּ֥ל לֵב־אָדָ֖ם עָלָ֑יו עַבְדְּךָ֣ יֵלֵ֔ךְ וְנִלְחַ֖ם עִם־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֥י הַזֶּֽה׃‬ And David said to Saul, “Do not let anyone's heart sink because of him. Your servant will go and fight against this Philistine.” against ← with. See Gen 14:8.
1 Sam 17:33 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד לֹ֤א תוּכַל֙ לָלֶ֙כֶת֙ אֶל־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֣י הַזֶּ֔ה לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם עִמּ֑וֹ כִּֽי־נַ֣עַר אַ֔תָּה וְה֛וּא אִ֥ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֖ה מִנְּעֻרָֽיו׃ ס‬ Then Saul said to David, “You cannot go to this Philistine to fight against him, for you are a lad, whereas he has been a warrior from his youth.” against ← with. See Gen 14:8.
1 Sam 17:34 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל רֹעֶ֨ה הָיָ֧ה עַבְדְּךָ֛ לְאָבִ֖יו בַּצֹּ֑אן וּבָ֤א הָֽאֲרִי֙ וְאֶת־הַדּ֔וֹב וְנָשָׂ֥א שֶׂ֖ה מֵהָעֵֽדֶר׃‬ Then David said to Saul, “Your servant was a shepherd among the sheep for his father, and a lion came, and a bear, and it took a sheep from the flock. a lion ... a bear ← the lion ... the bear. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
1 Sam 17:35 ‫וְיָצָ֧אתִי אַחֲרָ֛יו וְהִכִּתִ֖יו וְהִצַּ֣לְתִּי מִפִּ֑יו וַיָּ֣קָם עָלַ֔י וְהֶחֱזַ֙קְתִּי֙ בִּזְקָנ֔וֹ וְהִכִּתִ֖יו וַהֲמִיתִּֽיו׃‬ And I went out after it and struck it down and delivered the sheep from its mouth, and it rose up against me, but I seized its beard and struck it down and killed it. beard: or mane, usage being wider, [BDB]= lower jaw, and in the Talmud it includes pubic hair [MJ]. Not the specific word for mane (רַעְמָה).
1 Sam 17:36 ‫גַּ֧ם אֶֽת־הָאֲרִ֛י גַּם־הַדּ֖וֹב הִכָּ֣ה עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וְֽ֠הָיָה הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֨י הֶעָרֵ֤ל הַזֶּה֙ כְּאַחַ֣ד מֵהֶ֔ם כִּ֣י חֵרֵ֔ף מַעַרְכֹ֖ת אֱלֹהִ֥ים חַיִּֽים׃ ס‬ Your servant struck down both the lion and the bear, and this uncircumcised Philistine will be like one of them, for he has defied the regiments of the living God.”
1 Sam 17:37 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֮ דָּוִד֒ יְהוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִצִּלַ֜נִי מִיַּ֤ד הָֽאֲרִי֙ וּמִיַּ֣ד הַדֹּ֔ב ה֣וּא יַצִּילֵ֔נִי מִיַּ֥ד הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י הַזֶּ֑ה ס וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֤וּל אֶל־דָּוִד֙ לֵ֔ךְ וַֽיהוָ֖ה יִהְיֶ֥ה עִמָּֽךְ׃‬ And David said, “The Lord who delivered me from the grip of the lion and from the grip of the bear will deliver me from the grip of this Philistine.” And Saul said to David, “Go, and the Lord will be with you.” grip (3x)hand.
1 Sam 17:38 ‫וַיַּלְבֵּ֨שׁ שָׁא֤וּל אֶת־דָּוִד֙ מַדָּ֔יו וְנָתַ֛ן ק֥וֹבַע נְחֹ֖שֶׁת עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיַּלְבֵּ֥שׁ אֹת֖וֹ שִׁרְיֽוֹן׃‬ Then Saul clothed David with his livery, and he put a copper helmet on his head, and he put armour on him. livery ... armour: AV differs somewhat (armour ... coat of mail).
1 Sam 17:39 ‫וַיַּחְגֹּ֣ר דָּוִ֣ד אֶת־חַ֠רְבּוֹ מֵעַ֨ל לְמַדָּ֜יו וַיֹּ֣אֶל לָלֶכֶת֮ כִּ֣י לֹֽא־נִסָּה֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־שָׁא֗וּל לֹ֥א אוּכַ֛ל לָלֶ֥כֶת בָּאֵ֖לֶּה כִּ֣י לֹ֣א נִסִּ֑יתִי וַיְסִרֵ֥ם דָּוִ֖ד מֵעָלָֽיו׃‬ And David girded his sword on his livery and set about walking, for he had not practised with it, and David said to Saul, “I can't walk in these things, for I have not practised with them.” So David took them off. practised with it ... practised with them: or tried (it out) ... tried (them out).

off ← from on him.
1 Sam 17:40 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח מַקְל֜וֹ בְּיָד֗וֹ וַיִּבְחַר־ל֣וֹ חֲמִשָּׁ֣ה חַלֻּקֵֽי־אֲבָנִ֣ים ׀ מִן־הַנַּ֡חַל וַיָּ֣שֶׂם אֹ֠תָם בִּכְלִ֨י הָרֹעִ֧ים אֲשֶׁר־ל֛וֹ וּבַיַּלְק֖וּט וְקַלְּע֣וֹ בְיָד֑וֹ וַיִּגַּ֖שׁ אֶל־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּֽי׃‬ And he took his staff in his hand, and he chose five smooth stones from the brook and put them in the shepherd's bag which he had and in his satchel. And his sling was in his hand, and he approached the Philistine. smooth stones ← smooth (ones) of stones, with the construct state of the adjective. See [Ges HG] §132c.

bag ← vessel; equipment.
1 Sam 17:41 ‫וַיֵּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י הֹלֵ֥ךְ וְקָרֵ֖ב אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד וְהָאִ֛ישׁ נֹשֵׂ֥א הַצִּנָּ֖ה לְפָנָֽיו׃‬ Then the Philistine came, getting closer and closer to David, and the man who bore the shield went before him.
1 Sam 17:42 ‫וַיַּבֵּ֧ט הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֛י וַיִּרְאֶ֥ה אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד וַיִּבְזֵ֑הוּ כִּֽי־הָיָ֣ה נַ֔עַר וְאַדְמֹנִ֖י עִם־יְפֵ֥ה מַרְאֶֽה׃‬ And the Philistine looked and saw David, and he despised him, because he was a lad, and red-haired, and with an elegant appearance. red-haired: compare Gen 25:25.
1 Sam 17:43 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד הֲכֶ֣לֶב אָנֹ֔כִי כִּֽי־אַתָּ֥ה בָֽא־אֵלַ֖י בַּמַּקְל֑וֹת וַיְקַלֵּ֧ל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֛י אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד בֵּאלֹהָֽיו׃‬ And the Philistine said to David, “Am I a dog, in that you come to me with sticks?” And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.
1 Sam 17:44 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד לְכָ֣ה אֵלַ֔י וְאֶתְּנָה֙ אֶת־בְּשָׂ֣רְךָ֔ לְע֥וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וּלְבֶהֱמַ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶֽה׃ ס‬ And the Philistine said to David, “Come to me, and I will give your flesh to the birds of the sky and to the wild animals.” wild ← of the countryside / field.
1 Sam 17:45 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י אַתָּה֙ בָּ֣א אֵלַ֔י בְּחֶ֖רֶב וּבַחֲנִ֣ית וּבְכִיד֑וֹן וְאָנֹכִ֣י בָֽא־אֵלֶ֗יךָ בְּשֵׁם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֛י מַעַרְכ֥וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר חֵרַֽפְתָּ׃‬ And David said to the Philistine, “You come to me with your sword and your spear and with your javelin, but I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the ranks of Israel, whom you have defied. but: adversative use of the vav.
1 Sam 17:46 ‫הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֡ה יְסַגֶּרְךָ֩ יְהוָ֨ה בְּיָדִ֜י וְהִכִּיתִ֗ךָ וַהֲסִרֹתִ֤י אֶת־רֹֽאשְׁךָ֙ מֵעָלֶ֔יךָ וְנָ֨תַתִּ֜י פֶּ֣גֶר מַחֲנֵ֤ה פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה לְע֥וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וּלְחַיַּ֣ת הָאָ֑רֶץ וְיֵֽדְעוּ֙ כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ כִּ֛י יֵ֥שׁ אֱלֹהִ֖ים לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ This day the Lord will deliver you up into my hand, and I will strike you down, and I will remove your head from you, and I will give the corpses of the Philistines' camp this day to the birds of the sky and to the wild animals of the land, and all the land will know that Israel has a God. corpses ← corpse. Collective usage. Many Philistines are killed in 1 Sam 17:52.

land (2x): or earth.
1 Sam 17:47 ‫וְיֵֽדְעוּ֙ כָּל־הַקָּהָ֣ל הַזֶּ֔ה כִּֽי־לֹ֛א בְּחֶ֥רֶב וּבַחֲנִ֖ית יְהוֹשִׁ֣יעַ יְהוָ֑ה כִּ֤י לַֽיהוָה֙ הַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְנָתַ֥ן אֶתְכֶ֖ם בְּיָדֵֽנוּ׃‬ And this whole convocation will know that it is not by sword or by spear that the Lord saves, for the battle is the Lord's, and he will deliver you into our hands.”
1 Sam 17:48 ‫וְהָיָה֙ כִּֽי־קָ֣ם הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ וַיִּקְרַ֖ב לִקְרַ֣את דָּוִ֑ד וַיְמַהֵ֣ר דָּוִ֔ד וַיָּ֥רָץ הַמַּעֲרָכָ֖ה לִקְרַ֥את הַפְּלִשְׁתִּֽי׃‬ And it came to pass that the Philistine arose and walked and approached David, and David hastened and ran to the ranks towards the Philistine. approached ← approached towards.
1 Sam 17:49 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶת־יָד֜וֹ אֶל־הַכֶּ֗לִי וַיִּקַּ֨ח מִשָּׁ֥ם אֶ֙בֶן֙ וַיְקַלַּ֔ע וַיַּ֥ךְ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י אֶל־מִצְח֑וֹ וַתִּטְבַּ֤ע הָאֶ֙בֶן֙ בְּמִצְח֔וֹ וַיִּפֹּ֥ל עַל־פָּנָ֖יו אָֽרְצָה׃‬ And David put his hand in his bag and took a stone from there, and he slung it, and he struck the Philistine on his forehead, and the stone penetrated into his forehead, and he fell to the ground face down. bag ← vessel; equipment.

face down ← on his face.
1 Sam 17:50 ‫וַיֶּחֱזַ֨ק דָּוִ֤ד מִן־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי֙ בַּקֶּ֣לַע וּבָאֶ֔בֶן וַיַּ֥ךְ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י וַיְמִיתֵ֑הוּ וְחֶ֖רֶב אֵ֥ין בְּיַד־דָּוִֽד׃‬ So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and a stone, and he struck the Philistine and killed him, while there was no sword in David's hand.
1 Sam 17:51 ‫וַיָּ֣רָץ דָּ֠וִד וַיַּעֲמֹ֨ד אֶל־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֜י וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־חַ֠רְבּוֹ וַֽיִּשְׁלְפָ֤הּ מִתַּעְרָהּ֙ וַיְמֹ֣תְתֵ֔הוּ וַיִּכְרָת־בָּ֖הּ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיִּרְא֧וּ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֛ים כִּֽי־מֵ֥ת גִּבּוֹרָ֖ם וַיָּנֻֽסוּ׃‬ Then David ran and stood over the Philistine, and he took his sword and drew it out of its sheath and killed him, and he cut his head off with it. And the Philistines saw that their hero was dead, and they fled.
1 Sam 17:52 ‫וַיָּקֻ֣מוּ אַנְשֵׁי֩ יִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל וִיהוּדָ֜ה וַיָּרִ֗עוּ וַֽיִּרְדְּפוּ֙ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים עַד־בּוֹאֲךָ֣ גַ֔יְא וְעַ֖ד שַׁעֲרֵ֣י עֶקְר֑וֹן וַֽיִּפְּל֞וּ חַֽלְלֵ֤י פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ שַׁעֲרַ֔יִם וְעַד־גַּ֖ת וְעַד־עֶקְרֽוֹן׃‬ Then the men of Israel and Judah rose up and shouted and pursued the Philistines to where you come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the Philistines' casualties fell along the way to Shaaraim and to Gath and to Ekron.
1 Sam 17:53 ‫וַיָּשֻׁ֙בוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִדְּלֹ֖ק אַחֲרֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיָּשֹׁ֖סּוּ אֶת־מַחֲנֵיהֶֽם׃‬ Then the sons of Israel returned from ardently pursuing the Philistines, and they pillaged their camps. ardently pursuing ← burning after.
1 Sam 17:54 ‫וַיִּקַּ֤ח דָּוִד֙ אֶת־רֹ֣אשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י וַיְבִאֵ֖הוּ יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְאֶת־כֵּלָ֖יו שָׂ֥ם בְּאָהֳלֽוֹ׃ ס‬ And David took the Philistine's head, and he brought it to Jerusalem, and he put his equipment in his tent.
1 Sam 17:55 ‫וְכִרְא֨וֹת שָׁא֜וּל אֶת־דָּוִ֗ד יֹצֵא֙ לִקְרַ֣את הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י אָמַ֗ר אֶל־אַבְנֵר֙ שַׂ֣ר הַצָּבָ֔א בֶּן־מִי־זֶ֥ה הַנַּ֖עַר אַבְנֵ֑ר וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אַבְנֵ֔ר חֵֽי־נַפְשְׁךָ֥ הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אִם־יָדָֽעְתִּי׃‬ And when Saul saw David coming out against the Philistine, he said to Abner the commander of the army, “Whose son is this young man, Abner?” And Abner said, “I swear by your own life, O king, I do not know.” life ← soul.

I do not know ← if I know, standing for if I know, may God do this to me. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35. In colloquial English: I'll be damned if I know.
1 Sam 17:56 ‫וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ שְׁאַ֣ל אַתָּ֔ה בֶּן־מִי־זֶ֖ה הָעָֽלֶם׃ ס‬ And the king said, “You ask whose son the lad is.” whose ← of this whom, taking the demonstrative adjective with the interrogative pronoun.
1 Sam 17:57 ‫וּכְשׁ֣וּב דָּוִ֗ד מֵֽהַכּוֹת֙ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י וַיִּקַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ אַבְנֵ֔ר וַיְבִאֵ֖הוּ לִפְנֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וְרֹ֥אשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י בְּיָדֽוֹ׃‬ Then when David returned from striking the Philistine, Abner took him and brought him before Saul, with the Philistine's head in his hand.
1 Sam 17:58 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ שָׁא֔וּל בֶּן־מִ֥י אַתָּ֖ה הַנָּ֑עַר וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד בֶּֽן־עַבְדְּךָ֥ יִשַׁ֖י בֵּ֥ית הַלַּחְמִֽי׃‬ And Saul said to him, “Whose son are you, young man?” And David said, “The son of your servant Jesse the Bethlehemite.” Bethlehemite: see Gen 35:19.
1 Sam 18:1 ‫וַיְהִ֗י כְּכַלֹּתוֹ֙ לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וְנֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן נִקְשְׁרָ֖ה בְּנֶ֣פֶשׁ דָּוִ֑ד *ויאהבו **וַיֶּאֱהָבֵ֥הוּ יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן כְּנַפְשֽׁוֹ׃‬ And it came to pass when he had finished speaking to Saul that Jonathan's deepest feelings were bound to David's deepest feelings, and Jonathan loved him as his own self. loved him: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

deepest feelings (2x)soul.

self ← soul.
1 Sam 18:2 ‫וַיִּקָּחֵ֥הוּ שָׁא֖וּל בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וְלֹ֣א נְתָנ֔וֹ לָשׁ֖וּב בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיו׃‬ And Saul took him on that day, and he did not let him return to his father's house. him: David, presumably.
1 Sam 18:3 ‫וַיִּכְרֹ֧ת יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן וְדָוִ֖ד בְּרִ֑ית בְּאַהֲבָת֥וֹ אֹת֖וֹ כְּנַפְשֽׁוֹ׃‬ Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own self. self ← soul.
1 Sam 18:4 ‫וַיִּתְפַּשֵּׁ֣ט יְהוֹנָתָ֗ן אֶֽת־הַמְּעִיל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָלָ֔יו וַֽיִּתְּנֵ֖הוּ לְדָוִ֑ד וּמַדָּ֕יו וְעַד־חַרְבּ֥וֹ וְעַד־קַשְׁתּ֖וֹ וְעַד־חֲגֹרֽוֹ׃‬ And Jonathan took off his coat which was on him, and he gave it to David, and his livery, and even his sword and even his bow and even his girdle. even (3x)up to.
1 Sam 18:5 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֨א דָוִ֜ד בְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁלָחֶ֤נּוּ שָׁאוּל֙ יַשְׂכִּ֔יל וַיְשִׂמֵ֣הוּ שָׁא֔וּל עַ֖ל אַנְשֵׁ֣י הַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וַיִּיטַב֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י כָל־הָעָ֔ם וְגַ֕ם בְּעֵינֵ֖י עַבְדֵ֥י שָׁאֽוּל׃ פ‬ And David went out to everywhere that Saul sent him, and he acted prudently. And Saul appointed him over the warriors, and he was popular with all the people, and also with Saul's servants. was popular with ... also with ← was good in the eyes of ... also in the eyes of.
1 Sam 18:6 ‫וַיְהִ֣י בְּבוֹאָ֗ם בְּשׁ֤וּב דָּוִד֙ מֵהַכּ֣וֹת אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔י וַתֵּצֶ֨אנָה הַנָּשִׁ֜ים מִכָּל־עָרֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ *לשור **לָשִׁ֣יר וְהַמְּחֹל֔וֹת לִקְרַ֖את שָׁא֣וּל הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ בְּתֻפִּ֥ים בְּשִׂמְחָ֖ה וּבְשָׁלִשִֽׁים׃‬ And it came to pass, as they were coming in when David was returning from striking the Philistine, that the women came out from all the cities of Israel to sing, and with dancing, converging on Saul the king, with drums and rejoicing and triangles. to sing: the ketiv and qeré are different spellings of the same word.

Philistine: perhaps standing for Philistines, gentilic nouns often using the singular for the plural, and see the next verse.

triangles: or three stringed harps.
1 Sam 18:7 ‫וַֽתַּעֲנֶ֛ינָה הַנָּשִׁ֥ים הַֽמְשַׂחֲק֖וֹת וַתֹּאמַ֑רְןָ הִכָּ֤ה שָׁאוּל֙ *באלפו **בַּאֲלָפָ֔יו וְדָוִ֖ד בְּרִבְבֹתָֽיו׃‬ And the women who played sang in turns and said,

“Saul has struck down his {Q: thousands} [K: thousand],

But David his tens of thousands.”

The ketiv could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré. See 1 Sam 21:12 (1 Sam 21:11AV).
1 Sam 18:8 ‫וַיִּ֨חַר לְשָׁא֜וּל מְאֹ֗ד וַיֵּ֤רַע בְּעֵינָיו֙ הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר נָתְנ֤וּ לְדָוִד֙ רְבָב֔וֹת וְלִ֥י נָתְנ֖וּ הָאֲלָפִ֑ים וְע֥וֹד ל֖וֹ אַ֥ךְ הַמְּלוּכָֽה׃‬ And Saul became very angry, and this matter displeased him, and he said, “They have credited David with tens of thousands, whereas they have only credited me with thousands. And what more will he have but the kingdom?” displeased him ← was bad in his eyes.

whereas: wider use of the vav.
1 Sam 18:9 ‫וַיְהִ֥י שָׁא֖וּל *עון **עוֹיֵ֣ן אֶת־דָּוִ֑ד מֵהַיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וָהָֽלְאָה׃ ס‬ And Saul {Q: viewed David with envy} [K: viewed David malevolently] from that day on. We have taken the ketiv as from root עוה, giving עָוֹן, literally (was) with David iniquity. The qeré is from the denominative verb עין.

malevolently: or iniquitously.
1 Sam 18:10 ‫וַיְהִ֣י מִֽמָּחֳרָ֗ת וַתִּצְלַ֣ח רוּחַ֩ אֱלֹהִ֨ים ׀ רָעָ֤ה ׀ אֶל־שָׁאוּל֙ וַיִּתְנַבֵּ֣א בְתוֹךְ־הַבַּ֔יִת וְדָוִ֛ד מְנַגֵּ֥ן בְּיָד֖וֹ כְּי֣וֹם ׀ בְּי֑וֹם וְהַחֲנִ֖ית בְּיַד־שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ And it came to pass on the next day that an evil spirit from God came on Saul, and he prophesied inside the house, while David was playing music plucking with his hand, as on other days, and there was a spear in Saul's hand. as on other days ← as day on day.

a spear ← the spear. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
1 Sam 18:11 ‫וַיָּ֤טֶל שָׁאוּל֙ אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֔ית וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אַכֶּ֥ה בְדָוִ֖ד וּבַקִּ֑יר וַיִּסֹּ֥ב דָּוִ֛ד מִפָּנָ֖יו פַּעֲמָֽיִם׃‬ And Saul threw the spear and said, “I will strike David down against the wall.” But David dodged him twice. dodged him ← turned from his presence.
1 Sam 18:12 ‫וַיִּרָ֥א שָׁא֖וּל מִלִּפְנֵ֣י דָוִ֑ד כִּֽי־הָיָ֤ה יְהוָה֙ עִמּ֔וֹ וּמֵעִ֥ם שָׁא֖וּל סָֽר׃‬ And Saul feared David, for the Lord was with him, but from Saul he had departed. but: adversative use of the vav.
1 Sam 18:13 ‫וַיְסִרֵ֤הוּ שָׁאוּל֙ מֵֽעִמּ֔וֹ וַיְשִׂמֵ֥הוּ ל֖וֹ שַׂר־אָ֑לֶף וַיֵּצֵ֥א וַיָּבֹ֖א לִפְנֵ֥י הָעָֽם׃ פ‬ Then Saul removed him from his presence, and he appointed him as his commander of a thousand, and he went out and came before the people. from his presence ← from with him.
1 Sam 18:14 ‫וַיְהִ֥י דָוִ֛ד לְכָל־דָּרְכָ֖ו מַשְׂכִּ֑יל וַֽיהוָ֖ה עִמּֽוֹ׃‬ And David was prudent in all his ways, and the Lord was with him. ways: the consonantal text reads way, but perhaps this can be considered a scriptio defectiva spelling of ways. Compare Ex 27:11, Josh 16:3.
1 Sam 18:15 ‫וַיַּ֣רְא שָׁא֔וּל אֲשֶׁר־ה֖וּא מַשְׂכִּ֣יל מְאֹ֑ד וַיָּ֖גָר מִפָּנָֽיו׃‬ And Saul saw that he was very prudent, and he was afraid of him.
1 Sam 18:16 ‫וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וִיהוּדָ֔ה אֹהֵ֖ב אֶת־דָּוִ֑ד כִּֽי־ה֛וּא יוֹצֵ֥א וָבָ֖א לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃ פ‬ And all Israel and Judah loved David, for he went out and came in in their presence. he went out and came in: i.e. went about his day-to-day affairs.
1 Sam 18:17 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד הִנֵּה֩ בִתִּ֨י הַגְּדוֹלָ֤ה מֵרַב֙ אֹתָהּ֙ אֶתֶּן־לְךָ֣ לְאִשָּׁ֔ה אַ֚ךְ הֱיֵה־לִּ֣י לְבֶן־חַ֔יִל וְהִלָּחֵ֖ם מִלְחֲמ֣וֹת יְהוָ֑ה וְשָׁא֣וּל אָמַ֗ר אַל־תְּהִ֤י יָדִי֙ בּ֔וֹ וּתְהִי־ב֖וֹ יַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃ ס‬ And Saul said to David, “Here is my elder daughter Merab. I will give her to you as a wife, but be a warrior to me and fight the Lord's wars.” And Saul said to himself, “Don't let my hand be on him, but let the hand of the Philistines be on him.” here isbehold.

elder: or eldest, but only two daughters are mentioned.

warrior ← son of valour.

but (second occurrence in verse): adversative use of the vav.
1 Sam 18:18 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־שָׁא֗וּל מִ֤י אָֽנֹכִי֙ וּמִ֣י חַיַּ֔י מִשְׁפַּ֥חַת אָבִ֖י בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּֽי־אֶהְיֶ֥ה חָתָ֖ן לַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ Then David said to Saul, “Who am I, and what is my life, or my father's family in Israel, that I should be the king's son-in-law?”
1 Sam 18:19 ‫וַיְהִ֗י בְּעֵ֥ת תֵּ֛ת אֶת־מֵרַ֥ב בַּת־שָׁא֖וּל לְדָוִ֑ד וְהִ֧יא נִתְּנָ֛ה לְעַדְרִיאֵ֥ל הַמְּחֹלָתִ֖י לְאִשָּֽׁה׃‬ But it came to pass, at the time when Merab Saul's daughter was to be given to David, that she was given to Adriel the Meholathite as a wife. was to be given ← to give.
1 Sam 18:20 ‫וַתֶּאֱהַ֛ב מִיכַ֥ל בַּת־שָׁא֖וּל אֶת־דָּוִ֑ד וַיַּגִּ֣דוּ לְשָׁא֔וּל וַיִּשַׁ֥ר הַדָּבָ֖ר בְּעֵינָֽיו׃‬ But Michal, Saul's daughter, loved David, and they told Saul, and he approved of the matter. he approved of the matter ← it was right in his eyes.
1 Sam 18:21 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶתְּנֶ֤נָּה לּוֹ֙ וּתְהִי־ל֣וֹ לְמוֹקֵ֔שׁ וּתְהִי־ב֖וֹ יַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד בִּשְׁתַּ֛יִם תִּתְחַתֵּ֥ן בִּ֖י הַיּֽוֹם׃‬ And Saul said, “I will give her to him, and she will be a snare to him, and the hand of the Philistines will be on him.” And Saul said to David, “Make it so that I am a father-in-law through both daughters today.” David is asked to marry the second daughter, so that Saul is a father-in-law through both.
1 Sam 18:22 ‫וַיְצַ֨ו שָׁא֜וּל אֶת־עֲבָדָ֗ו דַּבְּר֨וּ אֶל־דָּוִ֤ד בַּלָּט֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִנֵּ֨ה חָפֵ֤ץ בְּךָ֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְכָל־עֲבָדָ֖יו אֲהֵב֑וּךָ וְעַתָּ֖ה הִתְחַתֵּ֥ן בַּמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Saul commanded his servants and said, “Speak to David secretly and say, ‘It is apparent that the king is pleased with you. And all his servants like you, so now, marry into the king's family.’ ” his servants: the consonantal text reads his servant, but it is followed by a plural verb. Compare 1 Sam 18:4.

it is apparent that ← behold.
1 Sam 18:23 ‫וַֽיְדַבְּר֞וּ עַבְדֵ֤י שָׁאוּל֙ בְּאָזְנֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֗ד הַֽנְקַלָּ֤ה בְעֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ הִתְחַתֵּ֣ן בַּמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְאָנֹכִ֖י אִֽישׁ־רָ֥שׁ וְנִקְלֶֽה׃‬ So Saul's servants spoke these words to David privately, to which David said, “Is it a light matter in your sight to marry into the king's family, seeing I am a poor and insignificant man?” to David privately ← in David's ears.

seeing: wider use of the vav.
1 Sam 18:24 ‫וַיַּגִּ֜דוּ עַבְדֵ֥י שָׁא֛וּל ל֖וֹ לֵאמֹ֑ר כַּדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה דִּבֶּ֥ר דָּוִֽד׃ פ‬ And Saul's servants reported back to him and said, “David said such and such.” such and such ← according to these things / words.
1 Sam 18:25 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל כֹּֽה־תֹאמְר֣וּ לְדָוִ֗ד אֵֽין־חֵ֤פֶץ לַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ בְּמֹ֔הַר כִּ֗י בְּמֵאָה֙ עָרְל֣וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים לְהִנָּקֵ֖ם בְּאֹיְבֵ֣י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְשָׁא֣וּל חָשַׁ֔ב לְהַפִּ֥יל אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ Then Saul said, “This is what you will say to David: ‘The king has no wish for a dowry, but rather for one hundred foreskins of the Philistines, so as to be avenged on the king's enemies.’ ” But Saul intended to cause David to fall at the hand of the Philistines. this ← thus.

intended ← thought.
1 Sam 18:26 ‫וַיַּגִּ֨דוּ עֲבָדָ֤יו לְדָוִד֙ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וַיִּשַׁ֤ר הַדָּבָר֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד לְהִתְחַתֵּ֖ן בַּמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְלֹ֥א מָלְא֖וּ הַיָּמִֽים׃‬ And his servants told David these things, and David approved of the matter, to marry into the king's family. And before the days were completed, David approved of the matter ← the matter was right in David's eyes.

before ... were completed ← while ... were not completed.
1 Sam 18:27 ‫וַיָּ֨קָם דָּוִ֜ד וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ ׀ ה֣וּא וַאֲנָשָׁ֗יו וַיַּ֣ךְ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים֮ מָאתַ֣יִם אִישׁ֒ וַיָּבֵ֤א דָוִד֙ אֶת־עָרְלֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם וַיְמַלְא֣וּם לַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לְהִתְחַתֵּ֖ן בַּמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיִּתֶּן־ל֥וֹ שָׁא֛וּל אֶת־מִיכַ֥ל בִּתּ֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃ ס‬ David arose and set off, he and his men, and he struck two hundred men of the Philistines down, and David brought their foreskins, and they presented them to the king for him to marry into the king's family. Then Saul gave him Michal his daughter to be his wife. presented ← fulfilled, or consecrated.
1 Sam 18:28 ‫וַיַּ֤רְא שָׁאוּל֙ וַיֵּ֔דַע כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה עִם־דָּוִ֑ד וּמִיכַ֥ל בַּת־שָׁא֖וּל אֲהֵבַֽתְהוּ׃‬ And Saul saw and knew that the Lord was with David, and that Michal, Saul's daughter, loved him.
1 Sam 18:29 ‫וַיֹּ֣אסֶף שָׁא֗וּל לֵרֹ֛א מִפְּנֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד ע֑וֹד וַיְהִ֥י שָׁא֛וּל אֹיֵ֥ב אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃ ס‬ And Saul became even more afraid of David, and Saul became more hostile to David day by day. day by day ← all the days.
1 Sam 18:30 ‫וַיֵּצְא֖וּ שָׂרֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיְהִ֣י ׀ מִדֵּ֣י צֵאתָ֗ם שָׂכַ֤ל דָּוִד֙ מִכֹּל֙ עַבְדֵ֣י שָׁא֔וּל וַיִּיקַ֥ר שְׁמ֖וֹ מְאֹֽד׃ ס‬ Then the commanders of the Philistines came out, and it came to pass that whenever they came out, David was more prudent than any of Saul's servants, and he was greatly esteemed. any ← all.

he ← his name.
1 Sam 19:1 ‫וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר שָׁא֗וּל אֶל־יוֹנָתָ֤ן בְּנוֹ֙ וְאֶל־כָּל־עֲבָדָ֔יו לְהָמִ֖ית אֶת־דָּוִ֑ד וִיהֽוֹנָתָן֙ בֶּן־שָׁא֔וּל חָפֵ֥ץ בְּדָוִ֖ד מְאֹֽד׃‬ And Saul spoke to Jonathan his son and to all the servants about how to kill David, ¶ but Jonathan Saul's son liked David very much. ¶ Verse division: the AV has part of this verse in 1 Sam 19:2.
1 Sam 19:2 ‫וַיַּגֵּ֤ד יְהוֹנָתָן֙ לְדָוִ֣ד לֵאמֹ֔ר מְבַקֵּ֛שׁ שָׁא֥וּל אָבִ֖י לַהֲמִיתֶ֑ךָ וְעַתָּה֙ הִשָּֽׁמֶר־נָ֣א בַבֹּ֔קֶר וְיָשַׁבְתָּ֥ בַסֵּ֖תֶר וְנַחְבֵּֽאתָ׃‬ And Jonathan spoke to David and said, “Saul my father is looking for a way to kill you, so now, please, beware in the morning, and live in a secret place and hide. Verse division: the AV has part of 1 Sam 19:1 in this verse.
1 Sam 19:3 ‫וַאֲנִ֨י אֵצֵ֜א וְעָמַדְתִּ֣י לְיַד־אָבִ֗י בַּשָּׂדֶה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתָּ֣ה שָׁ֔ם וַאֲנִ֕י אֲדַבֵּ֥ר בְּךָ֖ אֶל־אָבִ֑י וְרָאִ֥יתִי מָ֖ה וְהִגַּ֥דְתִּי לָֽךְ׃ ס‬ Meanwhile I will go out and stand at my father's side in the field where you are, and I will speak about you to my father, and I will see what happens, and I will tell you.” meanwhile: wider use of the vav.
1 Sam 19:4 ‫וַיְדַבֵּ֨ר יְהוֹנָתָ֤ן בְּדָוִד֙ ט֔וֹב אֶל־שָׁא֖וּל אָבִ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵ֠לָיו אַל־יֶחֱטָ֨א הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ בְּעַבְדּ֣וֹ בְדָוִ֗ד כִּ֣י ל֤וֹא חָטָא֙ לָ֔ךְ וְכִ֥י מַעֲשָׂ֖יו טוֹב־לְךָ֥ מְאֹֽד׃‬ And Jonathan spoke well of David to Saul his father, and he said to him, “Let the king not sin against his servant David, for he has not sinned against you, and because his deeds have been very good for you,
1 Sam 19:5 ‫וַיָּשֶׂם֩ אֶת־נַפְשׁ֨וֹ בְכַפּ֜וֹ וַיַּ֣ךְ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֗י וַיַּ֨עַשׂ יְהוָ֜ה תְּשׁוּעָ֤ה גְדוֹלָה֙ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל רָאִ֖יתָ וַתִּשְׂמָ֑ח וְלָ֤מָּה תֶֽחֱטָא֙ בְּדָ֣ם נָקִ֔י לְהָמִ֥ית אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד חִנָּֽם׃‬ and he put his life in his hand and struck the Philistines, and the Lord performed a great act of salvation for all Israel. You saw it and rejoiced, so why should you sin against innocent blood in killing David gratuitously?” life ← soul. David risked his life.

in killing: gerundial use of the infinitive.
1 Sam 19:6 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע שָׁא֖וּל בְּק֣וֹל יְהוֹנָתָ֑ן וַיִּשָּׁבַ֣ע שָׁא֔וּל חַי־יְהוָ֖ה אִם־יוּמָֽת׃‬ And Saul heeded Jonathan, and Saul swore, “As the Lord lives, he will certainly not be put to death.” heeded ← heard the voice of.

he will certainly not be put to death: standing for if he is ... may God do this to me. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
1 Sam 19:7 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֤א יְהוֹנָתָן֙ לְדָוִ֔ד וַיַּגֶּד־לוֹ֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיָּבֵ֨א יְהוֹנָתָ֤ן אֶת־דָּוִד֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וַיְהִ֥י לְפָנָ֖יו כְּאֶתְמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֽׁוֹם׃ ס‬ Then Jonathan called for David, and Jonathan told him all these things, and Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he would be in his presence as previously. previously ← as yesterday (and) the day before yesterday.
1 Sam 19:8 ‫וַתּ֥וֹסֶף הַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה לִֽהְי֑וֹת וַיֵּצֵ֨א דָוִ֜ד וַיִּלָּ֣חֶם בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיַּ֤ךְ בָּהֶם֙ מַכָּ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֔ה וַיָּנֻ֖סוּ מִפָּנָֽיו׃‬ And there was war again, and David went out and fought the Philistines, and he dealt them a severe blow, and they fled from his presence. dealt ← struck.
1 Sam 19:9 ‫וַתְּהִי֩ ר֨וּחַ יְהוָ֤ה ׀ רָעָה֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וְהוּא֙ בְּבֵית֣וֹ יוֹשֵׁ֔ב וַחֲנִית֖וֹ בְּיָד֑וֹ וְדָוִ֖ד מְנַגֵּ֥ן בְּיָֽד׃‬ Then an evil spirit from the Lord came on Saul, when he was sitting at home with his spear in his hand, and David was playing music, plucking with his hand, came ← became.
1 Sam 19:10 ‫וַיְבַקֵּ֨שׁ שָׁא֜וּל לְהַכּ֤וֹת בַּֽחֲנִית֙ בְּדָוִ֣ד וּבַקִּ֔יר וַיִּפְטַר֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י שָׁא֔וּל וַיַּ֥ךְ אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֖ית בַּקִּ֑יר וְדָוִ֛ד נָ֥ס וַיִּמָּלֵ֖ט בַּלַּ֥יְלָה הֽוּא׃ פ‬ and Saul tried to strike David against the wall with the spear, but he evaded Saul, who struck the spear into the wall. And David fled and escaped that night. tried ← sought.

evaded ← burst out / let escape + from the face of. Not the same word as dodged in 1 Sam 18:11.
1 Sam 19:11 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ שָׁא֨וּל מַלְאָכִ֜ים אֶל־בֵּ֤ית דָּוִד֙ לְשָׁמְר֔וֹ וְלַהֲמִית֖וֹ בַּבֹּ֑קֶר וַתַּגֵּ֣ד לְדָוִ֗ד מִיכַ֤ל אִשְׁתּוֹ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אִם־אֵ֨ינְךָ֜ מְמַלֵּ֤ט אֶֽת־נַפְשְׁךָ֙ הַלַּ֔יְלָה מָחָ֖ר אַתָּ֥ה מוּמָֽת׃‬ Then Saul sent agents to David's house, to watch him and to kill him in the morning, but Michal his wife told David and said, “If you do not save yourself tonight, you will be put to death tomorrow.” agents: or messengers.

yourself ← your soul.
1 Sam 19:12 ‫וַתֹּ֧רֶד מִיכַ֛ל אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד בְּעַ֣ד הַחַלּ֑וֹן וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ וַיִּבְרַ֖ח וַיִּמָּלֵֽט׃‬ And Michal lowered David through a window, and he departed and fled and escaped. a window ← the window.
1 Sam 19:13 ‫וַתִּקַּ֨ח מִיכַ֜ל אֶת־הַתְּרָפִ֗ים וַתָּ֙שֶׂם֙ אֶל־הַמִּטָּ֔ה וְאֵת֙ כְּבִ֣יר הָֽעִזִּ֔ים שָׂ֖מָה מְרַֽאֲשֹׁתָ֑יו וַתְּכַ֖ס בַּבָּֽגֶד׃ ס‬ And Michal took the amulets and put them on the bed, and she put the goat's hair pillow at his head-end and covered it with a garment. amulets: see Gen 31:19. In Gen 31:34, they are small, in the saddle, but here they may include something approaching a life-size statue.
1 Sam 19:14 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח שָׁא֛וּל מַלְאָכִ֖ים לָקַ֣חַת אֶת־דָּוִ֑ד וַתֹּ֖אמֶר חֹלֶ֥ה הֽוּא׃ פ‬ Now Saul had sent agents to seize David, and she said, “He is ill.” agents: or messengers.
1 Sam 19:15 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־הַמַּלְאָכִ֔ים לִרְא֥וֹת אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד לֵאמֹ֑ר הַעֲל֨וּ אֹת֧וֹ בַמִּטָּ֛ה אֵלַ֖י לַהֲמִתֽוֹ׃‬ Then Saul sent agents to watch David, and he said, “Bring him up to me in the bed, so that I can kill him.” agents: or messengers.
1 Sam 19:16 ‫וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ הַמַּלְאָכִ֔ים וְהִנֵּ֥ה הַתְּרָפִ֖ים אֶל־הַמִּטָּ֑ה וּכְבִ֥יר הָעִזִּ֖ים מְרַאֲשֹׁתָֽיו׃‬ When the agents came, what they saw was the amulets on the bed and the goat's hair pillow at his head-end. what they saw wasbehold.

amulets: see Gen 31:19 and 1 Sam 19:13.
1 Sam 19:17 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶל־מִיכַ֗ל לָ֤מָּה כָּ֙כָה֙ רִמִּיתִ֔נִי וַתְּשַׁלְּחִ֥י אֶת־אֹיְבִ֖י וַיִּמָּלֵ֑ט וַתֹּ֤אמֶר מִיכַל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל הוּא־אָמַ֥ר אֵלַ֛י שַׁלְּחִ֖נִי לָמָ֥ה אֲמִיתֵֽךְ׃‬ Then Saul said to Michal, “Why have you deceived me like this and let my enemy go, so he has escaped?” And Michal said to Saul, “He said to me, ‘Let me go. Why should I kill you?’ ”
1 Sam 19:18 ‫וְדָוִ֨ד בָּרַ֜ח וַיִּמָּלֵ֗ט וַיָּבֹ֤א אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל֙ הָרָמָ֔תָה וַיַּ֨גֶּד־ל֔וֹ אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָֽשָׂה־ל֖וֹ שָׁא֑וּל וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ הוּא֙ וּשְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיֵּשְׁב֖וּ *בנוית **בְּנָֽיוֹת׃‬ So David fled and escaped, and he went to Samuel in Ramah, and he told him everything that Saul had done to him. Then he and Samuel departed and stayed in {Q: Naioth} [K: Novith]. The ketiv has a vav + yod where the qeré has yod + vav. Interchange of these (similar) letters is a common reason for a qeré reading.
1 Sam 19:19 ‫וַיֻּגַּ֥ד לְשָׁא֖וּל לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֣ה דָוִ֔ד *בנוית **בְּנָי֖וֹת בָּרָמָֽה׃‬ And it was reported to Saul as follows: “Look, David is in {Q: Naioth} [K: Novith] in Ramah.” On the ketiv and qeré, see 1 Sam 19:18.

as follows ← to say, or more loosely, saying.
1 Sam 19:20 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח שָׁא֣וּל מַלְאָכִים֮ לָקַ֣חַת אֶת־דָּוִד֒ וַיַּ֗רְא אֶֽת־לַהֲקַ֤ת הַנְּבִיאִים֙ נִבְּאִ֔ים וּשְׁמוּאֵ֕ל עֹמֵ֥ד נִצָּ֖ב עֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וַתְּהִ֞י עַֽל־מַלְאֲכֵ֤י שָׁאוּל֙ ר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיִּֽתְנַבְּא֖וּ גַּם־הֵֽמָּה׃‬ Then Saul sent agents to seize David, and they saw the company of prophets prophesying, with Samuel standing by, having been appointed over them, and the spirit of God came on Saul's agents, and they also prophesied. they saw ← he / it saw.

came ← became.
1 Sam 19:21 ‫וַיַּגִּ֣דוּ לְשָׁא֗וּל וַיִּשְׁלַח֙ מַלְאָכִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וַיִּֽתְנַבְּא֖וּ גַּם־הֵ֑מָּה וַיֹּ֣סֶף שָׁא֗וּל וַיִּשְׁלַח֙ מַלְאָכִ֣ים שְׁלִשִׁ֔ים וַיִּֽתְנַבְּא֖וּ גַּם־הֵֽמָּה׃‬ And they reported this to Saul, and he sent other agents, but they also prophesied. So Saul sent agents again – a third group – but they also prophesied.
1 Sam 19:22 ‫וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ גַּם־ה֜וּא הָרָמָ֗תָה וַיָּבֹא֙ עַד־בּ֤וֹר הַגָּדוֹל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּשֶּׂ֔כוּ וַיִּשְׁאַ֣ל וַיֹּ֔אמֶר אֵיפֹ֥ה שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל וְדָוִ֑ד וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּ֖ה *בנוית **בְּנָי֥וֹת בָּרָמָֽה׃‬ Then he also went to Ramah, and he came to the big cistern which is in Sechu, and he inquired and asked, “Where are Samuel and David?” And the person said, “He is in {Q: Naioth} [K: Novith] in Ramah.” On the ketiv and qeré, see 1 Sam 19:18.

asked ← said.

he isbehold. In a modern idiom one could translate for your information, he is ....
1 Sam 19:23 ‫וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ שָׁ֔ם אֶל־*נוית **נָי֖וֹת בָּרָמָ֑ה וַתְּהִי֩ עָלָ֨יו גַּם־ה֜וּא ר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֗ים וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ הָלוֹךְ֙ וַיִּתְנַבֵּ֔א עַד־בֹּא֖וֹ *בנוית **בְּנָי֥וֹת בָּרָמָֽה׃‬ So he went there, to {Q: Naioth} [K: Novith] in Ramah, and the spirit of God came on him too, and he prophesied as he went, until he came to {Q: Naioth} [K: Novith] in Ramah. On the ketiv and qeré, see 1 Sam 19:18.

as he went: with an infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 19:24 ‫וַיִּפְשַׁ֨ט גַּם־ה֜וּא בְּגָדָ֗יו וַיִּתְנַבֵּ֤א גַם־הוּא֙ לִפְנֵ֣י שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיִּפֹּ֣ל עָרֹ֔ם כָּל־הַיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וְכָל־הַלָּ֑יְלָה עַל־כֵּן֙ יֹֽאמְר֔וּ הֲגַ֥ם שָׁא֖וּל בַּנְּבִיאִֽם׃ פ‬ And he too took his clothes off, and he too prophesied before Samuel, and he lay naked all that day and all night. This is why they say, “Is Saul also among the prophets.”
1 Sam 20:1 ‫וַיִּבְרַ֣ח דָּוִ֔ד *מנוות **מִנָּי֖וֹת בָּרָמָ֑ה וַיָּבֹ֞א וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוֹנָתָ֗ן מֶ֤ה עָשִׂ֙יתִי֙ מֶֽה־עֲוֺנִ֤י וּמֶֽה־חַטָּאתִי֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ כִּ֥י מְבַקֵּ֖שׁ אֶת־נַפְשִֽׁי׃‬ Then David fled from {Q: Naioth} [K: Novith] in Ramah, and he came and said in Jonathan's presence, “What have I done and what is my iniquity and what is my sin before your father that he should seek my life?” On the ketiv and qeré, see 1 Sam 19:18.

life ← soul.
1 Sam 20:2 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר ל֣וֹ חָלִילָה֮ לֹ֣א תָמוּת֒ הִנֵּ֡ה *לו־*עשה **לֹֽא־**יַעֲשֶׂ֨ה אָבִ֜י דָּבָ֣ר גָּד֗וֹל א֚וֹ דָּבָ֣ר קָטֹ֔ן וְלֹ֥א יִגְלֶ֖ה אֶת־אָזְנִ֑י וּמַדּוּעַ֩ יַסְתִּ֨יר אָבִ֥י מִמֶּ֛נִּי אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה אֵ֥ין זֹֽאת׃‬ And he said to him, “Far be it – you will not die. Look, my father {Q: will not do anything} [K: did for himself a thing] great or small without informing me, and why should my father hide this matter from me? It is not the case.” On the ketiv, see Ex 21:8.

without informing me ← and will not uncover my ear.

it ← this.
1 Sam 20:3 ‫וַיִּשָּׁבַ֨ע ע֜וֹד דָּוִ֗ד וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יָדֹ֨עַ יָדַ֜ע אָבִ֗יךָ כִּֽי־מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ וַיֹּ֛אמֶר אַל־יֵֽדַע־זֹ֥את יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן פֶּן־יֵֽעָצֵ֑ב וְאוּלָ֗ם חַי־יְהוָה֙ וְחֵ֣י נַפְשֶׁ֔ךָ כִּ֣י כְפֶ֔שַׂע בֵּינִ֖י וּבֵ֥ין הַמָּֽוֶת׃‬ And David swore again and said, “Your father certainly knows that you like me, and he has said to himself, ‘Don't let Jonathan know this, in case he is grieved’, but as the Lord lives and as you yourself live, there is just a step between me and death.” certainly knows: infinitive absolute.

you like me ← I have found grace in your eyes.

you yourself ← your soul.
1 Sam 20:4 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד מַה־תֹּאמַ֥ר נַפְשְׁךָ֖ וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ׃ פ‬ And Jonathan said to David, “Whatever your inclination dictates, I will do for you.” your inclination dictates ← your soul says.
1 Sam 20:5 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָ֗ן הִֽנֵּה־חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ מָחָ֔ר וְאָנֹכִ֛י יָשֹׁב־אֵשֵׁ֥ב עִם־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לֶאֱכ֑וֹל וְשִׁלַּחְתַּ֙נִי֙ וְנִסְתַּרְתִּ֣י בַשָּׂדֶ֔ה עַ֖ד הָעֶ֥רֶב הַשְּׁלִשִֽׁית׃‬ And David said to Jonathan, “Look, it is the new moon tomorrow, and I really ought to be sitting with the king to dine, but let me go, and I will hide in the country until the third evening. I really ought to be sitting: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 20:6 ‫אִם־פָּקֹ֥ד יִפְקְדֵ֖נִי אָבִ֑יךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ֗ נִשְׁאֹל֩ נִשְׁאַ֨ל מִמֶּ֤נִּי דָוִד֙ לָרוּץ֙ בֵּֽית־לֶ֣חֶם עִיר֔וֹ כִּ֣י זֶ֧בַח הַיָּמִ֛ים שָׁ֖ם לְכָל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָֽה׃‬ If your father misses me at all, say, ‘David made a point of asking me for leave to dash off to Bethlehem his city, because there is an annual sacrifice there for all the family.’ misses me at all ... made a point of asking me for leave: both infinitive absolute.

dash off ← run.

Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.
1 Sam 20:7 ‫אִם־כֹּ֥ה יֹאמַ֛ר ט֖וֹב שָׁל֣וֹם לְעַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וְאִם־חָרֹ֤ה יֶֽחֱרֶה֙ ל֔וֹ דַּ֕ע כִּֽי־כָלְתָ֥ה הָרָעָ֖ה מֵעִמּֽוֹ׃‬ If he replies with this, ‘That's all right’, then your servant will have peace, but if it infuriates him at all, know that he intends evil. replies with this ← says thus.

it infuriates him at all: infinitive absolute.

he intends evil ← evil has been determined ( ← concluded) from with him.
1 Sam 20:8 ‫וְעָשִׂ֤יתָ חֶ֙סֶד֙ עַל־עַבְדֶּ֔ךָ כִּ֚י בִּבְרִ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה הֵבֵ֥אתָ אֶֽת־עַבְדְּךָ֖ עִמָּ֑ךְ וְאִם־יֶשׁ־בִּ֤י עָוֺן֙ הֲמִיתֵ֣נִי אַ֔תָּה וְעַד־אָבִ֖יךָ לָמָּה־זֶּ֥ה תְבִיאֵֽנִי׃ פ‬ And act graciously towards your servant, for you have brought your servant into a covenant of the Lord with you, and if there is any iniquity in me, kill me yourself, for why then should you bring me to your father?”
1 Sam 20:9 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן חָלִ֣ילָה לָּ֑ךְ כִּ֣י ׀ אִם־יָדֹ֣עַ אֵדַ֗ע כִּֽי־כָלְתָ֨ה הָרָעָ֜ה מֵעִ֤ם אָבִי֙ לָב֣וֹא עָלֶ֔יךָ וְלֹ֥א אֹתָ֖הּ אַגִּ֥יד לָֽךְ׃ ס‬ Then Jonathan said, “Far be it from you, for if I were at all aware that my father intended evil to come on you, would I not tell you about it?” I were at all aware: infinitive absolute.

intended evil: see 1 Sam 20:7.
1 Sam 20:10 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן מִ֖י יַגִּ֣יד לִ֑י א֛וֹ מַה־יַּעַנְךָ֥ אָבִ֖יךָ קָשָֽׁה׃ ס‬ Then David said to Jonathan, “Who will tell me about it if your father answers you harshly?” your father answers you harshly ← what your father answers you (is) harsh.
1 Sam 20:11 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד לְכָ֖ה וְנֵצֵ֣א הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה וַיֵּצְא֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם הַשָּׂדֶֽה׃ ס‬ And Jonathan said to David, “Come, let's go out into the field.” So the two of them went out into the field.
1 Sam 20:12 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֜ן אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד יְהוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כִּֽי־אֶחְקֹ֣ר אֶת־אָבִ֗י כָּעֵ֤ת ׀ מָחָר֙ הַשְּׁלִשִׁ֔ית וְהִנֵּה־ט֖וֹב אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד וְלֹֽא־אָז֙ אֶשְׁלַ֣ח אֵלֶ֔יךָ וְגָלִ֖יתִי אֶת־אָזְנֶֽךָ׃‬ And Jonathan said to David, “By the Lord God of Israel, when I investigate my father at this time tomorrow and up to the third evening, if he is well-disposed to David, and I do not then send a report to you and inform you, By the: normally a vocative O, but Jonathan is speaking to David, not the Lord.

if ... and I do not ← behold. See Lev 13:5. The conditional clauses are an example of the oath formula, as in 2 Sam 19:14 (2 Sam 19:13AV). The formula continues in the next verse.

inform you ← uncover your ear.
1 Sam 20:13 ‫כֹּֽה־יַעֲשֶׂה֩ יְהוָ֨ה לִֽיהוֹנָתָ֜ן וְכֹ֣ה יֹסִ֗יף כִּֽי־יֵיטִ֨ב אֶל־אָבִ֤י אֶת־הָֽרָעָה֙ עָלֶ֔יךָ וְגָלִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־אָזְנֶ֔ךָ וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֖יךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ֣ לְשָׁל֑וֹם וִיהִ֤י יְהוָה֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיָ֖ה עִם־אָבִֽי׃‬ may the Lord so do to Jonathan and more. But if my father decides to do harm to you, then I will inform you and let you go, and you can go in peace, and the Lord be with you, as he was with my father. may the Lord so do: the remainder of the oath formula started in the previous verse. The so do stands for, e.g., cut to pieces.

my father decides ← it is good to my father.

inform you ← uncover your ear.
1 Sam 20:14 ‫וְלֹ֖א אִם־עוֹדֶ֣נִּי חָ֑י וְלֹֽא־תַעֲשֶׂ֧ה עִמָּדִ֛י חֶ֥סֶד יְהוָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א אָמֽוּת׃‬ And let it not be while I am still alive that you do not show me the Lord's kindness, in which case I would die. show me ← do with me.

in which case ← and not.
1 Sam 20:15 ‫וְלֹֽא־תַכְרִ֧ת אֶֽת־חַסְדְּךָ֛ מֵעִ֥ם בֵּיתִ֖י עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם וְלֹ֗א בְּהַכְרִ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֶת־אֹיְבֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד אִ֕ישׁ מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָֽה׃‬ And do not ever cut your kindness off from my house, nor when the Lord cuts David's enemies off, each one from the face of the earth.” ever ← up to the age.
1 Sam 20:16 ‫וַיִּכְרֹ֥ת יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן עִם־בֵּ֣ית דָּוִ֑ד וּבִקֵּ֣שׁ יְהוָ֔ה מִיַּ֖ד אֹיְבֵ֥י דָוִֽד׃‬ So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, and he said, “May the Lord require any penalty from the hand of David's enemies.” may the Lord require: i.e. if the covenant is broken.
1 Sam 20:17 ‫וַיּ֤וֹסֶף יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ לְהַשְׁבִּ֣יעַ אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד בְּאַהֲבָת֖וֹ אֹת֑וֹ כִּֽי־אַהֲבַ֥ת נַפְשׁ֖וֹ אֲהֵבֽוֹ׃ ס‬ Then Jonathan adjured David again in his love for him, for he loved him with his deepest feelings. he loved him with his deepest feelings ← (with) love of his soul he loved him, a subjective genitive.
1 Sam 20:18 ‫וַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן מָחָ֣ר חֹ֑דֶשׁ וְנִפְקַ֕דְתָּ כִּ֥י יִפָּקֵ֖ד מוֹשָׁבֶֽךָ׃‬ And Jonathan said to him, “Tomorrow is the new moon. You will be missed, because your seat will be unoccupied. unoccupied ← missed.
1 Sam 20:19 ‫וְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ֙ תֵּרֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד וּבָאתָ֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר־נִסְתַּ֥רְתָּ שָּׁ֖ם בְּי֣וֹם הַֽמַּעֲשֶׂ֑ה וְיָ֣שַׁבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖צֶל הָאֶ֥בֶן הָאָֽזֶל׃‬ And when you have spent three days over there, come down quickly and come to the place where you hid on the previous occasion of intrigue, and remain at the stone of Ezel, quickly ← very.

on the previous occasion ← on the day.

intrigue ← deed.

Ezel ← the Ezel.
1 Sam 20:20 ‫וַאֲנִ֕י שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת הַחִצִּ֖ים צִדָּ֣ה אוֹרֶ֑ה לְשַֽׁלַּֽח־לִ֖י לְמַטָּרָֽה׃‬ and I will shoot three arrows to the side of it, as if I were practising shooting at a target. as if I were practising shooting ← to shoot for myself.
1 Sam 20:21 ‫וְהִנֵּה֙ אֶשְׁלַ֣ח אֶת־הַנַּ֔עַר לֵ֖ךְ מְצָ֣א אֶת־הַחִצִּ֑ים אִם־אָמֹר֩ אֹמַ֨ר לַנַּ֜עַר הִנֵּ֥ה הַחִצִּ֣ים ׀ מִמְּךָ֣ וָהֵ֗נָּה קָחֶ֧נּוּ ׀ וָבֹ֛אָה כִּֽי־שָׁל֥וֹם לְךָ֛ וְאֵ֥ין דָּבָ֖ר חַי־יְהוָֽה׃‬ And look, I will send a lad, and say, ‘Go and find the arrows.’ If I specifically say to the lad, ‘Look, the arrows are short of you; take them’, then come, for you have peace, and there is no issue, as the Lord lives. specifically say: infinitive absolute.

short of you ← from you to here.

them ← him / it.
1 Sam 20:22 ‫וְאִם־כֹּ֤ה אֹמַר֙ לָעֶ֔לֶם הִנֵּ֥ה הַחִצִּ֖ים מִמְּךָ֣ וָהָ֑לְאָה לֵ֕ךְ כִּ֥י שִֽׁלַּחֲךָ֖ יְהוָֽה׃‬ But if I say this to the youth: ‘Look, the arrows are beyond you’, then go, for the Lord will have sent you away. this ← thus.

beyond you ← from you and beyond.
1 Sam 20:23 ‫וְהַ֨דָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְנוּ אֲנִ֣י וָאָ֑תָּה הִנֵּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה בֵּינִ֥י וּבֵינְךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃ ס‬ And as for the matter which we have spoken about, you and I, look, the Lord is between you and me age-abidingly.”
1 Sam 20:24 ‫וַיִּסָּתֵ֥ר דָּוִ֖ד בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וַיְהִ֣י הַחֹ֔דֶשׁ וַיֵּ֧שֶׁב הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ *על־**אֶל־הַלֶּ֖חֶם לֶאֱכֽוֹל׃‬ So David hid in the field, and the new moon came, and the king sat at the meal to dine. at: the ketiv and qeré are similar prepositions, strictly at and to, which are often used interchangeably.

meal ← bread.
1 Sam 20:25 ‫וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ עַל־מ֨וֹשָׁב֜וֹ כְּפַ֣עַם ׀ בְּפַ֗עַם אֶל־מוֹשַׁב֙ הַקִּ֔יר וַיָּ֙קָם֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אַבְנֵ֖ר מִצַּ֣ד שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּפָּקֵ֖ד מְק֥וֹם דָּוִֽד׃‬ And the king sat in his seat as on previous occasions, on a seat at a wall, and Jonathan arose, and Abner sat at Saul's side, and David's place was unoccupied. as on previous occasions ← as time on time.

unoccupied ← missing.
1 Sam 20:26 ‫וְלֹֽא־דִבֶּ֥ר שָׁא֛וּל מְא֖וּמָה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא כִּ֤י אָמַר֙ מִקְרֶ֣ה ה֔וּא בִּלְתִּ֥י טָה֛וֹר ה֖וּא כִּֽי־לֹ֥א טָהֽוֹר׃ ס‬ But Saul did not say anything untoward on that day, for he said, “It is some incident – he is unclean – it is that he is not clean.”
1 Sam 20:27 ‫וַיְהִ֗י מִֽמָּחֳרַ֤ת הַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י וַיִּפָּקֵ֖ד מְק֣וֹם דָּוִ֑ד ס וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֔וֹ מַדּ֜וּעַ לֹא־בָ֧א בֶן־יִשַׁ֛י גַּם־תְּמ֥וֹל גַּם־הַיּ֖וֹם אֶל־הַלָּֽחֶם׃‬ And it came to pass on the next day of the month – the second – that David's place was unoccupied, and Saul said to Jonathan his son, “Why did the son of Jesse not come either yesterday or today to the meal?” meal ← bread.
1 Sam 20:28 ‫וַיַּ֥עַן יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן אֶת־שָׁא֑וּל נִשְׁאֹ֨ל נִשְׁאַ֥ל דָּוִ֛ד מֵעִמָּדִ֖י עַד־בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם׃‬ Then Jonathan replied to Saul, “David made a point of asking me for leave to go to Bethlehem. made a point of asking: infinitive absolute.

Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.
1 Sam 20:29 ‫וַיֹּ֡אמֶר שַׁלְּחֵ֣נִי נָ֡א כִּ֣י זֶבַח֩ מִשְׁפָּחָ֨ה לָ֜נוּ בָּעִ֗יר וְה֤וּא צִוָּֽה־לִי֙ אָחִ֔י וְעַתָּ֗ה אִם־מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ אִמָּ֥לְטָה נָּ֖א וְאֶרְאֶ֣ה אֶת־אֶחָ֑י עַל־כֵּ֣ן לֹא־בָ֔א אֶל־שֻׁלְחַ֖ן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ And he said, ‘Please let me go, for we have a family sacrifice in the city, and the one who commanded me to attend is my brother. So now, if I have found grace in your eyes, let me slip away, please, and I will see my brothers.’ That is why he has not come to the king's table.” slip away ← escape.
1 Sam 20:30 ‫וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֤ף שָׁאוּל֙ בִּיה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ בֶּֽן־נַעֲוַ֖ת הַמַּרְדּ֑וּת הֲל֣וֹא יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּֽי־בֹחֵ֤ר אַתָּה֙ לְבֶן־יִשַׁ֔י לְבָ֨שְׁתְּךָ֔ וּלְבֹ֖שֶׁת עֶרְוַ֥ת אִמֶּֽךָ׃‬ And Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, “You son of a perverse and rebellious woman, am I not aware that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your shame and to the shame of your mother's nakedness? perverse and rebellious womanperverse (woman) of rebellion.
1 Sam 20:31 ‫כִּ֣י כָל־הַיָּמִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר בֶּן־יִשַׁי֙ חַ֣י עַל־הָאֲדָמָ֔ה לֹ֥א תִכּ֖וֹן אַתָּ֣ה וּמַלְכוּתֶ֑ךָ וְעַתָּ֗ה שְׁלַ֨ח וְקַ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ אֵלַ֔י כִּ֥י בֶן־מָ֖וֶת הֽוּא׃ ס‬ For as long as the son of Jesse is alive on the ground, neither you nor your kingdom will be established. So now, send men and bring him to me, for he is destined for death.” as long as ← all the days that.

bring ← seize.

destined for death ← a son of death.
1 Sam 20:32 ‫וַיַּ֙עַן֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל אָבִ֑יו וַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלָ֛יו לָ֥מָּה יוּמַ֖ת מֶ֥ה עָשָֽׂה׃‬ Then Jonathan answered Saul his father and said to him, “Why should he be put to death? What has he done?”
1 Sam 20:33 ‫וַיָּ֨טֶל שָׁא֧וּל אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֛ית עָלָ֖יו לְהַכֹּת֑וֹ וַיֵּ֙דַע֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן כִּֽי־כָ֥לָה הִ֛יא מֵעִ֥ם אָבִ֖יו לְהָמִ֥ית אֶת־דָּוִֽד׃ ס‬ Then Saul threw his spear at him so as to strike him. So Jonathan knew that it had been determined on the part of his father to kill David. it had been determined ← it (was) a determined (thing).

on the part of ← from with.
1 Sam 20:34 ‫וַיָּ֧קָם יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן מֵעִ֥ם הַשֻּׁלְחָ֖ן בָּחֳרִי־אָ֑ף וְלֹא־אָכַ֞ל בְּיוֹם־הַחֹ֤דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי֙ לֶ֔חֶם כִּ֤י נֶעְצַב֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד כִּ֥י הִכְלִמ֖וֹ אָבִֽיו׃ ס‬ And Jonathan got up from the table in furious anger, and he did not eat any food on the second day of the month, for he grieved for David, for his father had put him to shame. food ← bread, standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
1 Sam 20:35 ‫וַיְהִ֣י בַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיֵּצֵ֧א יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְמוֹעֵ֣ד דָּוִ֑ד וְנַ֥עַר קָטֹ֖ן עִמּֽוֹ׃‬ And it came to pass in the morning that Jonathan went out into the field, to the place agreed with David, and a little lad was with him. to the place agreed: or at the (time) agreed.

with David ← of David.
1 Sam 20:36 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְנַעֲר֔וֹ רֻ֗ץ מְצָ֥א נָא֙ אֶת־הַ֣חִצִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י מוֹרֶ֑ה הַנַּ֣עַר רָ֔ץ וְהֽוּא־יָרָ֥ה הַחֵ֖צִי לְהַעֲבִרֽוֹ׃‬ And he said to his servant-lad, “Run and find me the arrows which I shoot.” So the lad ran, and he shot an arrow beyond him. me ← please, a particle which tones down commands.

beyond him ← to go across him.
1 Sam 20:37 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤א הַנַּ֙עַר֙ עַד־מְק֣וֹם הַחֵ֔צִי אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָרָ֖ה יְהוֹנָתָ֑ן וַיִּקְרָ֨א יְהוֹנָתָ֜ן אַחֲרֵ֤י הַנַּ֙עַר֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר הֲל֥וֹא הַחֵ֖צִי מִמְּךָ֥ וָהָֽלְאָה׃‬ And the lad came to the place of the arrow which Jonathan had shot, and Jonathan called to the lad and said, “Isn't the arrow further on from you?” called to ← called after.
1 Sam 20:38 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֤א יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י הַנַּ֔עַר מְהֵרָ֥ה ח֖וּשָׁה אַֽל־תַּעֲמֹ֑ד וַיְלַקֵּ֞ט נַ֤עַר יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶת־*החצי **הַ֣חִצִּ֔ים וַיָּבֹ֖א אֶל־אֲדֹנָֽיו׃‬ And Jonathan called to the lad, “Quick, hurry, don't stand around.” So Jonathan's servant-lad picked up {K: the arrow} [Q: the arrows] and came back to his master. called to ← called after.
1 Sam 20:39 ‫וְהַנַּ֖עַר לֹֽא־יָדַ֣ע מְא֑וּמָה אַ֤ךְ יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ וְדָוִ֔ד יָדְע֖וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָֽר׃‬ And the lad wasn't aware of anything, but Jonathan and David knew the purpose. purpose ← word, thing.
1 Sam 20:40 ‫וַיִּתֵּ֤ן יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו אֶל־הַנַּ֖עַר אֲשֶׁר־ל֑וֹ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ לֵ֖ךְ הָבֵ֥יא הָעִֽיר׃‬ Then Jonathan gave his equipment to his servant-lad and said to him, “Go and take it to the city.”
1 Sam 20:41 ‫הַנַּעַר֮ בָּא֒ וְדָוִ֗ד קָ֚ם מֵאֵ֣צֶל הַנֶּ֔גֶב וַיִּפֹּ֨ל לְאַפָּ֥יו אַ֛רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ שָׁלֹ֣שׁ פְּעָמִ֑ים וַֽיִּשְּׁק֣וּ ׀ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֗הוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ עַד־דָּוִ֖ד הִגְדִּֽיל׃‬ The lad departed, and David came up from the southern side, and he fell face down to the ground, and he bowed three times, and they kissed each other, and they wept with one another, with David doing it profusely. face down ← to his face.

with David doing it profusely ← up to David magnifying.
1 Sam 20:42 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן לְדָוִ֖ד לֵ֣ךְ לְשָׁל֑וֹם אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁבַּ֨עְנוּ שְׁנֵ֜ינוּ אֲנַ֗חְנוּ בְּשֵׁ֤ם יְהוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יְהוָ֞ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה ׀ בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֗ךָ וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעִ֛י וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעֲךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃ פ‬ Then Jonathan said to David, “Go in peace, inasmuch as we have both sworn in the name of the Lord, saying, ‘The Lord will be between me and you and between my seed and your seed age-abidingly.’ ”
1 Sam 21:1
1 Sam 20:42AV
‫וַיָּ֖קָם וַיֵּלַ֑ךְ וִיהוֹנָתָ֖ן בָּ֥א הָעִֽיר׃‬ And he got up and departed, and Jonathan went to the city. The AV incorporates this verse in 1 Sam 20:42.
1 Sam 21:2
1 Sam 21:1AV
‫וַיָּבֹ֤א דָוִד֙ נֹ֔בֶה אֶל־אֲחִימֶ֖לֶךְ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וַיֶּחֱרַ֨ד אֲחִימֶ֜לֶךְ לִקְרַ֣את דָּוִ֗ד וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ מַדּ֤וּעַ אַתָּה֙ לְבַדֶּ֔ךָ וְאִ֖ישׁ אֵ֥ין אִתָּֽךְ׃‬ And David arrived in Nob, and he went to Ahimelech the priest. And Ahimelech was afraid at meeting David, and he said to him, “Why are you on your own, and why is no-one with you?” Nob ← Nobeh, unless the ending of the word is taken as a locative case ending.
1 Sam 21:3
1 Sam 21:2AV
‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד לַאֲחִימֶ֣לֶךְ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן הַמֶּלֶךְ֮ צִוַּ֣נִי דָבָר֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י אִ֣ישׁ אַל־יֵ֧דַע מְא֛וּמָה אֶת־הַדָּבָ֛ר אֲשֶׁר־אָנֹכִ֥י שֹׁלֵֽחֲךָ֖ וַאֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֑ךָ וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִ֣ים יוֹדַ֔עְתִּי אֶל־מְק֥וֹם פְּלֹנִ֖י אַלְמוֹנִֽי׃‬ And David said to Ahimelech the priest, “The king has charged me with a matter, and he said to me, ‘No-one must know anything about the mission which I am sending you on, and what I have charged you with. And I have appointed servants to go to such and such a place.’ mission ← matter.
1 Sam 21:4
1 Sam 21:3AV
‫וְעַתָּ֗ה מַה־יֵּ֧שׁ תַּֽחַת־יָדְךָ֛ חֲמִשָּׁה־לֶ֖חֶם תְּנָ֣ה בְיָדִ֑י א֖וֹ הַנִּמְצָֽא׃‬ And now, what is at your disposal? Hand me five loaves or whatever is available.” at your disposal ← under your hand.

hand me ← give in my hand.

available ← found.
1 Sam 21:5
1 Sam 21:4AV
‫וַיַּ֨עַן הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־דָּוִד֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר אֵֽין־לֶ֥חֶם חֹ֖ל אֶל־תַּ֣חַת יָדִ֑י כִּֽי־אִם־לֶ֤חֶם קֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ יֵ֔שׁ אִם־נִשְׁמְר֥וּ הַנְּעָרִ֖ים אַ֥ךְ מֵאִשָּֽׁה׃ פ‬ And the priest answered David and said, “There is no ordinary bread at my disposal. There is only holy bread, which you can have if your servant-lads really have kept themselves from women.” ordinary ← secular.

at my disposal ← to under my hand.

women ← a woman.
1 Sam 21:6
1 Sam 21:5AV
‫וַיַּעַן֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶת־הַכֹּהֵ֜ן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ כִּ֣י אִם־אִשָּׁ֤ה עֲצֻֽרָה־לָ֙נוּ֙ כִּתְמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֔ם בְּצֵאתִ֕י וַיִּהְי֥וּ כְלֵֽי־הַנְּעָרִ֖ים קֹ֑דֶשׁ וְהוּא֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ חֹ֔ל וְאַ֕ף כִּ֥י הַיּ֖וֹם יִקְדַּ֥שׁ בַּכֶּֽלִי׃‬ Then David answered the priest and said to him, “Indeed women have been withheld from us for several days since I went out, and the lads' equipment is holy, although it was a secular journey, so how much more will it be sanctified today by the vessel containing it.” women have ← a woman has.

for several days ← as yesterday (and) the day before yesterday.

holy ← holiness.

vessel: here, the stomach (kept clean).

AV differs, arguing ↴
1 Sam 21:7
1 Sam 21:6AV
‫וַיִּתֶּן־ל֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן קֹ֑דֶשׁ כִּי֩ לֹא־הָ֨יָה שָׁ֜ם לֶ֗חֶם כִּֽי־אִם־לֶ֤חֶם הַפָּנִים֙ הַמּֽוּסָרִים֙ מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה לָשׂוּם֙ לֶ֣חֶם חֹ֔ם בְּי֖וֹם הִלָּקְחֽוֹ׃‬ Then the priest gave him the holy bread, for there was no bread there other than the showbread, which was removed from the Lord's presence, so it was necessary to put hot bread out on the day it was taken away. ↳ that the bread is secular. We argue that the eaters are sanctified.
1 Sam 21:8
1 Sam 21:7AV
‫וְשָׁ֡ם אִישׁ֩ מֵעַבְדֵ֨י שָׁא֜וּל בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נֶעְצָר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וּשְׁמ֖וֹ דֹּאֵ֣ג הָאֲדֹמִ֑י אַבִּ֥יר הָרֹעִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְשָׁאֽוּל׃‬ Now there was there on that day a man from Saul's servants, retained in the Lord's presence, and his name was Doeg the Edomite, the foreman of Saul's shepherds.
1 Sam 21:9
1 Sam 21:8AV
‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ לַאֲחִימֶ֔לֶךְ וְאִ֛ין יֶשׁ־פֹּ֥ה תַֽחַת־יָדְךָ֖ חֲנִ֣ית אוֹ־חָ֑רֶב כִּ֣י גַם־חַרְבִּ֤י וְגַם־כֵּלַי֙ לֹֽא־לָקַ֣חְתִּי בְיָדִ֔י כִּֽי־הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ נָחֽוּץ׃ ס‬ And David said to Ahimelech, “And is there no spear or sword at your disposal here? For I took neither my sword nor my equipment in my hand, for it was an urgent matter of the king's.” at your disposal ← under your hand.
1 Sam 21:10
1 Sam 21:9AV
‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַכֹּהֵ֗ן חֶרֶב֩ גָּלְיָ֨ת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֜י אֲשֶׁר־הִכִּ֣יתָ ׀ בְּעֵ֣מֶק הָאֵלָ֗ה הִנֵּה־הִ֞יא לוּטָ֣ה בַשִּׂמְלָה֮ אַחֲרֵ֣י הָאֵפוֹד֒ אִם־אֹתָ֤הּ תִּֽקַּח־לְךָ֙ קָ֔ח כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין אַחֶ֛רֶת זוּלָתָ֖הּ בָּזֶ֑ה וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אֵ֥ין כָּמ֖וֹהָ תְּנֶ֥נָּה לִּֽי׃‬ Then the priest said, “Here is the sword of Goliath the Philistine whom you struck down in the Valley of Elah, wrapped in a garment behind the ephod. If you want to take it for yourself, take it, for there is nothing other than that here.” And David said, “There is nothing like it. Give it to me.” here isbehold.

want to take ← will take.
1 Sam 21:11
1 Sam 21:10AV
‫וַיָּ֣קָם דָּוִ֔ד וַיִּבְרַ֥ח בַּיּוֹם־הַה֖וּא מִפְּנֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וַיָּבֹ֕א אֶל־אָכִ֖ישׁ מֶ֥לֶךְ גַּֽת׃‬ So David arose and fled from Saul on that day. Then he went to Achish king of Gath.
1 Sam 21:12
1 Sam 21:11AV
‫וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ עַבְדֵ֤י אָכִישׁ֙ אֵלָ֔יו הֲלוֹא־זֶ֥ה דָוִ֖ד מֶ֣לֶךְ הָאָ֑רֶץ הֲל֣וֹא לָזֶ֗ה יַעֲנ֤וּ בַמְּחֹלוֹת֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִכָּ֤ה שָׁאוּל֙ *באלפו **בַּאֲלָפָ֔יו וְדָוִ֖ד *ברבבתו **בְּרִבְבֹתָֽיו׃‬ And Achish's servants said to him, “Isn't this David, the king of the land? Wasn't it to him that they sang in turns with dancing and said,

‘Saul struck his {Q: thousands} [K: thousand],

But David his {Q: tens of thousands} [K: ten thousand].’ ”

On the ketiv and qeré, see 1 Sam 18:7.
1 Sam 21:13
1 Sam 21:12AV
‫וַיָּ֧שֶׂם דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה בִּלְבָב֑וֹ וַיִּרָ֣א מְאֹ֔ד מִפְּנֵ֖י אָכִ֥ישׁ מֶֽלֶךְ־גַּֽת׃‬ And David laid these things to heart, and he was very afraid of Achish king of Gath. to heart ← in his heart.
1 Sam 21:14
1 Sam 21:13AV
‫וַיְשַׁנּ֤וֹ אֶת־טַעְמוֹ֙ בְּעֵ֣ינֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּתְהֹלֵ֖ל בְּיָדָ֑ם *ויתו **וַיְתָיו֙ עַל־דַּלְת֣וֹת הַשַּׁ֔עַר וַיּ֥וֹרֶד רִיר֖וֹ אֶל־זְקָנֽוֹ׃‬ And he changed his character in their sight, and he pretended to be mad under their charge, and he scratched on the doors of the gate, and he let his spittle run down onto his beard. he scratched: the ketiv (וַיְתַו) is the regular apocopated form (piel of תָוָה).

character ← flavour.

pretended to be mad: as pointed, hithpolel for feigning.

under their charge ← in their hand.
1 Sam 21:15
1 Sam 21:14AV
‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אָכִ֖ישׁ אֶל־עֲבָדָ֑יו הִנֵּ֤ה תִרְאוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ מִשְׁתַּגֵּ֔עַ לָ֛מָּה תָּבִ֥יאוּ אֹת֖וֹ אֵלָֽי׃‬ And Achish said to his servants, “Look, you can see that the man is mad. Why are you bringing him to me?
1 Sam 21:16
1 Sam 21:15AV
‫חֲסַ֤ר מְשֻׁגָּעִים֙ אָ֔נִי כִּי־הֲבֵאתֶ֣ם אֶת־זֶ֔ה לְהִשְׁתַּגֵּ֖עַ עָלָ֑י הֲזֶ֖ה יָב֥וֹא אֶל־בֵּיתִֽי׃ ס‬ Do I lack madmen, so that you should bring this one to behave madly with me? Shall this man come into my house?”
1 Sam 22:1 ‫וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ דָּוִד֙ מִשָּׁ֔ם וַיִּמָּלֵ֖ט אֶל־מְעָרַ֣ת עֲדֻלָּ֑ם וַיִּשְׁמְע֤וּ אֶחָיו֙ וְכָל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔יו וַיֵּרְד֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו שָֽׁמָּה׃‬ So David departed from there and escaped to the cave of Adullam, and his brothers and all his father's household heard it, and they went down to him there.
1 Sam 22:2 ‫וַיִּֽתְקַבְּצ֣וּ אֵ֠לָיו כָּל־אִ֨ישׁ מָצ֜וֹק וְכָל־אִ֨ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־ל֤וֹ נֹשֶׁא֙ וְכָל־אִ֣ישׁ מַר־נֶ֔פֶשׁ וַיְהִ֥י עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם לְשָׂ֑ר וַיִּהְי֣וּ עִמּ֔וֹ כְּאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת אִֽישׁ׃‬ And everyone who was distressed, and everyone who had a debt, and everyone who was embittered gathered around him, and he became a prince over them, and they were with him – about four hundred men. debt ← creditor [AnLx], [BDB], [Ges-HCL], [ST], justifiable as if a lamed-hé form. But the formation, apart from the stress, is for a segolate noun, as in גֹּמֶא.

embittered ← bitter of soul.

around ← to.
1 Sam 22:3 ‫וַיֵּ֧לֶךְ דָּוִ֛ד מִשָּׁ֖ם מִצְפֵּ֣ה מוֹאָ֑ב וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ אֶל־מֶ֣לֶךְ מוֹאָ֗ב יֵֽצֵא־נָ֞א אָבִ֤י וְאִמִּי֙ אִתְּכֶ֔ם עַ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֵדַ֔ע מַה־יַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לִּ֖י אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬ And David went from there to Mizpeh in Moab, and he said to the king of Moab, “Please let my father and my mother come out to be with you, until I know what God is going to do with me.” in Moab ← of Moab.

with me ← to / for me.
1 Sam 22:4 ‫וַיַּנְחֵ֕ם אֶת־פְּנֵ֖י מֶ֣לֶךְ מוֹאָ֑ב וַיֵּשְׁב֣וּ עִמּ֔וֹ כָּל־יְמֵ֥י הֱיוֹת־דָּוִ֖ד בַּמְּצוּדָֽה׃ ס‬ And he led them into the presence of the king of Moab, and they dwelt with him all the days while David was in the citadel.
1 Sam 22:5 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ גָּ֨ד הַנָּבִ֜יא אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד לֹ֤א תֵשֵׁב֙ בַּמְּצוּדָ֔ה לֵ֥ךְ וּבָֽאתָ־לְּךָ֖ אֶ֣רֶץ יְהוּדָ֑ה וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֔ד וַיָּבֹ֖א יַ֥עַר חָֽרֶת׃ ס‬ Then the prophet Gad said to David, “You shall not dwell in the citadel. Go and betake yourself to the land of Judah.” So David departed, and he came to the forest of Hereth. Hereth: AV= Hareth, the pausal form.
1 Sam 22:6 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע שָׁא֔וּל כִּ֚י נוֹדַ֣ע דָּוִ֔ד וַאֲנָשִׁ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ וְשָׁאוּל֩ יוֹשֵׁ֨ב בַּגִּבְעָ֜ה תַּֽחַת־הָאֶ֤שֶׁל בָּֽרָמָה֙ וַחֲנִית֣וֹ בְיָד֔וֹ וְכָל־עֲבָדָ֖יו נִצָּבִ֥ים עָלָֽיו׃‬ And Saul heard about it, because David had been informed on, including the men who were with him, while Saul was sitting in Gibeah under the tamarisk tree in Ramah. And his spear was in his hand, and all his servants were standing around him. Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.

around ← at.
1 Sam 22:7 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֗וּל לַֽעֲבָדָיו֙ הַנִּצָּבִ֣ים עָלָ֔יו שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֖א בְּנֵ֣י יְמִינִ֑י גַּם־לְכֻלְּכֶ֗ם יִתֵּ֤ן בֶּן־יִשַׁי֙ שָׂד֣וֹת וּכְרָמִ֔ים לְכֻלְּכֶ֣ם יָשִׂ֔ים שָׂרֵ֥י אֲלָפִ֖ים וְשָׂרֵ֥י מֵאֽוֹת׃‬ And Saul said to his servants who were standing around him, “Now listen, you Benjaminites. Will the son of Jesse really give all of you the fields and vineyards? Will he make you all commanders of a thousand and commanders of a hundred? around ← at.

really ← also, but with wider usage.
1 Sam 22:8 ‫כִּי֩ קְשַׁרְתֶּ֨ם כֻּלְּכֶ֜ם עָלַ֗י וְאֵין־גֹּלֶ֤ה אֶת־אָזְנִי֙ בִּכְרָת־בְּנִ֣י עִם־בֶּן־יִשַׁ֔י וְאֵין־חֹלֶ֥ה מִכֶּ֛ם עָלַ֖י וְגֹלֶ֣ה אֶת־אָזְנִ֑י כִּ֣י הֵקִים֩ בְּנִ֨י אֶת־עַבְדִּ֥י עָלַ֛י לְאֹרֵ֖ב כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ ס‬ For you have all conspired against me, and no-one informed me about my son allying himself with the son of Jesse, and none of you is grieving for me or has been informing me that my son has incited my servant against me, setting an ambush on this day.” informed me ... informing me ← uncovered my ear ... uncovering my ear.

allying himself ← cutting (= making a covenant). Gerundial use of the infinitive.

servant: perhaps standing for body of servants.

on this day ← as this day.
1 Sam 22:9 ‫וַיַּ֜עַן דֹּאֵ֣ג הָאֲדֹמִ֗י וְה֛וּא נִצָּ֥ב עַל־עַבְדֵֽי־שָׁא֖וּל וַיֹּאמַ֑ר רָאִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־בֶּן־יִשַׁ֔י בָּ֣א נֹ֔בֶה אֶל־אֲחִימֶ֖לֶךְ בֶּן־אֲחִטֽוּב׃‬ And Doeg the Edomite, who had been appointed over Saul's servants, answered and said, “I have seen the son of Jesse going to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub.
1 Sam 22:10 ‫וַיִּשְׁאַל־לוֹ֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה וְצֵידָ֖ה נָ֣תַן ל֑וֹ וְאֵ֗ת חֶ֛רֶב גָּלְיָ֥ת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י נָ֥תַן לֽוֹ׃‬ And Ahimelech inquired of him from the Lord, and he gave him provisions, and he gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.”
1 Sam 22:11 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ לִקְרֹא֩ אֶת־אֲחִימֶ֨לֶךְ בֶּן־אֲחִיט֜וּב הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־בֵּ֥ית אָבִ֛יו הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּנֹ֑ב וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ כֻלָּ֖ם אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ Then the king sent an envoy to call for Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, the priest, and all his father's household – the priests who were in Nob – and they all came to the king.
1 Sam 22:12 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל שְֽׁמַֽע־נָ֖א בֶּן־אֲחִיט֑וּב וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הִנְנִ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי׃‬ And Saul said, “Now listen, son of Ahitub.” And he said, “Here I am, my lord.” here I ambehold me.
1 Sam 22:13 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר *אלו **אֵלָיו֙ שָׁא֔וּל לָ֚מָּה קְשַׁרְתֶּ֣ם עָלַ֔י אַתָּ֖ה וּבֶן־יִשָׁ֑י בְּתִתְּךָ֨ ל֜וֹ לֶ֣חֶם וְחֶ֗רֶב וְשָׁא֥וֹל לוֹ֙ בֵּֽאלֹהִ֔ים לָק֥וּם אֵלַ֛י לְאֹרֵ֖ב כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ ס‬ And Saul said to him, “Why have you conspired against me, you and the son of Jesse, by you giving him bread and a sword, and in inquiring for him of God, for him to rise up against me, ambushing me on this day?” to him: the ketiv is an irregular spelling of the qeré.

by you giving ... in inquiring: gerundial use of the infinitive (construct ... absolute).

on this day ← as this day.
1 Sam 22:14 ‫וַיַּ֧עַן אֲחִימֶ֛לֶךְ אֶת־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וַיֹּאמַ֑ר וּמִ֤י בְכָל־עֲבָדֶ֙יךָ֙ כְּדָוִ֣ד נֶאֱמָ֔ן וַחֲתַ֥ן הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְסָ֥ר אֶל־מִשְׁמַעְתֶּ֖ךָ וְנִכְבָּ֥ד בְּבֵיתֶֽךָ׃‬ And Ahimelech answered the king and said, “Rather, who among all your servants is faithful like David, who is the king's son-in-law, who goes at your bidding and is honoured in your house? rather: wider use of the vav.
1 Sam 22:15 ‫הַיּ֧וֹם הַחִלֹּ֛תִי *לשאול־**לִשְׁאָל־ל֥וֹ בֵאלֹהִ֖ים חָלִ֣ילָה לִּ֑י אַל־יָשֵׂם֩ הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ בְּעַבְדּ֤וֹ דָבָר֙ בְּכָל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔י כִּ֠י לֹֽא־יָדַ֤ע עַבְדְּךָ֙ בְּכָל־זֹ֔את דָּבָ֥ר קָטֹ֖ן א֥וֹ גָדֽוֹל׃‬ Is it today that I began to inquire of God for him? Far be it from me. May the king not lay anything to the charge of his servant or of anyone of my father's house, for your servant is not aware of any of this, in a big or small way.” to inquire: the ketiv and qeré are different spellings of the same word.

anyone ← everyone.

any ← all.

big or small ← small or big.
1 Sam 22:16 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מ֥וֹת תָּמ֖וּת אֲחִימֶ֑לֶךְ אַתָּ֖ה וְכָל־בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיךָ׃‬ Then the king said, “You shall surely die, Ahimelech, you and all the house of your father.”
1 Sam 22:17 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ לָרָצִים֩ הַנִּצָּבִ֨ים עָלָ֜יו סֹ֥בּוּ וְהָמִ֣יתוּ ׀ כֹּהֲנֵ֣י יְהוָ֗ה כִּ֤י גַם־יָדָם֙ עִם־דָּוִ֔ד וְכִ֤י יָֽדְעוּ֙ כִּֽי־בֹרֵ֣חַ ה֔וּא וְלֹ֥א גָל֖וּ אֶת־*אזנו **אָזְנִ֑י וְלֹֽא־אָב֞וּ עַבְדֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לִשְׁלֹ֣חַ אֶת־יָדָ֔ם לִפְגֹ֖עַ בְּכֹהֲנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ Then the king said to the runners who were standing around him, “Turn on them and kill the Lord's priests, for their hand is also with David, and because they knew that he had fled, but they did not inform {Q: me} [K: him].” But the king's servants were not willing to stretch out their hand to attack the Lord's priests. The ketiv would have to be interpreted as inform the king, which has the same sense as the qeré.

around ← at.

inform ← uncover the ear.

stretch out ← send.
1 Sam 22:18 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ *לדויג **לְדוֹאֵ֔ג סֹ֣ב אַתָּ֔ה וּפְגַ֖ע בַּכֹּהֲנִ֑ים וַיִּסֹּ֞ב *דויג **דּוֹאֵ֣ג הָאֲדֹמִ֗י וַיִּפְגַּע־הוּא֙ בַּכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים וַיָּ֣מֶת ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא שְׁמֹנִ֤ים וַחֲמִשָּׁה֙ אִ֔ישׁ נֹשֵׂ֖א אֵפ֥וֹד בָּֽד׃‬ Then the king said to {Q: Doeg} [K: Dojeg], “You turn on them and attack the priests.” Then {Q: Doeg} [K: Dojeg] the Edomite turned on them, and he attacked the priests, and on that day he killed eighty-five men bearing an ephod of fine linen.
1 Sam 22:19 ‫וְאֵ֨ת נֹ֤ב עִיר־הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ הִכָּ֣ה לְפִי־חֶ֔רֶב מֵאִישׁ֙ וְעַד־אִשָּׁ֔ה מֵעוֹלֵ֖ל וְעַד־יוֹנֵ֑ק וְשׁ֧וֹר וַחֲמ֛וֹר וָשֶׂ֖ה לְפִי־חָֽרֶב׃‬ And he struck Nob, the city of the priests, with the edge of the sword, both men and women, both children and babies, and oxen and donkeys and sheep, with the edge of the sword. both men and women, both children and babies ← from man to woman, from child to baby.
1 Sam 22:20 ‫וַיִּמָּלֵ֣ט בֵּן־אֶחָ֗ד לַאֲחִימֶ֙לֶךְ֙ בֶּן־אֲחִט֔וּב וּשְׁמ֖וֹ אֶבְיָתָ֑ר וַיִּבְרַ֖ח אַחֲרֵ֥י דָוִֽד׃‬ But one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub escaped, whose name was Abiathar, and he fled to join David. Abiathar ← Ebiathar, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.

to join David ← after David.
1 Sam 22:21 ‫וַיַּגֵּ֥ד אֶבְיָתָ֖ר לְדָוִ֑ד כִּ֚י הָרַ֣ג שָׁא֔וּל אֵ֖ת כֹּהֲנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬ And Abiathar told David that Saul had killed the Lord's priests. Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.
1 Sam 22:22 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד לְאֶבְיָתָ֗ר יָדַ֜עְתִּי בַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ כִּֽי־שָׁם֙ *דויג **דּוֹאֵ֣ג הָאֲדֹמִ֔י כִּֽי־הַגֵּ֥ד יַגִּ֖יד לְשָׁא֑וּל אָנֹכִ֣י סַבֹּ֔תִי בְּכָל־נֶ֖פֶשׁ בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיךָ׃‬ Then David said to Abiathar, “I knew on that day when {Q: Doeg} [K: Dojeg] the Edomite was there that he would certainly tell Saul. I have been involved in all the loss of life in your father's house. Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.

would certainly tell: infinitive absolute.

been involved ← gone round. Parallel etymology (Hebrew סָבַב, involve ← Latin volvo).

life ← soul.
1 Sam 22:23 ‫שְׁבָ֤ה אִתִּי֙ אַל־תִּירָ֔א כִּ֛י אֲשֶׁר־יְבַקֵּ֥שׁ אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֖י יְבַקֵּ֣שׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ כִּֽי־מִשְׁמֶ֥רֶת אַתָּ֖ה עִמָּדִֽי׃‬ Stay with me, do not fear, for he who seeks my life seeks your life, so that you are a guard with me.” life (2x)soul.

guard ← guarding. The office rather than the individual.
1 Sam 23:1 ‫וַיַּגִּ֥דוּ לְדָוִ֖ד לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֤ה פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ נִלְחָמִ֣ים בִּקְעִילָ֔ה וְהֵ֖מָּה שֹׁסִ֥ים אֶת־הַגֳּרָנֽוֹת׃‬ And they reported to David and said, “Look, the Philistines are fighting in Keilah, and they are plundering the threshing floors.” threshing floors: perhaps market areas here.
1 Sam 23:2 ‫וַיִּשְׁאַ֨ל דָּוִ֤ד בַּֽיהוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַאֵלֵ֣ךְ וְהִכֵּ֔יתִי בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה ס וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד לֵ֚ךְ וְהִכִּ֣יתָ בַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְהוֹשַׁעְתָּ֖ אֶת־קְעִילָֽה׃‬ Then David inquired of the Lord and said, “Should I go and strike these Philistines?” And the Lord said to David, “Go and strike the Philistines and save Keilah.” of ← at.
1 Sam 23:3 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י דָוִד֙ אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּ֨ה אֲנַ֥חְנוּ פֹ֛ה בִּֽיהוּדָ֖ה יְרֵאִ֑ים וְאַף֙ כִּֽי־נֵלֵ֣ךְ קְעִלָ֔ה אֶל־מַֽעַרְכ֖וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃ ס‬ Then David's men said to him, “Look, we here in Judah are afraid, and how much more so if we go to Keilah, to the ranks of the Philistines.”
1 Sam 23:4 ‫וַיּ֨וֹסֶף ע֤וֹד דָּוִד֙ לִשְׁאֹ֣ל בַּֽיהוָ֔ה ס וַֽיַּעֲנֵ֖הוּ יְהוָ֑ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר ק֚וּם רֵ֣ד קְעִילָ֔ה כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י נֹתֵ֛ן אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים בְּיָדֶֽךָ׃‬ So David inquired again of the Lord, and the Lord answered him and said, “Arise, go down to Keilah, for I am delivering the Philistines into your hand.” again ← yet againadded yet (to inquire).

of ← at.
1 Sam 23:5 ‫וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִד֩ *ואנשו **וַאֲנָשָׁ֨יו קְעִילָ֜ה וַיִּלָּ֣חֶם בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיִּנְהַג֙ אֶת־מִקְנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיַּ֥ךְ בָּהֶ֖ם מַכָּ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה וַיֹּ֣שַׁע דָּוִ֔ד אֵ֖ת יֹשְׁבֵ֥י קְעִילָֽה׃ ס‬ Then David and his men went to Keilah and fought the Philistines, and he carried their cattle away, and he struck a great blow on them. So David saved the inhabitants of Keilah. his men: the ketiv appears to be a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.
1 Sam 23:6 ‫וַיְהִ֗י בִּ֠בְרֹחַ אֶבְיָתָ֧ר בֶּן־אֲחִימֶ֛לֶךְ אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד קְעִילָ֑ה אֵפ֖וֹד יָרַ֥ד בְּיָדֽוֹ׃‬ Now it had come to pass when Abiathar the son of Ahimelech fled to David in Keilah, that he came down with the ephod in his hand. Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.
1 Sam 23:7 ‫וַיֻּגַּ֣ד לְשָׁא֔וּל כִּי־בָ֥א דָוִ֖ד קְעִילָ֑ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֗וּל נִכַּ֨ר אֹת֤וֹ אֱלֹהִים֙ בְּיָדִ֔י כִּ֚י נִסְגַּ֣ר לָב֔וֹא בְּעִ֖יר דְּלָתַ֥יִם וּבְרִֽיחַ׃‬ And it was reported to Saul that David had arrived in Keilah, and Saul said, “God has consigned him to my hand, for he has shut himself in by entering a town with gates and a bolt.” consigned ← estranged.

by entering: gerundial use of the infinitive.

gates ← doors.
1 Sam 23:8 ‫וַיְשַׁמַּ֥ע שָׁא֛וּל אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה לָרֶ֣דֶת קְעִילָ֔ה לָצ֥וּר אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד וְאֶל־אֲנָשָֽׁיו׃‬ And Saul called all the people up to war, to go down to Keilah, to besiege David and his men. called ... up ← summoned.
1 Sam 23:9 ‫וַיֵּ֣דַע דָּוִ֔ד כִּ֣י עָלָ֔יו שָׁא֖וּל מַחֲרִ֣ישׁ הָרָעָ֑ה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־אֶבְיָתָ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֔ן הַגִּ֖ישָׁה הָאֵפֽוֹד׃ ס‬ Now David knew that Saul was devising evil against him, and he said to Abiathar the priest, “Bring the ephod here.” Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.

here ← near.
1 Sam 23:10 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֮ דָּוִד֒ יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שָׁמֹ֤עַ שָׁמַע֙ עַבְדְּךָ֔ כִּֽי־מְבַקֵּ֥שׁ שָׁא֖וּל לָב֣וֹא אֶל־קְעִילָ֑ה לְשַׁחֵ֥ת לָעִ֖יר בַּעֲבוּרִֽי׃‬ And David said, “O Lord God of Israel, your servant has reliably heard that Saul is attempting to come to Keilah to destroy the city on account of me. has reliably heard: infinitive absolute.

attempting ← seeking.
1 Sam 23:11 ‫הֲיַסְגִּרֻ֣נִי בַעֲלֵי֩ קְעִילָ֨ה בְיָד֜וֹ הֲיֵרֵ֣ד שָׁא֗וּל כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ שָׁמַ֣ע עַבְדֶּ֔ךָ יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַגֶּד־נָ֖א לְעַבְדֶּ֑ךָ ס וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה יֵרֵֽד׃‬ Will the inhabitants of Keilah deliver me up into his hand? Will Saul come down as your servant has heard? O Lord God of Israel, do tell your servant.” And the Lord said, “He will come down.” inhabitants: or lords, rulers.
1 Sam 23:12 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד הֲיַסְגִּ֜רוּ בַּעֲלֵ֧י קְעִילָ֛ה אֹתִ֥י וְאֶת־אֲנָשַׁ֖י בְּיַד־שָׁא֑וּל וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה יַסְגִּֽירוּ׃ ס‬ Then David said, “Will the inhabitants of Keilah deliver me and my men up into Saul's hand.” And the Lord said, “They will deliver you up.” inhabitants: or lords, rulers.
1 Sam 23:13 ‫וַיָּקָם֩ דָּוִ֨ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֜יו כְּשֵׁשׁ־מֵא֣וֹת אִ֗ישׁ וַיֵּצְאוּ֙ מִקְּעִלָ֔ה וַיִּֽתְהַלְּכ֖וּ בַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יִתְהַלָּ֑כוּ וּלְשָׁא֣וּל הֻגַּ֗ד כִּֽי־נִמְלַ֤ט דָּוִד֙ מִקְּעִילָ֔ה וַיֶּחְדַּ֖ל לָצֵֽאת׃‬ So David arose, as did his men – about six hundred men – and they went out of Keilah and wandered around wherever they could wander around. And it was reported to Saul that David had escaped from Keilah. So he stopped going out.
1 Sam 23:14 ‫וַיֵּ֨שֶׁב דָּוִ֤ד בַּמִּדְבָּר֙ בַּמְּצָד֔וֹת וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב בָּהָ֖ר בְּמִדְבַּר־זִ֑יף וַיְבַקְשֵׁ֤הוּ שָׁאוּל֙ כָּל־הַיָּמִ֔ים וְלֹֽא־נְתָנ֥וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּיָדֽוֹ׃‬ Meanwhile David stayed in the desert, in strongholds, and he stayed in the mountain in the Desert of Ziph, while Saul sought him all the time, but God did not deliver him into his hand. time ← days.
1 Sam 23:15 ‫וַיַּ֣רְא דָוִ֔ד כִּֽי־יָצָ֥א שָׁא֖וּל לְבַקֵּ֣שׁ אֶת־נַפְשׁ֑וֹ וְדָוִ֥ד בְּמִדְבַּר־זִ֖יף בַּחֹֽרְשָׁה׃ ס‬ And David saw that Saul had come out to seek his life, while David was in the Desert of Ziph in a wood. life ← soul.
1 Sam 23:16 ‫וַיָּ֙קָם֙ יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בֶּן־שָׁא֔וּל וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד חֹ֑רְשָׁה וַיְחַזֵּ֥ק אֶת־יָד֖וֹ בֵּאלֹהִֽים׃‬ And Jonathan, Saul's son, arose and went to David, to the wood, and he encouraged him in God. encouraged him ← strengthened his hand.
1 Sam 23:17 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו אַל־תִּירָ֗א כִּ֠י לֹ֤א תִֽמְצָאֲךָ֙ יַ֚ד שָׁא֣וּל אָבִ֔י וְאַתָּה֙ תִּמְלֹ֣ךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָנֹכִ֖י אֶֽהְיֶה־לְּךָ֣ לְמִשְׁנֶ֑ה וְגַם־שָׁא֥וּל אָבִ֖י יֹדֵ֥עַ כֵּֽן׃‬ And he said to him, “Do not be afraid, for the hand of Saul my father will not find you, and you will reign over Israel, and I will be second to you. And Saul my father knows this.” this ← so.
1 Sam 23:18 ‫וַיִּכְרְת֧וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֛ם בְּרִ֖ית לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וַיֵּ֤שֶׁב דָּוִד֙ בַּחֹ֔רְשָׁה וִיהוֹנָתָ֖ן הָלַ֥ךְ לְבֵיתֽוֹ׃ ס‬ And the two of them made a covenant before the Lord, and David stayed in the wood, but Jonathan went to his home.
1 Sam 23:19 ‫וַיַּעֲל֤וּ זִפִים֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל הַגִּבְעָ֖תָה לֵאמֹ֑ר הֲל֣וֹא דָ֠וִד מִסְתַּתֵּ֨ר עִמָּ֤נוּ בַמְּצָדוֹת֙ בַּחֹ֔רְשָׁה בְּגִבְעַת֙ הַֽחֲכִילָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר מִימִ֥ין הַיְשִׁימֽוֹן׃‬ Then some Ziphites came up to Saul, to Gibeah, and they said, “Isn't David hiding with us in the fortresses in the wood, in the hill of Hachilah, which is to the south of Jeshimon? Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.

Hachilah ← the Hachilah.

south: or right.
1 Sam 23:20 ‫וְ֠עַתָּה לְכָל־אַוַּ֨ת נַפְשְׁךָ֥ הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ לָרֶ֖דֶת רֵ֑ד וְלָ֥נוּ הַסְגִּיר֖וֹ בְּיַ֥ד הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ So now, in accordance with all your heart's desire, O king, to come down, do come down, and it will be up to us to deliver him into the king's hand.” your heart's desire ← the desire of your soul.
1 Sam 23:21 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל בְּרוּכִ֥ים אַתֶּ֖ם לַֽיהוָ֑ה כִּ֥י חֲמַלְתֶּ֖ם עָלָֽי׃‬ At this Saul said, “Blessed are you to the Lord, for you have had compassion on me. at this: wider use of the vav.
1 Sam 23:22 ‫לְכוּ־נָ֞א הָכִ֣ינוּ ע֗וֹד וּדְע֤וּ וּרְאוּ֙ אֶת־מְקוֹמוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה רַגְל֔וֹ מִ֥י רָאָ֖הוּ שָׁ֑ם כִּ֚י אָמַ֣ר אֵלַ֔י עָר֥וֹם יַעְרִ֖ם הֽוּא׃‬ Go now and keep preparing, and find out and observe his whereabouts and where he treks, and who has seen him there, for I have been told that he acts very craftily. find out and observe ← know and see.

he treks ← his foot will be.

I have been told ← (one) has said to me.

he acts very craftily: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 23:23 ‫וּרְא֣וּ וּדְע֗וּ מִכֹּ֤ל הַמַּֽחֲבֹאִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִתְחַבֵּ֣א שָׁ֔ם וְשַׁבְתֶּ֤ם אֵלַי֙ אֶל־נָכ֔וֹן וְהָלַכְתִּ֖י אִתְּכֶ֑ם וְהָיָה֙ אִם־יֶשְׁנ֣וֹ בָאָ֔רֶץ וְחִפַּשְׂתִּ֣י אֹת֔וֹ בְּכֹ֖ל אַלְפֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה׃‬ So observe and find out about all the hiding places where he hides, and come back to me with confirmation, and I will go with you, and it will come to pass, if he is in the land, that I will seek him among all the thousands of Judah.” with confirmation ← to fixed / confirmed.
1 Sam 23:24 ‫וַיָּק֛וּמוּ וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ זִ֖יפָה לִפְנֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וְדָוִ֨ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֜יו בְּמִדְבַּ֤ר מָעוֹן֙ בָּעֲרָבָ֔ה אֶ֖ל יְמִ֥ין הַיְשִׁימֽוֹן׃‬ So they arose and went to Ziph in front of Saul, whereas David and his men were in the Desert of Maon, in the arid tract to the south of Jeshimon. whereas: wider use of the vav.

south: or right.
1 Sam 23:25 ‫וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ שָׁא֣וּל וַאֲנָשָׁיו֮ לְבַקֵּשׁ֒ וַיַּגִּ֣דוּ לְדָוִ֔ד וַיֵּ֣רֶד הַסֶּ֔לַע וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּ֣ר מָע֑וֹן וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע שָׁא֔וּל וַיִּרְדֹּ֥ף אַחֲרֵֽי־דָוִ֖ד מִדְבַּ֥ר מָעֽוֹן׃‬ And Saul and his men went to search for him, and it was reported to David, who then went down to the rock and stayed in the Desert of Maon. And Saul heard of it, and he pursued David in the Desert of Maon. it was reported ← they reported. Avoidance of the passive.
1 Sam 23:26 ‫וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ שָׁא֜וּל מִצַּ֤ד הָהָר֙ מִזֶּ֔ה וְדָוִ֧ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֛יו מִצַּ֥ד הָהָ֖ר מִזֶּ֑ה וַיְהִ֨י דָוִ֜ד נֶחְפָּ֤ז לָלֶ֙כֶת֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י שָׁא֔וּל וְשָׁא֣וּל וַאֲנָשָׁ֗יו עֹֽטְרִ֛ים אֶל־דָּוִ֥ד וְאֶל־אֲנָשָׁ֖יו לְתָפְשָֽׂם׃‬ And Saul went to one side of the mountain, whereas David and his men were on the other side of the mountain. Then David became alarmed, intending to move away from Saul, while Saul and his men were surrounding David and his men, in order to capture them. one side ... the other side ← from this ... from this, as in 1 Sam 17:3.

whereas: wider use of the vav.
1 Sam 23:27 ‫וּמַלְאָ֣ךְ בָּ֔א אֶל־שָׁא֖וּל לֵאמֹ֑ר מַהֲרָ֣ה וְלֵ֔כָה כִּֽי־פָשְׁט֥וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ Then a messenger came to Saul and said, “Hurry and go, for the Philistines have invaded the land.”
1 Sam 23:28 ‫וַיָּ֣שָׁב שָׁא֗וּל מִרְדֹף֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ לִקְרַ֣את פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים עַל־כֵּ֗ן קָֽרְאוּ֙ לַמָּק֣וֹם הַה֔וּא סֶ֖לַע הַֽמַּחְלְקֽוֹת׃‬ So Saul returned from pursuing David, and he went to confront the Philistines, which is why they call that place Sela-Hammahlekoth. Sela-Hammahlekoth: i.e. Rock of smoothness or divisions.
1 Sam 24:1
1 Sam 23:29AV
‫וַיַּ֥עַל דָּוִ֖ד מִשָּׁ֑ם וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בִּמְצָד֥וֹת עֵֽין־גֶּֽדִי׃‬ Then David went up from there and stayed in the strongholds of En-Gedi.
1 Sam 24:2
1 Sam 24:1AV
‫וַיְהִ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ שָׁ֣ב שָׁא֔וּל מֵאַחֲרֵ֖י פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיַּגִּ֤דוּ לוֹ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִנֵּ֣ה דָוִ֔ד בְּמִדְבַּ֖ר עֵ֥ין גֶּֽדִי׃ ס‬ And it came to pass, when Saul returned from pursuing the Philistines, that they reported to him and said, “Look, David is in the Desert of En-Gedi.” from pursuing ← from after.
1 Sam 24:3
1 Sam 24:2AV
‫וַיִּקַּ֣ח שָׁא֗וּל שְׁלֹ֧שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֛ים אִ֥ישׁ בָּח֖וּר מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּ֗לֶךְ לְבַקֵּ֤שׁ אֶת־דָּוִד֙ וַֽאֲנָשָׁ֔יו עַל־פְּנֵ֖י צוּרֵ֥י הַיְּעֵלִֽים׃‬ Then Saul took three thousand men, chosen from the whole of Israel, and he went to seek David and his men in the area of the rocks of the mountain goats. in the area of ← on the surface of.
1 Sam 24:4
1 Sam 24:3AV
‫וַ֠יָּבֹא אֶל־גִּדְר֨וֹת הַצֹּ֤אן עַל־הַדֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ וְשָׁ֣ם מְעָרָ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֥א שָׁא֖וּל לְהָסֵ֣ךְ אֶת־רַגְלָ֑יו וְדָוִד֙ וַאֲנָשָׁ֔יו בְּיַרְכְּתֵ֥י הַמְּעָרָ֖ה יֹשְׁבִֽים׃‬ And they came to the sheepfolds on the way, and there was a cave there, and Saul went in to cover his feet. Now David and his men were stationed at the sides of the cave. were stationed ← (were) sitting / staying.
1 Sam 24:5
1 Sam 24:4AV
‫וַיֹּאמְרוּ֩ אַנְשֵׁ֨י דָוִ֜ד אֵלָ֗יו הִנֵּ֨ה הַיּ֜וֹם אֲ‍ֽשֶׁר־אָמַ֧ר יְהוָ֣ה אֵלֶ֗יךָ הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֜י נֹתֵ֤ן אֶת־*איביך **אֹֽיִבְךָ֙ בְּיָדֶ֔ךָ וְעָשִׂ֣יתָ לּ֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר יִטַ֣ב בְּעֵינֶ֑יךָ וַיָּ֣קָם דָּוִ֗ד וַיִּכְרֹ֛ת אֶת־כְּנַֽף־הַמְּעִ֥יל אֲשֶׁר־לְשָׁא֖וּל בַּלָּֽט׃‬ And David's men said to him, “Behold the day about which the Lord told you, when he said, ‘Behold, I am giving you {Q: your enemy} [K: your enemies] in your hand, and you can do to him as is good in your sight.’ ” Then David arose and cut the hem of Saul's coat in secret.
1 Sam 24:6
1 Sam 24:5AV
‫וַֽיְהִי֙ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֔ן וַיַּ֥ךְ לֵב־דָּוִ֖ד אֹת֑וֹ עַ֚ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר כָּרַ֔ת אֶת־כָּנָ֖ף אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְשָׁאֽוּל׃ ס‬ And it came to pass after that, that David's heart pained him, because he had cut the hem of Saul's coat. pained ← hit.
1 Sam 24:7
1 Sam 24:6AV
‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לַאֲנָשָׁ֜יו חָלִ֧ילָה לִּ֣י מֵֽיהוָ֗ה אִם־אֶעֱשֶׂה֩ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֨ר הַזֶּ֤ה לַֽאדֹנִי֙ לִמְשִׁ֣יחַ יְהוָ֔ה לִשְׁלֹ֥חַ יָדִ֖י בּ֑וֹ כִּֽי־מְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָ֖ה הֽוּא׃‬ And he said to his men, “Far be it from me with the Lord that I should do this thing to my lord, to the Lord's anointed, to lay my hand on him, for he is the Lord's anointed.” lay my hand on ← send my hand on / against.
1 Sam 24:8
1 Sam 24:7AV
‫וַיְשַׁסַּ֨ע דָּוִ֤ד אֶת־אֲנָשָׁיו֙ בַּדְּבָרִ֔ים וְלֹ֥א נְתָנָ֖ם לָק֣וּם אֶל־שָׁא֑וּל וְשָׁא֛וּל קָ֥ם מֵהַמְּעָרָ֖ה וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ בַּדָּֽרֶךְ׃ ס‬ And David restrained his men with these words, and he did not allow them to rise up against Saul. And Saul arose from the cave and went on his way. restrained: the usual meaning of this word is divided. [AnLx]= rebuked; others, kept off.
1 Sam 24:9
1 Sam 24:8AV
‫וַיָּ֨קָם דָּוִ֜ד אַחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן וַיֵּצֵא֙ *מן־*המערה **מֵֽהַמְּעָרָ֔ה וַיִּקְרָ֧א אַֽחֲרֵי־שָׁא֛וּל לֵאמֹ֖ר אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיַּבֵּ֤ט שָׁאוּל֙ אַֽחֲרָ֔יו וַיִּקֹּ֨ד דָּוִ֥ד אַפַּ֛יִם אַ֖רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּֽחוּ׃ ס‬ Then David arose after that, and he came out of the cave, and he called after Saul and said, “My lord the king.” Then Saul looked behind him and David bowed face down to the ground and prostrated himself. of the cave: the ketiv and qeré involve the same preposition in its separable and inseparable forms.
1 Sam 24:10
1 Sam 24:9AV
‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ לְשָׁא֔וּל לָ֧מָּה תִשְׁמַ֛ע אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י אָדָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֣ה דָוִ֔ד מְבַקֵּ֖שׁ רָעָתֶֽךָ׃‬ And David said to Saul, “Why do you listen to the words of a man who says, ‘Look, David is trying to harm you’?
1 Sam 24:11
1 Sam 24:10AV
‫הִנֵּה֩ הַיּ֨וֹם הַזֶּ֜ה רָא֣וּ עֵינֶ֗יךָ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־נְתָנְךָ֩ יְהוָ֨ה ׀ הַיּ֤וֹם ׀ בְּיָדִי֙ בַּמְּעָרָ֔ה וְאָמַ֥ר לַהֲרָגֲךָ֖ וַתָּ֣חָס עָלֶ֑יךָ וָאֹמַ֗ר לֹא־אֶשְׁלַ֤ח יָדִי֙ בַּֽאדֹנִ֔י כִּי־מְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָ֖ה הֽוּא׃‬ Look, this day your eyes have seen that the Lord handed you over to me this day in the cave, and one would have said to kill you, but my eye spared you, and I said, ‘I will not lay my hand on my lord, for he is the Lord's anointed.’ handed you over to me ← gave you into my hand.

lay my hand on ← send my hand on / against.
1 Sam 24:12
1 Sam 24:11AV
‫וְאָבִ֣י רְאֵ֔ה גַּ֗ם רְאֵ֛ה אֶת־כְּנַ֥ף מְעִילְךָ֖ בְּיָדִ֑י כִּ֡י בְּכָרְתִי֩ אֶת־כְּנַ֨ף מְעִֽילְךָ֜ וְלֹ֣א הֲרַגְתִּ֗יךָ דַּ֤ע וּרְאֵה֙ כִּי֩ אֵ֨ין בְּיָדִ֜י רָעָ֤ה וָפֶ֙שַׁע֙ וְלֹא־חָטָ֣אתִי לָ֔ךְ וְאַתָּ֛ה צֹדֶ֥ה אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֖י לְקַחְתָּֽהּ׃‬ And, my father, just look, and see the hem of your coat in my hand, for when I cut the hem of your coat, I did not kill you. Know and see that there is no evil or transgression in my hand, and that I have not sinned against you, yet you hunt me down to take my life. father: standing for father-in-law.

just look, and see ← see, also see.

yet: adversative / concessive use of the vav.

hunt me down to take my life ← lie in wait for my soul to take it.
1 Sam 24:13
1 Sam 24:12AV
‫יִשְׁפֹּ֤ט יְהוָה֙ בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֔ךָ וּנְקָמַ֥נִי יְהוָ֖ה מִמֶּ֑ךָּ וְיָדִ֖י לֹ֥א תִֽהְיֶה־בָּֽךְ׃‬ May the Lord judge between me and you, and may the Lord avenge me on you, but my hand will not be on you.
1 Sam 24:14
1 Sam 24:13AV
‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יֹאמַ֗ר מְשַׁל֙ הַקַּדְמֹנִ֔י מֵרְשָׁעִ֖ים יֵ֣צֵא רֶ֑שַׁע וְיָדִ֖י לֹ֥א תִֽהְיֶה־בָּֽךְ׃‬ As the proverb of the ancients says, ‘Wickedness proceeds from the wicked’, but my hand will not be on you. ancients ← ancient.
1 Sam 24:15
1 Sam 24:14AV
‫אַחֲרֵ֨י מִ֤י יָצָא֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אַחֲרֵ֥י מִ֖י אַתָּ֣ה רֹדֵ֑ף אַֽחֲרֵי֙ כֶּ֣לֶב מֵ֔ת אַחֲרֵ֖י פַּרְעֹ֥שׁ אֶחָֽד׃‬ After whom has the king of Israel gone out? Whom are you pursuing? A dead dog? A single flea?
1 Sam 24:16
1 Sam 24:15AV
‫וְהָיָ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לְדַיָּ֔ן וְשָׁפַ֖ט בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֑ךָ וְיֵ֙רֶא֙ וְיָרֵ֣ב אֶת־רִיבִ֔י וְיִשְׁפְּטֵ֖נִי מִיָּדֶֽךָ׃ פ‬ And may the Lord be a judge, and may he judge between me and you, and may he see and contend my case and acquit me from your charge.” acquit me from your charge ← judge me from your hand.
1 Sam 24:17
1 Sam 24:16AV
‫וַיְהִ֣י ׀ כְּכַלּ֣וֹת דָּוִ֗ד לְדַבֵּ֞ר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֤ים הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל הֲקֹלְךָ֥ זֶ֖ה בְּנִ֣י דָוִ֑ד וַיִּשָּׂ֥א שָׁא֛וּל קֹל֖וֹ וַיֵּֽבְךְּ׃‬ And it came to pass, when David had finished speaking these words to Saul, that Saul said, “Is this your voice, my son David?” And Saul raised his voice and wept. son: standing for son-in-law.
1 Sam 24:18
1 Sam 24:17AV
‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד צַדִּ֥יק אַתָּ֖ה מִמֶּ֑נִּי כִּ֤י אַתָּה֙ גְּמַלְתַּ֣נִי הַטּוֹבָ֔ה וַאֲנִ֖י גְּמַלְתִּ֥יךָ הָרָעָֽה׃‬ And he said to David, “You are more righteous than I am, for you have repaid me good, whereas I repaid you evil.
1 Sam 24:19
1 Sam 24:18AV
‫*ואת **וְאַתָּה֙ הִגַּ֣דְתָּ הַיּ֔וֹם אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֥יתָה אִתִּ֖י טוֹבָ֑ה אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר סִגְּרַ֧נִי יְהוָ֛ה בְּיָדְךָ֖ וְלֹ֥א הֲרַגְתָּֽנִי׃‬ And you have shown me today that you have done good to me – that when the Lord delivered me up into your hand, you did not kill me. you: the ketiv, nominally a feminine form, is perhaps influenced by Aramaic, or it has to be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.
1 Sam 24:20
1 Sam 24:19AV
‫וְכִֽי־יִמְצָ֥א אִישׁ֙ אֶת־אֹ֣יְב֔וֹ וְשִׁלְּח֖וֹ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ טוֹבָ֑ה וַֽיהוָה֙ יְשַׁלֶּמְךָ֣ טוֹבָ֔ה תַּ֚חַת הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִׂ֖יתָה לִֽי׃‬ For if a man finds his enemy, will he let him cheerily go on his way? So may the Lord repay you with goodness, because of what you did with me on this day. let him cheerily go on his way ← let him go on a good way.
1 Sam 24:21
1 Sam 24:20AV
‫וְעַתָּה֙ הִנֵּ֣ה יָדַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֥י מָלֹ֖ךְ תִּמְל֑וֹךְ וְקָ֙מָה֙ בְּיָ֣דְךָ֔ מַמְלֶ֖כֶת יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And now, look, I know that you will certainly reign and that the kingdom of Israel will be established under your authority. will certainly reign: infinitive absolute.

will be established under your authority ← will rise in your hand.
1 Sam 24:22
1 Sam 24:21AV
‫וְעַתָּ֗ה הִשָּׁ֤בְעָה לִּי֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה אִם־תַּכְרִ֥ית אֶת־זַרְעִ֖י אַֽחֲרָ֑י וְאִם־תַּשְׁמִ֥יד אֶת־שְׁמִ֖י מִבֵּ֥ית אָבִֽי׃‬ So now, swear to me by the Lord that you will not cut my seed off after me, and that you will not obliterate my name from the house of my father.” that you will not (2x): strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.

obliterate ← destroy.
1 Sam 24:23
1 Sam 24:22AV
‫וַיִּשָּׁבַ֥ע דָּוִ֖ד לְשָׁא֑וּל וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ וְדָוִד֙ וַֽאֲנָשָׁ֔יו עָל֖וּ עַל־הַמְּצוּדָֽה׃ פ‬ Then David swore to Saul, and Saul went to his house, and David and his men went up to the stronghold.
1 Sam 25:1 ‫וַיָּ֣מָת שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיִּקָּבְצ֤וּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיִּסְפְּדוּ־ל֔וֹ וַיִּקְבְּרֻ֥הוּ בְּבֵית֖וֹ בָּרָמָ֑ה וַיָּ֣קָם דָּוִ֔ד וַיֵּ֖רֶד אֶל־מִדְבַּ֥ר פָּארָֽן׃ ס‬ When Samuel died, the whole of Israel gathered and mourned for him, and they buried him in his house in Ramah. And David arose and went down to the Desert of Paran.
1 Sam 25:2 ‫וְאִ֨ישׁ בְּמָע֜וֹן וּמַעֲשֵׂ֣הוּ בַכַּרְמֶ֗ל וְהָאִישׁ֙ גָּד֣וֹל מְאֹ֔ד וְל֛וֹ צֹ֥אן שְׁלֹֽשֶׁת־אֲלָפִ֖ים וְאֶ֣לֶף עִזִּ֑ים וַיְהִ֛י בִּגְזֹ֥ז אֶת־צֹאנ֖וֹ בַּכַּרְמֶֽל׃‬ Now a man in Maon, whose business was at Carmel, a man who was very wealthy, who had three thousand sheep and one thousand goats, was busy with the shearing of his sheep at Carmel. Carmel (2x)the Carmel.

wealthy ← great.

with the shearing: gerundial use of the infinitive.
1 Sam 25:3 ‫וְשֵׁ֤ם הָאִישׁ֙ נָבָ֔ל וְשֵׁ֥ם אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ אֲבִגָ֑יִל וְהָאִשָּׁ֤ה טֽוֹבַת־שֶׂ֙כֶל֙ וִ֣יפַת תֹּ֔אַר וְהָאִ֥ישׁ קָשֶׁ֛ה וְרַ֥ע מַעֲלָלִ֖ים וְה֥וּא *כלבו **כָלִבִּֽי׃‬ And the man's name was Nabal, and the name of his wife was Abigail, and the woman was very intelligent and attractive in appearance, but the man was harsh and evil in his actions, and he was a Calebite. Calebite: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

very intelligent ← good of intelligence.
1 Sam 25:4 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע דָּוִ֖ד בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר כִּֽי־גֹזֵ֥ז נָבָ֖ל אֶת־צֹאנֽוֹ׃‬ Now David heard in the desert that Nabal was shearing his sheep,
1 Sam 25:5 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח דָּוִ֖ד עֲשָׂרָ֣ה נְעָרִ֑ים וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד לַנְּעָרִ֗ים עֲל֤וּ כַרְמֶ֙לָה֙ וּבָאתֶ֣ם אֶל־נָבָ֔ל וּשְׁאֶלְתֶּם־ל֥וֹ בִשְׁמִ֖י לְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ and David sent ten servant-lads, and David said to the servant-lads, “Go up to Carmel and go to Nabal, and ask him how he is in my name. how he isabout peace.
1 Sam 25:6 ‫וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֥ם כֹּ֖ה לֶחָ֑י וְאַתָּ֤ה שָׁלוֹם֙ וּבֵיתְךָ֣ שָׁל֔וֹם וְכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ֖ שָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ And say this to the man who lives well: ‘Peace to you and peace to your household, and peace to all of yours. this ← thus.
1 Sam 25:7 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה שָׁמַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֥י גֹזְזִ֖ים לָ֑ךְ עַתָּ֗ה הָרֹעִ֤ים אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ֙ הָי֣וּ עִמָּ֔נוּ לֹ֣א הֶכְלַמְנ֗וּם וְלֹֽא־נִפְקַ֤ד לָהֶם֙ מְא֔וּמָה כָּל־יְמֵ֖י הֱיוֹתָ֥ם בַּכַּרְמֶֽל׃‬ Well now, I have heard that you have shearers, and now as for your shepherds who were with us, we have not put them to shame, and they didn't lack anything all the time they were at Carmel. well: wider use of the vav.

time ← days.

Carmel ← the Carmel.
1 Sam 25:8 ‫שְׁאַ֨ל אֶת־נְעָרֶ֜יךָ וְיַגִּ֣ידוּ לָ֗ךְ וְיִמְצְא֨וּ הַנְּעָרִ֥ים חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ כִּֽי־עַל־י֥וֹם ט֖וֹב בָּ֑נוּ תְּנָה־נָּ֗א אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּמְצָ֤א יָֽדְךָ֙ לַעֲבָדֶ֔יךָ וּלְבִנְךָ֖ לְדָוִֽד׃‬ Ask your servant-lads, and they will tell you, and may the servant-lads find favour in your sight, for we have come on a good day. Please give what you can afford to your servants and to your son David.’ ” we have come on a good day: we take בָּנוּ, strictly at / among us, as a scriptio defectiva spelling for בָּאנוּ, we have come. A “good day”, also in modern times, means a festive day.

what you can afford ← what your hand will find.
1 Sam 25:9 ‫וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ נַעֲרֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד וַיְדַבְּר֧וּ אֶל־נָבָ֛ל כְּכָל־הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה בְּשֵׁ֣ם דָּוִ֑ד וַיָּנֽוּחוּ׃‬ So David's servant-lads went there, and they spoke to Nabal in line with all these words in David's name, then they paused.
1 Sam 25:10 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן נָבָ֜ל אֶת־עַבְדֵ֤י דָוִד֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר מִ֥י דָוִ֖ד וּמִ֣י בֶן־יִשָׁ֑י הַיּוֹם֙ רַבּ֣וּ עֲבָדִ֔ים הַמִּתְפָּ֣רְצִ֔ים אִ֖ישׁ מִפְּנֵ֥י אֲדֹנָֽיו׃‬ Then Nabal answered David's servants and said, “Who is David, and who is the son of Jesse? Nowadays there are many servants who break away from their master. who ← who each.

their master ← his master.
1 Sam 25:11 ‫וְלָקַחְתִּ֤י אֶת־לַחְמִי֙ וְאֶת־מֵימַ֔י וְאֵת֙ טִבְחָתִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר טָבַ֖חְתִּי לְגֹֽזְזָ֑י וְנָֽתַתִּי֙ לַֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתִּי אֵ֥י מִזֶּ֖ה הֵֽמָּה׃‬ So should I take my bread and my water, and my meat which I have slaughtered for my shearers, and give it to men when I don't know where they are from?” meat ← slaughter.

when ← (for) whom.
1 Sam 25:12 ‫וַיַּהַפְכ֥וּ נַעֲרֵֽי־דָוִ֖ד לְדַרְכָּ֑ם וַיָּשֻׁ֙בוּ֙ וַיָּבֹ֔אוּ וַיַּגִּ֣דוּ ל֔וֹ כְּכֹ֖ל הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵֽלֶּה׃‬ Then David's servant-lads turned back to their way and returned, and when they had arrived, they told him about all these things. about ← according to.
1 Sam 25:13 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ דָּוִ֨ד לַאֲנָשָׁ֜יו חִגְר֣וּ ׀ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־חַרְבּ֗וֹ וַֽיַּחְגְּרוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־חַרְבּ֔וֹ וַיַּחְגֹּ֥ר גַּם־דָּוִ֖ד אֶת־חַרְבּ֑וֹ וַֽיַּעֲל֣וּ ׀ אַחֲרֵ֣י דָוִ֗ד כְּאַרְבַּ֤ע מֵאוֹת֙ אִ֔ישׁ וּמָאתַ֖יִם יָשְׁב֥וּ עַל־הַכֵּלִֽים׃‬ At this David said to his men, “Let each man gird on his sword.” And each man girded on his sword, and David also girded on his sword, and about four hundred men went up behind David, and two hundred remained with the equipment. at this: wider use of the vav.

with ← at.
1 Sam 25:14 ‫וְלַאֲבִיגַ֙יִל֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת נָבָ֔ל הִגִּ֧יד נַֽעַר־אֶחָ֛ד מֵהַנְּעָרִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֣ה שָׁלַח֩ דָּוִ֨ד מַלְאָכִ֧ים ׀ מֵֽהַמִּדְבָּ֛ר לְבָרֵ֥ךְ אֶת־אֲדֹנֵ֖ינוּ וַיָּ֥עַט בָּהֶֽם׃‬ But one of the servant-lads told Abigail, Nabal's wife, and he said, “Look, David sent messengers from the desert to bless our lord, but he reacted aggressively to them. one of the servant-lads ← one lad of the lads.
1 Sam 25:15 ‫וְהָ֣אֲנָשִׁ֔ים טֹבִ֥ים לָ֖נוּ מְאֹ֑ד וְלֹ֤א הָכְלַ֙מְנוּ֙ וְלֹֽא־פָקַ֣דְנוּ מְא֔וּמָה כָּל־יְמֵי֙ הִתְהַלַּ֣כְנוּ אִתָּ֔ם בִּֽהְיוֹתֵ֖נוּ בַּשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬ But the men were very good to us, and we were not treated contemptuously, and we did not miss anything all the time we associated with them, when we were in the countryside. countryside ← field.
1 Sam 25:16 ‫חוֹמָה֙ הָי֣וּ עָלֵ֔ינוּ גַּם־לַ֖יְלָה גַּם־יוֹמָ֑ם כָּל־יְמֵ֛י הֱיוֹתֵ֥נוּ עִמָּ֖ם רֹעִ֥ים הַצֹּֽאן׃‬ They were a wall to us, both night and day, all the time when we were with them tending the sheep. time ← days.
1 Sam 25:17 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה דְּעִ֤י וּרְאִי֙ מַֽה־תַּעֲשִׂ֔י כִּֽי־כָלְתָ֧ה הָרָעָ֛ה אֶל־אֲדֹנֵ֖ינוּ וְעַ֣ל כָּל־בֵּית֑וֹ וְהוּא֙ בֶּן־בְּלִיַּ֔עַל מִדַּבֵּ֖ר אֵלָֽיו׃‬ So now, decide and see what you will do, for evil has been resolved against our lord and on all his house, and he is too useless to speak to.” decide ← know.

useless ← son of without use.
1 Sam 25:18 ‫וַתְּמַהֵ֣ר *אבוגיל **אֲבִיגַ֡יִל וַתִּקַּח֩ מָאתַ֨יִם לֶ֜חֶם וּשְׁנַ֣יִם נִבְלֵי־יַ֗יִן וְחָמֵ֨שׁ צֹ֤אן *עשוות **עֲשׂוּיֹת֙ וְחָמֵ֤שׁ סְאִים֙ קָלִ֔י וּמֵאָ֥ה צִמֻּקִ֖ים וּמָאתַ֣יִם דְּבֵלִ֑ים וַתָּ֖שֶׂם עַל־הַחֲמֹרִֽים׃‬ Then {Q: Abigail} [K: Abugail] acted quickly, and she took two hundred loaves and two wineskins of wine, and five prepared sheep, and five seahs of parched grain, and one hundred measures of raisins, and two hundred cakes of pressed figs, and she put them on the donkeys. prepared: the ketiv could be regarded as a variant spelling of the qeré.

seah: about 2 imperial gallons or 9 litres.
1 Sam 25:19 ‫וַתֹּ֤אמֶר לִנְעָרֶ֙יהָ֙ עִבְר֣וּ לְפָנַ֔י הִנְנִ֖י אַחֲרֵיכֶ֣ם בָּאָ֑ה וּלְאִישָׁ֥הּ נָבָ֖ל לֹ֥א הִגִּֽידָה׃‬ And she said to her servant-lads, “Go across in front of me, and you will see me coming behind you.” But she did not tell Nabal her husband. you will see me ← behold me.
1 Sam 25:20 ‫וְהָיָ֞ה הִ֣יא ׀ רֹכֶ֣בֶת עַֽל־הַחֲמ֗וֹר וְיֹרֶ֙דֶת֙ בְּסֵ֣תֶר הָהָ֔ר וְהִנֵּ֤ה דָוִד֙ וַאֲנָשָׁ֔יו יֹרְדִ֖ים לִקְרָאתָ֑הּ וַתִּפְגֹּ֖שׁ אֹתָֽם׃‬ And it came to pass as she was riding on a donkey that she came down to the hiding place in the hill, and along came David and his men, coming down towards her, and she met them. along came ← behold.
1 Sam 25:21 ‫וְדָוִ֣ד אָמַ֗ר אַךְ֩ לַשֶּׁ֨קֶר שָׁמַ֜רְתִּי אֶֽת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֤ר לָזֶה֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר וְלֹא־נִפְקַ֥ד מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ מְא֑וּמָה וַיָּֽשֶׁב־לִ֥י רָעָ֖ה תַּ֥חַת טוֹבָֽה׃‬ And David said, “Surely it was in vain that I kept everything of this man's in the desert – and nothing of his went missing – but he requited me with evil for good.
1 Sam 25:22 ‫כֹּה־יַעֲשֶׂ֧ה אֱלֹהִ֛ים לְאֹיְבֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד וְכֹ֣ה יֹסִ֑יף אִם־אַשְׁאִ֧יר מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֛וֹ עַד־הַבֹּ֖קֶר מַשְׁתִּ֥ין בְּקִֽיר׃‬ May God do such to David's enemies and add more if I leave anyone, of all who belong to him, who urinates against a wall, alive until morning.” such ... more ← thus ... thus.

to David's enemies: one would expect to me or, as in LXX, to David, but the Hebrew text is undisputed in [BHS]. This is strong denial as in the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
1 Sam 25:23 ‫וַתֵּ֤רֶא אֲבִיגַ֙יִל֙ אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד וַתְּמַהֵ֕ר וַתֵּ֖רֶד מֵעַ֣ל הַחֲמ֑וֹר וַתִּפֹּ֞ל לְאַפֵּ֤י דָוִד֙ עַל־פָּנֶ֔יהָ וַתִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ אָֽרֶץ׃‬ Then when Abigail saw David, she quickly dismounted from the donkey and fell face down before David and bowed to the ground. face down before ← to the face(1) of ... on her face(2).
1 Sam 25:24 ‫וַתִּפֹּל֙ עַל־רַגְלָ֔יו וַתֹּ֕אמֶר בִּי־אֲנִ֥י אֲדֹנִ֖י הֶֽעָוֺ֑ן וּֽתְדַבֶּר־נָ֤א אֲמָֽתְךָ֙ בְּאָזְנֶ֔יךָ וּשְׁמַ֕ע אֵ֖ת דִּבְרֵ֥י אֲמָתֶֽךָ׃‬ And she fell at his feet and said, “My lord, let the iniquity be on me, and let your handmaid speak a word in your ear, and listen to the words of your handmaid. ear ← ears.
1 Sam 25:25 ‫אַל־נָ֣א יָשִׂ֣ים אֲדֹנִ֣י ׀ אֶת־לִבּ֡וֹ אֶל־אִישׁ֩ הַבְּלִיַּ֨עַל הַזֶּ֜ה עַל־נָבָ֗ל כִּ֤י כִשְׁמוֹ֙ כֶּן־ה֔וּא נָבָ֣ל שְׁמ֔וֹ וּנְבָלָ֖ה עִמּ֑וֹ וַֽאֲנִי֙ אֲמָ֣תְךָ֔ לֹ֥א רָאִ֛יתִי אֶת־נַעֲרֵ֥י אֲדֹנִ֖י אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁלָֽחְתָּ׃‬ May my lord not pay attention to this useless man, to Nabal, for as his name is, so is he. Nabal is his name, and folly accompanies him, and I am your handmaid who did not see my lord's servant-lads whom you sent. pay attention ← put on his heart.

accompanies ← (is) with.
1 Sam 25:26 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה אֲדֹנִ֗י חַי־יְהוָ֤ה וְחֵֽי־נַפְשְׁךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר מְנָעֲךָ֤ יְהוָה֙ מִבּ֣וֹא בְדָמִ֔ים וְהוֹשֵׁ֥עַ יָדְךָ֖ לָ֑ךְ וְעַתָּ֗ה יִֽהְי֤וּ כְנָבָל֙ אֹיְבֶ֔יךָ וְהַֽמְבַקְשִׁ֥ים אֶל־אֲדֹנִ֖י רָעָֽה׃‬ So now, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as your being lives, since the Lord has prevented you from embarking on bloodshed, and from your own ability giving you victory, so now may your enemies and those who are seeking my lord's harm be as Nabal. being ← soul.

embarking on ← entering into.

your own ability giving you victory ← your hand saving you. But perhaps the sense is and save your hand (from doing wrong). See ↴
1 Sam 25:27 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ הַבְּרָכָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִ֥יא שִׁפְחָתְךָ֖ לַֽאדֹנִ֑י וְנִתְּנָה֙ לַנְּעָרִ֔ים הַמִּֽתְהַלְּכִ֖ים בְּרַגְלֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי׃‬ And now, may this gift, which your handmaid has brought for my lord, be given to the servant-lads who are following at my lord's feet. ↳ also 1 Sam 25:31 and 1 Sam 25:33.

gift ← blessing.
1 Sam 25:28 ‫שָׂ֥א נָ֖א לְפֶ֣שַׁע אֲמָתֶ֑ךָ כִּ֣י עָשֹֽׂה־יַעֲשֶׂה֩ יְהוָ֨ה לַֽאדֹנִ֜י בַּ֣יִת נֶאֱמָ֗ן כִּי־מִלְחֲמ֤וֹת יְהוָה֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י נִלְחָ֔ם וְרָעָ֛ה לֹא־תִמָּצֵ֥א בְךָ֖ מִיָּמֶֽיךָ׃‬ Please forgive your handmaid's transgression, for the Lord will certainly make my lord a secure house, for my lord is fighting the Lord's wars, and evil has not been found in you in all your days. will certainly make: infinitive absolute.

secure: or faithful.

in all your days ← from / since all your days.
1 Sam 25:29 ‫וַיָּ֤קָם אָדָם֙ לִרְדָפְךָ֔ וּלְבַקֵּ֖שׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ וְֽהָיְתָה֩ נֶ֨פֶשׁ אֲדֹנִ֜י צְרוּרָ֣ה ׀ בִּצְר֣וֹר הַחַיִּ֗ים אֵ֚ת יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְאֵ֨ת נֶ֤פֶשׁ אֹיְבֶ֙יךָ֙ יְקַלְּעֶ֔נָּה בְּת֖וֹךְ כַּ֥ף הַקָּֽלַע׃‬ But a man has arisen to pursue you and to seek your life, but my lord's life is wrapped up in the bundle of life with the Lord your God, but as for the life of your enemies, he will sling it out as from the cradle of a sling. life (3x)soul.

from ← inside.
1 Sam 25:30 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כִּֽי־יַעֲשֶׂ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לַֽאדֹנִ֔י כְּכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אֶת־הַטּוֹבָ֖ה עָלֶ֑יךָ וְצִוְּךָ֥ לְנָגִ֖יד עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And it will come to pass that the Lord will do for my lord all the good he has spoken about concerning you, and he will appoint you as leader over Israel. all ← according to all.

appoint ← command, but also appoint.
1 Sam 25:31 ‫וְלֹ֣א תִהְיֶ֣ה זֹ֣את ׀ לְךָ֡ לְפוּקָה֩ וּלְמִכְשׁ֨וֹל לֵ֜ב לַאדֹנִ֗י וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם֙ חִנָּ֔ם וּלְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אֲדֹנִ֖י ל֑וֹ וְהֵיטִ֤ב יְהוָה֙ לַֽאדֹנִ֔י וְזָכַרְתָּ֖ אֶת־אֲמָתֶֽךָ׃ ס‬ And don't let this be an unsettling matter to you, or a disconcerting affair to my lord, whether it is about shedding blood for no reason, or my lord giving himself victory, and may the Lord do good to my lord, and may you remember your handmaid.” unsettling matter to you, or a disconcerting affair ← unsteadiness to you and stumbling of the heart.

giving himself victory: see 1 Sam 25:26.
1 Sam 25:32 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר דָּוִ֖ד לַאֲבִיגַ֑ל בָּר֤וּךְ יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֧ר שְׁלָחֵ֛ךְ הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה לִקְרָאתִֽי׃‬ Then David said to Abigail, “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel who has sent you to me today. Abigail ← Abigal here.

to me ← towards me.
1 Sam 25:33 ‫וּבָר֥וּךְ טַעְמֵ֖ךְ וּבְרוּכָ֣ה אָ֑תְּ אֲשֶׁ֨ר כְּלִתִ֜נִי הַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ מִבּ֣וֹא בְדָמִ֔ים וְהֹשֵׁ֥עַ יָדִ֖י לִֽי׃‬ And blessed is your conduct and blessed are you, in that you have stopped me on this day from embarking on bloodshed, and from my own ability giving me victory. conduct ← taste, flavour, and in 1 Sam 21:14 (1 Sam 21:13AV), character.

embarking on ... my own ability giving me victory: see 1 Sam 25:26.
1 Sam 25:34 ‫וְאוּלָ֗ם חַי־יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר מְנָעַ֔נִי מֵהָרַ֖ע אֹתָ֑ךְ כִּ֣י ׀ לוּלֵ֣י מִהַ֗רְתְּ *ותבאתי **וַתָּבֹאת֙ לִקְרָאתִ֔י כִּ֣י אִם־נוֹתַ֧ר לְנָבָ֛ל עַד־א֥וֹר הַבֹּ֖קֶר מַשְׁתִּ֥ין בְּקִֽיר׃‬ But as the Lord God of Israel lives, who has prevented me from harming you, for unless you had hastened in coming to me, Nabal would certainly not have had anyone who urinates against a wall left to him by morning light.” in coming: both ketiv and qeré are anomalous forms, having afformatives from both the nominal past and future tenses.

Nabal would certainly not ← if Nabal, standing for if Nabal ... may God do this to me. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
1 Sam 25:35 ‫וַיִּקַּ֤ח דָּוִד֙ מִיָּדָ֔הּ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִ֖יאָה ל֑וֹ וְלָ֣הּ אָמַ֗ר עֲלִ֤י לְשָׁלוֹם֙ לְבֵיתֵ֔ךְ רְאִי֙ שָׁמַ֣עְתִּי בְקוֹלֵ֔ךְ וָאֶשָּׂ֖א פָּנָֽיִךְ׃‬ And David took what she had brought him from her hand, and he said to her, “Go up to your house in peace. Look I have heeded you, and I have granted your request.” heeded you ← heard your voice.

granted your request ← uplifted your face.
1 Sam 25:36 ‫וַתָּבֹ֣א אֲבִיגַ֣יִל ׀ אֶל־נָבָ֡ל וְהִנֵּה־לוֹ֩ מִשְׁתֶּ֨ה בְּבֵית֜וֹ כְּמִשְׁתֵּ֣ה הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְלֵ֤ב נָבָל֙ ט֣וֹב עָלָ֔יו וְה֥וּא שִׁכֹּ֖ר עַד־מְאֹ֑ד וְלֹֽא־הִגִּ֣ידָה לּ֗וֹ דָּבָ֥ר קָטֹ֛ן וְגָד֖וֹל עַד־א֥וֹר הַבֹּֽקֶר׃‬ Then Abigail went to Nabal, and she saw that he was holding a banquet in his house like the king's banquet, and Nabal's heart was merry, and he was very drunk, and she didn't tell him anything great or small until morning light. she saw that ← behold.

merry ← good on him.
1 Sam 25:37 ‫וַיְהִ֣י בַבֹּ֗קֶר בְּצֵ֤את הַיַּ֙יִן֙ מִנָּבָ֔ל וַתַּגֶּד־ל֣וֹ אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיָּ֤מָת לִבּוֹ֙ בְּקִרְבּ֔וֹ וְה֖וּא הָיָ֥ה לְאָֽבֶן׃‬ Then it came to pass in the morning, when the effects of the wine had gone from Nabal, that when his wife told him these things, his heart died within him, and he became like stone. gone ← gone out.
1 Sam 25:38 ‫וַיְהִ֖י כַּעֲשֶׂ֣רֶת הַיָּמִ֑ים וַיִּגֹּ֧ף יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־נָבָ֖ל וַיָּמֹֽת׃‬ And it came to pass after ten days that the Lord struck Nabal, and he died. ten ← about ten, but the preposition is probably redundant with numerals. See Josh 7:3, Josh 7:5, Luke 9:28.
1 Sam 25:39 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע דָּוִד֮ כִּ֣י מֵ֣ת נָבָל֒ וַיֹּ֡אמֶר בָּר֣וּךְ יְהוָ֡ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָב֩ אֶת־רִ֨יב חֶרְפָּתִ֜י מִיַּ֣ד נָבָ֗ל וְאֶת־עַבְדּוֹ֙ חָשַׂ֣ךְ מֵֽרָעָ֔ה וְאֵת֙ רָעַ֣ת נָבָ֔ל הֵשִׁ֥יב יְהוָ֖ה בְּרֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח דָּוִד֙ וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר בַּאֲבִיגַ֔יִל לְקַחְתָּ֥הּ ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃‬ And David heard that Nabal had died, and he said, “Blessed be the Lord, who has vindicated me who was held in contempt from Nabal's stand, and who has saved his servant from harm, and the Lord has turned Nabal's harm back on his head.” Then David sent men to tell Abigail that he would take her to be his wife. vindicated me who was held in contempt ← contended the contention of my contempt, with an objective genitive (he contemned me).

stand ← hand.

to tell ← and he told.
1 Sam 25:40 ‫וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ עַבְדֵ֥י דָוִ֛ד אֶל־אֲבִיגַ֖יִל הַכַּרְמֶ֑לָה וַיְדַבְּר֤וּ אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר דָּוִד֙ שְׁלָחָ֣נוּ אֵלַ֔יִךְ לְקַחְתֵּ֥ךְ ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃‬ And David's servants came to Abigail at Carmel, and they spoke to her and said, “David has sent us to you to take you to be his wife.” at Carmel ← to the Carmel.
1 Sam 25:41 ‫וַתָּ֕קָם וַתִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ אַפַּ֖יִם אָ֑רְצָה וַתֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֤ה אֲמָֽתְךָ֙ לְשִׁפְחָ֔ה לִרְחֹ֕ץ רַגְלֵ֖י עַבְדֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי׃‬ Then she arose and bowed with her face to the ground, and she said, “Here I am as your handmaid, as a servant-girl to wash the feet of my lord's servants.” here I ambehold.
1 Sam 25:42 ‫וַתְּמַהֵ֞ר וַתָּ֣קָם אֲבִיגַ֗יִל וַתִּרְכַּב֙ עַֽל־הַחֲמ֔וֹר וְחָמֵשׁ֙ נַעֲרֹתֶ֔יהָ הַהֹלְכ֖וֹת לְרַגְלָ֑הּ וַתֵּ֗לֶךְ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ מַלְאֲכֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד וַתְּהִי־ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃‬ Then Abigail made haste and arose and rode on a donkey, with her five servant-girls walking in her tracks, and she followed David's messengers, and she became his wife. a donkey ← the donkey. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.

in her tracks ← at her foot. Compare Gen 30:30.
1 Sam 25:43 ‫וְאֶת־אֲחִינֹ֛עַם לָקַ֥ח דָּוִ֖ד מִֽיִּזְרְעֶ֑אל וַתִּהְיֶ֛יןָ גַּֽם־שְׁתֵּיהֶ֥ן ל֖וֹ לְנָשִֽׁים׃ ס‬ And David took Ahinoam from Jezreel, and both of them became his wives. Jezreel: see Josh 15:56.

both ← also both.
1 Sam 25:44 ‫וְשָׁא֗וּל נָתַ֛ן אֶת־מִיכַ֥ל בִּתּ֖וֹ אֵ֣שֶׁת דָּוִ֑ד לְפַלְטִ֥י בֶן־לַ֖יִשׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִגַּלִּֽים׃‬ And Saul gave Michal his daughter, David's wife, to Palti the son of Laish who was from Gallim. Palti: AV= Phalti, the lenited form (ph for p).
1 Sam 26:1 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ הַזִּפִים֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל הַגִּבְעָ֖תָה לֵאמֹ֑ר הֲל֨וֹא דָוִ֤ד מִסְתַּתֵּר֙ בְּגִבְעַ֣ת הַחֲכִילָ֔ה עַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הַיְשִׁימֹֽן׃‬ Then the Ziphites came to Saul in Gibeah and said, “Isn't David hiding in the hill of Hachilah opposite Jeshimon?” Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.

in Gibeah ← to the Gibeah.
1 Sam 26:2 ‫וַיָּ֣קָם שָׁא֗וּל וַיֵּ֙רֶד֙ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־זִ֔יף וְאִתּ֛וֹ שְׁלֹֽשֶׁת־אֲלָפִ֥ים אִ֖ישׁ בְּחוּרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לְבַקֵּ֥שׁ אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד בְּמִדְבַּר־זִֽיף׃‬ And Saul arose and went down to the Desert of Ziph, and with him were three thousand men – young men of Israel – to seek David in the Desert of Ziph.
1 Sam 26:3 ‫וַיִּ֨חַן שָׁא֜וּל בְּגִבְעַ֣ת הַחֲכִילָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֛ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַיְשִׁימֹ֖ן עַל־הַדָּ֑רֶךְ וְדָוִד֙ יֹשֵׁ֣ב בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר וַיַּ֕רְא כִּ֣י בָ֥א שָׁא֛וּל אַחֲרָ֖יו הַמִּדְבָּֽרָה׃‬ And Saul encamped at the hill of Hachilah, which is opposite Jeshimon on the way there. Now David was living in the desert, and he saw that Saul had come after him in the desert. Jeshimon ← the Jeshimon.

in the desert (second occurrence in verse)to the desert.
1 Sam 26:4 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח דָּוִ֖ד מְרַגְּלִ֑ים וַיֵּ֕דַע כִּֽי־בָ֥א שָׁא֖וּל אֶל־נָכֽוֹן׃‬ So David sent spies, and he found out that Saul had indeed come. found out ← knew.
1 Sam 26:5 ‫וַיָּ֣קָם דָּוִ֗ד וַיָּבֹא֮ אֶֽל־הַמָּקוֹם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָנָה־שָׁ֣ם שָׁאוּל֒ וַיַּ֣רְא דָּוִ֗ד אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָֽׁכַב־שָׁ֣ם שָׁא֔וּל וְאַבְנֵ֥ר בֶּן־נֵ֖ר שַׂר־צְבָא֑וֹ וְשָׁאוּל֙ שֹׁכֵ֣ב בַּמַּעְגָּ֔ל וְהָעָ֖ם חֹנִ֥ים *סביבתו **סְבִיבֹתָֽיו׃‬ Then David arose and went to the place where Saul had encamped, and David saw the place where Saul was stationed, with Abner the son of Ner, the commander of his army, with Saul located in a circular barricade of wagons, with the people encamped around him. around him: the ketiv could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.

stationed ← lying, lodging.

with Abner ... with Saul ... with the people ← and Abner ... and Saul ... and the people.
1 Sam 26:6 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן דָּוִ֜ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ אֶל־אֲחִימֶ֣לֶךְ הַחִתִּ֗י וְאֶל־אֲבִישַׁ֨י בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֜ה אֲחִ֤י יוֹאָב֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר מִֽי־יֵרֵ֥ד אִתִּ֛י אֶל־שָׁא֖וּל אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲבִישַׁ֔י אֲנִ֖י אֵרֵ֥ד עִמָּֽךְ׃‬ And David reacted and spoke to Ahimelech the Hittite and to Abishai the son of Zeruiah, the brother of Joab, and he said, “Who will go down with me, to Saul, to the camp?” And Abishai said, “I will go down with you.” reacted ← answered, but no question asked.
1 Sam 26:7 ‫וַיָּבֹא֩ דָוִ֨ד וַאֲבִישַׁ֥י ׀ אֶל־הָעָם֮ לַיְלָה֒ וְהִנֵּ֣ה שָׁא֗וּל שֹׁכֵ֤ב יָשֵׁן֙ בַּמַּעְגָּ֔ל וַחֲנִית֥וֹ מְעוּכָֽה־בָאָ֖רֶץ *מראשתו **מְרַאֲשֹׁתָ֑יו וְאַבְנֵ֣ר וְהָעָ֔ם שֹׁכְבִ֖ים *סביבתו **סְבִיבֹתָֽיו׃ ס‬ So David and Abishai went to the people by night, and they saw Saul lying asleep in the circular barricade of wagons, with his spear stuck in the ground at his head-end and Abner and the people lying around him. head-end ... around him: the ketiv could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.

they saw ← behold.
1 Sam 26:8 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲבִישַׁי֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד סִגַּ֨ר אֱלֹהִ֥ים הַיּ֛וֹם אֶת־אוֹיִבְךָ֖ בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ וְעַתָּה֩ אַכֶּ֨נּוּ נָ֜א בַּחֲנִ֤ית וּבָאָ֙רֶץ֙ פַּ֣עַם אַחַ֔ת וְלֹ֥א אֶשְׁנֶ֖ה לֽוֹ׃‬ Then Abishai said to David, “God has delivered your enemy into your hand today, so now I will strike him, if I may, with a spear to the ground, in one go, and I will not need to do it to him a second time.” to the ground ← and the ground.
1 Sam 26:9 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אֶל־אֲבִישַׁ֖י אַל־תַּשְׁחִיתֵ֑הוּ כִּ֠י מִ֣י שָׁלַ֥ח יָד֛וֹ בִּמְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָ֖ה וְנִקָּֽה׃ פ‬ But David said to Abishai, “Do not dispatch him, for who can lay his hand on the Lord's anointed and be held guiltless?” lay ← send.
1 Sam 26:10 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ חַי־יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י אִם־יְהוָ֖ה יִגָּפֶ֑נּוּ אֽוֹ־יוֹמ֤וֹ יָבוֹא֙ וָמֵ֔ת א֧וֹ בַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה יֵרֵ֖ד וְנִסְפָּֽה׃‬ And David said, “As the Lord lives, let rather the Lord strike him, or let his day come when he dies, or let him go down to battle and perish.
1 Sam 26:11 ‫חָלִ֤ילָה לִּי֙ מֵֽיהוָ֔ה מִשְּׁלֹ֥חַ יָדִ֖י בִּמְשִׁ֣יחַ יְהוָ֑ה וְ֠עַתָּה קַח־נָ֨א אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֜ית אֲשֶׁ֧ר *מראשתו **מְרַאֲשֹׁתָ֛יו וְאֶת־צַפַּ֥חַת הַמַּ֖יִם וְנֵ֥לֲכָה לָּֽנוּ׃‬ Far be it from me with the Lord that I should lay my hand on the Lord's anointed, so now, take, would you, the spear which is at his head-end, and the water-flask, and let us go our way.” head-end: see 1 Sam 26:7.

with ← from.

lay ← send.
1 Sam 26:12 ‫וַיִּקַּח֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֜ית וְאֶת־צַפַּ֤חַת הַמַּ֙יִם֙ מֵרַאֲשֹׁתֵ֣י שָׁא֔וּל וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם וְאֵ֣ין רֹאֶה֩ וְאֵ֨ין יוֹדֵ֜עַ וְאֵ֣ין מֵקִ֗יץ כִּ֤י כֻלָּם֙ יְשֵׁנִ֔ים כִּ֚י תַּרְדֵּמַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה נָפְלָ֖ה עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ So David took the spear and the water-flask from Saul's head-end, and they went their way, and no-one saw, and no-one knew, and no-one woke up, for they were all asleep, for a deep sleep from the Lord had fallen on them. from the Lordof the Lord, perhaps standing for an extremely deep (sleep); see Gen 23:6, but the Hebrew here is Yhvh, not Elohim.
1 Sam 26:13 ‫וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ר דָּוִד֙ הָעֵ֔בֶר וַיַּעֲמֹ֥ד עַל־רֹאשׁ־הָהָ֖ר מֵֽרָחֹ֑ק רַ֥ב הַמָּק֖וֹם בֵּינֵיהֶֽם׃‬ Then David crossed to the opposite side and stood on the peak of the mountain at a distance, the distance between them being large. distance ← place, space.
1 Sam 26:14 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֨א דָוִ֜ד אֶל־הָעָ֗ם וְאֶל־אַבְנֵ֤ר בֶּן־נֵר֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הֲל֥וֹא תַעֲנֶ֖ה אַבְנֵ֑ר וַיַּ֤עַן אַבְנֵר֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר מִ֥י אַתָּ֖ה קָרָ֥אתָ אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ פ‬ And David called out to the people and to Abner the son of Ner and said, “Do you not answer, Abner?” And Abner answered and said, “Who are you who have called out to the king?”
1 Sam 26:15 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶל־אַבְנֵ֜ר הֲלוֹא־אִ֣ישׁ אַתָּ֗ה וּמִ֤י כָמ֙וֹךָ֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְלָ֙מָּה֙ לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֔רְתָּ אֶל־אֲדֹנֶ֖יךָ הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ כִּי־בָא֙ אַחַ֣ד הָעָ֔ם לְהַשְׁחִ֖ית אֶת־הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲדֹנֶֽיךָ׃‬ And David said to Abner, “Are you not a man? And who is like you in Israel? So why have you not kept guard over your lord the king? For one of the people came to dispatch your lord the king.
1 Sam 26:16 ‫לֹא־ט֞וֹב הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּה֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂיתָ֒ חַי־יְהוָ֗ה כִּ֤י בְנֵי־מָ֙וֶת֙ אַתֶּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־שְׁמַרְתֶּ֛ם עַל־אֲדֹנֵיכֶ֖ם עַל־מְשִׁ֣יחַ יְהוָ֑ה וְעַתָּ֣ה ׀ רְאֵ֗ה אֵֽי־חֲנִ֥ית הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְאֶת־צַפַּ֥חַת הַמַּ֖יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר *מראשתו **מְרַאֲשֹׁתָֽיו׃‬ This thing that you have done is not right – as the Lord lives – for you deserve death, in that you did not keep guard over your lord, over the Lord's anointed. So now, look for the king's spear and water-flask which were at his head-end.” his head-end: see 1 Sam 26:7.

you deserve death ← you (are) sons of death.

look for ← see where.
1 Sam 26:17 ‫וַיַּכֵּ֤ר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל דָּוִ֔ד וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הֲקוֹלְךָ֥ זֶ֖ה בְּנִ֣י דָוִ֑ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד קוֹלִ֖י אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Saul recognized David's voice, and he said, “Is this your voice, my son David?” And David said, “It is my voice, my lord the king.”
1 Sam 26:18 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֛ה אֲדֹנִ֥י רֹדֵ֖ף אַחֲרֵ֣י עַבְדּ֑וֹ כִּ֚י מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֔יתִי וּמַה־בְּיָדִ֖י רָעָֽה׃‬ Then he said, “Why is it that my lord pursues his servant, because what have I done, and what wrong is to my charge? to my charge ← in my hand.
1 Sam 26:19 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה יִֽשְׁמַֽע־נָא֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֵ֖ת דִּבְרֵ֣י עַבְדּ֑וֹ אִם־יְהוָ֞ה הֱסִֽיתְךָ֥ בִי֙ יָרַ֣ח מִנְחָ֔ה וְאִ֣ם ׀ בְּנֵ֣י הָאָדָ֗ם אֲרוּרִ֥ים הֵם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה כִּֽי־גֵרְשׁ֣וּנִי הַיּ֗וֹם מֵהִסְתַּפֵּ֜חַ בְּנַחֲלַ֤ת יְהוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֵ֥ךְ עֲבֹ֖ד אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִֽים׃‬ So now, let my lord the king hear the words of his servant. If the Lord has stirred you up against me, let him smell an offering. But if the incitement is from the sons of men, they are accursed before the Lord, for they drove me out today from joining the Lord's inheritance, and they said, ‘Go and serve other gods.’ men ← Adam.
1 Sam 26:20 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה אַל־יִפֹּ֤ל דָּֽמִי֙ אַ֔רְצָה מִנֶּ֖גֶד פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה כִּֽי־יָצָ֞א מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְבַקֵּשׁ֙ אֶת־פַּרְעֹ֣שׁ אֶחָ֔ד כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר יִרְדֹּ֥ף הַקֹּרֵ֖א בֶּהָרִֽים׃‬ So now, don't let my blood fall to the ground in the presence of the Lord, for the king of Israel came out to seek a single flea, like one chasing a partridge in the mountains.”
1 Sam 26:21 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ שָׁא֨וּל חָטָ֜אתִי שׁ֣וּב בְּנִֽי־דָוִ֗ד כִּ֠י לֹֽא־אָרַ֤ע לְךָ֙ ע֔וֹד תַּ֠חַת אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָקְרָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֛י בְּעֵינֶ֖יךָ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה הִנֵּ֥ה הִסְכַּ֛לְתִּי וָאֶשְׁגֶּ֖ה הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד׃‬ Then Saul said, “I have sinned. Return, my son David, for I will not harm you any more, because my life was valued in your sight this day. Look, I have acted foolishly, and I have erred very greatly.” life ← soul.
1 Sam 26:22 ‫וַיַּ֤עַן דָּוִד֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר הִנֵּ֖ה *החנית **חֲנִ֣ית הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְיַעֲבֹ֛ר אֶחָ֥ד מֵֽהַנְּעָרִ֖ים וְיִקָּחֶֽהָ׃‬ Then David answered and said, “Here is {K: the spear, O king} [Q: the king's spear]. Now let one of the lads come across and fetch it. here isbehold.
1 Sam 26:23 ‫וַֽיהוָה֙ יָשִׁ֣יב לָאִ֔ישׁ אֶת־צִדְקָת֖וֹ וְאֶת־אֱמֻנָת֑וֹ אֲשֶׁר֩ נְתָנְךָ֨ יְהוָ֤ה ׀ הַיּוֹם֙ בְּיָ֔ד וְלֹ֣א אָבִ֔יתִי לִשְׁלֹ֥חַ יָדִ֖י בִּמְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָֽה׃‬ And the Lord will render to each his righteousness and his faithfulness, in that the Lord delivered you into my hand today, but I was not willing to lay my hand on the Lord's anointed. lay ← send.
1 Sam 26:24 ‫וְהִנֵּ֗ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר גָּדְלָ֧ה נַפְשְׁךָ֛ הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה בְּעֵינָ֑י כֵּ֣ן תִּגְדַּ֤ל נַפְשִׁי֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וְיַצִּלֵ֖נִי מִכָּל־צָרָֽה׃ פ‬ And look, just as your life was valued in my sight this day, so may my life be valued in the Lord's sight, and may he deliver me from all adversity.” life (2x): soul.

valued (2x)great.
1 Sam 26:25 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד בָּר֤וּךְ אַתָּה֙ בְּנִ֣י דָוִ֔ד גַּ֚ם עָשֹׂ֣ה תַעֲשֶׂ֔ה וְגַ֖ם יָכֹ֣ל תּוּכָ֑ל וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ דָּוִד֙ לְדַרְכּ֔וֹ וְשָׁא֖וּל שָׁ֥ב לִמְקוֹמֽוֹ׃ פ‬ Then Saul said to David, “Blessed are you, my son David. You will both accomplish much and prevail strongly.” Then David went his way, and Saul returned to his place. accomplish much ... prevail strongly: both infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 27:1 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־לִבּ֔וֹ עַתָּ֛ה אֶסָּפֶ֥ה יוֹם־אֶחָ֖ד בְּיַד־שָׁא֑וּל אֵֽין־לִ֨י ט֜וֹב כִּ֣י הִמָּלֵ֥ט אִמָּלֵ֣ט ׀ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וְנוֹאַ֨שׁ מִמֶּ֤נִּי שָׁאוּל֙ לְבַקְשֵׁ֤נִי עוֹד֙ בְּכָל־גְּב֣וּל יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְנִמְלַטְתִּ֖י מִיָּדֽוֹ׃‬ And David said in his heart, “One of these days I will be eliminated by Saul. There is nothing better for me than to cleanly escape to the land of the Philistines, then Saul will desist from searching for me any more in every territory of Israel, and I will escape from his clutches.” one of these days ← soon one day.

by ← by the hand of.

to cleanly escape: infinitive absolute.

territory ← border.

clutches ← hand.
1 Sam 27:2 ‫וַיָּ֣קָם דָּוִ֔ד וַיַּעֲבֹ֣ר ה֔וּא וְשֵׁשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֑וֹ אֶל־אָכִ֥ישׁ בֶּן־מָע֖וֹךְ מֶ֥לֶךְ גַּֽת׃‬ So David arose, and he crossed over, as did the six hundred men who were with him, to Achish the son of Maoch, the king of Gath.
1 Sam 27:3 ‫וַיֵּשֶׁב֩ דָּוִ֨ד עִם־אָכִ֥ישׁ בְּגַ֛ת ה֥וּא וַאֲנָשָׁ֖יו אִ֣ישׁ וּבֵית֑וֹ דָּוִד֙ וּשְׁתֵּ֣י נָשָׁ֔יו אֲחִינֹ֙עַם֙ הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִ֔ית וַאֲבִיגַ֥יִל אֵֽשֶׁת־נָבָ֖ל הַֽכַּרְמְלִֽית׃‬ And David resided with Achish in Gath, he and his men, each with his household, David and his two wives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess and Abigail the former wife of Nabal, the Carmelitess. Jezreelitess: see Josh 15:56.
1 Sam 27:4 ‫וַיֻּגַּ֣ד לְשָׁא֔וּל כִּֽי־בָרַ֥ח דָּוִ֖ד גַּ֑ת וְלֹֽא־*יוסף **יָסַ֥ף ע֖וֹד לְבַקְשֽׁוֹ׃ ס‬ And it was reported to Saul that David had fled to Gath, and he did not search for him any more. did not ... any more ← add ... any more. The ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.
1 Sam 27:5 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־אָכִ֗ישׁ אִם־נָא֩ מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֤ן בְּעֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ יִתְּנוּ־לִ֣י מָק֗וֹם בְּאַחַ֛ת עָרֵ֥י הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה וְאֵ֣שְׁבָה שָּׁ֑ם וְלָ֨מָּה יֵשֵׁ֧ב עַבְדְּךָ֛ בְּעִ֥יר הַמַּמְלָכָ֖ה עִמָּֽךְ׃‬ And David said to Achish, “Would you, if I have found grace in your eyes, let me be given a place in one of the country towns, and I will stay there, for why should your servant stay in the royal city with you?” let me be given ← let them give me. Avoidance of the passive.
1 Sam 27:6 ‫וַיִּתֶּן־ל֥וֹ אָכִ֛ישׁ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא אֶת־צִֽקְלָ֑ג לָכֵ֞ן הָיְתָ֤ה צִֽקְלַג֙ לְמַלְכֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ פ‬ And Achish gave him Ziklag on that day, which is why Ziklag belongs to the kings of Judah as it is up to this day. belongs ← became.
1 Sam 27:7 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ מִסְפַּ֣ר הַיָּמִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־יָשַׁ֥ב דָּוִ֖ד בִּשְׂדֵ֣ה פְלִשְׁתִּ֑ים יָמִ֖ים וְאַרְבָּעָ֥ה חֳדָשִֽׁים׃‬ And the number of days that David stayed in the country of the Philistines was for a year and four months. a year and four months ← days and four months. Perhaps just four months, but that does not explain the copula, and, and the term days is taken as a year in 1 Sam 1:3, 1 Sam 1:21, 1 Sam 2:19.
1 Sam 27:8 ‫וַיַּ֤עַל דָּוִד֙ וַֽאֲנָשָׁ֔יו וַֽיִּפְשְׁט֛וּ אֶל־הַגְּשׁוּרִ֥י *והגרזי **וְהַגִּזְרִ֖י וְהָעֲמָלֵקִ֑י כִּ֣י הֵ֜נָּה יֹשְׁב֤וֹת הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מֵֽעוֹלָ֔ם בּוֹאֲךָ֥ שׁ֖וּרָה וְעַד־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬ Then David and his men went up and invaded the Geshurites and the {Q: Gizrites} [K: Girzites], and the Amalekites, for they from ancient times had been the inhabitants of the land as you go to Shur as far as the land of Egypt. Gizrites (qeré): AV= Gezrites.
1 Sam 27:9 ‫וְהִכָּ֤ה דָוִד֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְלֹ֥א יְחַיֶּ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ וְאִשָּׁ֑ה וְלָקַח֩ צֹ֨אן וּבָקָ֜ר וַחֲמֹרִ֤ים וּגְמַלִּים֙ וּבְגָדִ֔ים וַיָּ֖שָׁב וַיָּבֹ֥א אֶל־אָכִֽישׁ׃‬ And David attacked the land, and he did not leave a man or a woman alive, and he took sheep and oxen and donkeys and camels and clothes, then he returned and went to Achish.
1 Sam 27:10 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אָכִ֔ישׁ אַל־פְּשַׁטְתֶּ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֗ד עַל־נֶ֤גֶב יְהוּדָה֙ וְעַל־נֶ֣גֶב הַיַּרְחְמְאֵלִ֔י וְאֶל־נֶ֖גֶב הַקֵּינִֽי׃‬ And Achish said, “Whom did you raid today?” And David said, “The south of Judah and the south of the Jerahmeelites, and the south of the Kenites.” Jerahmeelites ← Jarhemeelites here, in an anomalous form, in [WLC], but Jerahmeelites in other manuscripts [BHS-CA] and in 1 Sam 30:29.
1 Sam 27:11 ‫וְאִ֨ישׁ וְאִשָּׁ֜ה לֹֽא־יְחַיֶּ֣ה דָוִ֗ד לְהָבִ֥יא גַת֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר פֶּן־יַגִּ֥דוּ עָלֵ֖ינוּ לֵאמֹ֑ר כֹּֽה־עָשָׂ֤ה דָוִד֙ וְכֹ֣ה מִשְׁפָּט֔וֹ כָּל־הַ֨יָּמִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָשַׁ֖ב בִּשְׂדֵ֥ה פְלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And David did not leave a man or a woman alive to bring a report to Gath, and he said, “It is in order that they do not report on us and say, ‘This is what David did, and this has been his custom all the days that he has been living in the countryside of the Philistines.’ ” this is whatthus.

this has beenthus.
1 Sam 27:12 ‫וַיַּאֲמֵ֥ן אָכִ֖ישׁ בְּדָוִ֣ד לֵאמֹ֑ר הַבְאֵ֤שׁ הִבְאִישׁ֙ בְּעַמּ֣וֹ בְיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהָ֥יָה לִ֖י לְעֶ֥בֶד עוֹלָֽם׃ פ‬ And Achish believed David, and he said, “He has acted utterly odiously with his own people – with Israel – and he will become my servant perpetually.” utterly odiously: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 28:1 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם וַיִּקְבְּצ֨וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֤ים אֶת־מַֽחֲנֵיהֶם֙ לַצָּבָ֔א לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אָכִישׁ֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד יָדֹ֣עַ תֵּדַ֗ע כִּ֤י אִתִּי֙ תֵּצֵ֣א בַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה אַתָּ֖ה וַאֲנָשֶֽׁיךָ׃‬ And it came to pass in those days that the Philistines assembled their battalions for battle, to fight against Israel, and Achish said to David, “You will be well aware that you will be going out with me in the battalion, you and your men.” battalions ... battalion ← encampments ... encampment.

you will be well aware: infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 28:2 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־אָכִ֔ישׁ לָכֵן֙ אַתָּ֣ה תֵדַ֔ע אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂ֖ה עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אָכִישׁ֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד לָכֵ֗ן שֹׁמֵ֧ר לְרֹאשִׁ֛י אֲשִֽׂימְךָ֖ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃ פ‬ And David said to Achish, “Yes, for you are aware of what your servant will do.” And Achish said to David, “That is why I will make you my bodyguard permanently.” my bodyguard ← guardian of my head.

permanently ← all the days.
1 Sam 28:3 ‫וּשְׁמוּאֵ֣ל מֵ֔ת וַיִּסְפְּדוּ־לוֹ֙ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּקְבְּרֻ֥הוּ בָרָמָ֖ה וּבְעִיר֑וֹ וְשָׁא֗וּל הֵסִ֛יר הָאֹב֥וֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִ֖ים מֵהָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ Now Samuel was dead, and the whole of Israel mourned for him, and they buried him in Ramah – so in his own city. Now Saul had removed the necromancers and the wizards from the land. necromancers: or mediums.
1 Sam 28:4 ‫וַיִּקָּבְצ֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ וַיַּחֲנ֣וּ בְשׁוּנֵ֑ם וַיִּקְבֹּ֤ץ שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בַּגִּלְבֹּֽעַ׃‬ And the Philistines assembled and came and encamped at Shunem, while Saul assembled the whole of Israel, and they encamped at Gilboa.
1 Sam 28:5 ‫וַיַּ֥רְא שָׁא֖וּל אֶת־מַחֲנֵ֣ה פְלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיִּרָ֕א וַיֶּחֱרַ֥ד לִבּ֖וֹ מְאֹֽד׃‬ And Saul saw the Philistines' camp, and he became afraid and his heart trembled a lot. trembled a lot: or became very fearful, but the word is used of mountains trembling in Ex 19:18. Modern Hebrew does not admit the meaning to tremble.
1 Sam 28:6 ‫וַיִּשְׁאַ֤ל שָׁאוּל֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א עָנָ֖הוּ יְהוָ֑ה גַּ֧ם בַּחֲלֹמ֛וֹת גַּ֥ם בָּאוּרִ֖ים גַּ֥ם בַּנְּבִיאִֽם׃‬ So Saul inquired of the Lord, but the Lord did not answer him, either in dreams, or by the Urim, or by the prophets. of ← at.

Urim ← lights. See Ex 28:30.
1 Sam 28:7 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל לַעֲבָדָ֗יו בַּקְּשׁוּ־לִי֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת בַּעֲלַת־א֔וֹב וְאֵלְכָ֥ה אֵלֶ֖יהָ וְאֶדְרְשָׁה־בָּ֑הּ וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ עֲבָדָיו֙ אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּ֛ה אֵ֥שֶׁת בַּֽעֲלַת־א֖וֹב בְּעֵ֥ין דּֽוֹר׃‬ And Saul said to his servants, “Find me a woman necromancer, and I will go to her, and I will inquire of her.” Then his servants said to him, “There is a woman necromancer in En-Dor.” find ← seek.

of ← at.

there isbehold.
1 Sam 28:8 ‫וַיִּתְחַפֵּ֣שׂ שָׁא֗וּל וַיִּלְבַּשׁ֙ בְּגָדִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ ה֗וּא וּשְׁנֵ֤י אֲנָשִׁים֙ עִמּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה לָ֑יְלָה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר *קסומי־**קָֽסֳמִי־נָ֥א לִי֙ בָּא֔וֹב וְהַ֣עֲלִי לִ֔י אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַ֖ר אֵלָֽיִךְ׃‬ So Saul disguised himself, and he put other clothes on, and he set off – he and two men with him – and they came to the woman by night. And he said, “Divine for me by necromancy, please, and bring up for me him whom I say to you.” divine: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.
1 Sam 28:9 ‫וַתֹּ֨אמֶר הָֽאִשָּׁ֜ה אֵלָ֗יו הִנֵּ֨ה אַתָּ֤ה יָדַ֙עְתָּ֙ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֣ה שָׁא֔וּל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִכְרִ֛ית אֶת־הָאֹב֥וֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִ֖י מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְלָמָ֥ה אַתָּ֛ה מִתְנַקֵּ֥שׁ בְּנַפְשִׁ֖י לַהֲמִיתֵֽנִי׃‬ And the woman said to him, “Look, you know what Saul did when he cut the necromancers and the wizards off from the land, so why are you laying a snare to my life, to have me killed?” life ← soul.

to have me killed ← to have me die.
1 Sam 28:10 ‫וַיִּשָּׁ֤בַֽע לָהּ֙ שָׁא֔וּל בַּֽיהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר חַי־יְהוָ֕ה אִֽם־יִקְּרֵ֥ךְ עָוֺ֖ן בַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃‬ Then Saul swore to her by the Lord and said, “As the Lord lives, no incrimination will be made against you in this matter.” no incrimination ← if an iniquity, standing for if an incrimination ... may God do this to me. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.

be made against you ← happen to you.
1 Sam 28:11 ‫וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה אֶת־מִ֖י אַֽעֲלֶה־לָּ֑ךְ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל הַֽעֲלִי־לִֽי׃‬ And the woman said, “Whom shall I bring up for you?” And he said, “Bring Samuel up for me.”
1 Sam 28:12 ‫וַתֵּ֤רֶא הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַתִּזְעַ֖ק בְּק֣וֹל גָּד֑וֹל וַתֹּאמֶר֩ הָאִשָּׁ֨ה אֶל־שָׁא֧וּל לֵאמֹ֛ר לָ֥מָּה רִמִּיתָ֖נִי וְאַתָּ֥ה שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ Then when the woman saw Samuel, she shouted in a loud voice, and the woman spoke to Saul and said, “Why have you deceived me, for you are Saul.” for: causal use of the vav.
1 Sam 28:13 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לָ֥הּ הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אַל־תִּֽירְאִ֖י כִּ֣י מָ֣ה רָאִ֑ית וַתֹּ֤אמֶר הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל אֱלֹהִ֥ים רָאִ֖יתִי עֹלִ֥ים מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And the king said to her, “Don't be afraid, but what did you see?” And the woman said to Saul, “I saw gods ascending from the earth.” ascending: plural, supporting, but not mandating, the plural gods.
1 Sam 28:14 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהּ֙ מַֽה־תָּאֳר֔וֹ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר אִ֤ישׁ זָקֵן֙ עֹלֶ֔ה וְה֥וּא עֹטֶ֖ה מְעִ֑יל וַיֵּ֤דַע שָׁאוּל֙ כִּֽי־שְׁמוּאֵ֣ל ה֔וּא וַיִּקֹּ֥ד אַפַּ֛יִם אַ֖רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּֽחוּ׃ ס‬ And he said to her, “What was its form?” And she said, “An old man came up, and he was enveloped in a robe.” And Saul knew that it was Samuel, and he bowed face down to the ground and prostrated himself. its: or his. Probably referring to the apparition in general. A reference to the gods of 1 Sam 28:13 would normally require a plural pronoun, just as ascending in that verse is plural.
1 Sam 28:15 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל לָ֥מָּה הִרְגַּזְתַּ֖נִי לְהַעֲל֣וֹת אֹתִ֑י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁ֠אוּל צַר־לִ֨י מְאֹ֜ד וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֣ים ׀ נִלְחָמִ֣ים בִּ֗י וֵֽאלֹהִ֞ים סָ֤ר מֵֽעָלַי֙ וְלֹֽא־עָנָ֣נִי ע֗וֹד גַּ֤ם בְּיַֽד־הַנְּבִיאִם֙ גַּם־בַּ֣חֲלֹמ֔וֹת וָאֶקְרָאֶ֣ה לְךָ֔ לְהוֹדִיעֵ֖נִי מָ֥ה אֶעֱשֶֽׂה׃ ס‬ Then Samuel said to Saul, “Why have you stirred me up to make me come up?” And Saul said, “I am very much in a strait, for the Philistines are fighting me, and God has departed from me, and he no longer answers me, either by the intermediacy of the prophets or in dreams, so I called you up to inform me about what I should do.” intermediacy ← hand.
1 Sam 28:16 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וְלָ֖מָּה תִּשְׁאָלֵ֑נִי וַיהוָ֛ה סָ֥ר מֵעָלֶ֖יךָ וַיְהִ֥י עָרֶֽךָ׃‬ Then Samuel said, “But why should you ask me, when the Lord has departed from you, and he has become your enemy? from ← from on.
1 Sam 28:17 ‫וַיַּ֤עַשׂ יְהוָה֙ ל֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֣ר בְּיָדִ֑י וַיִּקְרַ֨ע יְהוָ֤ה אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה֙ מִיָּדֶ֔ךָ וַֽיִּתְּנָ֖הּ לְרֵעֲךָ֥ לְדָוִֽד׃‬ And the Lord did for his part as he had said through my intermediacy, and the Lord tore the kingdom from your hand and gave it to your compatriot David. through my intermediacy ← by my hand.
1 Sam 28:18 ‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֙עְתָּ֙ בְּק֣וֹל יְהוָ֔ה וְלֹֽא־עָשִׂ֥יתָ חֲרוֹן־אַפּ֖וֹ בַּעֲמָלֵ֑ק עַל־כֵּן֙ הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה עָשָֽׂה־לְךָ֥ יְהוָ֖ה הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃‬ As you did not obey the voice of the Lord, and you did not execute the fury of his anger on Amalek, the Lord has done this thing to you this day. obey ← hear the voice of.
1 Sam 28:19 ‫וְיִתֵּ֣ן יְ֠הוָה גַּ֣ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל עִמְּךָ֙ בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וּמָחָ֕ר אַתָּ֥ה וּבָנֶ֖יךָ עִמִּ֑י גַּ֚ם אֶת־מַחֲנֵ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יִתֵּ֥ן יְהוָ֖ה בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And the Lord has also delivered Israel with you into the hand of the Philistines, and tomorrow you and your sons will be with me, and the Lord will also deliver Israel's camp into the hand of the Philistines.”
1 Sam 28:20 ‫וַיְמַהֵ֣ר שָׁא֗וּל וַיִּפֹּ֤ל מְלֹא־קֽוֹמָתוֹ֙ אַ֔רְצָה וַיִּרָ֥א מְאֹ֖ד מִדִּבְרֵ֣י שְׁמוּאֵ֑ל גַּם־כֹּ֙חַ֙ לֹא־הָ֣יָה ב֔וֹ כִּ֣י לֹ֤א אָכַל֙ לֶ֔חֶם כָּל־הַיּ֖וֹם וְכָל־הַלָּֽיְלָה׃‬ Then Saul quickly fell down at full length to the ground, and he was very afraid at Samuel's words. Moreover there was no strength in him, for he had not eaten bread all day and all night. length ← height, stature.

bread: standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22, 1 Sam 28:24 for what a piece of bread stands for.
1 Sam 28:21 ‫וַתָּב֤וֹא הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וַתֵּ֖רֶא כִּי־נִבְהַ֣ל מְאֹ֑ד וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו הִנֵּ֨ה שָׁמְעָ֤ה שִׁפְחָֽתְךָ֙ בְּקוֹלֶ֔ךָ וָאָשִׂ֤ים נַפְשִׁי֙ בְּכַפִּ֔י וָֽאֶשְׁמַע֙ אֶת־דְּבָרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ אֵלָֽי׃‬ And the woman came up to Saul, and she saw that he was very alarmed, and she said to him, “Look, your maidservant has obeyed you, and I put my life in my hand, and I heeded your words which you spoke to me. obeyed you ← heard your voice.

put my life in my hand ← put my soul in my palm, i.e. risked my life.
1 Sam 28:22 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה שְׁמַֽע־נָ֤א גַם־אַתָּה֙ בְּק֣וֹל שִׁפְחָתֶ֔ךָ וְאָשִׂ֧מָה לְפָנֶ֛יךָ פַּת־לֶ֖חֶם וֶאֱכ֑וֹל וִיהִ֤י בְךָ֙ כֹּ֔חַ כִּ֥י תֵלֵ֖ךְ בַּדָּֽרֶךְ׃‬ So now, please will you comply with your maidservant, and I will place before you a piece of bread, and eat so you have strength when you go on your way.” comply with ← hear the voice of.

piece of bread: standing for a portion of food – or a good meal: see 1 Sam 28:24.
1 Sam 28:23 ‫וַיְמָאֵ֗ן וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אֹכַ֔ל וַיִּפְרְצוּ־ב֤וֹ עֲבָדָיו֙ וְגַם־הָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה וַיִּשְׁמַ֖ע לְקֹלָ֑ם וַיָּ֙קָם֙ מֵֽהָאָ֔רֶץ וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב אֶל־הַמִּטָּֽה׃‬ But he refused and said, “I will not eat”, but his servants and also the woman urged him, and he complied with them and got up from the ground and sat on the couch. complied with ← heard the voice of.
1 Sam 28:24 ‫וְלָאִשָּׁ֤ה עֵֽגֶל־מַרְבֵּק֙ בַּבַּ֔יִת וַתְּמַהֵ֖ר וַתִּזְבָּחֵ֑הוּ וַתִּקַּח־קֶ֣מַח וַתָּ֔לָשׁ וַתֹּפֵ֖הוּ מַצּֽוֹת׃‬ Now the woman had a fatted calf at the house, and she went quickly and sacrificed it, and she took flour and kneaded it and baked it into unleavened bread. fatted calf ← calf of the stall.
1 Sam 28:25 ‫וַתַּגֵּ֧שׁ לִפְנֵֽי־שָׁא֛וּל וְלִפְנֵ֥י עֲבָדָ֖יו וַיֹּאכֵ֑לוּ וַיָּקֻ֥מוּ וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ בַּלַּ֥יְלָה הַהֽוּא׃ פ‬ And she served it to Saul and his servants, and they ate, and they arose then departed on that night. to ← before.

then: wider use of the vav.
1 Sam 29:1 ‫וַיִּקְבְּצ֧וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֛ים אֶת־כָּל־מַחֲנֵיהֶ֖ם אֲפֵ֑קָה וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל חֹנִ֔ים בַּעַ֖יִן אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּיִזְרְעֶֽאל׃‬ And the Philistines assembled all their battalions in Aphek while Israel was encamping at the fount which is in Jezreel. battalions ← camps.

in Aphek ← to Aphek.

Jezreel: see Josh 15:56.
1 Sam 29:2 ‫וְסַרְנֵ֤י פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ עֹֽבְרִ֔ים לְמֵא֖וֹת וְלַאֲלָפִ֑ים וְדָוִ֣ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֗יו עֹֽבְרִ֛ים בָּאַחֲרֹנָ֖ה עִם־אָכִֽישׁ׃‬ And the barons of the Philistines crossed over in hundreds and in thousands, and David and his men crossed over at the rear with Achish.
1 Sam 29:3 ‫וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ שָׂרֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים מָ֖ה הָעִבְרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אָכִ֜ישׁ אֶל־שָׂרֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים הֲלֽוֹא־זֶ֨ה דָוִ֜ד עֶ֣בֶד ׀ שָׁא֣וּל מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָיָ֤ה אִתִּי֙ זֶ֤ה יָמִים֙ אוֹ־זֶ֣ה שָׁנִ֔ים וְלֹֽא־מָצָ֤אתִי בוֹ֙ מְא֔וּמָה מִיּ֥וֹם נָפְל֖וֹ עַד־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ פ‬ And the commanders of the Philistines said, “What are these Hebrews doing here?” And Achish said to the commanders of the Philistines, “Is this not David, the servant of Saul king of Israel, who has been with me all these days or all these years, in whom I have not found anything amiss from the day when he arrived up to this day.” arrived ← fell, alighted.
1 Sam 29:4 ‫וַיִּקְצְפ֨וּ עָלָ֜יו שָׂרֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיֹּ֣אמְרוּ לוֹ֩ שָׂרֵ֨י פְלִשְׁתִּ֜ים הָשֵׁ֣ב אֶת־הָאִ֗ישׁ וְיָשֹׁב֙ אֶל־מְקוֹמוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִפְקַדְתּ֣וֹ שָׁ֔ם וְלֹֽא־יֵרֵ֤ד עִמָּ֙נוּ֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֥נוּ לְשָׂטָ֖ן בַּמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וּבַמֶּ֗ה יִתְרַצֶּ֥ה זֶה֙ אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֔יו הֲל֕וֹא בְּרָאשֵׁ֖י הָאֲנָשִׁ֥ים הָהֵֽם׃‬ But the commanders of the Philistines were angry with him, and the commanders of the Philistines said to him, “Send the man back so he returns to his place where you appointed him to be, so he does not go down to battle with us and will not be an adversary of ours in the battle. And on what grounds should this man ingratiate himself to his master? Is he not one of the heads of those men? one of the heads ← at the heads.
1 Sam 29:5 ‫הֲלוֹא־זֶ֣ה דָוִ֔ד אֲשֶׁ֧ר יַעֲנוּ־ל֛וֹ בַּמְּחֹל֖וֹת לֵאמֹ֑ר הִכָּ֤ה שָׁאוּל֙ בַּֽאֲלָפָ֔יו וְדָוִ֖ד *ברבבתו **בְּרִבְבֹתָֽיו׃ ס‬ Is this not David, whom they eulogized with dances, saying,

‘Saul struck down his thousands,

But David his {Q: tens of thousands} [K: ten thousand].’ ”

ten thousand: the ketiv could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.
1 Sam 29:6 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֨א אָכִ֜ישׁ אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵ֠לָיו חַי־יְהוָ֞ה כִּי־יָשָׁ֣ר אַתָּ֗ה וְט֣וֹב בְּ֠עֵינַי צֵאתְךָ֨ וּבֹאֲךָ֤ אִתִּי֙ בַּֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה כִּ֠י לֹֽא־מָצָ֤אתִֽי בְךָ֙ רָעָ֔ה מִיּ֛וֹם בֹּאֲךָ֥ אֵלַ֖י עַד־הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וּבְעֵינֵ֥י הַסְּרָנִ֖ים לֹֽא־ט֥וֹב אָֽתָּה׃‬ Then Achish called for David, and he said to him, “As the Lord lives, you are surely upright, and it was good in my sight that you should associate with me in the battalion, for I have found no fault in you from the day you came to me up to this day, but you are unwelcome in the sight of the barons. associate ← go out and come in.

battalion ← camp.

fault ← evil.

unwelcome ← not good.
1 Sam 29:7 ‫וְעַתָּ֥ה שׁ֖וּב וְלֵ֣ךְ בְּשָׁל֑וֹם וְלֹֽא־תַעֲשֶׂ֣ה רָ֔ע בְּעֵינֵ֖י סַרְנֵ֥י פְלִשְׁתִּֽים׃ ס‬ So now, return and go in peace, and do not do what is wrong in the sight of the barons of the Philistines.”
1 Sam 29:8 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־אָכִ֗ישׁ כִּ֣י מֶ֤ה עָשִׂ֙יתִי֙ וּמַה־מָּצָ֣אתָ בְעַבְדְּךָ֔ מִיּוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיִ֣יתִי לְפָנֶ֔יךָ עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֣י לֹ֤א אָבוֹא֙ וְנִלְחַ֔מְתִּי בְּאֹיְבֵ֖י אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ Then David said to Achish, “Well what have I done and what have you found in your servant from the day that I was first in your presence up to this day, that I should not go and fight against the enemies of my lord the king?” well ← because, but it is probably no more than a filler word.
1 Sam 29:9 ‫וַיַּ֣עַן אָכִישׁ֮ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־דָּוִד֒ יָדַ֕עְתִּי כִּ֣י ט֥וֹב אַתָּ֛ה בְּעֵינַ֖י כְּמַלְאַ֣ךְ אֱלֹהִ֑ים אַ֣ךְ שָׂרֵ֤י פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ אָֽמְר֔וּ לֹֽא־יַעֲלֶ֥ה עִמָּ֖נוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬ And Achish answered and said to David, “I know that you are good – in my sight like an angel of God. But the commanders of the Philistines have said, ‘He shall not go up with us into the battle.’
1 Sam 29:10 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ הַשְׁכֵּ֣ם בַּבֹּ֔קֶר וְעַבְדֵ֥י אֲדֹנֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֣אוּ אִתָּ֑ךְ וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּ֣ם בַּבֹּ֔קֶר וְא֥וֹר לָכֶ֖ם וָלֵֽכוּ׃‬ So now, get up early in the morning with your lord's servants who came with you, and when you have got up early in the morning, and you have light, depart.” with ← and.
1 Sam 29:11 ‫וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם דָּוִ֜ד ה֤וּא וַֽאֲנָשָׁיו֙ לָלֶ֣כֶת בַּבֹּ֔קֶר לָשׁ֖וּב אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים עָל֥וּ יִזְרְעֶֽאל׃ ס‬ So David got up early – he and his men – to depart in the morning, so as to return to the land of the Philistines, and the Philistines went up to Jezreel. the land: i.e. Ziklag. See 1 Sam 27:6, 1 Sam 30:1, 1 Chr 12:21 (1 Chr 12:20AV).

Jezreel: see Josh 15:56.
1 Sam 30:1 ‫וַיְהִ֞י בְּבֹ֨א דָוִ֧ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֛יו צִֽקְלַ֖ג בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֑י וַעֲמָלֵקִ֣י פָֽשְׁט֗וּ אֶל־נֶ֙גֶב֙ וְאֶל־צִ֣קְלַ֔ג וַיַּכּוּ֙ אֶת־צִ֣קְלַ֔ג וַיִּשְׂרְפ֥וּ אֹתָ֖הּ בָּאֵֽשׁ׃‬ Then it came to pass, as David and his men were going to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites invaded the south and Ziklag, and they attacked Ziklag and burned it with fire. invaded the south and Ziklag ← spread out to the south and to Ziklag.
1 Sam 30:2 ‫וַיִּשְׁבּ֨וּ אֶת־הַנָּשִׁ֤ים אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ֙ מִקָּטֹ֣ן וְעַד־גָּד֔וֹל לֹ֥א הֵמִ֖יתוּ אִ֑ישׁ וַיִּֽנְהֲג֔וּ וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ לְדַרְכָּֽם׃‬ And they took the women who were in it captive, both small and great. They did not kill anyone, but they drove them along as they went their way. both small and great ← from small and to great. See Gen 6:7.
1 Sam 30:3 ‫וַיָּבֹ֨א דָוִ֤ד וַֽאֲנָשָׁיו֙ אֶל־הָעִ֔יר וְהִנֵּ֥ה שְׂרוּפָ֖ה בָּאֵ֑שׁ וּנְשֵׁיהֶ֛ם וּבְנֵיהֶ֥ם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶ֖ם נִשְׁבּֽוּ׃‬ And David and his men came to the city, and what they saw was that it had been burned with fire, and their women and their sons and their daughters had been taken captive. what they saw was that ← behold.
1 Sam 30:4 ‫וַיִּשָּׂ֨א דָוִ֜ד וְהָעָ֧ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֛וֹ אֶת־קוֹלָ֖ם וַיִּבְכּ֑וּ עַ֣ד אֲשֶׁ֧ר אֵין־בָּהֶ֛ם כֹּ֖חַ לִבְכּֽוֹת׃‬ And David and the people who were with him raised their voices and wept until they didn't have any strength to weep. voices ← voice (one per person).
1 Sam 30:5 ‫וּשְׁתֵּ֥י נְשֵֽׁי־דָוִ֖ד נִשְׁבּ֑וּ אֲחִינֹ֙עַם֙ הַיִּזְרְעֵלִ֔ית וַאֲבִיגַ֕יִל אֵ֖שֶׁת נָבָ֥ל הַֽכַּרְמְלִֽי׃‬ Now David's two wives had been taken captive, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess and Abigail who had been the wife of Nabal the Carmelite, Jezreelitess: see Josh 15:56.
1 Sam 30:6 ‫וַתֵּ֨צֶר לְדָוִ֜ד מְאֹ֗ד כִּֽי־אָמְר֤וּ הָעָם֙ לְסָקְל֔וֹ כִּֽי־מָ֙רָה֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ כָּל־הָעָ֔ם אִ֖ישׁ עַל־*בנו **בָּנָ֣יו וְעַל־בְּנֹתָ֑יו וַיִּתְחַזֵּ֣ק דָּוִ֔ד בַּיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהָֽיו׃ ס‬ and David was very distressed, for the people intended to stone him, for all the people were inwardly bitter – each man about his {K: son} [Q: sons] and about his daughters – but David gathered strength through the Lord his God. intended ← said. Compare Ex 2:14.

were inwardly bitter ← the soul (was) bitter.
1 Sam 30:7 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֗ד אֶל־אֶבְיָתָ֤ר הַכֹּהֵן֙ בֶּן־אֲחִימֶ֔לֶךְ הַגִּֽישָׁה־נָּ֥א לִ֖י הָאֵפֹ֑ד וַיַּגֵּ֧שׁ אֶבְיָתָ֛ר אֶת־הָאֵפֹ֖ד אֶל־דָּוִֽד׃‬ And David said to Abiathar the priest, the son of Ahimelech, “Please bring the ephod up to me”, and Abiathar brought the ephod up to David. Abiathar (2x): see 1 Sam 22:20.

up (2x)near.
1 Sam 30:8 ‫וַיִּשְׁאַ֨ל דָּוִ֤ד בַּֽיהוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אֶרְדֹּ֛ף אַחֲרֵ֥י הַגְּדוּד־הַזֶּ֖ה הַֽאַשִּׂגֶ֑נּוּ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ רְדֹ֔ף כִּֽי־הַשֵּׂ֥ג תַּשִּׂ֖יג וְהַצֵּ֥ל תַּצִּֽיל׃‬ And David inquired of the Lord and said, “Should I pursue this troop? Will I catch up with them?” And he said to him, “Pursue, for you will certainly catch up with them and certainly bring deliverance.” of ← at.

with them ... with themwith it ... (with it), i.e. with the troop.

you will certainly catch up ... certainly bring deliverance: both infinitive absolute.
1 Sam 30:9 ‫וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד ה֚וּא וְשֵׁשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ עַד־נַ֣חַל הַבְּשׂ֑וֹר וְהַנּֽוֹתָרִ֖ים עָמָֽדוּ׃‬ So David and the six hundred men who were with him set out and came to the Besor stream, whereas the rest stayed behind.
1 Sam 30:10 ‫וַיִּרְדֹּ֣ף דָּוִ֔ד ה֖וּא וְאַרְבַּע־מֵא֣וֹת אִ֑ישׁ וַיַּֽעַמְדוּ֙ מָאתַ֣יִם אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר פִּגְּר֔וּ מֵעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־נַ֥חַל הַבְּשֽׂוֹר׃‬ And David was in pursuit, he and four hundred men, whereas two hundred men who had become too exhausted to cross the Besor stream stayed behind.
1 Sam 30:11 ‫וַֽיִּמְצְא֤וּ אִישׁ־מִצְרִי֙ בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה וַיִּקְח֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד וַיִּתְּנוּ־ל֥וֹ לֶ֙חֶם֙ וַיֹּ֔אכַל וַיַּשְׁקֻ֖הוּ מָֽיִם׃‬ And they found an Egyptian man in the field, and they took him to David, and they gave him bread, and he ate, and they gave him water to drink. bread: standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
1 Sam 30:12 ‫וַיִּתְּנוּ־לוֹ֩ פֶ֨לַח דְּבֵלָ֜ה וּשְׁנֵ֤י צִמֻּקִים֙ וַיֹּ֔אכַל וַתָּ֥שָׁב רוּח֖וֹ אֵלָ֑יו כִּ֠י לֹֽא־אָ֤כַל לֶ֙חֶם֙ וְלֹא־שָׁ֣תָה מַ֔יִם שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה יָמִ֖ים וּשְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה לֵילֽוֹת׃ ס‬ And they gave him a slice of a cake of dried figs and two raisin cakes, and he ate, and his spirit returned to him, for he had not eaten bread and he had not drunk water for three days and three nights.
1 Sam 30:13 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר ל֤וֹ דָוִד֙ לְֽמִי־אַ֔תָּה וְאֵ֥י מִזֶּ֖ה אָ֑תָּה וַיֹּ֜אמֶר נַ֧עַר מִצְרִ֣י אָנֹ֗כִי עֶ֚בֶד לְאִ֣ישׁ עֲמָֽלֵקִ֔י וַיַּעַזְבֵ֧נִי אֲדֹנִ֛י כִּ֥י חָלִ֖יתִי הַיּ֥וֹם שְׁלֹשָֽׁה׃‬ And David said to him, “To whom do you belong? And where are you from?” And he said, “I am an Egyptian youth, the servant of an Amalekite man, but my master left me, because I became sick three days ago.
1 Sam 30:14 ‫אֲנַ֡חְנוּ פָּשַׁ֜טְנוּ נֶ֧גֶב הַכְּרֵתִ֛י וְעַל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִֽיהוּדָ֖ה וְעַל־נֶ֣גֶב כָּלֵ֑ב וְאֶת־צִקְלַ֖ג שָׂרַ֥פְנוּ בָאֵֽשׁ׃‬ We raided the south of the Cherethites' territory, and Judah's territory, and the south of Caleb's territory, and we burned Ziklag with fire.”
1 Sam 30:15 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ דָּוִ֔ד הֲתוֹרִדֵ֖נִי אֶל־הַגְּד֣וּד הַזֶּ֑ה וַיֹּ֡אמֶר הִשָּׁבְעָה֩ לִּ֨י בֵֽאלֹהִ֜ים אִם־תְּמִיתֵ֗נִי וְאִם־תַּסְגִּרֵ֙נִי֙ בְּיַד־אֲדֹנִ֔י וְאוֹרִֽדְךָ֖ אֶל־הַגְּד֥וּד הַזֶּֽה׃‬ And David said to him, “Will you lead me down to this troop?” And he said, “Swear to me by God that you definitely will not kill me, and that you definitely will not deliver me up into the hand of my master, and I will lead you down to this troop.” definitely will not kill me ... definitely will not deliver me up: strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
1 Sam 30:16 ‫וַיֹּ֣רִדֵ֔הוּ וְהִנֵּ֥ה נְטֻשִׁ֖ים עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ אֹכְלִ֤ים וְשֹׁתִים֙ וְחֹ֣גְגִ֔ים בְּכֹל֙ הַשָּׁלָ֣ל הַגָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לָקְח֛וּ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וּמֵאֶ֥רֶץ יְהוּדָֽה׃‬ So he led him down, and he saw that there were people scattered over the whole expanse of the land, eating and drinking and celebrating all the great spoil which they had taken from the land of the Philistines and from the land of Judah. he saw that there werebehold.

scattered ← left.

expanse ← face.
1 Sam 30:17 ‫וַיַּכֵּ֥ם דָּוִ֛ד מֵהַנֶּ֥שֶׁף וְעַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב לְמָֽחֳרָתָ֑ם וְלֹֽא־נִמְלַ֤ט מֵהֶם֙ אִ֔ישׁ כִּי֩ אִם־אַרְבַּ֨ע מֵא֧וֹת אִֽישׁ־נַ֛עַר אֲשֶׁר־רָכְב֥וּ עַל־הַגְּמַלִּ֖ים וַיָּנֻֽסוּ׃‬ And David attacked them from dawn to evening the day after, and no-one escaped from them except four hundred young men who rode on camels and fled.
1 Sam 30:18 ‫וַיַּצֵּ֣ל דָּוִ֔ד אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לָקְח֖וּ עֲמָלֵ֑ק וְאֶת־שְׁתֵּ֥י נָשָׁ֖יו הִצִּ֥יל דָּוִֽד׃‬ So David recovered everything that the Amalekites had taken, and David recovered his two wives. recovered (2x)delivered.
1 Sam 30:19 ‫וְלֹ֣א נֶעְדַּר־לָ֠הֶם מִן־הַקָּטֹ֨ן וְעַד־הַגָּד֜וֹל וְעַד־בָּנִ֤ים וּבָנוֹת֙ וּמִשָּׁלָ֔ל וְעַ֛ד כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לָקְח֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם הַכֹּ֖ל הֵשִׁ֥יב דָּוִֽד׃‬ And no-one whether small or great was missing from them, neither sons nor daughters, nor any spoil, nor anything which they had taken away. David recovered everything. anything ← everything.

taken awaytaken for themselves.

recovered: here it is the usual word for to recover. Compare 1 Sam 30:18.
1 Sam 30:20 ‫וַיִּקַּ֣ח דָּוִ֔ד אֶת־כָּל־הַצֹּ֖אן וְהַבָּקָ֑ר נָהֲג֗וּ לִפְנֵי֙ הַמִּקְנֶ֣ה הַה֔וּא וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ זֶ֖ה שְׁלַ֥ל דָּוִֽד׃‬ And David took all the sheep and oxen. They drove them in front of the other livestock, and they said, “This is David's spoil.” the other ← that.
1 Sam 30:21 ‫וַיָּבֹ֣א דָוִ֗ד אֶל־מָאתַ֨יִם הָאֲנָשִׁ֜ים אֲשֶֽׁר־פִּגְּר֣וּ ׀ מִלֶּ֣כֶת ׀ אַחֲרֵ֣י דָוִ֗ד וַיֹּֽשִׁיבֻם֙ בְּנַ֣חַל הַבְּשׂ֔וֹר וַיֵּֽצְאוּ֙ לִקְרַ֣את דָּוִ֔ד וְלִקְרַ֖את הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֑וֹ וַיִּגַּ֤שׁ דָּוִד֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַיִּשְׁאַ֥ל לָהֶ֖ם לְשָׁלֽוֹם׃ ס‬ Then David went to the two hundred men who had become too exhausted to follow David, whom they had stationed at the Besor stream. And they went out to meet David and to meet the people with him, and David approached the people and asked them how they were. stationed ← let dwell.

how they wereabout peace.
1 Sam 30:22 ‫וַיַּ֜עַן כָּל־אִֽישׁ־רָ֣ע וּבְלִיַּ֗עַל מֵֽהָאֲנָשִׁים֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָלְכ֣וּ עִם־דָּוִד֒ וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ יַ֚עַן אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־הָלְכ֣וּ עִמִּ֔י לֹֽא־נִתֵּ֣ן לָהֶ֔ם מֵהַשָּׁלָ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִצַּ֑לְנוּ כִּֽי־אִם־אִ֤ישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ֙ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֔יו וְיִנְהֲג֖וּ וְיֵלֵֽכוּ׃ ס‬ And every evil or good-for-nothing man from the men who went with David answered and said, “Since they did not go with me, we will not give them any of the spoil which we have recovered, except for each man's wife and his sons, for them to take away and depart.” or: disjunctive use of the vav.
1 Sam 30:23 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד לֹֽא־תַעֲשׂ֥וּ כֵ֖ן אֶחָ֑י אֵ֠ת אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֨ן יְהוָ֥ה לָ֙נוּ֙ וַיִּשְׁמֹ֣ר אֹתָ֔נוּ וַיִּתֵּ֗ן אֶֽת־הַגְּד֛וּד הַבָּ֥א עָלֵ֖ינוּ בְּיָדֵֽנוּ׃‬ But David said, “You shall not do this, my brothers, with what the Lord has given us, for he protected us, and he delivered the troop which came against us into our hands. this ← thus.

for: causal use of the vav.

hands ← hand.
1 Sam 30:24 ‫וּמִי֙ יִשְׁמַ֣ע לָכֶ֔ם לַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֞י כְּחֵ֣לֶק ׀ הַיֹּרֵ֣ד בַּמִּלְחָמָ֗ה וּֽכְחֵ֛לֶק הַיֹּשֵׁ֥ב עַל־הַכֵּלִ֖ים יַחְדָּ֥ו יַחֲלֹֽקוּ׃ ס‬ And who will heed you in this matter? For the share of him who went down to battle will be as the share of him who stayed with the equipment. They will share it out together.”
1 Sam 30:25 ‫וַיְהִ֕י מֵֽהַיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וָמָ֑עְלָה וַיְשִׂמֶ֜הָ לְחֹ֤ק וּלְמִשְׁפָּט֙ לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ פ‬ And it came to pass from that day on that he made it a statute and a regulation for Israel, as it is up to this day.
1 Sam 30:26 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤א דָוִד֙ אֶל־צִ֣קְלַ֔ג וַיְשַׁלַּ֧ח מֵֽהַשָּׁלָ֛ל לְזִקְנֵ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה לְרֵעֵ֣הוּ לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֤ה לָכֶם֙ בְּרָכָ֔ה מִשְּׁלַ֖ל אֹיְבֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then David came to Ziklag, and he sent some of the spoil to the elders of Judah, to his neighbour, and he said, “Here is a gift for you from the spoil of the Lord's enemies.” here isbehold.

gift ← blessing.
1 Sam 30:27 ‫לַאֲשֶׁ֧ר בְּבֵֽית־אֵ֛ל וְלַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּרָמֽוֹת־נֶ֖גֶב וְלַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּיַתִּֽר׃‬ He sent it to those in Beth-El, and to those in Ramoth of the south, and to those in Jattir,
1 Sam 30:28 ‫וְלַאֲשֶׁ֧ר בַּעֲרֹעֵ֛ר וְלַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּשִֽׂפְמ֖וֹת וְלַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּאֶשְׁתְּמֹֽעַ׃ ס‬ and to those in Aroer, and to those in Siphmoth, and to those in Eshtemoa,
1 Sam 30:29 ‫וְלַאֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּרָכָ֗ל וְלַֽאֲשֶׁר֙ בְּעָרֵ֣י הַיְּרַחְמְאֵלִ֔י וְלַאֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעָרֵ֥י הַקֵּינִֽי׃‬ and to those in Rachal, and to those in the cities of the Jerahmeelites, and to those in the cities of the Kenites, Jerahmeelites ... Kenites ← Jerahmeelite ... Kenite.
1 Sam 30:30 ‫וְלַאֲשֶׁ֧ר בְּחָרְמָ֛ה וְלַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּבוֹר־עָשָׁ֖ן וְלַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּעֲתָֽךְ׃‬ and to those in Hormah, and to those in Bor-Ashan, and to those in Athach, Bor-Ashan: AV= Chor-ashan, as in many manuscripts [BHS-CA], and which is a more internally consistent name (furnace, rather than cistern, of smoke).
1 Sam 30:31 ‫וְלַאֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּחֶבְר֑וֹן וּֽלְכָל־הַמְּקֹמ֛וֹת אֲשֶֽׁר־הִתְהַלֶּךְ־שָׁ֥ם דָּוִ֖ד ה֥וּא וַאֲנָשָֽׁיו׃ פ‬ and to those in Hebron, and to all the places which David frequented – he and his men.
1 Sam 31:1 ‫וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים נִלְחָמִ֣ים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיָּנֻ֜סוּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיִּפְּל֥וּ חֲלָלִ֖ים בְּהַ֥ר הַגִּלְבֹּֽעַ׃‬ Then the Philistines fought against Israel, and the men of Israel fled from the Philistines, and they fell as casualties on Mount Gilboa. || 1 Chr 10:1.

from ← from before.

casualties ← pierced, covering wounded and killed.
1 Sam 31:2 ‫וַיַּדְבְּק֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל וְאֶת־בָּנָ֑יו וַיַּכּ֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים אֶת־יְהוֹנָתָ֧ן וְאֶת־אֲבִינָדָ֛ב וְאֶת־מַלְכִּי־שׁ֖וּעַ בְּנֵ֥י שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ And the Philistines hotly pursued Saul and his sons, and the Philistines struck down Jonathan and Abinadab and Malchi-Shua, Saul's sons. || 1 Chr 10:2.

hotly pursued ← made cleave to, but also followed closely.
1 Sam 31:3 ‫וַתִּכְבַּ֤ד הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וַיִּמְצָאֻ֥הוּ הַמּוֹרִ֖ים אֲנָשִׁ֣ים בַּקָּ֑שֶׁת וַיָּ֥חֶל מְאֹ֖ד מֵהַמּוֹרִֽים׃‬ And the war went heavily against Saul, and the archers – men of the bow – hit him, and he was severely wounded by the archers. was ... wounded: we parse as qal future conversive of חיל, literally writhed. Hiphil of חלל would ↴

|| 1 Chr 10:3.
1 Sam 31:4 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁאוּל֩ לְנֹשֵׂ֨א כֵלָ֜יו שְׁלֹ֥ף חַרְבְּךָ֣ ׀ וְדָקְרֵ֣נִי בָ֗הּ פֶּן־יָ֠בוֹאוּ הָעֲרֵלִ֨ים הָאֵ֤לֶּה וּדְקָרֻ֙נִי֙ וְהִתְעַלְּלוּ־בִ֔י וְלֹ֤א אָבָה֙ נֹשֵׂ֣א כֵלָ֔יו כִּ֥י יָרֵ֖א מְאֹ֑ד וַיִּקַּ֤ח שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־הַחֶ֔רֶב וַיִּפֹּ֖ל עָלֶֽיהָ׃‬ And Saul said to his arms-bearer, “Draw your sword and thrust me through with it, so that these uncircumcised men do not come and thrust me through or ill-treat me.” But his arms-bearer was not willing to do so, because he was very afraid. So Saul took his sword and fell on it. ↳ be transitive, but the sense of wounding from חלל may be an influence. Or re-point as pual of חלל (compare Ezek 32:26); here it would be וַיֻּחַל.

|| 1 Chr 10:4.
1 Sam 31:5 ‫וַיַּ֥רְא נֹשֵֽׂא־כֵלָ֖יו כִּ֣י מֵ֣ת שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּפֹּ֥ל גַּם־ה֛וּא עַל־חַרְבּ֖וֹ וַיָּ֥מָת עִמּֽוֹ׃‬ Then when his arms-bearer saw that Saul had died, he too fell on his sword and died with him. || 1 Chr 10:5.
1 Sam 31:6 ‫וַיָּ֣מָת שָׁא֡וּל וּשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת בָּנָיו֩ וְנֹשֵׂ֨א כֵלָ֜יו גַּ֧ם כָּל־אֲנָשָׁ֛יו בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא יַחְדָּֽו׃‬ So Saul and his three sons died, as did his arms-bearer, and all his men together on that day. || 1 Chr 10:6.
1 Sam 31:7 ‫וַיִּרְא֣וּ אַנְשֵֽׁי־יִ֠שְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־בְּעֵ֨בֶר הָעֵ֜מֶק וַאֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֗ן כִּֽי־נָ֙סוּ֙ אַנְשֵׁ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְכִי־מֵ֖תוּ שָׁא֣וּל וּבָנָ֑יו וַיַּעַזְב֤וּ אֶת־הֶֽעָרִים֙ וַיָּנֻ֔סוּ וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיֵּֽשְׁב֖וּ בָּהֶֽן׃ ס‬ And when the men of Israel who were on the other side of the valley and on the other side of the Jordan saw that the men of Israel had fled, and that Saul and his sons had died, they left the cities and fled, and the Philistines came and lived in them. || 1 Chr 10:7.
1 Sam 31:8 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים לְפַשֵּׁ֖ט אֶת־הַחֲלָלִ֑ים וַֽיִּמְצְא֤וּ אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ וְאֶת־שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת בָּנָ֔יו נֹפְלִ֖ים בְּהַ֥ר הַגִּלְבֹּֽעַ׃‬ And it came to pass, on the next day when the Philistines came to strip the fallen, that they found Saul and his three sons lying fallen at Mount Gilboa. || 1 Chr 10:8.

fallen (first occurrence in verse)pierced, covering wounded and killed.

fallen (second occurrence in verse)falling, but ↴
1 Sam 31:9 ‫וַֽיִּכְרְתוּ֙ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַיַּפְשִׁ֖יטוּ אֶת־כֵּלָ֑יו וַיְשַׁלְּח֨וּ בְאֶֽרֶץ־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֜ים סָבִ֗יב לְבַשֵּׂ֛ר בֵּ֥ית עֲצַבֵּיהֶ֖ם וְאֶת־הָעָֽם׃‬ And they cut his head off and stripped his weaponry, and they sent messengers into the land of the Philistines round about to bring the good news to the house of their idols and to the people. ↳ occasionally fallen. See [AnLx].

|| 1 Chr 10:9.
1 Sam 31:10 ‫וַיָּשִׂ֙מוּ֙ אֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו בֵּ֖ית עַשְׁתָּר֑וֹת וְאֶת־גְּוִיָּתוֹ֙ תָּקְע֔וּ בְּחוֹמַ֖ת בֵּ֥ית שָֽׁן׃‬ And they put his weaponry in the house of images of Astarte, and they fastened his corpse to the wall of Beth-Shan. || 1 Chr 10:10.

images of Astarte ← Ashtaroth, i.e. Venuses.
1 Sam 31:11 ‫וַיִּשְׁמְע֣וּ אֵלָ֔יו יֹשְׁבֵ֖י יָבֵ֣ישׁ גִּלְעָ֑ד אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂ֥וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים לְשָׁאֽוּל׃‬ And when the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead heard of it – of what the Philistines had done to Saul – || 1 Chr 10:11.

Jabesh-Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
1 Sam 31:12 ‫וַיָּק֜וּמוּ כָּל־אִ֣ישׁ חַיִל֮ וַיֵּלְכ֣וּ כָל־הַלַּיְלָה֒ וַיִּקְח֞וּ אֶת־גְּוִיַּ֣ת שָׁא֗וּל וְאֵת֙ גְּוִיֹּ֣ת בָּנָ֔יו מֵחוֹמַ֖ת בֵּ֣ית שָׁ֑ן וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ יָבֵ֔שָׁה וַיִּשְׂרְפ֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם שָֽׁם׃‬ every valiant man arose and went all night and took down Saul's corpse and his sons' corpses from the wall of Beth-Shan, and they went to Jabesh and burnt them there. || 1 Chr 10:12.
1 Sam 31:13 ‫וַיִּקְחוּ֙ אֶת־עַצְמֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּקְבְּר֥וּ תַֽחַת־הָאֶ֖שֶׁל בְּיָבֵ֑שָׁה וַיָּצֻ֖מוּ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃ פ‬ And they took their bones and buried them under the tamarisk tree in Jabesh. And they fasted for seven days. || 1 Chr 10:12.
2 Sam 1:1 ‫וַיְהִ֗י אַֽחֲרֵי֙ מ֣וֹת שָׁא֔וּל וְדָוִ֣ד שָׁ֔ב מֵהַכּ֖וֹת אֶת־הָעֲמָלֵ֑ק וַיֵּ֧שֶׁב דָּוִ֛ד בְּצִקְלָ֖ג יָמִ֥ים שְׁנָֽיִם׃‬ And it came to pass after Saul's death that David returned from attacking the Amalekites, and David stayed in Ziklag for two days. the Amalekites ← the Amalek.
2 Sam 1:2 ‫וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י וְהִנֵּה֩ אִ֨ישׁ בָּ֤א מִן־הַֽמַּחֲנֶה֙ מֵעִ֣ם שָׁא֔וּל וּבְגָדָ֣יו קְרֻעִ֔ים וַאֲדָמָ֖ה עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיְהִי֙ בְּבֹא֣וֹ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד וַיִּפֹּ֥ל אַ֖רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּֽחוּ׃‬ And it came to pass on the third day that there was a man who had come from Saul's camp, whose clothes were torn, and there was soil on his head, and when he came to David, he fell to the ground and prostrated himself. there wasbehold.

from Saul's camp ← from the camp from with Saul.

and when ← and it came to pass when.
2 Sam 1:3 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ דָּוִ֔ד אֵ֥י מִזֶּ֖ה תָּב֑וֹא וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔יו מִמַּחֲנֵ֥ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נִמְלָֽטְתִּי׃‬ And David said to him, “Where have you come from?” And he said to him, “I have escaped from Israel's camp.” have you come: future (tense) / imperfective (aspect) / emanative (perspective) [LMcF]. Compare Gen 2:6.
2 Sam 1:4 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֥יו דָּוִ֛ד מֶה־הָיָ֥ה הַדָּבָ֖ר הַגֶּד־נָ֣א לִ֑י וַ֠יֹּאמֶר אֲשֶׁר־נָ֨ס הָעָ֜ם מִן־הַמִּלְחָמָ֗ה וְגַם־הַרְבֵּ֞ה נָפַ֤ל מִן־הָעָם֙ וַיָּמֻ֔תוּ וְגַ֗ם שָׁא֛וּל וִיהוֹנָתָ֥ן בְּנ֖וֹ מֵֽתוּ׃‬ Then David asked him, “What happened? Do please tell me.” And he said that the people had fled from the battle and that many of the people had fallen and died, and that Saul and Jonathan his son had also died. asked ← said to.

what happened? ← what was the thing?
2 Sam 1:5 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד אֶל־הַנַּ֖עַר הַמַּגִּ֣יד ל֑וֹ אֵ֣יךְ יָדַ֔עְתָּ כִּי־מֵ֥ת שָׁא֖וּל וִיהֽוֹנָתָ֥ן בְּנֽוֹ׃‬ Then David asked the lad who had told him, “How did you come to know that Saul and Jonathan his son died?” asked ← said to.
2 Sam 1:6 ‫וַיֹּ֜אמֶר הַנַּ֣עַר ׀ הַמַּגִּ֣יד ל֗וֹ נִקְרֹ֤א נִקְרֵ֙יתִי֙ בְּהַ֣ר הַגִּלְבֹּ֔עַ וְהִנֵּ֥ה שָׁא֖וּל נִשְׁעָ֣ן עַל־חֲנִית֑וֹ וְהִנֵּ֥ה הָרֶ֛כֶב וּבַעֲלֵ֥י הַפָּרָשִׁ֖ים הִדְבִּקֻֽהוּ׃‬ And the lad who was informing him said, “Completely by chance I was on Mount Gilboa when I saw Saul leaning on his spear, while the chariot fleet and the horsemen were hotly pursuing him. completely by chance I was: infinitive absolute.

when I saw ← and behold.

while ← and behold.
2 Sam 1:7 ‫וַיִּ֥פֶן אַחֲרָ֖יו וַיִּרְאֵ֑נִי וַיִּקְרָ֣א אֵלָ֔י וָאֹמַ֖ר הִנֵּֽנִי׃‬ And he turned round and saw me, and he called for me, and I said, ‘Here I am.’ round ← behind him.

here I ambehold me.

The lad was lying, thinking David would be pleased that he had killed Saul. See 2 Sam 4:10.
2 Sam 1:8 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לִ֖י מִי־אָ֑תָּה *ויאמר **וָאֹמַ֣ר אֵלָ֔יו עֲמָלֵקִ֖י אָנֹֽכִי׃‬ Then he said to me, ‘Who are you?’ And {Q: I said} [K: he said] to him, ‘I am an Amalekite.’ On the ketiv and qeré, compare Neh 7:3. Perhaps the third person singular form became a fixed expression for wider usage.
2 Sam 1:9 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י עֲמָד־נָ֤א עָלַי֙ וּמֹ֣תְתֵ֔נִי כִּ֥י אֲחָזַ֖נִי הַשָּׁבָ֑ץ כִּֽי־כָל־ע֥וֹד נַפְשִׁ֖י בִּֽי׃‬ Then he said to me, ‘Come up to me please and kill me, for a seizure has taken hold of me, although my life is still in me.’ come up to me ← stand at me.

life ← soul.
2 Sam 1:10 ‫וָאֶעֱמֹ֤ד עָלָיו֙ וַאֲמֹ֣תְתֵ֔הוּ כִּ֣י יָדַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יִֽחְיֶ֖ה אַחֲרֵ֣י נִפְל֑וֹ וָאֶקַּ֞ח הַנֵּ֣זֶר ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־רֹאשׁ֗וֹ וְאֶצְעָדָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־זְרֹע֔וֹ וָאֲבִיאֵ֥ם אֶל־אֲדֹנִ֖י הֵֽנָּה׃‬ So I went up to him and killed him, for I knew that he would not live after his incident, and I took the crown which was on his head and the bangle which was on his arm, and I have brought them to my lord here.” I went up to him ← I stood at him.

incident ← fall. Parallel etymology (Latin cado / incido).
2 Sam 1:11 ‫וַיַּחֲזֵ֥ק דָּוִ֛ד *בבגדו **בִּבְגָדָ֖יו וַיִּקְרָעֵ֑ם וְגַ֥ם כָּל־הָאֲנָשִׁ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ׃‬ Then David took hold of his {Q: clothes} [K: cloak] and tore them, as did all the men who were with him. as didand also.
2 Sam 1:12 ‫וַֽיִּסְפְּדוּ֙ וַיִּבְכּ֔וּ וַיָּצֻ֖מוּ עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב עַל־שָׁא֞וּל וְעַל־יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֗וֹ וְעַל־עַ֤ם יְהוָה֙ וְעַל־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּ֥י נָפְל֖וּ בֶּחָֽרֶב׃ ס‬ And they mourned and wept and fasted until the evening, for Saul and Jonathan his son, and for the Lord's people, and for the house of Israel, for they had fallen by the sword.
2 Sam 1:13 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֗ד אֶל־הַנַּ֙עַר֙ הַמַּגִּ֣יד ל֔וֹ אֵ֥י מִזֶּ֖ה אָ֑תָּה וַיֹּ֕אמֶר בֶּן־אִ֛ישׁ גֵּ֥ר עֲמָלֵקִ֖י אָנֹֽכִי׃‬ Then David asked the lad who was informing him, “Where are you from?” And he said, “I am the son of a foreigner, an Amalekite.” asked ← said to.

foreigner ← sojourner man.
2 Sam 1:14 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו דָּוִ֑ד אֵ֚יךְ לֹ֣א יָרֵ֔אתָ לִשְׁלֹ֙חַ֙ יָֽדְךָ֔ לְשַׁחֵ֖ת אֶת־מְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָֽה׃‬ And David said to him, “How come you did not fear to stretch out your hand to dispatch the Lord's anointed?”
2 Sam 1:15 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֣א דָוִ֗ד לְאַחַד֙ מֵֽהַנְּעָרִ֔ים וַיֹּ֖אמֶר גַּ֣שׁ פְּגַע־בּ֑וֹ וַיַּכֵּ֖הוּ וַיָּמֹֽת׃‬ And David called one of the lads and said, “Come up and strike him.” And he struck him, and he died. come up ← approach.
2 Sam 1:16 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ דָּוִ֔ד *דמיך **דָּמְךָ֖ עַל־רֹאשֶׁ֑ךָ כִּ֣י פִ֗יךָ עָנָ֤ה בְךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אָנֹכִ֥י מֹתַ֖תִּי אֶת־מְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ Then David said to him, “May your {Q: blood} [K: bloody deeds] be on your head, for your mouth testified against you, when you said, ‘I have killed the Lord's anointed.’ ” bloody deeds (ketiv)bloods.
2 Sam 1:17 ‫וַיְקֹנֵ֣ן דָּוִ֔ד אֶת־הַקִּינָ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את עַל־שָׁא֖וּל וְעַל־יְהוֹנָתָ֥ן בְּנֽוֹ׃‬ And David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son,
2 Sam 1:18 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לְלַמֵּ֥ד בְּנֵֽי־יְהוּדָ֖ה קָ֑שֶׁת הִנֵּ֥ה כְתוּבָ֖ה עַל־סֵ֥פֶר הַיָּשָֽׁר׃‬ and he gave the order to teach the sons of Judah archery – look, it is written in the Book of the Upright – gave the order ← said.

archery ← bow.

the Upright ← the Jashar. AV differs (Jasher). Compare Josh 10:13.
2 Sam 1:19 ‫הַצְּבִי֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַל־בָּמוֹתֶ֖יךָ חָלָ֑ל אֵ֖יךְ נָפְל֥וּ גִבּוֹרִֽים׃‬

“The gazelle – Israel – lies slain on your heights.

How the mighty have fallen!

2 Sam 1:20 ‫אַל־תַּגִּ֣ידוּ בְגַ֔ת אַֽל־תְּבַשְּׂר֖וּ בְּחוּצֹ֣ת אַשְׁקְל֑וֹן פֶּן־תִּשְׂמַ֙חְנָה֙ בְּנ֣וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים פֶּֽן־תַּעֲלֹ֖זְנָה בְּנ֥וֹת הָעֲרֵלִֽים׃‬

Do not report it in Gath,

Do not proclaim it in the open places of Ashkelon,

Lest the daughters of the Philistines should rejoice,

Lest the daughters of the uncircumcised should exult.

2 Sam 1:21 ‫הָרֵ֣י בַגִּלְבֹּ֗עַ אַל־טַ֧ל וְאַל־מָטָ֛ר עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם וּשְׂדֵ֣י תְרוּמֹ֑ת כִּ֣י שָׁ֤ם נִגְעַל֙ מָגֵ֣ן גִּבּוֹרִ֔ים מָגֵ֣ן שָׁא֔וּל בְּלִ֖י מָשִׁ֥יחַ בַּשָּֽׁמֶן׃‬

May there be no dew on the mountains of Gilboa,

And may there be no rain on you,

Nor on the fields for heave-offerings,

For there the shield of heroes was abandoned

– The shield of Saul without the one anointed with oil.

without the one anointed with oil: or without the anointing of oil, referring to the shield. AV differs (not anointed with oil) referring to Saul.
2 Sam 1:22 ‫מִדַּ֣ם חֲלָלִ֗ים מֵחֵ֙לֶב֙ גִּבּוֹרִ֔ים קֶ֚שֶׁת יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן לֹ֥א נָשׂ֖וֹג אָח֑וֹר וְחֶ֣רֶב שָׁא֔וּל לֹ֥א תָשׁ֖וּב רֵיקָֽם׃‬

From the blood of the slain,

From the fat of the heroes,

Jonathan's bow did not shrink,

And Saul's sword did not return empty.

shrink ← slide, retreat.

did not return: future (tense) / imperfective (aspect) / emanative (perspective) [LMcF]. Compare Gen 2:6.
2 Sam 1:23 ‫שָׁא֣וּל וִיהוֹנָתָ֗ן הַנֶּאֱהָבִ֤ים וְהַנְּעִימִם֙ בְּחַיֵּיהֶ֔ם וּבְמוֹתָ֖ם לֹ֣א נִפְרָ֑דוּ מִנְּשָׁרִ֣ים קַ֔לּוּ מֵאֲרָי֖וֹת גָּבֵֽרוּ׃‬

Saul and Jonathan were loved and were delightful in their lives,

And they did not part in their death.

They were swifter than eagles;

They were stronger than lions.

2 Sam 1:24 ‫בְּנוֹת֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶל־שָׁא֖וּל בְּכֶ֑ינָה הַמַּלְבִּֽשְׁכֶ֤ם שָׁנִי֙ עִם־עֲדָנִ֔ים הַֽמַּעֲלֶה֙ עֲדִ֣י זָהָ֔ב עַ֖ל לְבוּשְׁכֶֽן׃‬

O daughters of Israel, weep for Saul,

Who clothed you in scarlet with delights,

Who set ornaments of gold on your clothing.

2 Sam 1:25 ‫אֵ֚יךְ נָפְל֣וּ גִבֹּרִ֔ים בְּת֖וֹךְ הַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן עַל־בָּמוֹתֶ֖יךָ חָלָֽל׃‬

How the heroes have fallen in the midst of the battle!

Jonathan was slain on your heights.

2 Sam 1:26 ‫צַר־לִ֣י עָלֶ֗יךָ אָחִי֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן נָעַ֥מְתָּ לִּ֖י מְאֹ֑ד נִפְלְאַ֤תָה אַהֲבָֽתְךָ֙ לִ֔י מֵאַהֲבַ֖ת נָשִֽׁים׃‬

I am distressed about you, my brother Jonathan.

You were very much a source of pleasure to me.

Your love for me was more wondrous

Than the love of women.

2 Sam 1:27 ‫אֵ֚יךְ נָפְל֣וּ גִבּוֹרִ֔ים וַיֹּאבְד֖וּ כְּלֵ֥י מִלְחָמָֽה׃ פ‬

How the heroes have fallen

And the weapons of war have perished!”

2 Sam 2:1 ‫וַיְהִ֣י אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן וַיִּשְׁאַל֩ דָּוִ֨ד בַּֽיהוָ֤ה ׀ לֵאמֹר֙ הַאֶעֱלֶ֗ה בְּאַחַת֙ עָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוָ֛ה אֵלָ֖יו עֲלֵ֑ה וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אָ֥נָה אֶעֱלֶ֖ה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר חֶבְרֹֽנָה׃‬ Then it came to pass after that, that David inquired of the Lord and asked, “Should I go up into one of the cities of Judah?” And the Lord said to him, “Go up.” Then David said, “Where should I go up to?” And he said, “To Hebron.” of ← at.

asked ← said.
2 Sam 2:2 ‫וַיַּ֤עַל שָׁם֙ דָּוִ֔ד וְגַ֖ם שְׁתֵּ֣י נָשָׁ֑יו אֲחִינֹ֙עַם֙ הַיִּזְרְעֵלִ֔ית וַאֲבִיגַ֕יִל אֵ֖שֶׁת נָבָ֥ל הַֽכַּרְמְלִֽי׃‬ So David went up there, as did his two wives Ahinoam the Jezreelitess and Abigail who had been the wife of Nabal the Carmelite. as didand also.

Jezreelitess: see Josh 15:56.
2 Sam 2:3 ‫וַאֲנָשָׁ֧יו אֲשֶׁר־עִמּ֛וֹ הֶעֱלָ֥ה דָוִ֖ד אִ֣ישׁ וּבֵית֑וֹ וַיֵּשְׁב֖וּ בְּעָרֵ֥י חֶבְרֽוֹן׃‬ And David brought up his men who were with him, each one and his household, and they lived in the cities of Hebron.
2 Sam 2:4 ‫וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ אַנְשֵׁ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ־שָׁ֧ם אֶת־דָּוִ֛ד לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֑ה וַיַּגִּ֤דוּ לְדָוִד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אַנְשֵׁי֙ יָבֵ֣ישׁ גִּלְעָ֔ד אֲשֶׁ֥ר קָבְר֖וּ אֶת־שָׁאֽוּל׃ ס‬ And the men of Judah came, and they anointed David as king over the house of Judah. And they gave a report to David, and they said, “It is the men of Jabesh-Gilead who buried Saul.” Jabesh-Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
2 Sam 2:5 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח דָּוִד֙ מַלְאָכִ֔ים אֶל־אַנְשֵׁ֖י יָבֵ֣ישׁ גִּלְעָ֑ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם בְּרֻכִ֤ים אַתֶּם֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר עֲשִׂיתֶ֜ם הַחֶ֣סֶד הַזֶּ֗ה עִם־אֲדֹֽנֵיכֶם֙ עִם־שָׁא֔וּל וַֽתִּקְבְּר֖וּ אֹתֽוֹ׃‬ Then David sent messengers to the men of Jabesh-Gilead, and he said to them, “Blessed are you to the Lord, because you did this kind act with your lord, with Saul, when you buried him. Jabesh-Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
2 Sam 2:6 ‫וְעַתָּ֕ה יַֽעַשׂ־יְהוָ֥ה עִמָּכֶ֖ם חֶ֣סֶד וֶאֱמֶ֑ת וְגַ֣ם אָנֹכִ֗י אֶעֱשֶׂ֤ה אִתְּכֶם֙ הַטּוֹבָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃‬ So now, may the Lord act kindly and in truth with you, and I too will recompense you this good deed, because you did this thing. recompense you ← do with you.
2 Sam 2:7 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה ׀ תֶּחֱזַ֣קְנָה יְדֵיכֶ֗ם וִֽהְיוּ֙ לִבְנֵי־חַ֔יִל כִּי־מֵ֖ת אֲדֹנֵיכֶ֣ם שָׁא֑וּל וְגַם־אֹתִ֗י מָשְׁח֧וּ בֵית־יְהוּדָ֛ה לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃ פ‬ And now, may your hands be strengthened, and may you become valiant men, for your lord, Saul, is dead, and moreover the house of Judah has anointed me as king over them.” valiant men ← sons of valour.
2 Sam 2:8 ‫וְאַבְנֵ֣ר בֶּן־נֵ֔ר שַׂר־צָבָ֖א אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְשָׁא֑וּל לָקַ֗ח אֶת־אִ֥ישׁ בֹּ֙שֶׁת֙ בֶּן־שָׁא֔וּל וַיַּעֲבִרֵ֖הוּ מַחֲנָֽיִם׃‬ But Abner the son of Ner, the commander of Saul's army, took Ish-Bosheth, Saul's son, and he brought him across to Mahanaim. the commander ← a commander, but Abner is in a class of his own. The Hebrew article is often omitted in similar constructions.
2 Sam 2:9 ‫וַיַּמְלִכֵ֙הוּ֙ אֶל־הַגִּלְעָ֔ד וְאֶל־הָאֲשׁוּרִ֖י וְאֶֽל־יִזְרְעֶ֑אל וְעַל־אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ וְעַל־בִּנְיָמִ֔ן וְעַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כֻּלֹּֽה׃ פ‬ And they made him king of Gilead, and of the Ashurites and of Jezreel, and of Ephraim and of Benjamin and of all of Israel. Gilead: see Gen 31:21.

Jezreel: see Josh 15:56.
2 Sam 2:10 ‫בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִ֨ים שָׁנָ֜ה אִֽישׁ־בֹּ֣שֶׁת בֶּן־שָׁא֗וּל בְּמָלְכוֹ֙ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּשְׁתַּ֥יִם שָׁנִ֖ים מָלָ֑ךְ אַ֚ךְ בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֔ה הָי֖וּ אַחֲרֵ֥י דָוִֽד׃‬ Ish-Bosheth, Saul's son, was forty years old when he reigned over Israel, and he reigned for two years, but the house of Judah was behind David. was behind: i.e. backed, supported.
2 Sam 2:11 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ מִסְפַּ֣ר הַיָּמִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר֩ הָיָ֨ה דָוִ֥ד מֶ֛לֶךְ בְּחֶבְר֖וֹן עַל־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֑ה שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים וְשִׁשָּׁ֥ה חֳדָשִֽׁים׃ ס‬ And the number of days that David was king over the house of Judah in Hebron was seven years and six months.
2 Sam 2:12 ‫וַיֵּצֵא֙ אַבְנֵ֣ר בֶּן־נֵ֔ר וְעַבְדֵ֖י אִֽישׁ־בֹּ֣שֶׁת בֶּן־שָׁא֑וּל מִֽמַּחֲנַ֖יִם גִּבְעֽוֹנָה׃‬ And Abner the son of Ner went out, as did the servants of Ish-Bosheth, Saul's son, from Mahanaim to Gibeon. Gibeon: see Josh 9:3.
2 Sam 2:13 ‫וְיוֹאָ֨ב בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֜ה וְעַבְדֵ֤י דָוִד֙ יָֽצְא֔וּ וַֽיִּפְגְּשׁ֛וּם עַל־בְּרֵכַ֥ת גִּבְע֖וֹן יַחְדָּ֑ו וַיֵּ֨שְׁב֜וּ אֵ֤לֶּה עַל־הַבְּרֵכָה֙ מִזֶּ֔ה וְאֵ֥לֶּה עַל־הַבְּרֵכָ֖ה מִזֶּֽה׃‬ And Joab the son of Zeruiah and David's servants went out, and they met them at the pool of Gibeon so that they were all together, and they sat with one group on one side of the pool and one group on the other side of the pool. Gibeon: see Josh 9:3.

with one group ... and one groupthese ... and these.
2 Sam 2:14 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אַבְנֵר֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב יָק֤וּמוּ נָא֙ הַנְּעָרִ֔ים וִֽישַׂחֲק֖וּ לְפָנֵ֑ינוּ וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יוֹאָ֖ב יָקֻֽמוּ׃‬ And Abner said to Joab, “Let the lads get up and make sport for us.” And Joab said, “Let them get up.” make sport: or play. But it is like twelve duels to the death.

for ← before.
2 Sam 2:15 ‫וַיָּקֻ֖מוּ וַיַּעַבְר֣וּ בְמִסְפָּ֑ר שְׁנֵ֧ים עָשָׂ֣ר לְבִנְיָמִ֗ן וּלְאִ֥ישׁ בֹּ֙שֶׁת֙ בֶּן־שָׁא֔וּל וּשְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ר מֵעַבְדֵ֥י דָוִֽד׃‬ So the twelve in number of Benjamin and Ish-Bosheth, Saul's son, arose and crossed over, as did twelve of David's servants.
2 Sam 2:16 ‫וַֽיַּחֲזִ֜קוּ אִ֣ישׁ ׀ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ רֵעֵ֗הוּ וְחַרְבּוֹ֙ בְּצַ֣ד רֵעֵ֔הוּ וַֽיִּפְּל֖וּ יַחְדָּ֑ו וַיִּקְרָא֙ לַמָּק֣וֹם הַה֔וּא חֶלְקַ֥ת הַצֻּרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּגִבְעֽוֹן׃‬ And each took hold of his neighbour's head and thrust his sword into his neighbour's side, and they fell down together, and that place is called Helkath-Hazzurim, which is in Gibeon. is called ← one calls. Avoidance of the passive.

Helkath-Hazzurim: i.e. plot of land of the sword-edges.

Gibeon: see Josh 9:3.
2 Sam 2:17 ‫וַתְּהִ֧י הַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה קָשָׁ֥ה עַד־מְאֹ֖ד בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיִּנָּ֤גֶף אַבְנֵר֙ וְאַנְשֵׁ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִפְנֵ֖י עַבְדֵ֥י דָוִֽד׃‬ And the war was very severe on that day, and Abner was defeated, as were the men of Israel, by David's servants. by ← before.
2 Sam 2:18 ‫וַיִּֽהְיוּ־שָׁ֗ם שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ בְּנֵ֣י צְרוּיָ֔ה יוֹאָ֥ב וַאֲבִישַׁ֖י וַעֲשָׂהאֵ֑ל וַעֲשָׂהאֵל֙ קַ֣ל בְּרַגְלָ֔יו כְּאַחַ֥ד הַצְּבָיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬ And the three sons of Zeruiah were there, Joab and Abishai and Asahel. Now Asahel was swift-footed like one of the gazelles in the field. || 1 Chr 2:16.

swift-footed ← light in his feet.
2 Sam 2:19 ‫וַיִּרְדֹּ֥ף עֲשָׂהאֵ֖ל אַחֲרֵ֣י אַבְנֵ֑ר וְלֹֽא־נָטָ֣ה לָלֶ֗כֶת עַל־הַיָּמִין֙ וְעַֽל־הַשְּׂמֹ֔אול מֵאַחֲרֵ֖י אַבְנֵֽר׃‬ And Asahel pursued Abner, and he did not turn aside to go to the right or to the left in going after Abner.
2 Sam 2:20 ‫וַיִּ֤פֶן אַבְנֵר֙ אַֽחֲרָ֔יו וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הַאַתָּ֥ה זֶ֖ה עֲשָׂהאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָנֹֽכִי׃‬ Then Abner turned round, and he said, “Is that you, Asahel?” And he said, “I am.” round ← behind him.

that ← this.
2 Sam 2:21 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ אַבְנֵ֗ר נְטֵ֤ה לְךָ֙ עַל־יְמִֽינְךָ֙ א֣וֹ עַל־שְׂמֹאלֶ֔ךָ וֶאֱחֹ֣ז לְךָ֗ אֶחָד֙ מֵֽהַנְּעָרִ֔ים וְקַח־לְךָ֖ אֶת־חֲלִצָת֑וֹ וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֣ה עֲשָׂהאֵ֔ל לָס֖וּר מֵאַחֲרָֽיו׃‬ And Abner said to him, “Turn aside to your right or to your left, and take hold of one of the lads and take his spoil.” But Asahel was not willing to deviate from going after him. take hold ... take ← take hold for yourself ... take for yourself.
2 Sam 2:22 ‫וַיֹּ֧סֶף ע֣וֹד אַבְנֵ֗ר לֵאמֹר֙ אֶל־עֲשָׂהאֵ֔ל ס֥וּר לְךָ֖ מֵאַֽחֲרָ֑י לָ֤מָּה אַכֶּ֙כָּה֙ אַ֔רְצָה וְאֵיךְ֙ אֶשָּׂ֣א פָנַ֔י אֶל־יוֹאָ֖ב אָחִֽיךָ׃‬ And Abner went on to say to Asahel, “Give up coming after me. Why should I strike you to the ground, and how would I face Joab your brother?” went on to say ← added to say further.

give up ← depart from for yourself.

I face ← I lift my face to.
2 Sam 2:23 ‫וַיְמָאֵ֣ן לָס֗וּר וַיַּכֵּ֣הוּ אַבְנֵר֩ בְּאַחֲרֵ֨י הַחֲנִ֜ית אֶל־הַחֹ֗מֶשׁ וַתֵּצֵ֤א הַֽחֲנִית֙ מֵאַחֲרָ֔יו וַיִּפָּל־שָׁ֖ם וַיָּ֣מָת *תחתו **תַּחְתָּ֑יו וַיְהִ֡י כָּל־הַבָּ֣א אֶֽל־הַמָּקוֹם֩ אֲשֶׁר־נָ֨פַל שָׁ֧ם עֲשָׂהאֵ֛ל וַיָּמֹ֖ת וַֽיַּעֲמֹֽדוּ׃‬ But he refused to give up, and Abner struck him with a backward-pointing spear in the abdomen, and the spear came out behind him, and he fell there and died on the spot. And it came to pass that everyone who came to the place where Asahel fell and died stood still. on the spot ← under him. The ketiv and qeré are different declined forms of the same word, with the same meaning.

give up ← depart.

a backward-pointing spear in the abdomen ← the aft-spear in the abdomen. AV differs somewhat (the hinder end of the spear ... under the fifth rib).
2 Sam 2:24 ‫וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֛וּ יוֹאָ֥ב וַאֲבִישַׁ֖י אַחֲרֵ֣י אַבְנֵ֑ר וְהַשֶּׁ֣מֶשׁ בָּ֔אָה וְהֵ֗מָּה בָּ֚אוּ עַד־גִּבְעַ֣ת אַמָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁר֙ עַל־פְּנֵי־גִ֔יחַ דֶּ֖רֶךְ מִדְבַּ֥ר גִּבְעֽוֹן׃‬ And Joab and Abishai pursued Abner, and the sun was setting when they came to the hill of Ammah which faces Giah on the way to the Desert of Gibeon. which faces ← at the face of.

Gibeon: see Josh 9:3.
2 Sam 2:25 ‫וַיִּֽתְקַבְּצ֤וּ בְנֵֽי־בִנְיָמִן֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י אַבְנֵ֔ר וַיִּהְי֖וּ לַאֲגֻדָּ֣ה אֶחָ֑ת וַיַּ֣עַמְד֔וּ עַ֥ל רֹאשׁ־גִּבְעָ֖ה אֶחָֽת׃‬ And the Benjaminites assembled themselves behind Abner and became one battalion, and they stood on the top of a certain hill. Benjaminites ← sons of Benjamin.

a certain ← one.
2 Sam 2:26 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֨א אַבְנֵ֜ר אֶל־יוֹאָ֗ב וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הֲלָנֶ֙צַח֙ תֹּ֣אכַל חֶ֔רֶב הֲל֣וֹא יָדַ֔עְתָּה כִּֽי־מָרָ֥ה תִהְיֶ֖ה בָּאַחֲרוֹנָ֑ה וְעַד־מָתַי֙ לֹֽא־תֹאמַ֣ר לָעָ֔ם לָשׁ֖וּב מֵאַחֲרֵ֥י אֲחֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And Abner called to Joab and said, “Will the sword devour forever? Do you not know that it will be bitter in the end? So how much longer will you not tell the people to stop going after their brothers?” in the end ← at the last.

stop ← return from.
2 Sam 2:27 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יוֹאָ֔ב חַ֚י הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים כִּ֥י לוּלֵ֖א דִּבַּ֑רְתָּ כִּ֣י אָ֤ז מֵֽהַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ נַעֲלָ֣ה הָעָ֔ם אִ֖ישׁ מֵאַחֲרֵ֥י אָחִֽיו׃‬ And Joab said, “As God lives, if you had not spoken, then the people would have been led up from this morning onwards, each one pursuing his brother.” if ← because if.

pursuing ← after.
2 Sam 2:28 ‫וַיִּתְקַ֤ע יוֹאָב֙ בַּשּׁוֹפָ֔ר וַיַּֽעַמְדוּ֙ כָּל־הָעָ֔ם וְלֹֽא־יִרְדְּפ֥וּ ע֖וֹד אַחֲרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹֽא־יָסְפ֥וּ ע֖וֹד לְהִלָּחֵֽם׃‬ Then Joab sounded the ramshorn, and all the people stood still, and they didn't pursue Israel any longer, and they didn't continue fighting any longer. continue fighting ← add to fight.
2 Sam 2:29 ‫וְאַבְנֵ֣ר וַֽאֲנָשָׁ֗יו הָֽלְכוּ֙ בָּֽעֲרָבָ֔ה כֹּ֖ל הַלַּ֣יְלָה הַה֑וּא וַיַּעַבְר֣וּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֗ן וַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ כָּל־הַבִּתְר֔וֹן וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ מַחֲנָֽיִם׃‬ Then Abner and his men walked through the arid tract all that night, and they crossed the Jordan, and they walked through all of Bithron, and they arrived in Mahanaim. Bithron ← the Bithron.
2 Sam 2:30 ‫וְיוֹאָ֗ב שָׁ֚ב מֵאַחֲרֵ֣י אַבְנֵ֔ר וַיִּקְבֹּ֖ץ אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֑ם וַיִּפָּ֨קְד֜וּ מֵעַבְדֵ֥י דָוִ֛ד תִּשְׁעָֽה־עָשָׂ֥ר אִ֖ישׁ וַעֲשָׂה־אֵֽל׃‬ And Joab returned from going after Abner, and he assembled all the people. Now nineteen men of David's servants were missing, as was Asahel. returned from: or stopped, as we have in 2 Sam 2:16.
2 Sam 2:31 ‫וְעַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֗ד הִכּוּ֙ מִבִּנְיָמִ֔ן וּבְאַנְשֵׁ֖י אַבְנֵ֑ר שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵא֧וֹת וְשִׁשִּׁ֛ים אִ֖ישׁ מֵֽתוּ׃‬ But David's servants had struck the Benjaminites and Abner's men, and three hundred and sixty men had died.
2 Sam 2:32 ‫וַיִּשְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־עֲשָׂהאֵ֔ל וַֽיִּקְבְּרֻ֙הוּ֙ בְּקֶ֣בֶר אָבִ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֖ר בֵּ֣ית לָ֑חֶם וַיֵּלְכ֣וּ כָל־הַלַּ֗יְלָה יוֹאָב֙ וַֽאֲנָשָׁ֔יו וַיֵּאֹ֥ר לָהֶ֖ם בְּחֶבְרֽוֹן׃‬ And they carried Asahel away and buried him in his father's sepulchre, which is in Bethlehem. And Joab and his men walked all night, then dawn broke on them in Hebron. Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.

dawn broke ← it became bright.
2 Sam 3:1 ‫וַתְּהִ֤י הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ אֲרֻכָּ֔ה בֵּ֚ין בֵּ֣ית שָׁא֔וּל וּבֵ֖ין בֵּ֣ית דָּוִ֑ד וְדָוִד֙ הֹלֵ֣ךְ וְחָזֵ֔ק וּבֵ֥ית שָׁא֖וּל הֹלְכִ֥ים וְדַלִּֽים׃ ס‬ And the war between the house of Saul and the house of David was long, but David became stronger and stronger, whereas Saul's house became weaker and weaker.
2 Sam 3:2 ‫*וילדו **וַיִּוָּלְד֧וּ לְדָוִ֛ד בָּנִ֖ים בְּחֶבְר֑וֹן וַיְהִ֤י בְכוֹרוֹ֙ אַמְנ֔וֹן לַאֲחִינֹ֖עַם הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִֽת׃‬ And various sons were born to David in Hebron, and his eldest was Amnon, by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess. were born: we take the ketiv as pual, as in 2 Sam 3:5, so having the same meaning as the qeré (which is niphal).

|| 1 Chr 3:1.

Jezreelitess: see Josh 15:56.
2 Sam 3:3 ‫וּמִשְׁנֵ֣הוּ כִלְאָ֔ב *לאביגל **לַאֲ‍ֽבִיגַ֕יִל אֵ֖שֶׁת נָבָ֣ל הַֽכַּרְמְלִ֑י וְהַשְּׁלִשִׁי֙ אַבְשָׁל֣וֹם בֶּֽן־מַעֲכָ֔ה בַּת־תַּלְמַ֖י מֶ֥לֶךְ גְּשֽׁוּר׃‬ And his second eldest was Chilab, by {Q: Abigail} [K: Abigel] the former wife of Nabal the Carmelite. And the third was Absalom the son of Maachah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur. || 1 Chr 3:1, 1 Chr 3:2.

Chilab: AV= Chileab. We take the first syllable as closed. See Gen 31:21.

Absalom ← Abshalom, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.

Maachah: AV= Maacah here. See Gen 22:24.
2 Sam 3:4 ‫וְהָרְבִיעִ֖י אֲדֹנִיָּ֣ה בֶן־חַגִּ֑ית וְהַחֲמִישִׁ֖י שְׁפַטְיָ֥ה בֶן־אֲבִיטָֽל׃‬ And the fourth was Adonijah the son of Haggith, and the fifth was Shephatiah the son of Abital. || 1 Chr 3:2, 1 Chr 3:3.
2 Sam 3:5 ‫וְהַשִּׁשִּׁ֣י יִתְרְעָ֔ם לְעֶגְלָ֖ה אֵ֣שֶׁת דָּוִ֑ד אֵ֛לֶּה יֻלְּד֥וּ לְדָוִ֖ד בְּחֶבְרֽוֹן׃ פ‬ And the sixth was Ithream, by Eglah David's wife. These were born to David in Hebron. || 1 Chr 3:3.
2 Sam 3:6 ‫וַיְהִ֗י בִּֽהְיוֹת֙ הַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה בֵּ֚ין בֵּ֣ית שָׁא֔וּל וּבֵ֖ין בֵּ֣ית דָּוִ֑ד וְאַבְנֵ֛ר הָיָ֥ה מִתְחַזֵּ֖ק בְּבֵ֥ית שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ Then it came to pass, while the war was going on being between the house of Saul and the house of David, that Abner was becoming stronger in the house of Saul. going on ← beingto be.

was becoming stronger: or was strengthening himself.
2 Sam 3:7 ‫וּלְשָׁא֣וּל פִּלֶ֔גֶשׁ וּשְׁמָ֖הּ רִצְפָּ֣ה בַת־אַיָּ֑ה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־אַבְנֵ֔ר מַדּ֥וּעַ בָּ֖אתָה אֶל־פִּילֶ֥גֶשׁ אָבִֽי׃‬ Now Saul had had a concubine, and her name was Rizpah the daughter of Aiah. And Ish-Bosheth said to Abner, “Why have you gone in to my father's concubine?”
2 Sam 3:8 ‫וַיִּחַר֩ לְאַבְנֵ֨ר מְאֹ֜ד עַל־דִּבְרֵ֣י אִֽישׁ־בֹּ֗שֶׁת וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הֲרֹ֨אשׁ כֶּ֥לֶב אָנֹ֘כִי֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לִֽיהוּדָה֒ הַיּ֨וֹם אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־חֶ֜סֶד עִם־בֵּ֣ית ׀ שָׁא֣וּל אָבִ֗יךָ אֶל־אֶחָיו֙ וְאֶל־מֵ֣רֵעֵ֔הוּ וְלֹ֥א הִמְצִיתִ֖ךָ בְּיַד־דָּוִ֑ד וַתִּפְקֹ֥ד עָלַ֛י עֲוֺ֥ן הָאִשָּׁ֖ה הַיּֽוֹם׃‬ And Abner became very angry about Ish-Bosheth's words, and he said, “Am I a dog's head, who is for Judah? Today I will show kindness to the house of Saul your father, towards his brothers and towards his friends, and I won't deliver you up into the hand of David, although you have charged me with an iniquity against the woman today. friends ← friend. Perhaps a collective word.

although: concessive use of the vav.

against ← of. Wider use of the construct state.
2 Sam 3:9 ‫כֹּֽה־יַעֲשֶׂ֤ה אֱלֹהִים֙ לְאַבְנֵ֔ר וְכֹ֖ה יֹסִ֣יף ל֑וֹ כִּ֗י כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֤ע יְהוָה֙ לְדָוִ֔ד כִּֽי־כֵ֖ן אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לּֽוֹ׃‬ May God so do to Abner if I am guilty, and may he so add to him, for as the Lord has sworn to David, so I will do for him, may God so do: strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35, here only containing the apodosis of the condition.
2 Sam 3:10 ‫לְהַֽעֲבִ֥יר הַמַּמְלָכָ֖ה מִבֵּ֣ית שָׁא֑וּל וּלְהָקִ֞ים אֶת־כִּסֵּ֣א דָוִ֗ד עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְעַל־יְהוּדָ֔ה מִדָּ֖ן וְעַד־בְּאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע׃‬ in transferring the kingdom from the house of Saul and in setting up the throne of David over Israel and over Judah, from Dan's territory up to Beersheba.” in transferring ... in setting up: gerundial uses of the infinitive.
2 Sam 3:11 ‫וְלֹֽא־יָכֹ֣ל ע֔וֹד לְהָשִׁ֥יב אֶת־אַבְנֵ֖ר דָּבָ֑ר מִיִּרְאָת֖וֹ אֹתֽוֹ׃ ס‬ And he could not answer Abner a word any more, for fear of him. fear ← his fear, a subjective genitive, with the objective pronoun following.
2 Sam 3:12 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ אַבְנֵ֨ר מַלְאָכִ֧ים ׀ אֶל־דָּוִ֛ד *תחתו **תַּחְתָּ֥יו לֵאמֹ֖ר לְמִי־אָ֑רֶץ לֵאמֹ֗ר כָּרְתָ֤ה בְרִֽיתְךָ֙ אִתִּ֔י וְהִנֵּה֙ יָדִ֣י עִמָּ֔ךְ לְהָסֵ֥ב אֵלֶ֖יךָ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And Abner sent messengers to David on his behalf to say, “Whose is the land?” and to say, “Make your covenant with me, and you will see that my hand is with you, to round up the whole of Israel to you.” on his behalf: the ketiv and qeré are different declined forms of the same word, with the same meaning.

you will see that ← behold.
2 Sam 3:13 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ט֔וֹב אֲנִ֕י אֶכְרֹ֥ת אִתְּךָ֖ בְּרִ֑ית אַ֣ךְ דָּבָ֣ר אֶחָ֡ד אָנֹכִי֩ שֹׁאֵ֨ל מֵאִתְּךָ֤ לֵאמֹר֙ לֹא־תִרְאֶ֣ה אֶת־פָּנַ֔י כִּ֣י ׀ אִם־לִפְנֵ֣י הֱבִיאֲךָ֗ אֵ֚ת מִיכַ֣ל בַּת־שָׁא֔וּל בְּבֹאֲךָ֖ לִרְא֥וֹת אֶת־פָּנָֽי׃ ס‬ And David said, “Good, I will make a covenant with you, but I will ask one thing of you, namely, ‘You shall not see my face unless and until you bring Michal, Saul's daughter, when you come to see my face.’ ” namely ← to say.
2 Sam 3:14 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח דָּוִד֙ מַלְאָכִ֔ים אֶל־אִֽישׁ־בֹּ֥שֶׁת בֶּן־שָׁא֖וּל לֵאמֹ֑ר תְּנָ֤ה אֶת־אִשְׁתִּי֙ אֶת־מִיכַ֔ל אֲשֶׁר֙ אֵרַ֣שְׂתִּי לִ֔י בְּמֵאָ֖ה עָרְל֥וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ So David sent messengers to Ish-Bosheth, Saul's son, to say, “Give me my wife Michal whom I betrothed to myself for one hundred foreskins of the Philistines.”
2 Sam 3:15 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַח֙ אִ֣ישׁ בֹּ֔שֶׁת וַיִּקָּחֶ֖הָ מֵ֣עִֽם אִ֑ישׁ מֵעִ֖ם פַּלְטִיאֵ֥ל בֶּן־*לוש **לָֽיִשׁ׃‬ And Ish-Bosheth sent men, and he had her taken from her husband Paltiel the son of {Q: Laish} [K: Lavish]. had her taken: qal for passive of hiphil, though hiphil of this verb not attested.

Paltiel: AV= Phaltiel. See 1 Sam 25:44.
2 Sam 3:16 ‫וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ אִתָּ֜הּ אִישָׁ֗הּ הָל֧וֹךְ וּבָכֹ֛ה אַחֲרֶ֖יהָ עַד־בַּֽחֻרִ֑ים וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֥יו אַבְנֵ֛ר לֵ֥ךְ שׁ֖וּב וַיָּשֹֽׁב׃‬ And her husband went with her, weeping as he went, following her to Bahurim. But Abner said to him, “Depart; go back.” So he went back.
2 Sam 3:17 ‫וּדְבַר־אַבְנֵ֣ר הָיָ֔ה עִם־זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר גַּם־תְּמוֹל֙ גַּם־שִׁלְשֹׁ֔ם הֱיִיתֶ֞ם מְבַקְשִׁ֧ים אֶת־דָּוִ֛ד לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עֲלֵיכֶֽם׃‬ And Abner's position was under consideration with the elders of Israel as he had said, “In times past you were requesting David as king over you. position ← thing, word.

in times past ← both yesterday and the day before yesterday.
2 Sam 3:18 ‫וְעַתָּ֖ה עֲשׂ֑וּ כִּ֣י יְהוָ֗ה אָמַ֤ר אֶל־דָּוִד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בְּיַ֣ד ׀ דָּוִ֣ד עַבְדִּ֗י הוֹשִׁ֜יעַ אֶת־עַמִּ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִיַּ֣ד פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וּמִיַּ֖ד כָּל־אֹיְבֵיהֶֽם׃‬ So now, act, for the Lord has spoken to David and said, ‘By the hand of my servant David I will save my people Israel from the hand of the Philistines and from the hand of all their enemies.’ ” I will save ← to save.
2 Sam 3:19 ‫וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר גַּם־אַבְנֵ֖ר בְּאָזְנֵ֣י בִנְיָמִ֑ין וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ גַּם־אַבְנֵ֗ר לְדַבֵּ֞ר בְּאָזְנֵ֤י דָוִד֙ בְּחֶבְר֔וֹן אֵ֤ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־טוֹב֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּבְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־בֵּ֥ית בִּנְיָמִֽן׃‬ And Abner also spoke privately to the tribe of Benjamin, and Abner also went to speak privately to David in Hebron everything that was right in the sight of Israel and in the sight of the whole house of Benjamin. spoke privately to ... speak privately to ← spoke in the ears of ... speak in the ears of.

right ← good.
2 Sam 3:20 ‫וַיָּבֹ֨א אַבְנֵ֤ר אֶל־דָּוִד֙ חֶבְר֔וֹן וְאִתּ֖וֹ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים אֲנָשִׁ֑ים וַיַּ֨עַשׂ דָּוִ֧ד לְאַבְנֵ֛ר וְלַאֲנָשִׁ֥ים אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֖וֹ מִשְׁתֶּֽה׃‬ So Abner came to David in Hebron, and twenty men were with him, and David held a feast for Abner and for the men who were with him. held ← made.
2 Sam 3:21 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אַבְנֵ֣ר אֶל־דָּוִ֡ד אָק֣וּמָה ׀ וְֽאֵלֵ֡כָה וְאֶקְבְּצָה֩ אֶל־אֲדֹנִ֨י הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְיִכְרְת֤וּ אִתְּךָ֙ בְּרִ֔ית וּמָ֣לַכְתָּ֔ בְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּ֖ה נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ וַיְּשַׁלַּ֥ח דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־אַבְנֵ֖ר וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ בְּשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ And Abner said to David, “Let me get up and go and gather the whole of Israel to my lord the king, and they will make a covenant with you, and you will reign over everyone your heart desires.” And David let Abner go, and he went in peace. heart ← soul.
2 Sam 3:22 ‫וְהִנֵּה֩ עַבְדֵ֨י דָוִ֤ד וְיוֹאָב֙ בָּ֣א מֵֽהַגְּד֔וּד וְשָׁלָ֥ל רָ֖ב עִמָּ֣ם הֵבִ֑יאוּ וְאַבְנֵ֗ר אֵינֶ֤נּוּ עִם־דָּוִד֙ בְּחֶבְר֔וֹן כִּ֥י שִׁלְּח֖וֹ וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ בְּשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ Then along came the servants of David and Joab from the troop, and they brought much spoil with them, and Abner was not with David in Hebron, for he had let him go, and he had gone in peace. along came ← behold ... he came.
2 Sam 3:23 ‫וְיוֹאָ֛ב וְכָל־הַצָּבָ֥א אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֖וֹ בָּ֑אוּ וַיַּגִּ֤דוּ לְיוֹאָב֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בָּֽא־אַבְנֵ֤ר בֶּן־נֵר֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֵ֖הוּ וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ בְּשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ Then when Joab and the whole army which was with him had arrived, they spoke to Joab and said, “Abner the son of Ner came to the king, and he let him go, and he went in peace.”
2 Sam 3:24 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤א יוֹאָב֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֑יתָה הִנֵּה־בָ֤א אַבְנֵר֙ אֵלֶ֔יךָ לָמָּה־זֶּ֥ה שִׁלַּחְתּ֖וֹ וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ הָלֽוֹךְ׃‬ Then Joab went to the king and said, “What have you done? Look, Abner came to you. Why is it that you have let him go, and he has simply gone? he has simply gone: infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 3:25 ‫יָדַ֙עְתָּ֙ אֶת־אַבְנֵ֣ר בֶּן־נֵ֔ר כִּ֥י לְפַתֹּתְךָ֖ בָּ֑א וְלָדַ֜עַת אֶת־מוֹצָֽאֲךָ֙ וְאֶת־*מבואך **מ֣וֹבָאֶ֔ךָ וְלָדַ֕עַת אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה עֹשֶֽׂה׃‬ You know Abner the son of Ner – that he came to deceive you and to get to know your comings and goings and to get to know everything you are doing.” comings: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

your comings and goings ← your going out and your coming in.
2 Sam 3:26 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֤א יוֹאָב֙ מֵעִ֣ם דָּוִ֔ד וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח מַלְאָכִים֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י אַבְנֵ֔ר וַיָּשִׁ֥בוּ אֹת֖וֹ מִבּ֣וֹר הַסִּרָ֑ה וְדָוִ֖ד לֹ֥א יָדָֽע׃‬ And Joab left David's company, and he sent messengers after Abner, and they brought him back from the cistern of Sirah, without David knowing. left David's companywent out from with David.

Sirah ← the Sirah.

without David knowing ← and David did not know.
2 Sam 3:27 ‫וַיָּ֤שָׁב אַבְנֵר֙ חֶבְר֔וֹן וַיַּטֵּ֤הוּ יוֹאָב֙ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ הַשַּׁ֔עַר לְדַבֵּ֥ר אִתּ֖וֹ בַּשֶּׁ֑לִי וַיַּכֵּ֤הוּ שָׁם֙ הַחֹ֔מֶשׁ וַיָּ֕מָת בְּדַ֖ם עֲשָׂה־אֵ֥ל אָחִֽיו׃‬ So Abner returned to Hebron, and Joab took him aside inside the gate to speak to him quietly, and he struck him there in the abdomen, and he died for the blood of Asahel Joab's brother. Joab's brother ← his brother.
2 Sam 3:28 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע דָּוִד֙ מֵאַ֣חֲרֵי כֵ֔ן וַיֹּ֗אמֶר נָקִ֨י אָנֹכִ֧י וּמַמְלַכְתִּ֛י מֵעִ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם מִדְּמֵ֖י אַבְנֵ֥ר בֶּן־נֵֽר׃‬ And afterwards, David heard about it, and he said, “I and my kingdom are age-abidingly innocent before the Lord of the blood of Abner the son of Ner. blood ← bloods.
2 Sam 3:29 ‫יָחֻ֙לוּ֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ יוֹאָ֔ב וְאֶ֖ל כָּל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑יו וְֽאַל־יִכָּרֵ֣ת מִבֵּ֣ית יוֹאָ֡ב זָ֠ב וּמְצֹרָ֞ע וּמַחֲזִ֥יק בַּפֶּ֛לֶךְ וְנֹפֵ֥ל בַּחֶ֖רֶב וַחֲסַר־לָֽחֶם׃‬ May it fall on Joab's head and on all his father's house, and may there not fail to be one with a pathological discharge, or a leper, or one holding a staff, or falling by the sword, or lacking bread in the house of Joab.” it fall ← they fall, from bloods in the previous verse.

in the house ← from the house.
2 Sam 3:30 ‫וְיוֹאָב֙ וַאֲבִישַׁ֣י אָחִ֔יו הָרְג֖וּ לְאַבְנֵ֑ר עַל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵמִ֜ית אֶת־עֲשָׂהאֵ֧ל אֲחִיהֶ֛ם בְּגִבְע֖וֹן בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה׃ פ‬ So Joab and Abishai his brother killed Abner, because he had killed Asahel their brother in Gibeon in the war. Gibeon: see Josh 9:3.
2 Sam 3:31 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶל־יוֹאָ֜ב וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֗וֹ קִרְע֤וּ בִגְדֵיכֶם֙ וְחִגְר֣וּ שַׂקִּ֔ים וְסִפְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י אַבְנֵ֑ר וְהַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֔ד הֹלֵ֖ךְ אַחֲרֵ֥י הַמִּטָּֽה׃‬ And David said to Joab and to all the people who were with him, “Tear your clothes and gird on sackcloth, and mourn for Abner.” And King David walked behind the funeral bier. for ← before.
2 Sam 3:32 ‫וַיִּקְבְּר֥וּ אֶת־אַבְנֵ֖ר בְּחֶבְר֑וֹן וַיִשָּׂ֧א הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אֶת־קוֹל֗וֹ וַיֵּבְךְּ֙ אֶל־קֶ֣בֶר אַבְנֵ֔ר וַיִּבְכּ֖וּ כָּל־הָעָֽם׃ פ‬ And they buried Abner in Hebron, and the king raised his voice and wept at Abner's grave, and all the people wept.
2 Sam 3:33 ‫וַיְקֹנֵ֥ן הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־אַבְנֵ֖ר וַיֹּאמַ֑ר הַכְּמ֥וֹת נָבָ֖ל יָמ֥וּת אַבְנֵֽר׃‬ So the king lamented over Abner, and he said,

“Did Abner die as a fool dies?

a fool: or Nabal, 1 Sam 25:3, 1 Sam 25:25.
2 Sam 3:34 ‫יָדֶ֣ךָ לֹֽא־אֲסֻר֗וֹת וְרַגְלֶ֙יךָ֙ לֹא־לִנְחֻשְׁתַּ֣יִם הֻגָּ֔שׁוּ כִּנְפ֛וֹל לִפְנֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־עַוְלָ֖ה נָפָ֑לְתָּ וַיֹּסִ֥פוּ כָל־הָעָ֖ם לִבְכּ֥וֹת עָלָֽיו׃‬

Your hands were not bound,

And your feet were not fettered.

You fell as one falls before the iniquitous.”

And all the people wept for him again.
fettered ← made to approach fetters.

iniquitous ← sons of iniquity.
2 Sam 3:35 ‫וַיָּבֹ֣א כָל־הָעָ֗ם לְהַבְר֧וֹת אֶת־דָּוִ֛ד לֶ֖חֶם בְּע֣וֹד הַיּ֑וֹם וַיִּשָּׁבַ֨ע דָּוִ֜ד לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּ֣ה יַעֲשֶׂה־לִּ֤י אֱלֹהִים֙ וְכֹ֣ה יֹסִ֔יף כִּ֣י אִם־לִפְנֵ֧י בֽוֹא־הַשֶּׁ֛מֶשׁ אֶטְעַם־לֶ֖חֶם א֥וֹ כָל־מְאֽוּמָה׃‬ And all the people came to give David bread while it was still day, but David swore and said, “May God so do to me and more besides if I taste bread or anything else before the sun sets.” give ← feed.

more besides ← thus add.

This verse and 1 Sam 3:17 contain the oath formula for strong denial in full (often abbreviated to simply if I do ... with no apodosis). The “so do” may refer to cutting in pieces, Gen 15:10.

anything ← everything.
2 Sam 3:36 ‫וְכָל־הָעָ֣ם הִכִּ֔ירוּ וַיִּיטַ֖ב בְּעֵֽינֵיהֶ֑ם כְּכֹל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֣ה הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ בְּעֵינֵ֥י כָל־הָעָ֖ם טֽוֹב׃‬ And all the people showed respect, and it was right in their eyes. Everything that the king did was right in the eyes of all the people. right ... right ← good ... good.
2 Sam 3:37 ‫וַיֵּדְע֧וּ כָל־הָעָ֛ם וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא כִּ֣י לֹ֤א הָיְתָה֙ מֵֽהַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לְהָמִ֖ית אֶת־אַבְנֵ֥ר בֶּן־נֵֽר׃ פ‬ And all the people and all Israel knew on that day that it was not an initiative from the king to kill Abner the son of Ner.
2 Sam 3:38 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־עֲבָדָ֑יו הֲל֣וֹא תֵדְע֔וּ כִּי־שַׂ֣ר וְגָד֗וֹל נָפַ֛ל הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And the king said to his servants, “Do you not know that a commander and a great man has fallen on this day in Israel?
2 Sam 3:39 ‫וְאָנֹכִ֨י הַיּ֥וֹם רַךְ֙ וּמָשׁ֣וּחַ מֶ֔לֶךְ וְהָאֲנָשִׁ֥ים הָאֵ֛לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י צְרוּיָ֖ה קָשִׁ֣ים מִמֶּ֑נִּי יְשַׁלֵּ֧ם יְהוָ֛ה לְעֹשֵׂ֥ה הָרָעָ֖ה כְּרָעָתֽוֹ׃ פ‬ And I am faint today, although anointed king, and these men – the sons of Zeruiah – are too harsh for me. May the Lord requite him who commits wickedness according to his wickedness.” although: concessive use of the vav.

too harsh for me: or harsher than me / I.
2 Sam 4:1 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע בֶּן־שָׁא֗וּל כִּ֣י מֵ֤ת אַבְנֵר֙ בְּחֶבְר֔וֹן וַיִּרְפּ֖וּ יָדָ֑יו וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נִבְהָֽלוּ׃‬ When Saul's son heard that Abner had died in Hebron, his hands sank, and all Israel was agitated. Saul's son: i.e. Ish-Bosheth.
2 Sam 4:2 ‫וּשְׁנֵ֣י אֲנָשִׁ֣ים שָׂרֵֽי־גְדוּדִ֣ים הָי֪וּ בֶן־שָׁא֟וּל שֵׁם֩ הָאֶחָ֨ד בַּֽעֲנָ֜ה וְשֵׁ֧ם הַשֵּׁנִ֣י רֵכָ֗ב בְּנֵ֛י רִמּ֥וֹן הַבְּאֶֽרֹתִ֖י מִבְּנֵ֣י בִנְיָמִ֑ן כִּ֚י גַּם־בְּאֵר֔וֹת תֵּחָשֵׁ֖ב עַל־בִּנְיָמִֽן׃‬ Now Saul's son had two men who were commanders of troops. The name of one was Baanah and the name of the other was Rechab – the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, of the sons of Benjamin, for Beeroth was also reckoned to Benjamin. the other ← the second.
2 Sam 4:3 ‫וַיִּבְרְח֥וּ הַבְּאֵרֹתִ֖ים גִּתָּ֑יְמָה וַֽיִּהְיוּ־שָׁ֣ם גָּרִ֔ים עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ ס‬ And the Beerothites fled to Gittaim and dwelt there, as they are up to this day.
2 Sam 4:4 ‫וְלִיהֽוֹנָתָן֙ בֶּן־שָׁא֔וּל בֵּ֖ן נְכֵ֣ה רַגְלָ֑יִם בֶּן־חָמֵ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֣ים הָיָ֡ה בְּבֹ֣א שְׁמֻעַת֩ שָׁא֨וּל וִיהֽוֹנָתָ֜ן מִֽיִּזְרְעֶ֗אל וַתִּשָּׂאֵ֤הוּ אֹֽמַנְתּוֹ֙ וַתָּנֹ֔ס וַיְהִ֞י בְּחָפְזָ֥הּ לָנ֛וּס וַיִּפֹּ֥ל וַיִּפָּסֵ֖חַ וּשְׁמ֥וֹ מְפִיבֹֽשֶׁת׃‬ And Jonathan, Saul's son, had a son who was lame in his legs. He was five years old when the report of Saul and Jonathan came from Jezreel, and his foster mother took him away and fled, and it came to pass in her haste to flee that he fell and became lame. And his name was Mephibosheth. lame in ← lame of.

Jezreel: see Josh 15:56.
2 Sam 4:5 ‫וַיֵּ֨לְכ֜וּ בְּנֵֽי־רִמּ֤וֹן הַבְּאֵֽרֹתִי֙ רֵכָ֣ב וּבַעֲנָ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ כְּחֹ֣ם הַיּ֔וֹם אֶל־בֵּ֖ית אִ֣ישׁ בֹּ֑שֶׁת וְה֣וּא שֹׁכֵ֔ב אֵ֖ת מִשְׁכַּ֥ב הַֽצָּהֳרָֽיִם׃‬ And the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite – Rechab and Baanah – departed, and they arrived as the day was becoming hot, at the house of Ish-Bosheth, and he was lying on a bed at midday. on a bed ← with a bed.
2 Sam 4:6 ‫וְ֠הֵנָּה בָּ֜אוּ עַד־תּ֤וֹךְ הַבַּ֙יִת֙ לֹקְחֵ֣י חִטִּ֔ים וַיַּכֻּ֖הוּ אֶל־הַחֹ֑מֶשׁ וְרֵכָ֛ב וּבַעֲנָ֥ה אָחִ֖יו נִמְלָֽטוּ׃‬ And they went into the house as if they were customers for wheat, and they struck him in the abdomen, and Rechab and Baanah his brother escaped. customers for ← takers of.
2 Sam 4:7 ‫וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ הַבַּ֗יִת וְהֽוּא־שֹׁכֵ֤ב עַל־מִטָּתוֹ֙ בַּחֲדַ֣ר מִשְׁכָּב֔וֹ וַיַּכֻּ֙הוּ֙ וַיְמִתֻ֔הוּ וַיָּסִ֖ירוּ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיִּקְחוּ֙ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַיֵּֽלְכ֛וּ דֶּ֥רֶךְ הָעֲרָבָ֖ה כָּל־הַלָּֽיְלָה׃‬ For they went into the house while he was lying on his bed in his bedroom, and they struck him and killed him, and they removed his head, and they took his head and departed through the arid tract all night. while ← and. Temporal use of the vav.

through: or (by) the road of.
2 Sam 4:8 ‫וַ֠יָּבִאוּ אֶת־רֹ֨אשׁ אִֽישׁ־בֹּ֥שֶׁת אֶל־דָּוִד֮ חֶבְרוֹן֒ וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הִנֵּֽה־רֹ֣אשׁ אִֽישׁ־בֹּ֗שֶׁת בֶּן־שָׁאוּל֙ אֹֽיִבְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּקֵּ֖שׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ וַיִּתֵּ֣ן יְ֠הוָה לַֽאדֹנִ֨י הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ נְקָמוֹת֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה מִשָּׁא֖וּל וּמִזַּרְעֽוֹ׃ ס‬ And they brought Ish-Bosheth's head to David in Hebron, and they said to the king, “Here is the head of Ish-Bosheth, the son of Saul your enemy who sought your life, and the Lord avenged my lord the king on this day on Saul and his seed.” here isbehold.

son: standing for grandson.

life ← soul.
2 Sam 4:9 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן דָּוִ֜ד אֶת־רֵכָ֣ב ׀ וְאֶת־בַּעֲנָ֣ה אָחִ֗יו בְּנֵ֛י רִמּ֥וֹן הַבְּאֵֽרֹתִ֖י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֑ם חַי־יְהוָ֕ה אֲשֶׁר־פָּדָ֥ה אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֖י מִכָּל־צָרָֽה׃‬ But David answered Rechab and Baanah his brother, the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, and he said to them, “As the Lord lives, who redeemed my life from all adversity, life ← soul.
2 Sam 4:10 ‫כִּ֣י הַמַּגִּיד֩ לִ֨י לֵאמֹ֜ר הִנֵּה־מֵ֣ת שָׁא֗וּל וְהֽוּא־הָיָ֤ה כִמְבַשֵּׂר֙ בְּעֵינָ֔יו וָאֹחֲזָ֣ה ב֔וֹ וָאֶהְרְגֵ֖הוּ בְּצִֽקְלָ֑ג אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְתִתִּי־ל֖וֹ בְּשֹׂרָֽה׃‬ when the one reporting to me said, ‘Look, Saul is dead’ – when he was bringing good news in his eyes – I seized him and killed him in Ziklag, which was me giving him good news. which was me giving him good news: either ironic, i.e. bad news, or translate who came for me to give him good news, i.e. a reward.
2 Sam 4:11 ‫אַ֞ף כִּֽי־אֲנָשִׁ֣ים רְשָׁעִ֗ים הָרְג֧וּ אֶת־אִישׁ־צַדִּ֛יק בְּבֵית֖וֹ עַל־מִשְׁכָּב֑וֹ וְעַתָּ֗ה הֲל֨וֹא אֲבַקֵּ֤שׁ אֶת־דָּמוֹ֙ מִיֶּדְכֶ֔ם וּבִעַרְתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ How much more is it like that when wicked men have killed a righteous man in his house on his bed? So now, should I not require his blood from yourselves and eradicate you from the land?” yourselves ← your hand.

eradicate ← consume.
2 Sam 4:12 ‫וַיְצַו֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶת־הַנְּעָרִ֜ים וַיַּהַרְג֗וּם וַֽיְקַצְּצ֤וּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם֙ וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּתְל֥וּ עַל־הַבְּרֵכָ֖ה בְּחֶבְר֑וֹן וְאֵ֨ת רֹ֤אשׁ אִֽישׁ־בֹּ֙שֶׁת֙ לָקָ֔חוּ וַיִּקְבְּר֥וּ בְקֶֽבֶר־אַבְנֵ֖ר בְּחֶבְרֽוֹן׃ פ‬ Then David commanded his servant-lads, and they killed them, and they cut off their hands and feet, and they hanged them over the pool in Hebron, and they took Ish-Bosheth's head and buried it in Abner's sepulchre in Hebron.
2 Sam 5:1 ‫וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ כָּל־שִׁבְטֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד חֶבְר֑וֹנָה וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִנְנ֛וּ עַצְמְךָ֥ וּֽבְשָׂרְךָ֖ אֲנָֽחְנוּ׃‬ And all of the tribes of Israel came to David, in Hebron, and they spoke and said, “Here we are; we are your bone and your flesh. || 1 Chr 11:1.

in Hebron ← to Hebron.

here we arebehold us.

your bone and your flesh: the English idiom is your flesh and blood.
2 Sam 5:2 ‫גַּם־אֶתְמ֣וֹל גַּם־שִׁלְשׁ֗וֹם בִּהְי֨וֹת שָׁא֥וּל מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ אַתָּ֗ה *הייתה **הָיִ֛יתָ *מוציא **הַמּוֹצִ֥יא *והמבי **וְהַמֵּבִ֖יא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה לְךָ֗ אַתָּ֨ה תִרְעֶ֤ה אֶת־עַמִּי֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאַתָּ֛ה תִּהְיֶ֥ה לְנָגִ֖יד עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ Throughout the past when Saul was king over us, it was you {K: who brought} [Q: who brought] Israel out and led it in. And the Lord said to you, ‘You will shepherd my people Israel, and you will be a leader over Israel.’ ” it was you: the ketiv could be regarded as a variant spelling of the qeré.

led it in: the ketiv, omitting an aleph, could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré. Compare 2 Ki 13:6 (החטי for הֶחֱטִיא).

|| 1 Chr 11:2.

throughout the past ← both from yesterday and from the day before yesterday.
2 Sam 5:3 ‫וַ֠יָּבֹאוּ כָּל־זִקְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל אֶל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ חֶבְר֔וֹנָה וַיִּכְרֹ֣ת לָהֶם֩ הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ דָּוִ֥ד בְּרִ֛ית בְּחֶבְר֖וֹן לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וַיִּמְשְׁח֧וּ אֶת־דָּוִ֛ד לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ פ‬ And all the elders of Israel came to the king in Hebron, and King David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the Lord, and they anointed David as king over Israel. || 1 Chr 11:3.

in Hebron ← to Hebron.

with them ← for them.
2 Sam 5:4 ‫בֶּן־שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים שָׁנָ֛ה דָּוִ֖ד בְּמָלְכ֑וֹ אַרְבָּעִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה מָלָֽךְ׃‬ David was thirty years old when he started to reign, and he reigned for forty years. || 1 Ki 2:11, 1 Chr 29:26, 1 Chr 29:27.
2 Sam 5:5 ‫בְּחֶבְרוֹן֙ מָלַ֣ךְ עַל־יְהוּדָ֔ה שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים וְשִׁשָּׁ֣ה חֳדָשִׁ֑ים וּבִירוּשָׁלִַ֣ם מָלַ֗ךְ שְׁלֹשִׁ֤ים וְשָׁלֹשׁ֙ שָׁנָ֔ה עַ֥ל כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִיהוּדָֽה׃‬ In Hebron he reigned over Judah for seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah. || 1 Ki 2:11, 1 Chr 29:27.
2 Sam 5:6 ‫וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ וַֽאֲנָשָׁיו֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם אֶל־הַיְבֻסִ֖י יוֹשֵׁ֣ב הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לְדָוִ֤ד לֵאמֹר֙ לֹא־תָב֣וֹא הֵ֔נָּה כִּ֣י אִם־הֱסִֽירְךָ֗ הַעִוְרִ֤ים וְהַפִּסְחִים֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹֽא־יָב֥וֹא דָוִ֖ד הֵֽנָּה׃‬ Then the king and his men went to Jerusalem, to the Jebusites, who were inhabiting the land, and they spoke to David and said, “You shall not come here unless you can remove the blind and the lame”, and they said, “David shall not come here.” || 1 Chr 11:4, 1 Chr 11:5.
2 Sam 5:7 ‫וַיִּלְכֹּ֣ד דָּוִ֔ד אֵ֖ת מְצֻדַ֣ת צִיּ֑וֹן הִ֖יא עִ֥יר דָּוִֽד׃‬ But David captured the stronghold of Zion, which is the City of David. || 1 Chr 11:5.
2 Sam 5:8 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא כָּל־מַכֵּ֤ה יְבֻסִי֙ וְיִגַּ֣ע בַּצִּנּ֔וֹר וְאֶת־הַפִּסְחִים֙ וְאֶת־הַ֣עִוְרִ֔ים *שנאו **שְׂנֻאֵ֖י נֶ֣פֶשׁ דָּוִ֑ד עַל־כֵּן֙ יֹֽאמְר֔וּ עִוֵּ֣ר וּפִסֵּ֔חַ לֹ֥א יָב֖וֹא אֶל־הַבָּֽיִת׃‬ And on that day, David said, “Whoever strikes a Jebusite and gets to the waterfall and strikes the lame and the blind – {K: who hate David's existence} [Q: whom David's being hates] – ...” For this reason they say, “The blind and the lame shall not enter the house.” existence (ketiv)soul.
being (qeré)soul.
AV differs, reading the qeré.

|| 1 Chr 11:6.

whoever ← everyone (who).

The sense seems to be that the Jebusites considered themselves ↴
2 Sam 5:9 ‫וַיֵּ֤שֶׁב דָּוִד֙ בַּמְּצֻדָ֔ה וַיִּקְרָא־לָ֖הּ עִ֣יר דָּוִ֑ד וַיִּ֤בֶן דָּוִד֙ סָבִ֔יב מִן־הַמִּלּ֖וֹא וָבָֽיְתָה׃‬ And David resided in the citadel, and he called it the City of David. And David built around it, from the Millo inwards. ↳ inaccessible, so that even the lame and blind were part of the taunt.

|| 1 Chr 11:7, 1 Chr 11:8.

Millo: root meaning infilling. See [CB] and [Wikipedia].
2 Sam 5:10 ‫וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ דָּוִ֖ד הָל֣וֹךְ וְגָד֑וֹל וַיהוָ֛ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י צְבָא֖וֹת עִמּֽוֹ׃ פ‬ And David continued to become greater, and the Lord God of hosts was with him. || 1 Chr 11:9.

continued to become greater: infinitive absolute of to go and to be great.
2 Sam 5:11 ‫וַ֠יִּשְׁלַח חִירָ֨ם מֶֽלֶךְ־צֹ֥ר מַלְאָכִים֮ אֶל־דָּוִד֒ וַעֲצֵ֣י אֲרָזִ֔ים וְחָרָשֵׁ֣י עֵ֔ץ וְחָֽרָשֵׁ֖י אֶ֣בֶן קִ֑יר וַיִּבְנֽוּ־בַ֖יִת לְדָוִֽד׃‬ And Hiram king of Tyre sent envoys to David, and cedar wood and carpenters and stonemasons, and they built a house for David. || 1 Chr 14:1.

stonemasons ← artificers of stone of wall.
2 Sam 5:12 ‫וַיֵּ֣דַע דָּוִ֔ד כִּֽי־הֱכִינ֧וֹ יְהוָ֛ה לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְכִי֙ נִשֵּׂ֣א מַמְלַכְתּ֔וֹ בַּעֲב֖וּר עַמּ֥וֹ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬ And David knew that the Lord had established him as king over Israel, and that he had exalted his kingdom for the sake of his people Israel. || 1 Chr 14:2.
2 Sam 5:13 ‫וַיִּקַּח֩ דָּוִ֨ד ע֜וֹד פִּֽלַגְשִׁ֤ים וְנָשִׁים֙ מִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם אַחֲרֵ֖י בֹּא֣וֹ מֵחֶבְר֑וֹן וַיִּוָּ֥לְדוּ ע֛וֹד לְדָוִ֖ד בָּנִ֥ים וּבָנֽוֹת׃‬ Then David took some more concubines and wives from Jerusalem, after he had arrived there from Hebron, and more sons and daughters were born to David. || 1 Chr 14:3.
2 Sam 5:14 ‫וְאֵ֗לֶּה שְׁמ֛וֹת הַיִּלֹּדִ֥ים ל֖וֹ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם שַׁמּ֣וּעַ וְשׁוֹבָ֔ב וְנָתָ֖ן וּשְׁלֹמֹֽה׃‬ And these are the names of those born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua and Shobab and Nathan and Solomon, || 1 Chr 3:5, 1 Chr 14:4.

Solomon ← Shelomoh, but we retain the AV / traditional English name. The Modern Hebrew pronunciation is Shlomo(h).
2 Sam 5:15 ‫וְיִבְחָ֥ר וֶאֱלִישׁ֖וּעַ וְנֶ֥פֶג וְיָפִֽיעַ׃‬ and Ibhar and Elishua and Nepheg and Japhia, || 1 Chr 3:6, 1 Chr 3:7, 1 Chr 14:5, 1 Chr 14:6.
2 Sam 5:16 ‫וֶאֱלִישָׁמָ֥ע וְאֶלְיָדָ֖ע וֶאֱלִיפָֽלֶט׃ פ‬ and Elishama and Eliada and Eliphelet. || 1 Chr 3:8, 1 Chr 14:7.

Eliphelet: AV= Eliphalet, the pausal form, here and 1 Chr 14:7, but elsewhere Eliphelet. See Gen 4:2.
2 Sam 5:17 ‫וַיִּשְׁמְע֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים כִּי־מָשְׁח֨וּ אֶת־דָּוִ֤ד לְמֶ֙לֶךְ֙ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּעֲל֥וּ כָל־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים לְבַקֵּ֣שׁ אֶת־דָּוִ֑ד וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע דָּוִ֔ד וַיֵּ֖רֶד אֶל־הַמְּצוּדָֽה׃‬ And when the Philistines heard that they had anointed David as king over Israel, all the Philistines came up to seek David, but David heard about it, and he went down into the citadel. || 1 Chr 14:8.

to seek: here in a hostile sense, as in 1 Sam 26:2.
2 Sam 5:18 ‫וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים בָּ֑אוּ וַיִּנָּטְשׁ֖וּ בְּעֵ֥מֶק רְפָאִֽים׃‬ And the Philistines came and spread themselves out in the Valley of the Rephaim. || 1 Chr 14:9.

Rephaim: see [CB] App. 25.
2 Sam 5:19 ‫וַיִּשְׁאַ֨ל דָּוִ֤ד בַּֽיהוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַאֶֽעֱלֶה֙ אֶל־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים הֲתִתְּנֵ֖ם בְּיָדִ֑י וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֤ה אֶל־דָּוִד֙ עֲלֵ֔ה כִּֽי־נָתֹ֥ן אֶתֵּ֛ן אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים בְּיָדֶֽךָ׃‬ And David asked the Lord and said, “Should I go up against the Philistines? Will you deliver them into my hand?” And the Lord said to David, “Go up, for I will certainly deliver the Philistines into your hand.” || 1 Chr 14:10.

I will certainly deliver: infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 5:20 ‫וַיָּבֹ֨א דָוִ֥ד בְּבַֽעַל־פְּרָצִים֮ וַיַּכֵּ֣ם שָׁ֣ם דָּוִד֒ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר פָּרַ֨ץ יְהוָ֧ה אֶת־אֹיְבַ֛י לְפָנַ֖י כְּפֶ֣רֶץ מָ֑יִם עַל־כֵּ֗ן קָרָ֛א שֵֽׁם־הַמָּק֥וֹם הַה֖וּא בַּ֥עַל פְּרָצִֽים׃‬ So David went to Baal-Perazim, and David struck them there, and he said, “The Lord has dispersed my enemies before me, like an outpouring of water”, which is why he called that place Baal-Perazim. || 1 Chr 14:11.

struck: in a Hebrew “VOS” (verb-object-subject) sentence.
2 Sam 5:21 ‫וַיַּעַזְבוּ־שָׁ֖ם אֶת־עֲצַבֵּיהֶ֑ם וַיִּשָּׂאֵ֥ם דָּוִ֖ד וַאֲנָשָֽׁיו׃ פ‬ And they abandoned their idols there, and David and his men removed them. || 1 Chr 14:12.
2 Sam 5:22 ‫וַיֹּסִ֥פוּ ע֛וֹד פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים לַֽעֲל֑וֹת וַיִּנָּֽטְשׁ֖וּ בְּעֵ֥מֶק רְפָאִֽים׃‬ But the Philistines came up yet again, and they spread themselves out in the Valley of the Rephaim. || 1 Chr 14:13.

came up yet again ← added yet to come up.

Rephaim: see [CB] App. 25.
2 Sam 5:23 ‫וַיִּשְׁאַ֤ל דָּוִד֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה וַיֹּ֖אמֶר לֹ֣א תַעֲלֶ֑ה הָסֵב֙ אֶל־אַ֣חֲרֵיהֶ֔ם וּבָ֥אתָ לָהֶ֖ם מִמּ֥וּל בְּכָאִֽים׃‬ And David inquired of the Lord. And he said, “You shall not go up. Surround them at their rear and advance on them from opposite the balsam trees. || 1 Chr 14:14.

advance on ← come to.
2 Sam 5:24 ‫וִ֠יהִי *בשמעך **כְּֽשָׁמְעֲךָ֞ אֶת־ק֧וֹל צְעָדָ֛ה בְּרָאשֵׁ֥י הַבְּכָאִ֖ים אָ֣ז תֶּחֱרָ֑ץ כִּ֣י אָ֗ז יָצָ֤א יְהוָה֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ לְהַכּ֖וֹת בְּמַחֲנֵ֥ה פְלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And it will come to pass, {K: when} [Q: as] you hear the sound of marching in the crowns of the balsam trees, that you will then act decisively, for then the Lord will go out before you to strike the Philistines' camp.” || 1 Chr 14:15.

camp: or battalion.
2 Sam 5:25 ‫וַיַּ֤עַשׂ דָּוִד֙ כֵּ֔ן כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֖הוּ יְהוָ֑ה וַיַּךְ֙ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים מִגֶּ֖בַע עַד־בֹּאֲךָ֥ גָֽזֶר׃ פ‬ And David did this as the Lord had commanded him, and he struck the Philistines from Geba to the approach to Gezer. || 1 Chr 14:16.

this ← thus.

the approach to ← at your going.

Gezer: AV= Gazer, the pausal form.
2 Sam 6:1 ‫וַיֹּ֨סֶף ע֥וֹד דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־כָּל־בָּח֥וּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים אָֽלֶף׃‬ And David again gathered every young man in Israel – thirty thousand of them. || 1 Chr 13:5.

gathered: we, with [AnLx], take the verb as in scriptio defectiva spelling from root אסף. Otherwise, the meaning is added or did again.
2 Sam 6:2 ‫וַיָּ֣קָם ׀ וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד וְכָל־הָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ מִֽבַּעֲלֵ֖י יְהוּדָ֑ה לְהַעֲל֣וֹת מִשָּׁ֗ם אֵ֚ת אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָ֣א שֵׁ֗ם שֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת יֹשֵׁ֥ב הַכְּרֻבִ֖ים עָלָֽיו׃‬ And David arose and proceeded, with all the people who were with him from Baale-Judah, to bring the ark of God up from there, where a name – the name of the Lord of hosts who resides between cherubim on it – is called on. || 1 Chr 13:6.

with (first occurrence in verse)and.
2 Sam 6:3 ‫וַיַּרְכִּ֜בוּ אֶת־אֲר֤וֹן הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־עֲגָלָ֣ה חֲדָשָׁ֔ה וַיִּשָּׂאֻ֔הוּ מִבֵּ֥ית אֲבִינָדָ֖ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּגִּבְעָ֑ה וְעֻזָּ֣א וְאַחְי֗וֹ בְּנֵי֙ אֲבִ֣ינָדָ֔ב נֹהֲגִ֖ים אֶת־הָעֲגָלָ֥ה חֲדָשָֽׁה׃‬ And they loaded the ark of God onto a new wagon, and they removed it from Abinadab's house, which was in Gibeah. Now Uzza and Ahio, Abinadab's sons, were driving the new wagon, || 1 Chr 13:7.

loaded ← mounted.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.

Uzza: AV= Uzzah. Sometimes MT= Uzzah, and sometimes AV= Uzza. Sometimes AV mismatches; sometimes it is in correspondence. We standardize on Uzza.
2 Sam 6:4 ‫וַיִּשָּׂאֻ֗הוּ מִבֵּ֤ית אֲבִֽינָדָב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּגִּבְעָ֔ה עִ֖ם אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְאַחְי֕וֹ הֹלֵ֖ךְ לִפְנֵ֥י הָאָרֽוֹן׃‬ and they removed it from Abinadab's house which was in Gibeah, travelling with the ark of God, with Ahio walking in front of the ark. it: agreeing with ark, not wagon.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.
2 Sam 6:5 ‫וְדָוִ֣ד ׀ וְכָל־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל מְשַֽׂחֲקִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה בְּכֹ֖ל עֲצֵ֣י בְרוֹשִׁ֑ים וּבְכִנֹּר֤וֹת וּבִנְבָלִים֙ וּבְתֻפִּ֔ים וּבִמְנַֽעַנְעִ֖ים וּֽבְצֶלְצֶלִֽים׃‬ Now David and the whole house of Israel were playing music before the Lord on all kinds of instruments of cypress wood, and on harps and on lutes and with drums and with sistrums and with cymbals, || 1 Chr 13:8.

sistrum: a hand-held shaken instrument.
2 Sam 6:6 ‫וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ עַד־גֹּ֣רֶן נָכ֑וֹן וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח עֻזָּ֜א אֶל־אֲר֤וֹן הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ וַיֹּ֣אחֶז בּ֔וֹ כִּ֥י שָׁמְט֖וּ הַבָּקָֽר׃‬ when they came to Nachon's threshing floor, and Uzza stretched out his hand to the ark of God, and he held on to it, because the oxen were destabilizing it. || 1 Chr 13:9.

Uzza: see 2 Sam 6:3.
2 Sam 6:7 ‫וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֤ף יְהוָה֙ בְּעֻזָּ֔ה וַיַּכֵּ֥הוּ שָׁ֛ם הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים עַל־הַשַּׁ֑ל וַיָּ֣מָת שָׁ֔ם עִ֖ם אֲר֥וֹן הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃‬ At this the Lord's anger was kindled against Uzza, and God struck him down there for his nonchalance, and he died there with the ark of God. || 1 Chr 13:10.

at this: wider use of the vav.

Uzza: see 2 Sam 6:3, but here and occasionally MT= Uzzah.

nonchalance: or fault, error [AnLx], [BDB], or hastiness [BDB].
2 Sam 6:8 ‫וַיִּ֣חַר לְדָוִ֔ד עַל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר פָּרַ֧ץ יְהוָ֛ה פֶּ֖רֶץ בְּעֻזָּ֑ה וַיִּקְרָ֞א לַמָּק֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ פֶּ֣רֶץ עֻזָּ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃‬ And it grieved David that the Lord had burst out against Uzza, and he called that place Perez-Uzza, as it is up to this day. || 1 Chr 13:11.

grieved: or infuriated.

had burst out ← had burst a burst.

Uzza ... Uzza: see 2 Sam 6:3, but here MT= Uzzah.
2 Sam 6:9 ‫וַיִּרָ֥א דָוִ֛ד אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֵ֛יךְ יָב֥וֹא אֵלַ֖י אֲר֥וֹן יְהוָֽה׃‬ And David feared the Lord on that day, and he said, “How will the ark of the Lord come to me?” || 1 Chr 13:12.
2 Sam 6:10 ‫וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֣ה דָוִ֗ד לְהָסִ֥יר אֵלָ֛יו אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן יְהוָ֖ה עַל־עִ֣יר דָּוִ֑ד וַיַּטֵּ֣הוּ דָוִ֔ד בֵּ֥ית עֹבֵֽד־אֱד֖וֹם הַגִּתִּֽי׃‬ And David was not willing to have the ark of the Lord brought to him at the City of David, and David had it diverted to the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite. || 1 Chr 13:13.
2 Sam 6:11 ‫וַיֵּשֶׁב֩ אֲר֨וֹן יְהוָ֜ה בֵּ֣ית עֹבֵ֥ד אֱדֹ֛ם הַגִּתִּ֖י שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה חֳדָשִׁ֑ים וַיְבָ֧רֶךְ יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־עֹבֵ֥ד אֱדֹ֖ם וְאֶת־כָּל־בֵּיתֽוֹ׃‬ So the ark of the Lord remained in the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite for three months, and the Lord blessed Obed-Edom and all his household. || 1 Chr 13:14.
2 Sam 6:12 ‫וַיֻּגַּ֗ד לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִד֮ לֵאמֹר֒ בֵּרַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֗ה אֶת־בֵּ֨ית עֹבֵ֤ד אֱדֹם֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ בַּעֲב֖וּר אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד וַיַּעַל֩ אֶת־אֲר֨וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֜ים מִבֵּ֨ית עֹבֵ֥ד אֱדֹ֛ם עִ֥יר דָּוִ֖ד בְּשִׂמְחָֽה׃‬ And it was reported to King David with the words, “The Lord has blessed the household of Obed-Edom, and everything he has, on account of the ark of God.” So David went and brought the ark of God up from the house of Obed-Edom to the City of David with joy. || 1 Chr 15:25.

with the words ← saying.
2 Sam 6:13 ‫וַיְהִ֗י כִּ֧י צָעֲד֛וּ נֹשְׂאֵ֥י אֲרוֹן־יְהוָ֖ה שִׁשָּׁ֣ה צְעָדִ֑ים וַיִּזְבַּ֥ח שׁ֖וֹר וּמְרִֽיא׃‬ And it came to pass, when the bearers of the ark of the Lord had taken six steps, that he sacrificed an ox and a fatted calf. || 1 Chr 15:26.

had taken ← had stepped.

an ox: or oxen.
2 Sam 6:14 ‫וְדָוִ֛ד מְכַרְכֵּ֥ר בְּכָל־עֹ֖ז לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וְדָוִ֕ד חָג֖וּר אֵפ֥וֹד בָּֽד׃‬ And David leapt with all his might before the Lord, and David was girded with an ephod of fine linen. || 1 Chr 15:27.
2 Sam 6:15 ‫וְדָוִד֙ וְכָל־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מַעֲלִ֖ים אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֑ה בִּתְרוּעָ֖ה וּבְק֥וֹל שׁוֹפָֽר׃‬ So David and the whole house of Israel brought the ark of the Lord up with shouting and with the sound of the ramshorn. || 1 Chr 15:28.
2 Sam 6:16 ‫וְהָיָה֙ אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֔ה בָּ֖א עִ֣יר דָּוִ֑ד וּמִיכַ֨ל בַּת־שָׁא֜וּל נִשְׁקְפָ֣ה ׀ בְּעַ֣ד הַחַלּ֗וֹן וַתֵּ֨רֶא אֶת־הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ דָּוִד֙ מְפַזֵּ֤ז וּמְכַרְכֵּר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַתִּ֥בֶז ל֖וֹ בְּלִבָּֽהּ׃‬ And as the ark of the Lord was arriving in the City of David, Michal, Saul's daughter, was peering out of the window, and she saw King David leaping and bounding before the Lord, and she despised him in her heart. || 1 Chr 15:29.
2 Sam 6:17 ‫וַיָּבִ֜אוּ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֗ה וַיַּצִּ֤גוּ אֹתוֹ֙ בִּמְקוֹמ֔וֹ בְּת֣וֹךְ הָאֹ֔הֶל אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָטָה־ל֖וֹ דָּוִ֑ד וַיַּ֨עַל דָּוִ֥ד עֹל֛וֹת לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה וּשְׁלָמִֽים׃‬ And they brought the ark of the Lord, and they put it in its place inside the tent which David had pitched for it, and David offered burnt offerings and peace-offerings before the Lord. || 1 Chr 16:1.

offered ← raised, a verb cognate with burnt offering.
2 Sam 6:18 ‫וַיְכַ֣ל דָּוִ֔ד מֵהַעֲל֥וֹת הָעוֹלָ֖ה וְהַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם בְּשֵׁ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ And when David had finished offering the burnt offering and the peace-offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the Lord of hosts. || 1 Chr 16:2.

burnt offering: as MT.
2 Sam 6:19 ‫וַיְחַלֵּ֨ק לְכָל־הָעָ֜ם לְכָל־הֲמ֣וֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל֮ לְמֵאִ֣ישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה֒ לְאִ֗ישׁ חַלַּ֥ת לֶ֙חֶם֙ אַחַ֔ת וְאֶשְׁפָּ֣ר אֶחָ֔ד וַאֲשִׁישָׁ֖ה אֶחָ֑ת וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אִ֥ישׁ לְבֵיתֽוֹ׃‬ And he distributed to all the people and the whole multitude of Israel, to both men and women – to each one – a loaf of bread and a portion of roast beef and raisin cake. Then all the people went home. || 1 Chr 16:3.

a portion of roast beef: the meaning is not certain. We take the etymology as אֵשׁ + פַּר, fire + young bull.

raisin cake: AV differs (flagon of wine).

all the people went home ← all the people went each to his home.
2 Sam 6:20 ‫וַיָּ֥שָׁב דָּוִ֖ד לְבָרֵ֣ךְ אֶת־בֵּית֑וֹ וַתֵּצֵ֞א מִיכַ֤ל בַּת־שָׁאוּל֙ לִקְרַ֣את דָּוִ֔ד וַתֹּ֗אמֶר מַה־נִּכְבַּ֨ד הַיּ֜וֹם מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִגְלָ֤ה הַיּוֹם֙ לְעֵינֵ֨י אַמְה֣וֹת עֲבָדָ֔יו כְּהִגָּל֥וֹת נִגְל֖וֹת אַחַ֥ד הָרֵקִֽים׃‬ Then when David returned to bless his household, Michal, Saul's daughter, came out to meet David, and she said, “How dignified the king of Israel was today, who exposed himself today in the sight of the maidservants of his menservants, like an empty-headed person deliberately exposing himself.” || 1 Chr 16:43.

dignified ← honoured. Ironic.

an empty-headed personone of the empty (ones).

deliberately exposing himself: infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 6:21 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִד֮ אֶל־מִיכַל֒ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּֽחַר־בִּ֤י מֵֽאָבִיךְ֙ וּמִכָּל־בֵּית֔וֹ לְצַוֺּ֨ת אֹתִ֥י נָגִ֛יד עַל־עַ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְשִׂחַקְתִּ֖י לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬ And David said to Michal, “I did it before the Lord, who chose me rather than your father and rather than all his house in appointing me a leader over the people of the Lord – over Israel – and I will play before the Lord. in appointing ← in commanding. Gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 6:22 ‫וּנְקַלֹּ֤תִי עוֹד֙ מִזֹּ֔את וְהָיִ֥יתִי שָׁפָ֖ל בְּעֵינָ֑י וְעִם־הָֽאֲמָהוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֔רְתְּ עִמָּ֖ם אִכָּבֵֽדָה׃‬ And I will be more contemptible than this, and I will be lowly in my own eyes, but with the maidservants with whom you spoke I shall be honoured.”
2 Sam 6:23 ‫וּלְמִיכַל֙ בַּת־שָׁא֔וּל לֹֽא־הָ֥יָה לָ֖הּ יָ֑לֶד עַ֖ד י֥וֹם מוֹתָֽהּ׃ פ‬ And Michal, Saul's daughter, did not have a child up to the day of her death.
2 Sam 7:1 ‫וַיְהִ֕י כִּי־יָשַׁ֥ב הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ בְּבֵית֑וֹ וַיהוָ֛ה הֵנִֽיחַ־ל֥וֹ מִסָּבִ֖יב מִכָּל־אֹיְבָֽיו׃‬ And it came to pass when the king was sitting in his house, and the Lord had given him rest on all sides from all his enemies, || 1 Chr 17:1.

on all sides ← from around.
2 Sam 7:2 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֔יא רְאֵ֣ה נָ֔א אָנֹכִ֥י יוֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּבֵ֣ית אֲרָזִ֑ים וַֽאֲרוֹן֙ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים יֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיְרִיעָֽה׃‬ that the king said to Nathan the prophet, “See now, I am sitting in a house of cedars, but the ark of God is residing behind a sheet.” || 1 Chr 17:1.

behind ← inside.

a sheet ← the curtain, but we take the reference as to tent fabric.
2 Sam 7:3 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר נָתָן֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּֽלְבָבְךָ֖ לֵ֣ךְ עֲשֵׂ֑ה כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה עִמָּֽךְ׃ ס‬ And Nathan said to the king, “Whatever is in your heart, go and do, for the Lord is with you.” || 1 Chr 17:2.

whatever ← everything.
2 Sam 7:4 ‫וַיְהִ֖י בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַה֑וּא וַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־נָתָ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And it came to pass on that night that the word of the Lord came to Nathan and said, || 1 Chr 17:3.

came ← became.
2 Sam 7:5 ‫לֵ֤ךְ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֙ אֶל־עַבְדִּ֣י אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד כֹּ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה הַאַתָּ֛ה תִּבְנֶה־לִּ֥י בַ֖יִת לְשִׁבְתִּֽי׃‬ “Go and say to my servant David, ‘This is what the Lord says: «Will you build me a house for me to dwell in? || 1 Chr 17:4.

this is whatthus.
2 Sam 7:6 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יָשַׁ֙בְתִּי֙ בְּבַ֔יִת לְ֠מִיּוֹם הַעֲלֹתִ֞י אֶת־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם וְעַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וָאֶֽהְיֶה֙ מִתְהַלֵּ֔ךְ בְּאֹ֖הֶל וּבְמִשְׁכָּֽן׃‬ For I have not dwelt in a house from the day when I brought the sons of Israel up out of Egypt, up to this day, and I have been going about in a tent and in a tabernacle. || 1 Chr 17:5.
2 Sam 7:7 ‫בְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶֽׁר־הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי֮ בְּכָל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ הֲדָבָ֣ר דִּבַּ֗רְתִּי אֶת־אַחַד֙ שִׁבְטֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּ֗יתִי לִרְע֛וֹת אֶת־עַמִּ֥י אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר לָ֛מָּה לֹֽא־בְנִיתֶ֥ם לִ֖י בֵּ֥ית אֲרָזִֽים׃‬ Everywhere where I have gone about among all the sons of Israel, have I spoken a word with the one of the tribes of Israel which I commanded to shepherd my people Israel, saying, ‹Why have you not built me a house of cedar?›?» ’ || 1 Chr 17:6.
2 Sam 7:8 ‫וְ֠עַתָּה כֹּֽה־תֹאמַ֞ר לְעַבְדִּ֣י לְדָוִ֗ד כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֲנִ֤י לְקַחְתִּ֙יךָ֙ מִן־הַנָּוֶ֔ה מֵאַחַ֖ר הַצֹּ֑אן לִֽהְי֣וֹת נָגִ֔יד עַל־עַמִּ֖י עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ So now, this is what you will say to my servant, to David: ‘This is what the Lord of hosts says: «I took you out of the pasture, from looking after the sheep, to be a leader over my people, over Israel. || 1 Chr 17:7.

this is what (2x)thus.
2 Sam 7:9 ‫וָאֶהְיֶ֣ה עִמְּךָ֗ בְּכֹל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָלַ֔כְתָּ וָאַכְרִ֥תָה אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶ֖יךָ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ וְעָשִׂ֤תִֽי לְךָ֙ שֵׁ֣ם גָּד֔וֹל כְּשֵׁ֥ם הַגְּדֹלִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And I was with you everywhere you went, and I cut off all your enemies at your advance, and I made your name great, like the name of the great men who are on the earth. || 1 Chr 17:8.

at your advance ← from before you.

made your name great ← made for you a great name.

on the earth: or in the land.
2 Sam 7:10 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֣י מָ֠קוֹם לְעַמִּ֨י לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל וּנְטַעְתִּיו֙ וְשָׁכַ֣ן תַּחְתָּ֔יו וְלֹ֥א יִרְגַּ֖ז ע֑וֹד וְלֹֽא־יֹסִ֤יפוּ בְנֵֽי־עַוְלָה֙ לְעַנּוֹת֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר בָּרִאשׁוֹנָֽה׃‬ And I will appoint a place for my people – for Israel – and I will plant them there, and they will dwell right there, and they will no longer shudder, and the unrighteous will no longer afflict them as at first. || 1 Chr 17:9.

right there ← under it, but also its place.

unrighteous ← sons of iniquity.
2 Sam 7:11 ‫וּלְמִן־הַיּ֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוִּ֤יתִי שֹֽׁפְטִים֙ עַל־עַמִּ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַהֲנִיחֹ֥תִי לְךָ֖ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶ֑יךָ וְהִגִּ֤יד לְךָ֙ יְהוָ֔ה כִּי־בַ֖יִת יַעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ֥ יְהוָֽה׃‬ And ever since the day when I appointed judges over my people Israel, I have given you rest from all your enemies. And the Lord has told you that the Lord will make a house for you. || 1 Chr 17:10.

a house: i.e. a line of succession [CB].
2 Sam 7:12 ‫כִּ֣י ׀ יִמְלְא֣וּ יָמֶ֗יךָ וְשָֽׁכַבְתָּ֙ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִ֤י אֶֽת־זַרְעֲךָ֙ אַחֲרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֵצֵ֖א מִמֵּעֶ֑יךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִ֖י אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּֽוֹ׃‬ When your days are fulfilled, and you lie with your fathers, I will raise up your seed after you, who will come from your loins, and I will establish his kingdom. Acts 2:30. Compare also this and the following two verses with John 12:34.

|| 1 Chr 17:11.

loins ← bowels.
2 Sam 7:13 ‫ה֥וּא יִבְנֶה־בַּ֖יִת לִשְׁמִ֑י וְכֹנַנְתִּ֛י אֶת־כִּסֵּ֥א מַמְלַכְתּ֖וֹ עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃‬ He will build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom age-abidingly. || 1 Chr 17:12.
2 Sam 7:14 ‫אֲנִי֙ אֶהְיֶה־לּ֣וֹ לְאָ֔ב וְה֖וּא יִהְיֶה־לִּ֣י לְבֵ֑ן אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּהַ֣עֲוֺת֔וֹ וְהֹֽכַחְתִּיו֙ בְּשֵׁ֣בֶט אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וּבְנִגְעֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃‬ I will be a father to him, and he will be a son to me. When he acts iniquitously, I will chasten him with the rod of men and with the beatings of the sons of Adam. 2 Cor 6:18, Heb 1:5.

|| 1 Chr 17:13.
2 Sam 7:15 ‫וְחַסְדִּ֖י לֹא־יָס֣וּר מִמֶּ֑נּוּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר הֲסִרֹ֙תִי֙ מֵעִ֣ם שָׁא֔וּל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֲסִרֹ֖תִי מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ׃‬ But my kindness will not depart from him, as when I withdrew it from Saul, whom I removed from you. || 1 Chr 17:13.

from you ← from before you.
2 Sam 7:16 ‫וְנֶאְמַ֨ן בֵּיתְךָ֧ וּמַֽמְלַכְתְּךָ֛ עַד־עוֹלָ֖ם לְפָנֶ֑יךָ כִּֽסְאֲךָ֔ יִהְיֶ֥ה נָכ֖וֹן עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃‬ And your house and your kingdom will be immutable age-abidingly before you. Your throne will be confirmed age-abidingly.» ’ ” || 1 Chr 17:14.
2 Sam 7:17 ‫כְּכֹל֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וּכְכֹ֖ל הַחִזָּי֣וֹן הַזֶּ֑ה כֵּ֛ן דִּבֶּ֥ר נָתָ֖ן אֶל־דָּוִֽד׃ ס‬ According to all these words, and according to all of this vision, so Nathan spoke to David. || 1 Chr 17:15.
2 Sam 7:18 ‫וַיָּבֹא֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֔ד וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר מִ֣י אָנֹכִ֞י אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ וּמִ֣י בֵיתִ֔י כִּ֥י הֲבִיאֹתַ֖נִי עַד־הֲלֹֽם׃‬ Then King David came and sat before the Lord and said, “Who am I, my Lord the Lord, and who constitutes my house, that you should have brought me here? || 1 Chr 17:16.

my house: see 2 Sam 7:11.
2 Sam 7:19 ‫וַתִּקְטַן֩ ע֨וֹד זֹ֤את בְּעֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה וַתְּדַבֵּ֛ר גַּ֥ם אֶל־בֵּֽית־עַבְדְּךָ֖ לְמֵֽרָח֑וֹק וְזֹ֛את תּוֹרַ֥ת הָאָדָ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה׃‬ And was this just a small matter in your sight, my Lord the Lord? And moreover you spoke to the house of your servant from afar, and is this man's right, my Lord the Lord? || 1 Chr 17:17.

just ← yet, still.

from afar: or, [AnLx], long ago. AV differs (for a great while to come).

man's right ← the law of man.
2 Sam 7:20 ‫וּמַה־יּוֹסִ֥יף דָּוִ֛ד ע֖וֹד לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֵלֶ֑יךָ וְאַתָּ֛ה יָדַ֥עְתָּ אֶֽת־עַבְדְּךָ֖ אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה׃‬ And what more can David say to you? For you know your servant, my Lord the Lord. || 1 Chr 17:18.

more ... say ← add ... to say.
2 Sam 7:21 ‫בַּעֲב֤וּר דְּבָֽרְךָ֙ וּֽכְלִבְּךָ֔ עָשִׂ֕יתָ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַגְּדוּלָּ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את לְהוֹדִ֖יעַ אֶת־עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃‬ It was for the sake of your word and according to your heart that you performed all this great thing, in making it known to your servant, || 1 Chr 17:19.

in making: gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 7:22 ‫עַל־כֵּ֥ן גָּדַ֖לְתָּ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה כִּֽי־אֵ֣ין כָּמ֗וֹךָ וְאֵ֤ין אֱלֹהִים֙ זֽוּלָתֶ֔ךָ בְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַ֖עְנוּ בְּאָזְנֵֽינוּ׃‬ which is why you are great, my Lord the Lord, for there is none like you, and there is no God except for you in anything which we have heard with our ears. || 1 Chr 17:20.

anything ← everything.
2 Sam 7:23 ‫וּמִ֤י כְעַמְּךָ֙ כְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל גּ֥וֹי אֶחָ֖ד בָּאָ֑רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָלְכֽוּ־אֱ֠לֹהִים לִפְדּֽוֹת־ל֨וֹ לְעָ֜ם וְלָשׂ֧וּם ל֣וֹ שֵׁ֗ם וְלַעֲשׂ֨וֹת לָכֶ֜ם הַגְּדוּלָּ֤ה וְנֹֽרָאוֹת֙ לְאַרְצֶ֔ךָ מִפְּנֵ֣י עַמְּךָ֗ אֲשֶׁ֨ר פָּדִ֤יתָ לְּךָ֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם גּוֹיִ֖ם וֵאלֹהָֽיו׃‬ And who is like your people, like Israel, one nation on the earth, which God proceeded to redeem to himself as a people, and to establish a name for himself, and to perform for you a great deed and awesome things, for your land, on account of your people whom you redeemed to yourself from Egypt – the nations and their gods? || 1 Chr 17:21.

your people ... your land ... your people: “your” is singular.

God proceeded ← God went. A rare case of a plural verb with Elohim (God) as subject. See note on Gen 1:1. It is followed by “to himself”, singular.

for you: plural.

their gods ← its gods.
2 Sam 7:24 ‫וַתְּכ֣וֹנֵֽן לְ֠ךָ אֶת־עַמְּךָ֨ יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל ׀ לְךָ֛ לְעָ֖ם עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם וְאַתָּ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה הָיִ֥יתָ לָהֶ֖ם לֵאלֹהִֽים׃ ס‬ And you have established your people for yourself, Israel as your people age-abidingly. And you, O Lord, have become their God. || 1 Chr 17:22.
2 Sam 7:25 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֔ים הַדָּבָ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבַּ֤רְתָּ עַֽל־עַבְדְּךָ֙ וְעַל־בֵּית֔וֹ הָקֵ֖ם עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם וַעֲשֵׂ֖ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּֽרְתָּ׃‬ So now, O Lord God, establish the word which you spoke concerning your servant and concerning his household age-abidingly, and act as you have spoken. || 1 Chr 17:23.
2 Sam 7:26 ‫וְיִגְדַּ֨ל שִׁמְךָ֤ עַד־עוֹלָם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֱלֹהִ֖ים עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּבֵית֙ עַבְדְּךָ֣ דָוִ֔ד יִהְיֶ֥ה נָכ֖וֹן לְפָנֶֽיךָ׃‬ And may your name be magnified age-abidingly, by people saying, ‘O Lord of hosts, God over Israel’, and may the house of your servant David be established before you. || 1 Chr 17:24.

by people saying: gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 7:27 ‫כִּֽי־אַתָּה֩ יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל גָּלִ֜יתָה אֶת־אֹ֤זֶן עַבְדְּךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בַּ֖יִת אֶבְנֶה־לָּ֑ךְ עַל־כֵּ֗ן מָצָ֤א עַבְדְּךָ֙ אֶת־לִבּ֔וֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֣ל אֵלֶ֔יךָ אֶת־הַתְּפִלָּ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ For you, O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, have informed your servant, saying, ‘I will build you a house’, which is why your servant has found it in his heart to pray this prayer to you. || 1 Chr 17:25.

informed ← uncovered the ear of.

house: i.e. a line of succession.
2 Sam 7:28 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה ׀ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה אַתָּה־הוּא֙ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וּדְבָרֶ֖יךָ יִהְי֣וּ אֱמֶ֑ת וַתְּדַבֵּר֙ אֶֽל־עַבְדְּךָ֔ אֶת־הַטּוֹבָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ So now, my Lord the Lord, you are God and your words will come true, and you have spoken this good thing to your servant. || 1 Chr 17:26.

come true ← become truth.
2 Sam 7:29 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה הוֹאֵל֙ וּבָרֵךְ֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית עַבְדְּךָ֔ לִהְי֥וֹת לְעוֹלָ֖ם לְפָנֶ֑יךָ כִּֽי־אַתָּ֞ה אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ דִּבַּ֔רְתָּ וּמִבִּרְכָ֣תְךָ֔ יְבֹרַ֥ךְ בֵּֽית־עַבְדְּךָ֖ לְעוֹלָֽם׃ פ‬ So now, be willing to bless the house of your servant, for it to be before you age-abidingly, because you, my Lord the Lord, have spoken, and from your blessing the house of your servant will be blessed age-abidingly.” || 1 Chr 17:27.

be willing to bless ← be willing and bless.
2 Sam 8:1 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֔ן וַיַּ֥ךְ דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וַיַּכְנִיעֵ֑ם וַיִּקַּ֥ח דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־מֶ֥תֶג הָאַמָּ֖ה מִיַּ֥ד פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And it came to pass after that, that David attacked the Philistines and subdued them, and David took the metropolis from the Philistines' control. || 1 Chr 18:1.

the metropolis ← bridle of the fore-arm, i.e. Gath [CB]. Compare 1 Chr 18:1. AV differs (Methegammah), taking the words as a proper noun.

control ← hand.
2 Sam 8:2 ‫וַיַּ֣ךְ אֶת־מוֹאָ֗ב וַֽיְמַדְּדֵ֤ם בַּחֶ֙בֶל֙ הַשְׁכֵּ֣ב אוֹתָ֣ם אַ֔רְצָה וַיְמַדֵּ֤ד שְׁנֵֽי־חֲבָלִים֙ לְהָמִ֔ית וּמְלֹ֥א הַחֶ֖בֶל לְהַחֲי֑וֹת וַתְּהִ֤י מוֹאָב֙ לְדָוִ֔ד לַעֲבָדִ֖ים נֹשְׂאֵ֥י מִנְחָֽה׃‬ And he attacked Moab, and he allotted them in a line, making them lie down on the ground, and he allotted two groups, one to be put to death and one numerous group to be preserved alive. So Moab became David's servants and tribute-bearers. || 1 Chr 18:2.

allotted (2x)measured.

on the ground ← to the ground.

groups ... group ← line ... lines, or cord ... cords.

numerous ← fulness of.
2 Sam 8:3 ‫וַיַּ֣ךְ דָּוִ֔ד אֶת־הֲדַדְעֶ֥זֶר בֶּן־רְחֹ֖ב מֶ֣לֶךְ צוֹבָ֑ה בְּלֶכְתּ֕וֹ לְהָשִׁ֥יב יָד֖וֹ בִּֽנְהַר־**פְּרָֽת׃‬ And David attacked Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, the king of Zobah, when he went to regain control of {K: the river} [Q: the River Euphrates]. || 1 Chr 18:3.

to regain control of ← to cause his hand to return at.
2 Sam 8:4 ‫וַיִּלְכֹּ֨ד דָּוִ֜ד מִמֶּ֗נּוּ אֶ֤לֶף וּשְׁבַע־מֵאוֹת֙ פָּרָשִׁ֔ים וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִ֣ישׁ רַגְלִ֑י וַיְעַקֵּ֤ר דָּוִד֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָרֶ֔כֶב וַיּוֹתֵ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ מֵ֥אָה רָֽכֶב׃‬ And David captured from him one thousand seven hundred horsemen and twenty thousand infantrymen. And David hamstrung all the horses of the chariot fleet, but he allowed one hundred of its chariots to remain. || 1 Chr 18:4.

AV differs in word association (as does LXX). We follow MT punctuation. On the differences in 1 Chr 18:4, [CB] suggests mistaking double-dotted zayin, ‪ז̈‬ (7000), for final nun, ‪ן‬ (700), but if the text is ↴
2 Sam 8:5 ‫וַתָּבֹא֙ אֲרַ֣ם דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק לַעְזֹ֕ר לַהֲדַדְעֶ֖זֶר מֶ֣לֶךְ צוֹבָ֑ה וַיַּ֤ךְ דָּוִד֙ בַּֽאֲרָ֔ם עֶשְׂרִֽים־וּשְׁנַ֥יִם אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ׃‬ Then Aramaea of Damascus came to help Hadadezer king of Zobah, but David struck down twenty-two thousand men in Aramaea. ↳ accurate, solutions offered involve: ten men per chariot, different events, different phases of the battle, and men who could fight on foot or horseback. A similar issue with 2 Sam 10:18 and 1 Chr 19:18.

|| 1 Chr 18:5.
2 Sam 8:6 ‫וַיָּ֨שֶׂם דָּוִ֤ד נְצִבִים֙ בַּאֲרַ֣ם דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וַתְּהִ֤י אֲרָם֙ לְדָוִ֔ד לַעֲבָדִ֖ים נוֹשְׂאֵ֣י מִנְחָ֑ה וַיֹּ֤שַׁע יְהוָה֙ אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלָֽךְ׃‬ And David stationed garrisons in Aramaea of Damascus, and Aramaea became David's servants and tribute-bearers. And the Lord sustained David everywhere he went. || 1 Chr 18:6.

sustained ← saved.
2 Sam 8:7 ‫וַיִּקַּ֣ח דָּוִ֗ד אֵ֚ת שִׁלְטֵ֣י הַזָּהָ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָי֔וּ אֶ֖ל עַבְדֵ֣י הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר וַיְבִיאֵ֖ם יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ And David took the golden shields which Hadadezer's servants had, and he brought them to Jerusalem. || 1 Chr 18:7.
2 Sam 8:8 ‫וּמִבֶּ֥טַח וּמִבֵּֽרֹתַ֖י עָרֵ֣י הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר לָקַ֞ח הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ דָּוִ֛ד נְחֹ֖שֶׁת הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד׃ ס‬ And King David took a very great quantity of copper from Betah and from Berothai, Hadadezer's cities. || 1 Chr 18:8.
2 Sam 8:9 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֕ע תֹּ֖עִי מֶ֣לֶךְ חֲמָ֑ת כִּ֚י הִכָּ֣ה דָוִ֔ד אֵ֖ת כָּל־חֵ֥יל הֲדַדְעָֽזֶר׃‬ And when Toi king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the whole of Hadadezer's army, || 1 Chr 18:9.
2 Sam 8:10 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח תֹּ֣עִי אֶת־יֽוֹרָם־בְּנ֣וֹ אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ־דָּ֠וִד לִשְׁאָל־ל֨וֹ לְשָׁל֜וֹם וּֽלְבָרֲכ֗וֹ עַל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִלְחַ֤ם בַּהֲדַדְעֶ֙זֶר֙ וַיַּכֵּ֔הוּ כִּי־אִ֛ישׁ מִלְחֲמ֥וֹת תֹּ֖עִי הָיָ֣ה הֲדַדְעָ֑זֶר וּבְיָד֗וֹ הָי֛וּ כְּלֵֽי־כֶ֥סֶף וּכְלֵֽי־זָהָ֖ב וּכְלֵ֥י נְחֹֽשֶׁת׃‬ Toi sent Joram his son to King David to ask him for peace and to bless him, because he had fought against Hadadezer and defeated him, for Hadadezer had been a man at war with Toi. And in his hand were items of silver and items of gold and items of copper. || 1 Chr 18:10.

at war with ← of wars of.

his hand: i.e. Joram's hand.
2 Sam 8:11 ‫גַּם־אֹתָ֕ם הִקְדִּ֛ישׁ הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ דָּוִ֖ד לַֽיהוָ֑ה עִם־הַכֶּ֤סֶף וְהַזָּהָב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִקְדִּ֔ישׁ מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר כִּבֵּֽשׁ׃‬ Them too King David consecrated to the Lord with the silver and the gold which he had consecrated from all the nations which he had conquered, || 1 Chr 18:11.
2 Sam 8:12 ‫מֵאֲרָ֤ם וּמִמּוֹאָב֙ וּמִבְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וּמִפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וּמֵֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק וּמִשְּׁלַ֛ל הֲדַדְעֶ֥זֶר בֶּן־רְחֹ֖ב מֶ֥לֶךְ צוֹבָֽה׃‬ from Aramaea, and from Moab, and from the sons of Ammon, and from the Philistines, and from Amalek, and from the booty of Hadadezer the son of Rehob, the king of Zobah. || 1 Chr 18:11.
2 Sam 8:13 ‫וַיַּ֤עַשׂ דָּוִד֙ שֵׁ֔ם בְּשֻׁב֕וֹ מֵהַכּוֹת֥וֹ אֶת־אֲרָ֖ם בְּגֵיא־מֶ֑לַח שְׁמוֹנָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר אָֽלֶף׃‬ And David gained a reputation when he returned from defeating Aramaea in the Valley of Salt – eighteen thousand men. || 1 Chr 18:12.

gained ← made.
2 Sam 8:14 ‫וַיָּ֨שֶׂם בֶּאֱד֜וֹם נְצִבִ֗ים בְּכָל־אֱדוֹם֙ שָׂ֣ם נְצִבִ֔ים וַיְהִ֥י כָל־אֱד֖וֹם עֲבָדִ֣ים לְדָוִ֑ד וַיּ֤וֹשַׁע יְהוָה֙ אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלָֽךְ׃‬ And he stationed garrisons in Edom – in the whole of Edom he stationed garrisons – and all of Edom became David's servants. And the Lord sustained David everywhere he went. || 1 Chr 18:13.

sustained ← saved.
2 Sam 8:15 ‫וַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ דָּוִ֖ד עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיְהִ֣י דָוִ֗ד עֹשֶׂ֛ה מִשְׁפָּ֥ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה לְכָל־עַמּֽוֹ׃‬ So David reigned over all of Israel, and David would execute judgment and justice to all his people. || 1 Chr 18:14.
2 Sam 8:16 ‫וְיוֹאָ֥ב בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֖ה עַל־הַצָּבָ֑א וִיהוֹשָׁפָ֥ט בֶּן־אֲחִיל֖וּד מַזְכִּֽיר׃‬ And Joab the son of Zeruiah was in charge of the army, and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was state secretary. || 1 Chr 18:15.
2 Sam 8:17 ‫וְצָד֧וֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיט֛וּב וַאֲחִימֶ֥לֶךְ בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָ֖ר כֹּהֲנִ֑ים וּשְׂרָיָ֖ה סוֹפֵֽר׃‬ And Zadok the son of Ahitub and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar were priests, and Seraiah was the scribe. || 1 Chr 18:16.

Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.

the scribe ← a scribe, but the article is often omitted in Hebrew; compare Num 1:1.
2 Sam 8:18 ‫וּבְנָיָ֙הוּ֙ בֶּן־יְה֣וֹיָדָ֔ע וְהַכְּרֵתִ֖י וְהַפְּלֵתִ֑י וּבְנֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד כֹּהֲנִ֥ים הָיֽוּ׃ פ‬ And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada and the Cherethites and the Pelethites and the sons of David were priests. || 1 Chr 18:17.

Benaiah ← Benaiahu, a fuller form of the name sometimes used.

and the Cherethites and the Pelethites ... priests: many others interpolate the whole ↴
2 Sam 9:1 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד הֲכִ֣י יֶשׁ־ע֔וֹד אֲשֶׁ֥ר נוֹתַ֖ר לְבֵ֣ית שָׁא֑וּל וְאֶעֱשֶׂ֤ה עִמּוֹ֙ חֶ֔סֶד בַּעֲב֖וּר יְהוֹנָתָֽן׃‬ And David said, “Is there still anyone who remains of the house of Saul, so I can show kindness to him on account of Jonathan?” ↳ verse from 1 Chr 18:17, but we translate the text as it stands.

show kindness to ← do kindness with.
2 Sam 9:2 ‫וּלְבֵ֨ית שָׁא֥וּל עֶ֙בֶד֙ וּשְׁמ֣וֹ צִיבָ֔א וַיִּקְרְאוּ־ל֖וֹ אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ אֵלָ֛יו הַאַתָּ֥ה צִיבָ֖א וַיֹּ֥אמֶר עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃‬ Now there was a servant of the house of Saul, and his name was Ziba, and they summoned him to David. And the king asked him, “Are you Ziba?” And he said, “Your servant.” asked him ← said to him.
2 Sam 9:3 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ הַאֶ֨פֶס ע֥וֹד אִישׁ֙ לְבֵ֣ית שָׁא֔וּל וְאֶעֱשֶׂ֥ה עִמּ֖וֹ חֶ֣סֶד אֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיֹּ֤אמֶר צִיבָא֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ ע֛וֹד בֵּ֥ן לִיהוֹנָתָ֖ן נְכֵ֥ה רַגְלָֽיִם׃‬ And the king said, “Is there no longer a man of the house of Saul, so that I may show the kindness of God to him?” And Ziba said to the king, “There is still Jonathan's son, who is lame in the feet.” so that: purposive use of the vav.

show ... kindness ... to ← do ... kindness ... with.
2 Sam 9:4 ‫וַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֵיפֹ֣ה ה֑וּא וַיֹּ֤אמֶר צִיבָא֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הִנֵּה־ה֗וּא בֵּ֛ית מָכִ֥יר בֶּן־עַמִּיאֵ֖ל בְּל֥וֹ דְבָֽר׃‬ And the king said to him, “Where is he?” And Ziba said to the king, “Well now, he is in the house of Machir the son of Ammiel in Lo-Debar.” well now ← behold.
2 Sam 9:5 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֖ח הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֑ד וַיִּקָּחֵ֗הוּ מִבֵּ֛ית מָכִ֥יר בֶּן־עַמִּיאֵ֖ל מִלּ֥וֹ דְבָֽר׃‬ And King David sent for him, and he took him from the house of Machir the son of Ammiel, from Lo-Debar.
2 Sam 9:6 ‫וַ֠יָּבֹא מְפִיבֹ֨שֶׁת בֶּן־יְהוֹנָתָ֤ן בֶּן־שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד וַיִּפֹּ֥ל עַל־פָּנָ֖יו וַיִּשְׁתָּ֑חוּ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ מְפִיבֹ֔שֶׁת וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הִנֵּ֥ה עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃‬ So Mephibosheth the son of Jonathan the son of Saul came to David, and he fell face down and prostrated himself. And David said, “Mephibosheth.” And he said, “Here is your servant.” face down ← on his face.

here isbehold.
2 Sam 9:7 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ ל֨וֹ דָוִ֜ד אַל־תִּירָ֗א כִּ֣י עָשֹׂה֩ אֶעֱשֶׂ֨ה עִמְּךָ֥ חֶ֙סֶד֙ בַּֽעֲבוּר֙ יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן אָבִ֔יךָ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִ֣י לְךָ֔ אֶֽת־כָּל־שְׂדֵ֖ה שָׁא֣וּל אָבִ֑יךָ וְאַתָּ֗ה תֹּ֥אכַל לֶ֛חֶם עַל־שֻׁלְחָנִ֖י תָּמִֽיד׃‬ And David said to him, “Don't be afraid, for I will certainly show you kindness, on account of Jonathan your father. And I will restore to you all of the field of Saul your father, and you will always eat bread at my table.” I will certainly show you kindness ← I will certainly do kindness with you. Infinitive absolute.

father: the word can stand for grandfather, as here, and forefather.

bread: standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
2 Sam 9:8 ‫וַיִּשְׁתַּ֕חוּ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מֶ֣ה עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ כִּ֣י פָנִ֔יתָ אֶל־הַכֶּ֥לֶב הַמֵּ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּמֽוֹנִי׃‬ And Mephibosheth prostrated himself and said, “What is your servant, that you should turn to a dead dog such as me?”
2 Sam 9:9 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֣א הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ אֶל־צִיבָ֛א נַ֥עַר שָׁא֖וּל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֑יו כֹּל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָיָ֤ה לְשָׁאוּל֙ וּלְכָל־בֵּית֔וֹ נָתַ֖תִּי לְבֶן־אֲדֹנֶֽיךָ׃‬ And the king called for Ziba, Saul's servant-lad, and he said to him, “Everything which was Saul's or of any of his house, I have given to your master's son. any ← all.
2 Sam 9:10 ‫וְעָבַ֣דְתָּ לּ֣וֹ אֶֽת־הָאֲדָמָ֡ה אַתָּה֩ וּבָנֶ֨יךָ וַעֲבָדֶ֜יךָ וְהֵבֵ֗אתָ וְהָיָ֨ה לְבֶן־אֲדֹנֶ֤יךָ לֶּ֙חֶם֙ וַאֲכָל֔וֹ וּמְפִיבֹ֙שֶׁת֙ בֶּן־אֲדֹנֶ֔יךָ יֹאכַ֥ל תָּמִ֛יד לֶ֖חֶם עַל־שֻׁלְחָנִ֑י וּלְצִיבָ֗א חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר בָּנִ֖ים וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים עֲבָדִֽים׃‬ And you will till the ground for him, you and your sons and your servants, and you will bring the produce in. So your master's son will have bread, and he will eat it, and Mephibosheth your master's son will always eat bread at my table.” Now Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants. bread (2x): standing for all kinds of food. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
2 Sam 9:11 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר צִיבָא֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְצַוֶּ֜ה אֲדֹנִ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶת־עַבְדּ֔וֹ כֵּ֖ן יַעֲשֶׂ֣ה עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וּמְפִיבֹ֗שֶׁת אֹכֵל֙ עַל־שֻׁלְחָנִ֔י כְּאַחַ֖ד מִבְּנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Ziba said to the king, “Everything that my lord the king commands his servant, your servant will do.” Then David added, “So Mephibosheth will eat at my table like one of the king's sons.”
2 Sam 9:12 ‫וְלִמְפִיבֹ֥שֶׁת בֵּן־קָטָ֖ן וּשְׁמ֣וֹ מִיכָ֑א וְכֹל֙ מוֹשַׁ֣ב בֵּית־צִיבָ֔א עֲבָדִ֖ים לִמְפִיבֹֽשֶׁת׃‬ And Mephibosheth had a small son whose name was Micah. And the whole household of Ziba were servants to Mephibosheth. Micah: AV= Micha here, but not in 1 Chr 9:15 for this spelling.

household ← seat / residence of the house.
2 Sam 9:13 ‫וּמְפִיבֹ֗שֶׁת יֹשֵׁב֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם כִּ֣י עַל־שֻׁלְחַ֥ן הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ תָּמִ֖יד ה֣וּא אֹכֵ֑ל וְה֥וּא פִסֵּ֖חַ שְׁתֵּ֥י רַגְלָֽיו׃ פ‬ And Mephibosheth lived in Jerusalem, because he always ate at the king's table. And he was lame in both his feet.
2 Sam 10:1 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֔ן וַיָּ֕מָת מֶ֖לֶךְ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֑וֹן וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ חָנ֥וּן בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו׃‬ And it came to pass after this, that the king of the sons of Ammon died, and Hanun his son reigned in his place. || 1 Chr 19:1.
2 Sam 10:2 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶעֱשֶׂה־חֶ֣סֶד ׀ עִם־חָנ֣וּן בֶּן־נָחָ֗שׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ עָשָׂ֨ה אָבִ֤יו עִמָּדִי֙ חֶ֔סֶד וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח דָּוִ֧ד לְנַחֲמ֛וֹ בְּיַד־עֲבָדָ֖יו אֶל־אָבִ֑יו וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ עַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד אֶ֖רֶץ בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן׃‬ And David said, “I will show kindness to Hanun the son of Nahash in the way his father showed me kindness.” And David sent word to comfort him through his servants about his father. And David's servants arrived in the land of the sons of Ammon. || 1 Chr 19:2.

show kindness to ... showed me kindness ← do kindness with ... did kindness with me.

through ← by the hand of.
2 Sam 10:3 ‫וַיֹּאמְרוּ֩ שָׂרֵ֨י בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֜וֹן אֶל־חָנ֣וּן אֲדֹֽנֵיהֶ֗ם הַֽמְכַבֵּ֨ד דָּוִ֤ד אֶת־אָבִ֙יךָ֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ כִּֽי־שָׁלַ֥ח לְךָ֖ מְנַֽחֲמִ֑ים הֲ֠לוֹא בַּעֲב֞וּר חֲק֤וֹר אֶת־הָעִיר֙ וּלְרַגְּלָ֣הּ וּלְהָפְכָ֔הּ שָׁלַ֥ח דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־עֲבָדָ֖יו אֵלֶֽיךָ׃‬ But the officials of the sons of Ammon said to Hanun their lord, “Does David honour your father, in your opinion? For he has sent consolers to you. Is it not to investigate the city and to spy on it, and to overthrow it, that David has sent his servants to you?” || 1 Chr 19:3.

opinion ← eyes.
2 Sam 10:4 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח חָנ֜וּן אֶת־עַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֗ד וַיְגַלַּח֙ אֶת־חֲצִ֣י זְקָנָ֔ם וַיִּכְרֹ֧ת אֶת־מַדְוֵיהֶ֛ם בַּחֵ֖צִי עַ֣ד שְׁתֽוֹתֵיהֶ֑ם וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֵֽם׃‬ And Hanun seized David's servants, and he shaved off half of their beards, and he cut their garments down the middle as far as their buttocks, and he sent them away. || 1 Chr 19:4.

down the middle ← in half.
2 Sam 10:5 ‫וַיַּגִּ֤דוּ לְדָוִד֙ וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח לִקְרָאתָ֔ם כִּֽי־הָי֥וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֖ים נִכְלָמִ֣ים מְאֹ֑ד וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ שְׁב֣וּ בִֽירֵח֔וֹ עַד־יְצַמַּ֥ח זְקַנְכֶ֖ם וְשַׁבְתֶּֽם׃‬ Then when David was told, he sent servants to meet them, for the men had been very much put to shame. And the king said, “Stay in Jericho until your beards grow, and then return.” || 1 Chr 19:5.

David was told ← they told David. Avoidance of the passive.

beards grow ← beard grows.
2 Sam 10:6 ‫וַיִּרְאוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן כִּ֥י נִבְאֲשׁ֖וּ בְּדָוִ֑ד וַיִּשְׁלְח֣וּ בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֡וֹן וַיִּשְׂכְּרוּ֩ אֶת־אֲרַ֨ם בֵּית־רְח֜וֹב וְאֶת־אֲרַ֣ם צוֹבָ֗א עֶשְׂרִ֥ים אֶ֙לֶף֙ רַגְלִ֔י וְאֶת־מֶ֤לֶךְ מַֽעֲכָה֙ אֶ֣לֶף אִ֔ישׁ וְאִ֣ישׁ ט֔וֹב שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֥ר אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ׃‬ Then when the sons of Ammon saw that they had become odious to David, the sons of Ammon contacted and hired the Aramaeans of Beth-Rehob, and the Aramaeans of Zoba – twenty thousand infantry – and one thousand men from King Maachah, and twelve thousand men from Ish-Tob. || 1 Chr 19:6, 1 Chr 19:7.

contacted ← sent.

Maachah: AV= Maacah here. See Gen 22:24.
2 Sam 10:7 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֖ע דָּוִ֑ד וַיִּשְׁלַח֙ אֶת־יוֹאָ֔ב וְאֵ֥ת כָּל־הַצָּבָ֖א הַגִּבֹּרִֽים׃‬ And when David heard of it, he sent Joab and the whole army of warriors. || 1 Chr 19:8.
2 Sam 10:8 ‫וַיֵּֽצְאוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וַיַּעַרְכ֥וּ מִלְחָמָ֖ה פֶּ֣תַח הַשָּׁ֑עַר וַאֲרַ֨ם צוֹבָ֤א וּרְחוֹב֙ וְאִֽישׁ־ט֣וֹב וּמַֽעֲכָ֔ה לְבַדָּ֖ם בַּשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬ And the sons of Ammon came out and drew up in battle order at the gate entrance, and the Aramaeans of Zoba and Rehob, and Ish-Tob and Maachah were in the field by themselves. || 1 Chr 19:9.
Maachah: AV= Maacah here. See Gen 22:24.
2 Sam 10:9 ‫וַיַּ֣רְא יוֹאָ֗ב כִּֽי־הָיְתָ֤ה אֵלָיו֙ פְּנֵ֣י הַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה מִפָּנִ֖ים וּמֵֽאָח֑וֹר וַיִּבְחַ֗ר מִכֹּל֙ בְּחוּרֵ֣י *בישראל **יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽיַּעֲרֹ֖ךְ לִקְרַ֥את אֲרָֽם׃‬ And when Joab saw that there was a battlefront against him, ahead of him and behind, he made a selection from all the young men {K: in Israel} [Q: of Israel], and he drew them up to confront the Aramaeans. || 1 Chr 19:10.

to confront ← towards, or to meet.
2 Sam 10:10 ‫וְאֵת֙ יֶ֣תֶר הָעָ֔ם נָתַ֕ן בְּיַ֖ד אַבְשַׁ֣י אָחִ֑יו וַֽיַּעֲרֹ֕ךְ לִקְרַ֖את בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן׃‬ And he placed the remainder of the people in the hand of Abishai his brother, who drew up to confront the sons of Ammon. || 1 Chr 19:11.

Abishai ← Abshai here, and throughout 1 Chr.

to confront ← towards, or to meet.
2 Sam 10:11 ‫וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אִם־תֶּחֱזַ֤ק אֲרָם֙ מִמֶּ֔נִּי וְהָיִ֥תָה לִּ֖י לִֽישׁוּעָ֑ה וְאִם־בְּנֵ֤י עַמּוֹן֙ יֶחֱזְק֣וּ מִמְּךָ֔ וְהָלַכְתִּ֖י לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַֽ לָֽךְ׃‬ And he said, “If the Aramaeans are too strong for me, then you will come to my rescue, and if the sons of Ammon are too strong for you, then I will go to rescue you. || 1 Chr 19:12.

come to my rescue ← be to me for salvation.
2 Sam 10:12 ‫חֲזַ֤ק וְנִתְחַזַּק֙ בְּעַד־עַמֵּ֔נוּ וּבְעַ֖ד עָרֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וַֽיהוָ֔ה יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה הַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינָֽיו׃‬ Be strong and let us be strengthened for our people and for the cities of our God, and may the Lord do what is right in his sight.” || 1 Chr 19:13.

right ← good.
2 Sam 10:13 ‫וַיִּגַּ֣שׁ יוֹאָ֗ב וְהָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֔וֹ לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה בַּֽאֲרָ֑ם וַיָּנֻ֖סוּ מִפָּנָֽיו׃‬ Then Joab and the people who were with him advanced to the battle against the Aramaeans, who fled from his presence. || 1 Chr 19:14.

advanced ← approached.

from his presence ← from before him.
2 Sam 10:14 ‫וּבְנֵ֨י עַמּ֤וֹן רָאוּ֙ כִּי־נָ֣ס אֲרָ֔ם וַיָּנֻ֙סוּ֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י אֲבִישַׁ֔י וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ הָעִ֑יר וַיָּ֣שָׁב יוֹאָ֗ב מֵעַל֙ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וַיָּבֹ֖א יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ Then when the sons of Ammon saw that the Aramaeans had fled, they fled from Abishai, and they went to the city, and Joab returned from the sons of Ammon, and he went to Jerusalem. || 1 Chr 19:15.

from ← from before.
2 Sam 10:15 ‫וַיַּ֣רְא אֲרָ֔ם כִּ֥י נִגַּ֖ף לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּאָסְפ֖וּ יָֽחַד׃‬ But when the Aramaeans saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they gathered themselves together. || 1 Chr 19:16.

by Israel ← before Israel.
2 Sam 10:16 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח הֲדַדְעֶ֗זֶר וַיֹּצֵ֤א אֶת־אֲרָם֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ מֵעֵ֣בֶר הַנָּהָ֔ר וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ חֵילָ֑ם וְשׁוֹבַ֛ךְ שַׂר־צְבָ֥א הֲדַדְעֶ֖זֶר לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And Hadadezer sent messengers, and they brought out the Aramaeans who were on the far side of the river. So their forces came, with Shobach the commander of Hadadezer's army at their head. || 1 Chr 19:16.

Hadadezer: AV= Hadarezer, as AV has everywhere except 2 Sam 8:3 - 2 Sam 8:12.

their forces: AV differs (to Helam), but the spelling is rather different from that of Helam in 2 Sam 10:17.
2 Sam 10:17 ‫וַיֻּגַּ֣ד לְדָוִ֗ד ס וַיֶּאֱסֹ֤ף אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיַּעֲבֹ֣ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וַיָּבֹ֖א חֵלָ֑אמָה וַיַּעַרְכ֤וּ אֲרָם֙ לִקְרַ֣את דָּוִ֔ד וַיִּלָּחֲמ֖וּ עִמּֽוֹ׃‬ And it was reported to David, and he gathered the whole of Israel, and he crossed the Jordan and went to Helam. And the Aramaeans drew up their forces to confront David, and they fought against him. || 1 Chr 19:17.

to confront: or towards or to meet.

fought against him ← fought with him. See Gen 14:8.
2 Sam 10:18 ‫וַיָּ֣נָס אֲרָם֮ מִפְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיַּהֲרֹ֨ג דָּוִ֜ד מֵאֲרָ֗ם שְׁבַ֤ע מֵאוֹת֙ רֶ֔כֶב וְאַרְבָּעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף פָּרָשִׁ֑ים וְאֵ֨ת שׁוֹבַ֧ךְ שַׂר־צְבָא֛וֹ הִכָּ֖ה וַיָּ֥מָת שָֽׁם׃‬ And the Aramaeans fled from Israel, and of the Aramaeans David killed seven hundred chariot crew, and forty thousand horsemen, and he struck Shobach the commander of his army, and he died there. || 1 Chr 19:18.

from ← from before.

On the differences in 1 Chr 19:18, see the note to 2 Sam 8:4, where there is a similar issue.
2 Sam 10:19 ‫וַיִּרְא֨וּ כָֽל־הַמְּלָכִ֜ים עַבְדֵ֣י הֲדַדְעֶ֗זֶר כִּ֤י נִגְּפוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּשְׁלִ֥מוּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וַיַּֽעַבְד֑וּם וַיִּֽרְא֣וּ אֲרָ֔ם לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ ע֖וֹד אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן׃ פ‬ And when all the kings – servants of Hadadezer – saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they made peace with Israel and served them, and the Aramaeans were afraid of coming to the rescue of the sons of Ammon any more. || 1 Chr 19:19.

by Israel ← before Israel.
2 Sam 11:1 ‫וַיְהִי֩ לִתְשׁוּבַ֨ת הַשָּׁנָ֜ה לְעֵ֣ת ׀ צֵ֣את הַמַּלְאֿכִ֗ים וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח דָּוִ֡ד אֶת־יוֹאָב֩ וְאֶת־עֲבָדָ֨יו עִמּ֜וֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וַיַּשְׁחִ֙תוּ֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וַיָּצֻ֖רוּ עַל־רַבָּ֑ה וְדָוִ֖ד יוֹשֵׁ֥ב בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ ס‬ And it came to pass in the new year, at the time when the messengers go out, that David sent out Joab and his servants with him and all Israel, and they ravaged the sons of Ammon, and they besieged Rabbah. But David remained in Jerusalem. messengers: AV differs (kings). The word has a supralinear marking suggesting that the aleph should be omitted, giving kings, which is the reading of very many manuscripts [BHS-CA], LXX, and 1 Chr 20:1.

|| 1 Chr 20:1.

in the new year ← at the turn of the year.
2 Sam 11:2 ‫וַיְהִ֣י ׀ לְעֵ֣ת הָעֶ֗רֶב וַיָּ֨קָם דָּוִ֜ד מֵעַ֤ל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ֙ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ֙ עַל־גַּ֣ג בֵּית־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיַּ֥רְא אִשָּׁ֛ה רֹחֶ֖צֶת מֵעַ֣ל הַגָּ֑ג וְהָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה טוֹבַ֥ת מַרְאֶ֖ה מְאֹֽד׃‬ And it came to pass one evening that David arose from his bed and walked around on the roof of the king's house, and from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very good-looking. one evening ← at the time of the evening.

from the roof ← from on the roof.
2 Sam 11:3 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח דָּוִ֔ד וַיִּדְרֹ֖שׁ לָֽאִשָּׁ֑ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הֲלוֹא־זֹאת֙ בַּת־שֶׁ֣בַע בַּת־אֱלִיעָ֔ם אֵ֖שֶׁת אוּרִיָּ֥ה הַחִתִּֽי׃‬ And David sent a servant and inquired about the woman. And the servant said, “Is this not Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?” Bathsheba: AV= Bath-sheba, hyphenated in Hebrew, but commonly written as one word in English.
2 Sam 11:4 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ דָּוִ֨ד מַלְאָכִ֜ים וַיִּקָּחֶ֗הָ וַתָּב֤וֹא אֵלָיו֙ וַיִּשְׁכַּ֣ב עִמָּ֔הּ וְהִ֥יא מִתְקַדֶּ֖שֶׁת מִטֻּמְאָתָ֑הּ וַתָּ֖שָׁב אֶל־בֵּיתָֽהּ׃‬ And David sent messengers, and he took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her. Then she purified herself from her uncleanness and returned to her house. purified ← sanctified.
2 Sam 11:5 ‫וַתַּ֖הַר הָֽאִשָּׁ֑ה וַתִּשְׁלַח֙ וַתַּגֵּ֣ד לְדָוִ֔ד וַתֹּ֖אמֶר הָרָ֥ה אָנֹֽכִי׃‬ And the woman conceived, and she sent word, and she told David and said, “I am pregnant.”
2 Sam 11:6 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח דָּוִד֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב שְׁלַ֣ח אֵלַ֔י אֶת־אֽוּרִיָּ֖ה הַחִתִּ֑י וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח יוֹאָ֛ב אֶת־אֽוּרִיָּ֖ה אֶל־דָּוִֽד׃‬ Then David sent word to Joab and said, “Send Uriah the Hittite to me.” So Joab sent Uriah to David.
2 Sam 11:7 ‫וַיָּבֹ֥א אוּרִיָּ֖ה אֵלָ֑יו וַיִּשְׁאַ֣ל דָּוִ֗ד לִשְׁל֤וֹם יוֹאָב֙ וְלִשְׁל֣וֹם הָעָ֔ם וְלִשְׁל֖וֹם הַמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬ And Uriah came to him, and David asked about Joab's welfare and the welfare of the people, and the course of the war. welfare ...welfare ... course ← peace (3x).
2 Sam 11:8 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ לְא֣וּרִיָּ֔ה רֵ֥ד לְבֵיתְךָ֖ וּרְחַ֣ץ רַגְלֶ֑יךָ וַיֵּצֵ֤א אֽוּרִיָּה֙ מִבֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַתֵּצֵ֥א אַחֲרָ֖יו מַשְׂאַ֥ת הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And David said to Uriah, “Go down to your house and wash your feet.” So Uriah went out of the king's house, and a meal from the king went out after him.
2 Sam 11:9 ‫וַיִּשְׁכַּ֣ב אוּרִיָּ֗ה פֶּ֚תַח בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֵ֖ת כָּל־עַבְדֵ֣י אֲדֹנָ֑יו וְלֹ֥א יָרַ֖ד אֶל־בֵּיתֽוֹ׃‬ But Uriah lay at the entrance to the king's house with all his master's servants, and he did not go down to his house.
2 Sam 11:10 ‫וַיַּגִּ֤דוּ לְדָוִד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹֽא־יָרַ֥ד אוּרִיָּ֖ה אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־אוּרִיָּ֗ה הֲל֤וֹא מִדֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ אַתָּ֣ה בָ֔א מַדּ֖וּעַ לֹֽא־יָרַ֥דְתָּ אֶל־בֵּיתֶֽךָ׃‬ And they reported it to David as follows: “Uriah has not gone down to his house.” Then David said to Uriah, “Have you not come from a journey? Why have you not gone down to your house?” as follows ← to say, or more loosely, saying.
2 Sam 11:11 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אוּרִיָּ֜ה אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד הָ֠אָרוֹן וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל וִֽיהוּדָ֜ה יֹשְׁבִ֣ים בַּסֻּכּ֗וֹת וַאדֹנִ֨י יוֹאָ֜ב וְעַבְדֵ֤י אֲדֹנִ֨י עַל־פְּנֵ֤י הַשָּׂדֶה֙ חֹנִ֔ים וַאֲנִ֞י אָב֧וֹא אֶל־בֵּיתִ֛י לֶאֱכֹ֥ל וְלִשְׁתּ֖וֹת וְלִשְׁכַּ֣ב עִם־אִשְׁתִּ֑י חַיֶּ֙ךָ֙ וְחֵ֣י נַפְשֶׁ֔ךָ אִֽם־אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃‬ And Uriah said to David, “The ark and Israel and Judah remain in booths, and my master Joab and my master's servants are encamped in the open field, so should I go to my house and eat and drink and lie with my wife? Not on your life or on the life of your being will I do this thing.” open field ← surface of the field.

being ← soul.
2 Sam 11:12 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־אוּרִיָּ֗ה שֵׁ֥ב בָּזֶ֛ה גַּם־הַיּ֖וֹם וּמָחָ֣ר אֲשַׁלְּחֶ֑ךָּ וַיֵּ֨שֶׁב אוּרִיָּ֧ה בִירוּשָׁלִַ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וּמִֽמָּחֳרָֽת׃‬ And David said to Uriah, “Stay here to-day as well, and tomorrow I will send you off.” So Uriah stayed in Jerusalem on that day and on the next day.
2 Sam 11:13 ‫וַיִּקְרָא־ל֣וֹ דָוִ֗ד וַיֹּ֧אכַל לְפָנָ֛יו וַיֵּ֖שְׁתְּ וַֽיְשַׁכְּרֵ֑הוּ וַיֵּצֵ֣א בָעֶ֗רֶב לִשְׁכַּ֤ב בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ֙ עִם־עַבְדֵ֣י אֲדֹנָ֔יו וְאֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ לֹ֥א יָרָֽד׃‬ Then David called him, and he ate in his presence, and he drank, and he made him drunk, but he went out in the evening to lie on his couch with his master's servants, and he did not go down to his house.
2 Sam 11:14 ‫וַיְהִ֣י בַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיִּכְתֹּ֥ב דָּוִ֛ד סֵ֖פֶר אֶל־יוֹאָ֑ב וַיִּשְׁלַ֖ח בְּיַ֥ד אוּרִיָּֽה׃‬ And it came to pass in the morning that David wrote a letter to Joab, and he sent it by the hand of Uriah.
2 Sam 11:15 ‫וַיִּכְתֹּ֥ב בַּסֵּ֖פֶר לֵאמֹ֑ר הָב֣וּ אֶת־אֽוּרִיָּ֗ה אֶל־מוּל֙ פְּנֵ֤י הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ הַֽחֲזָקָ֔ה וְשַׁבְתֶּ֥ם מֵאַחֲרָ֖יו וְנִכָּ֥ה וָמֵֽת׃ ס‬ And he wrote in the letter as follows: “Place Uriah in the front line of the fiercest battle, and withdraw behind him so that he is struck and dies.” as follows ← to say, or more loosely, saying.

in the front line ← opposite the face.

fiercest ← strongest.

behind him ← from behind him.
2 Sam 11:16 ‫וַיְהִ֕י בִּשְׁמ֥וֹר יוֹאָ֖ב אֶל־הָעִ֑יר וַיִּתֵּן֙ אֶת־א֣וּרִיָּ֔ה אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָדַ֔ע כִּ֥י אַנְשֵׁי־חַ֖יִל שָֽׁם׃‬ And it came to pass, when Joab was keeping watch over the city, that he put Uriah in the place where he knew that the most valiant warriors were. valiant warriors ← men of valour.
2 Sam 11:17 ‫וַיֵּ֨צְא֜וּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י הָעִיר֙ וַיִּלָּחֲמ֣וּ אֶת־יוֹאָ֔ב וַיִּפֹּ֥ל מִן־הָעָ֖ם מֵעַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֑ד וַיָּ֕מָת גַּ֖ם אוּרִיָּ֥ה הַחִתִּֽי׃‬ And the men of the city came out and fought Joab, and some of the company of David's servants fell, and Uriah the Hittite also died. company ← people.
2 Sam 11:18 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֖ח יוֹאָ֑ב וַיַּגֵּ֣ד לְדָוִ֔ד אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬ And Joab sent word and reported all the events of the war to David.
2 Sam 11:19 ‫וַיְצַ֥ו אֶת־הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ לֵאמֹ֑ר כְּכַלּוֹתְךָ֗ אֵ֛ת כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה לְדַבֵּ֥ר אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And he commanded the messenger as follows: “When you have finished telling the king all the events of the war, as follows ← to say, or more loosely, saying.
2 Sam 11:20 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה אִֽם־תַּעֲלֶה֙ חֲמַ֣ת הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְאָמַ֣ר לְךָ֔ מַדּ֛וּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּ֥ם אֶל־הָעִ֖יר לְהִלָּחֵ֑ם הֲל֣וֹא יְדַעְתֶּ֔ם אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יֹר֖וּ מֵעַ֥ל הַחוֹמָֽה׃‬ and if it should come to pass that the king's anger is aroused, and he says to you, ‘Why did you approach the city to fight? Did you not know that they would shoot from the wall? from ← from on.
2 Sam 11:21 ‫מִֽי־הִכָּ֞ה אֶת־אֲבִימֶ֣לֶךְ בֶּן־יְרֻבֶּ֗שֶׁת הֲלֽוֹא־אִשָּׁ֡ה הִשְׁלִ֣יכָה עָלָיו֩ פֶּ֨לַח רֶ֜כֶב מֵעַ֤ל הַֽחוֹמָה֙ וַיָּ֣מָת בְּתֵבֵ֔ץ לָ֥מָּה נִגַּשְׁתֶּ֖ם אֶל־הַֽחוֹמָ֑ה וְאָ֣מַרְתָּ֔ גַּ֗ם עַבְדְּךָ֛ אוּרִיָּ֥ה הַחִתִּ֖י מֵֽת׃‬ Who struck Abimelech the son of Jerubbesheth? Didn't a woman drop an upper millstone on him from the wall, and did he not die in Thebez? Why did you approach the wall?’ – then you will say, ‘Your servant Uriah the Hittite is also dead.’ ” from ← from on.

Thebez: see Judg 9:50.
2 Sam 11:22 ‫וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ הַמַּלְאָ֑ךְ וַיָּבֹא֙ וַיַּגֵּ֣ד לְדָוִ֔ד אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר שְׁלָח֖וֹ יוֹאָֽב׃‬ And the messenger departed and arrived and told David everything that Joab had sent him for.
2 Sam 11:23 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמַּלְאָךְ֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד כִּֽי־גָבְר֤וּ עָלֵ֙ינוּ֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וַיֵּצְא֥וּ אֵלֵ֖ינוּ הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה וַנִּהְיֶ֥ה עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם עַד־פֶּ֥תַח הַשָּֽׁעַר׃‬ And the messenger said to David, “The men prevailed over us and came out against us in the field when we were up against them at the gate entrance. said to David ← said to David that.
2 Sam 11:24 ‫*ויראו **וַיֹּר֨וּ *המוראים **הַמּוֹרִ֤ים אֶל־עֲבָדֶ֙ךָ֙ מֵעַ֣ל הַחוֹמָ֔ה וַיָּמ֖וּתוּ מֵעַבְדֵ֣י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְגַ֗ם עַבְדְּךָ֛ אוּרִיָּ֥ה הַחִתִּ֖י מֵֽת׃ ס‬ And the archers shot at your servant from the wall, and some of the king's servants died, and your servant Uriah the Hittite is also dead.” the archers shot: the ketiv could be regarded as a variant spelling of the qeré in both the archers and shot. Unexpected alephs also in 2 Sam 12:1 (רָאשׁ), 2 Sam 12:17 (בָּרָא) and perhaps 2 Sam 11:27 (וַיַּאַסְפָהּ).

from ← from on.
2 Sam 11:25 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־הַמַּלְאָ֗ךְ כֹּֽה־תֹאמַ֤ר אֶל־יוֹאָב֙ אַל־יֵרַ֤ע בְּעֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה כִּֽי־כָזֹ֥ה וְכָזֶ֖ה תֹּאכַ֣ל הֶחָ֑רֶב הַחֲזֵ֨ק מִלְחַמְתְּךָ֧ אֶל־הָעִ֛יר וְהָרְסָ֖הּ וְחַזְּקֵֽהוּ׃‬ Then David said to the messenger, “This is what you will say to Joab: ‘Don't let this matter be hurtful in your eyes, for the sword consumes this way and that way. Intensify your battle against the city and demolish it.’ And bid him strength.” this is whatthus.
2 Sam 11:26 ‫וַתִּשְׁמַע֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת אֽוּרִיָּ֔ה כִּי־מֵ֖ת אוּרִיָּ֣ה אִישָׁ֑הּ וַתִּסְפֹּ֖ד עַל־בַּעְלָֽהּ׃‬ And Uriah's wife heard that Uriah her husband had died, and she lamented for her husband.
2 Sam 11:27 ‫וַיַּעֲבֹ֣ר הָאֵ֗בֶל וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח דָּוִ֜ד וַיַּאַסְפָ֤הּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ֙ וַתְּהִי־ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֔ה וַתֵּ֥לֶד ל֖וֹ בֵּ֑ן וַיֵּ֧רַע הַדָּבָ֛ר אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה דָוִ֖ד בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬ And when the period of mourning had passed, David sent for her, and he added her to his household, and she became his wife, and she bore him a son. But the thing that David had done was evil in the Lord's sight. added: although we translate as if from יָסַף, the verb אָסַף also admits the sense of to receive to oneself, whence add. See also 2 Sam 12:8.
2 Sam 12:1 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֧ח יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־נָתָ֖ן אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד וַיָּבֹ֣א אֵלָ֗יו וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ שְׁנֵ֣י אֲנָשִׁ֗ים הָיוּ֙ בְּעִ֣יר אֶחָ֔ת אֶחָ֥ד עָשִׁ֖יר וְאֶחָ֥ד רָֽאשׁ׃‬ Then the Lord sent Nathan to David, and he came to him, and he said to him, “There were two men in a certain city, one rich and one poor. a certain ← one.
2 Sam 12:2 ‫לְעָשִׁ֗יר הָיָ֛ה צֹ֥אן וּבָקָ֖ר הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד׃‬ The rich man had very many sheep and cattle,
2 Sam 12:3 ‫וְלָרָ֣שׁ אֵֽין־כֹּ֗ל כִּי֩ אִם־כִּבְשָׂ֨ה אַחַ֤ת קְטַנָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָנָ֔ה וַיְחַיֶּ֕הָ וַתִּגְדַּ֥ל עִמּ֛וֹ וְעִם־בָּנָ֖יו יַחְדָּ֑ו מִפִּתּ֨וֹ תֹאכַ֜ל וּמִכֹּס֤וֹ תִשְׁתֶּה֙ וּבְחֵיק֣וֹ תִשְׁכָּ֔ב וַתְּהִי־ל֖וֹ כְּבַֽת׃‬ but the poor man didn't have anything except one small lamb which he had bought and reared, and it grew up together with him and with his sons. It ate from his plate and drank from his cup, and it lay in his bosom, and it became like a daughter to him. anything ← everything.

reared ← kept it alive.

plate ← morsel.
2 Sam 12:4 ‫וַיָּ֣בֹא הֵלֶךְ֮ לְאִ֣ישׁ הֶֽעָשִׁיר֒ וַיַּחְמֹ֗ל לָקַ֤חַת מִצֹּאנוֹ֙ וּמִבְּקָר֔וֹ לַעֲשׂ֕וֹת לָאֹרֵ֖חַ הַבָּא־ל֑וֹ וַיִּקַּ֗ח אֶת־כִּבְשַׂת֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָרָ֔אשׁ וַֽיַּעֲשֶׂ֔הָ לָאִ֖ישׁ הַבָּ֥א אֵלָֽיו׃‬ And a traveller came to the rich man, but he spared taking anything from his own flock and herd, and preparing it for the guest who had come to him, and he took the poor man's lamb and prepared it for the man who had come to him.” taking ... and preparing: gerundial use of the infinitives.
2 Sam 12:5 ‫וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֥ף דָּוִ֛ד בָּאִ֖ישׁ מְאֹ֑ד וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־נָתָ֔ן חַי־יְהוָ֕ה כִּ֣י בֶן־מָ֔וֶת הָאִ֖ישׁ הָעֹשֶׂ֥ה זֹֽאת׃‬ And David's anger was greatly kindled against the man, and he said to Nathan, “As the Lord lives, the man who did this is deserving of death. deserving of death ← a son of death.
2 Sam 12:6 ‫וְאֶת־הַכִּבְשָׂ֖ה יְשַׁלֵּ֣ם אַרְבַּעְתָּ֑יִם עֵ֗קֶב אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה וְעַ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־חָמָֽל׃‬ And he will repay the lamb fourfold, since he did this thing and because he did not show pity.”
2 Sam 12:7 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר נָתָ֛ן אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד אַתָּ֣ה הָאִ֑ישׁ כֹּה־אָמַ֨ר יְהוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָנֹכִ֞י מְשַׁחְתִּ֤יךָֽ לְמֶ֙לֶךְ֙ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָנֹכִ֥י הִצַּלְתִּ֖יךָ מִיַּ֥ד שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ Then Nathan said to David, “You are the man. This is what the Lord God of Israel says: ‘I anointed you king over Israel, and I delivered you from Saul's hand. this is whatthus.
2 Sam 12:8 ‫וָאֶתְּנָ֨ה לְךָ֜ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית אֲדֹנֶ֗יךָ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁ֤י אֲדֹנֶ֙יךָ֙ בְּחֵיקֶ֔ךָ וָאֶתְּנָ֣ה לְךָ֔ אֶת־בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִֽיהוּדָ֑ה וְאִ֨ם־מְעָ֔ט וְאֹסִ֥פָה לְּךָ֖ כָּהֵ֥נָּה וְכָהֵֽנָּה׃‬ And I gave your lord's house and your lord's wives into your bosom, and I gave you the house of Israel and Judah. And if you had little of anything, I increased it for you left, right and centre. gave ← gave you.

increased ← gathered, but see 2 Sam 11:7 (added).

left, right and centreas here and as there.
2 Sam 12:9 ‫מַדּ֜וּעַ בָּזִ֣יתָ ׀ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת הָרַע֮ *בעינו **בְּעֵינַי֒ אֵ֣ת אוּרִיָּ֤ה הַֽחִתִּי֙ הִכִּ֣יתָ בַחֶ֔רֶב וְאֶ֨ת־אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ לָקַ֥חְתָּ לְּךָ֖ לְאִשָּׁ֑ה וְאֹת֣וֹ הָרַ֔גְתָּ בְּחֶ֖רֶב בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן׃‬ Why have you despised the word of the Lord in doing evil in {K: his} [Q: my] sight? You have struck Uriah the Hittite down with the sword, and you have taken his wife to be your wife. And you killed him by the sword of the sons of Ammon. in doing: gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 12:10 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה לֹא־תָס֥וּר חֶ֛רֶב מִבֵּיתְךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם עֵ֚קֶב כִּ֣י בְזִתָ֔נִי וַתִּקַּ֗ח אֶת־אֵ֙שֶׁת֙ אוּרִיָּ֣ה הַחִתִּ֔י לִהְי֥וֹת לְךָ֖ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃ ס‬ So now, the sword will not depart from your house age-abidingly, because you have despised me and have taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your wife.’
2 Sam 12:11 ‫כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה הִנְנִי֩ מֵקִ֨ים עָלֶ֤יךָ רָעָה֙ מִבֵּיתֶ֔ךָ וְלָקַחְתִּ֤י אֶת־נָשֶׁ֙יךָ֙ לְעֵינֶ֔יךָ וְנָתַתִּ֖י לְרֵעֶ֑יךָ וְשָׁכַב֙ עִם־נָשֶׁ֔יךָ לְעֵינֵ֖י הַשֶּׁ֥מֶשׁ הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ This is what the Lord says: ‘I am about to stir up evil against you from your own house, and I will take your wives before your eyes, and I will give them to your neighbour, and he will lie with your wives in the sight of this sun. this is whatthus.

I am about to ← behold me.

stir up ← set up.

neighbour ← neighbours, but followed by a singular verb.
2 Sam 12:12 ‫כִּ֥י אַתָּ֖ה עָשִׂ֣יתָ בַסָּ֑תֶר וַאֲנִ֗י אֶעֱשֶׂה֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה נֶ֥גֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְנֶ֥גֶד הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃ ס‬ For you acted in secret, but I will do this thing in the presence of all Israel and in the presence of the sun.’ ”
2 Sam 12:13 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־נָתָ֔ן חָטָ֖אתִי לַֽיהוָ֑ה ס וַיֹּ֨אמֶר נָתָ֜ן אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד גַּם־יְהוָ֛ה הֶעֱבִ֥יר חַטָּאתְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תָמֽוּת׃‬ Then David said to Nathan, “I have sinned against the Lord.” And Nathan said to David, “However, the Lord has transferred your sin; you will not die for it, however ← also, but the word can be adversative; compare Eccl 6:7.
2 Sam 12:14 ‫אֶ֗פֶס כִּֽי־נִאֵ֤ץ נִאַ֙צְתָּ֙ אֶת־אֹיְבֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה בַּדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה גַּ֗ם הַבֵּ֛ן הַיִּלּ֥וֹד לְךָ֖ מ֥וֹת יָמֽוּת׃‬ except that because you have {P: thoroughly mocked the Lord} [M: given the Lord's enemies an easy occasion to mock him] in this matter, the son born to you will certainly die.” An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB] App. 33. P= נאצת את־יהוה. AV differs.

thoroughly mocked (primitive text) / given ... an easy occasion to mock (Masoretic Text) ... will certainly die: infinitives absolute.

the son ← also the son, here ↴
2 Sam 12:15 ‫וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ נָתָ֖ן אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ וַיִּגֹּ֣ף יְהוָ֗ה אֶת־הַיֶּ֜לֶד אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָלְדָ֧ה אֵֽשֶׁת־אוּרִיָּ֛ה לְדָוִ֖ד וַיֵּאָנַֽשׁ׃‬ Then Nathan went to his house, and the Lord struck the child whom Uriah's wife had borne to David, and he became ill. ↳ a correlative to because.
2 Sam 12:16 ‫וַיְבַקֵּ֥שׁ דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּעַ֣ד הַנָּ֑עַר וַיָּ֤צָם דָּוִד֙ צ֔וֹם וּבָ֥א וְלָ֖ן וְשָׁכַ֥ב אָֽרְצָה׃‬ And David pleaded with God about the boy, and David fasted, then he went indoors and spent the night lying on the ground. fasted ← fasted a fast.

went indoors ← came / went in.

lying on the ground ← and he lay onto the ground. Pregnant use of the ↴
2 Sam 12:17 ‫וַיָּקֻ֜מוּ זִקְנֵ֤י בֵיתוֹ֙ עָלָ֔יו לַהֲקִימ֖וֹ מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְלֹ֣א אָבָ֔ה וְלֹֽא־בָרָ֥א אִתָּ֖ם לָֽחֶם׃‬ And the elders of his house got up and went to him to lift him up from the ground, but he was not willing, and he did not eat bread with them. ↳ locative of motion towards.

eat: with בָּרָא standing for בָּרָה. Otherwise, it means create.

bread: standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
2 Sam 12:18 ‫וַיְהִ֛י בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י וַיָּ֣מָת הַיָּ֑לֶד וַיִּֽרְאוּ֩ עַבְדֵ֨י דָוִ֜ד לְהַגִּ֥יד ל֣וֹ ׀ כִּי־מֵ֣ת הַיֶּ֗לֶד כִּ֤י אָֽמְרוּ֙ הִנֵּה֩ בִהְי֨וֹת הַיֶּ֜לֶד חַ֗י דִּבַּ֤רְנוּ אֵלָיו֙ וְלֹא־שָׁמַ֣ע בְּקוֹלֵ֔נוּ וְאֵ֨יךְ נֹאמַ֥ר אֵלָ֛יו מֵ֥ת הַיֶּ֖לֶד וְעָשָׂ֥ה רָעָֽה׃‬ Then it came to pass on the seventh day that the child died, but David's servants were afraid to tell him that the child had died, because they said, “Look, when the child was alive, we spoke to him, but he did not heed us, so how can we say to him, ‘The child has died’? He would then do something wrong.” heed us ← hear our voice.
2 Sam 12:19 ‫וַיַּ֣רְא דָּוִ֗ד כִּ֤י עֲבָדָיו֙ מִֽתְלַחֲשִׁ֔ים וַיָּ֥בֶן דָּוִ֖ד כִּ֣י מֵ֣ת הַיָּ֑לֶד וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֧ד אֶל־עֲבָדָ֛יו הֲמֵ֥ת הַיֶּ֖לֶד וַיֹּ֥אמְרוּ מֵֽת׃‬ But David saw that his servants were whispering to each other, and David realized that the child had died, and David asked his servants, “Has the child died?” And they said, “He has died.” realized ← understood.

asked ← said to.
2 Sam 12:20 ‫וַיָּקָם֩ דָּוִ֨ד מֵהָאָ֜רֶץ וַיִּרְחַ֣ץ וַיָּ֗סֶךְ וַיְחַלֵּף֙ *שמלתו **שִׂמְלֹתָ֔יו וַיָּבֹ֥א בֵית־יְהוָ֖ה וַיִּשְׁתָּ֑חוּ וַיָּבֹא֙ אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ וַיִּשְׁאַ֕ל וַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ ל֛וֹ לֶ֖חֶם וַיֹּאכַֽל׃‬ Then David arose from the ground and washed and anointed himself, and he changed his {K: robe} [Q: clothes], and he went to the house of the Lord and worshipped. Then he went to his house and asked for bread, and they served it to him, and he ate. asked for bread, and they served itasked, and they served bread.
2 Sam 12:21 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ עֲבָדָיו֙ אֵלָ֔יו מָֽה־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֑יתָה בַּעֲב֞וּר הַיֶּ֤לֶד חַי֙ צַ֣מְתָּ וַתֵּ֔בְךְּ וְכַֽאֲשֶׁר֙ מֵ֣ת הַיֶּ֔לֶד קַ֖מְתָּ וַתֹּ֥אכַל לָֽחֶם׃‬ And his servants said to him, “What is this thing that you have done? While the child was alive, you fasted and wept, but when the child died, you got up and ate bread.” bread: standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
2 Sam 12:22 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר בְּעוֹד֙ הַיֶּ֣לֶד חַ֔י צַ֖מְתִּי וָֽאֶבְכֶּ֑ה כִּ֤י אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ מִ֣י יוֹדֵ֔עַ *יחנני **וְחַנַּ֥נִי יְהוָ֖ה וְחַ֥י הַיָּֽלֶד׃‬ And he said, “When the child was still alive, I fasted and wept, for I said, ‘Who knows whether the Lord will have compassion on me, and the child will live?’ will have compassion on me: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.
2 Sam 12:23 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה ׀ מֵ֗ת לָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ אֲנִ֣י צָ֔ם הַאוּכַ֥ל לַהֲשִׁיב֖וֹ ע֑וֹד אֲנִי֙ הֹלֵ֣ךְ אֵלָ֔יו וְה֖וּא לֹֽא־יָשׁ֥וּב אֵלָֽי׃‬ But now that he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I will go to him, but he will not return to me.”
2 Sam 12:24 ‫וַיְנַחֵ֣ם דָּוִ֗ד אֵ֚ת בַּת־שֶׁ֣בַע אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֥א אֵלֶ֖יהָ וַיִּשְׁכַּ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֗ן *ויקרא **וַתִּקְרָ֤א אֶת־שְׁמוֹ֙ שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה וַיהוָ֖ה אֲהֵבֽוֹ׃‬ And David comforted Bathsheba his wife, and he went to her and lay with her, and she bore a son, {K: and he called} [Q: and she called] him Solomon. And the Lord loved him. Solomon ← Shelomoh, but we retain the AV / traditional English name, as in 2 Sam 5:14. The Modern Hebrew pronunciation is Shlomo(h).
2 Sam 12:25 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח בְּיַד֙ נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֔יא וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ יְדִ֣ידְיָ֑הּ בַּעֲב֖וּר יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬ And David sent word through the intermediacy of Nathan the prophet, and he called him Jedidiah, because of the Lord. through the intermediacy of ← by the hand of.

he called him: i.e. the Lord called David's son.
2 Sam 12:26 ‫וַיִּלָּ֣חֶם יוֹאָ֔ב בְּרַבַּ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֑וֹן וַיִּלְכֹּ֖ד אֶת־עִ֥יר הַמְּלוּכָֽה׃‬ And Joab fought in Rabbah of the sons of Ammon, and he captured the royal city. || 1 Chr 20:1.

the royal city ← the city of the kingship.
2 Sam 12:27 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח יוֹאָ֛ב מַלְאָכִ֖ים אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ נִלְחַ֣מְתִּי בְרַבָּ֔ה גַּם־לָכַ֖דְתִּי אֶת־עִ֥יר הַמָּֽיִם׃‬ And Joab sent messengers to David, and he said, “I have fought in Rabbah, and moreover I have captured the City of Water. the City of Water: [CB] interprets as the lower waters or town.
2 Sam 12:28 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה אֱסֹף֙ אֶת־יֶ֣תֶר הָעָ֔ם וַחֲנֵ֥ה עַל־הָעִ֖יר וְלָכְדָ֑הּ פֶּן־אֶלְכֹּ֤ד אֲנִי֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר וְנִקְרָ֥א שְׁמִ֖י עָלֶֽיהָ׃‬ So now, gather the rest of the people and encamp against the city and capture it, so that it is not me who captures the city and it becomes called after my name.” me who captures: or, if the reader prefers, I (who) capture.

it becomes called after my name ← my name is called on it. A similar ↴
2 Sam 12:29 ‫וַיֶּאֱסֹ֥ף דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ רַבָּ֑תָה וַיִּלָּ֥חֶם בָּ֖הּ וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ׃‬ And David gathered all the people, and he went to Rabbah, and he fought against it, and he captured it. ↳ construction is used in the Greek of James 2:7.
2 Sam 12:30 ‫וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־עֲטֶֽרֶת־מַלְכָּם֩ מֵעַ֨ל רֹאשׁ֜וֹ וּמִשְׁקָלָ֨הּ כִּכַּ֤ר זָהָב֙ וְאֶ֣בֶן יְקָרָ֔ה וַתְּהִ֖י עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ דָּוִ֑ד וּשְׁלַ֥ל הָעִ֛יר הוֹצִ֖יא הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד׃‬ And he took their king's crown from his head, and its weight was a talent of gold with a precious gemstone, and it was placed on David's head. He also brought out a great deal of the city's spoil, || 1 Chr 20:2.

talent: see Ex 25:39.
2 Sam 12:31 ‫וְאֶת־הָעָ֨ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֜הּ הוֹצִ֗יא וַיָּ֣שֶׂם בַּ֠מְּגֵרָה וּבַחֲרִצֵ֨י הַבַּרְזֶ֜ל וּֽבְמַגְזְרֹ֣ת הַבַּרְזֶ֗ל וְהֶעֱבִ֤יר אוֹתָם֙ *במלכן **בַּמַּלְבֵּ֔ן וְכֵ֣ן יַעֲשֶׂ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל עָרֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֑וֹן וַיָּ֧שָׁב דָּוִ֛ד וְכָל־הָעָ֖ם יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ פ‬ and he brought out the people who were in it, and he assigned them to work with the saw, and with iron threshing boards and with iron axes, and he moved them to {Q: a brickworks} [K: Malcan]. And he did likewise to all the cities of the sons of Ammon. Then David and all the people returned to Jerusalem. || 1 Chr 20:3.
2 Sam 13:1 ‫וַיְהִ֣י אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן וּלְאַבְשָׁל֧וֹם בֶּן־דָּוִ֛ד אָח֥וֹת יָפָ֖ה וּשְׁמָ֣הּ תָּמָ֑ר וַיֶּאֱהָבֶ֖הָ אַמְנ֥וֹן בֶּן־דָּוִֽד׃‬ And it came to pass after that, that Absalom, David's son, had a beautiful sister, whose name was Tamar, and Amnon, David's son, loved her. || 1 Chr 3:9.
2 Sam 13:2 ‫וַיֵּ֨צֶר לְאַמְנ֜וֹן לְהִתְחַלּ֗וֹת בַּֽעֲבוּר֙ תָּמָ֣ר אֲחֹת֔וֹ כִּ֥י בְתוּלָ֖ה הִ֑יא וַיִּפָּלֵא֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י אַמְנ֔וֹן לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת לָ֖הּ מְאֽוּמָה׃‬ And Amnon was stressed to the point of making himself ill on account of Tamar his sister, for she was a virgin, but it seemed difficult in Amnon's sight to do anything with her. but it seemed difficult: perhaps translate and it would have been wonderful, but against this is that מְאוּמָה would be strained in the sense of something.

with her ← to / for her.
2 Sam 13:3 ‫וּלְאַמְנ֣וֹן רֵ֗עַ וּשְׁמוֹ֙ יֽוֹנָדָ֔ב בֶּן־שִׁמְעָ֖ה אֲחִ֣י דָוִ֑ד וְי֣וֹנָדָ֔ב אִ֥ישׁ חָכָ֖ם מְאֹֽד׃‬ But Amnon had a friend whose name was Jonadab the son of Shimah, David's brother, and Jonadab was a very clever man. Shimah ← Shim'ah. AV= Shimeah, not recognizing that the first syllable is closed. See Gen 31:21.

clever ← wise, usually in a positive sense, but not so here; crafty.
2 Sam 13:4 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ מַדּ֣וּעַ אַ֠תָּה כָּ֣כָה דַּ֤ל בֶּן־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ בַּבֹּ֣קֶר בַּבֹּ֔קֶר הֲל֖וֹא תַּגִּ֣יד לִ֑י וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ אַמְנ֔וֹן אֶת־תָּמָ֗ר אֲח֛וֹת אַבְשָׁלֹ֥ם אָחִ֖י אֲנִ֥י אֹהֵֽב׃‬ And he said to him, “Why are you so dejected, O son of the king, every morning? Will you not tell me?” And Amnon said to him, “I love Tamar, my brother Absalom's sister.” every morning ← in the morning, in the morning.
2 Sam 13:5 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ יְה֣וֹנָדָ֔ב שְׁכַ֥ב עַל־מִשְׁכָּבְךָ֖ וְהִתְחָ֑ל וּבָ֧א אָבִ֣יךָ לִרְאוֹתֶ֗ךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֡יו תָּ֣בֹא נָא֩ תָמָ֨ר אֲחוֹתִ֜י וְתַבְרֵ֣נִי לֶ֗חֶם וְעָשְׂתָ֤ה לְעֵינַי֙ אֶת־הַבִּרְיָ֔ה לְמַ֙עַן֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶרְאֶ֔ה וְאָכַלְתִּ֖י מִיָּדָֽהּ׃‬ Then Jehonadab said to him, “Lie on your bed and pretend to be ill, and when your father comes to see you, say to him, ‘Could Tamar my sister come and give me bread to eat and prepare the food in my sight, so that I may see it and eat from her hand.’ ” Jehonadab: a fuller form of Jonadab.

pretend to be ill: hithpael for feigning.

couldplease may.
2 Sam 13:6 ‫וַיִּשְׁכַּ֥ב אַמְנ֖וֹן וַיִּתְחָ֑ל וַיָּבֹ֨א הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לִרְאֹת֗וֹ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אַמְנ֤וֹן אֶל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ תָּֽבוֹא־נָ֞א תָּמָ֣ר אֲחֹתִ֗י וּתְלַבֵּ֤ב לְעֵינַי֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י לְבִב֔וֹת וְאֶבְרֶ֖ה מִיָּדָֽהּ׃‬ So Amnon lay down and pretended to be ill, and the king came to see him, and Amnon said to the king, “Could Tamar my sister come in and make two pancakes before my eyes, and I will eat from her hand.” pretended to be ill: hithpael for feigning.

couldplease may.
2 Sam 13:7 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח דָּוִ֛ד אֶל־תָּמָ֖ר הַבַּ֣יְתָה לֵאמֹ֑ר לְכִ֣י נָ֗א בֵּ֚ית אַמְנ֣וֹן אָחִ֔יךְ וַעֲשִׂי־ל֖וֹ הַבִּרְיָֽה׃‬ So David sent servants to Tamar's home who said, “Please go to the home of Amnon your brother and make him a meal.” a meal ← food.
2 Sam 13:8 ‫וַתֵּ֣לֶךְ תָּמָ֗ר בֵּ֛ית אַמְנ֥וֹן אָחִ֖יהָ וְה֣וּא שֹׁכֵ֑ב וַתִּקַּ֨ח אֶת־הַבָּצֵ֤ק *ותלוש **וַתָּ֙לָשׁ֙ וַתְּלַבֵּ֣ב לְעֵינָ֔יו וַתְּבַשֵּׁ֖ל אֶת־הַלְּבִבֽוֹת׃‬ So Tamar went to the home of Amnon her brother, and he was laid up, and she took the dough and kneaded it, and she made pancakes in his presence and cooked the pancakes. kneaded: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

laid up ← lying.

cooked: there is a separate ↴
2 Sam 13:9 ‫וַתִּקַּ֤ח אֶת־הַמַּשְׂרֵת֙ וַתִּצֹ֣ק לְפָנָ֔יו וַיְמָאֵ֖ן לֶאֱכ֑וֹל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אַמְנ֗וֹן הוֹצִ֤יאוּ כָל־אִישׁ֙ מֵֽעָלַ֔י וַיֵּצְא֥וּ כָל־אִ֖ישׁ מֵעָלָֽיו׃‬ And she took the frying pan, and she poured them out in his presence, but he refused to eat, and Amnon said, “Send every man away from me.” So every man went out away from him. ↳ Hebrew word for baked (אָפָה).
2 Sam 13:10 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אַמְנ֜וֹן אֶל־תָּמָ֗ר הָבִ֤יאִי הַבִּרְיָה֙ הַחֶ֔דֶר וְאֶבְרֶ֖ה מִיָּדֵ֑ךְ וַתִּקַּ֣ח תָּמָ֗ר אֶת־הַלְּבִבוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔תָה וַתָּבֵ֛א לְאַמְנ֥וֹן אָחִ֖יהָ הֶחָֽדְרָה׃‬ Then Amnon said to Tamar, “Bring the food into the room, and I will eat from your hand.” So Tamar took the pancakes which she had made and brought them to Amnon her brother in the room. in the room ← into the room.
2 Sam 13:11 ‫וַתַּגֵּ֥שׁ אֵלָ֖יו לֶֽאֱכֹ֑ל וַיַּֽחֲזֶק־בָּהּ֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָ֔הּ בּ֛וֹאִי שִׁכְבִ֥י עִמִּ֖י אֲחוֹתִֽי׃‬ But when she served them for him to eat, he took hold of her and said to her, “Come and lie with me, my sister.” but: adversative use of the vav.
2 Sam 13:12 ‫וַתֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ אַל־אָחִי֙ אַל־תְּעַנֵּ֔נִי כִּ֛י לֹא־יֵֽעָשֶׂ֥ה כֵ֖ן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אַֽל־תַּעֲשֵׂ֖ה אֶת־הַנְּבָלָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ But she said to him, “No, my brother, do not violate me, for such a thing is not done in Israel. Do not do this dishonourable thing.
2 Sam 13:13 ‫וַאֲנִ֗י אָ֤נָה אוֹלִיךְ֙ אֶת־חֶרְפָּתִ֔י וְאַתָּ֗ה תִּהְיֶ֛ה כְּאַחַ֥ד הַנְּבָלִ֖ים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְעַתָּה֙ דַּבֶּר־נָ֣א אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יִמְנָעֵ֖נִי מִמֶּֽךָּ׃‬ For where would I rid myself of my shame? And you would be like one of the dishonoured in Israel. So now, please, speak to the king, for he will not hold me back from you.” rid myself ofmake depart.
2 Sam 13:14 ‫וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ בְּקוֹלָ֑הּ וַיֶּחֱזַ֤ק מִמֶּ֙נָּה֙ וַיְעַנֶּ֔הָ וַיִּשְׁכַּ֖ב אֹתָֽהּ׃‬ But he would not heed her, and he was stronger than her, and he violated her and lay with her. heed her ← hear her voice.

than her: or, if the reader prefers, than she.
2 Sam 13:15 ‫וַיִּשְׂנָאֶ֣הָ אַמְנ֗וֹן שִׂנְאָה֙ גְּדוֹלָ֣ה מְאֹ֔ד כִּ֣י גְדוֹלָ֗ה הַשִּׂנְאָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שְׂנֵאָ֔הּ מֵאַהֲבָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲהֵבָ֑הּ וַֽיֹּאמֶר־לָ֥הּ אַמְנ֖וֹן ק֥וּמִי לֵֽכִי׃‬ Then Amnon hated her with a very great hatred, for his hatred with which he hated her was greater than the love with which he had loved her, and Amnon said to her, “Get up and go.”
2 Sam 13:16 ‫וַתֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ אַל־אוֹדֹ֞ת הָרָעָ֤ה הַגְּדוֹלָה֙ הַזֹּ֔את מֵאַחֶ֛רֶת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֥יתָ עִמִּ֖י לְשַׁלְּחֵ֑נִי וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לִשְׁמֹ֥עַֽ לָֽהּ׃‬ And she said to him, “There is no reason to do this wicked thing, in sending me away, which is greater than the other thing which you did to me.” But he would not listen to her. in sending: gerundial use of the infinitive.

to me ← with me.
2 Sam 13:17 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֗א אֶֽת־נַעֲרוֹ֙ מְשָׁ֣רְת֔וֹ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר שִׁלְחוּ־נָ֥א אֶת־זֹ֛את מֵעָלַ֖י הַח֑וּצָה וּנְעֹ֥ל הַדֶּ֖לֶת אַחֲרֶֽיהָ׃‬ And he called for his servant-lad, who served him, and he said, “Send this woman away from me, outside, and bolt the door after her.” send ← send please, but the particle of entreaty / exhortation is weak, and it is rather one of enjoinder here. The attitude to Tamar is harsh.
2 Sam 13:18 ‫וְעָלֶ֙יהָ֙ כְּתֹ֣נֶת פַּסִּ֔ים כִּי֩ כֵ֨ן תִּלְבַּ֧שְׁןָ בְנוֹת־הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ הַבְּתוּלֹ֖ת מְעִילִ֑ים וַיֹּצֵ֨א אוֹתָ֤הּ מְשָֽׁרְתוֹ֙ הַח֔וּץ וְנָעַ֥ל הַדֶּ֖לֶת אַחֲרֶֽיהָ׃‬ Now she was wearing a long striped tunic, for that was the kind of robe which the king's virgin daughters wore. And his servant took her outside and bolted the door after her. she was wearing ← on her (was).
2 Sam 13:19 ‫וַתִּקַּ֨ח תָּמָ֥ר אֵ֙פֶר֙ עַל־רֹאשָׁ֔הּ וּכְתֹ֧נֶת הַפַּסִּ֛ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָלֶ֖יהָ קָרָ֑עָה וַתָּ֤שֶׂם יָדָהּ֙ עַל־רֹאשָׁ֔הּ וַתֵּ֥לֶךְ הָל֖וֹךְ וְזָעָֽקָה׃‬ And Tamar took ash and put it on her head, and she tore the long striped tunic which she was wearing, and she put her hand on her head, and she went around wailing. she was wearing ← on her (was).

went around wailing: augmented with an infinitive absolute, emphasizing the simultaneity of going and wailing.
2 Sam 13:20 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלֶ֜יהָ אַבְשָׁל֣וֹם אָחִ֗יהָ הַאֲמִינ֣וֹן אָחִיךְ֮ הָיָ֣ה עִמָּךְ֒ וְעַתָּ֞ה אֲחוֹתִ֤י הַחֲרִ֙ישִׁי֙ אָחִ֣יךְ ה֔וּא אַל־תָּשִׁ֥יתִי אֶת־לִבֵּ֖ךְ לַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַתֵּ֤שֶׁב תָּמָר֙ וְשֹׁ֣מֵמָ֔ה בֵּ֖ית אַבְשָׁל֥וֹם אָחִֽיהָ׃‬ And Absalom her brother asked her, “Has Aminon your brother been with you? Well now, my sister, keep quiet about it; he is your brother. Do not take this matter to heart.” But Tamar remained devastated in the house of Absalom her brother. asked ← said to.

Aminon: a variation of Amnon.

do not take this matter to heart ← do not put your heart to this matter.

devastated ← and was devastated or solitary.
2 Sam 13:21 ‫וְהַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֔ד שָׁמַ֕ע אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה וַיִּ֥חַר ל֖וֹ מְאֹֽד׃‬ And King David heard all these things, and it greatly infuriated him.
2 Sam 13:22 ‫וְלֹֽא־דִבֶּ֧ר אַבְשָׁל֛וֹם עִם־אַמְנ֖וֹן לְמֵרָ֣ע וְעַד־ט֑וֹב כִּֽי־שָׂנֵ֤א אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ אֶת־אַמְנ֔וֹן עַל־דְּבַר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִנָּ֔ה אֵ֖ת תָּמָ֥ר אֲחֹתֽוֹ׃ פ‬ And Absalom did not speak with Amnon on bad or good terms, because Absalom hated Amnon, because of the fact that he had violated Tamar his sister. on bad or good termsfrom bad and up to good.
2 Sam 13:23 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ לִשְׁנָתַ֣יִם יָמִ֔ים וַיִּהְי֤וּ גֹֽזְזִים֙ לְאַבְשָׁל֔וֹם בְּבַ֥עַל חָצ֖וֹר אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִם־אֶפְרָ֑יִם וַיִּקְרָ֥א אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם לְכָל־בְּנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ Then it came to pass after two full years, when they were shearing for Absalom in Baal-Hazor, which is Ephraim's, that Absalom invited all the king's sons round. two full years ← two years of days.

which is Ephraim's ← which (is) with Ephraim.
2 Sam 13:24 ‫וַיָּבֹ֤א אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּה־נָ֥א גֹזְזִ֖ים לְעַבְדֶּ֑ךָ יֵֽלֶךְ־נָ֥א הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וַעֲבָדָ֖יו עִם־עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃‬ And Absalom went to the king and said, “Look now, they are shearing for your servant. Please let the king and his servants come along with your servant.”
2 Sam 13:25 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶל־אַבְשָׁל֗וֹם אַל־בְּנִי֙ אַל־נָ֤א נֵלֵךְ֙ כֻּלָּ֔נוּ וְלֹ֥א נִכְבַּ֖ד עָלֶ֑יךָ וַיִּפְרָץ־בּ֛וֹ וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֥ה לָלֶ֖כֶת וַֽיְבָרֲכֵֽהוּ׃‬ But the king said to Absalom, “No, my son, let's not all go, so that we are not burdensome to you.” Then Absalom pressed him. However, the king was not willing to go, but he blessed him. no ← no, please.

however: adversative use of the vav.

but (second occurrence in verse): adversative use of the vav, countervailing the preceding adversative clause.
2 Sam 13:26 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם וָלֹ֕א יֵֽלֶךְ־נָ֥א אִתָּ֖נוּ אַמְנ֣וֹן אָחִ֑י וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לָ֥מָּה יֵלֵ֖ךְ עִמָּֽךְ׃‬ And Absalom said, “Not you then. But do let Amnon my brother go with us.” But the king said to him, “Why should he go with you?”
2 Sam 13:27 ‫וַיִּפְרָץ־בּ֖וֹ אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח אִתּוֹ֙ אֶת־אַמְנ֔וֹן וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־בְּנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ But Absalom pressed him, and he let Amnon go with him, and all the king's sons.
2 Sam 13:28 ‫וַיְצַו֩ אַבְשָׁל֨וֹם אֶת־נְעָרָ֜יו לֵאמֹ֗ר רְא֣וּ נָ֠א כְּט֨וֹב לֵב־אַמְנ֤וֹן בַּיַּ֙יִן֙ וְאָמַרְתִּ֣י אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם הַכּ֧וּ אֶת־אַמְנ֛וֹן וַהֲמִתֶּ֥ם אֹת֖וֹ אַל־תִּירָ֑אוּ הֲל֗וֹא כִּ֤י אָֽנֹכִי֙ צִוִּ֣יתִי אֶתְכֶ֔ם חִזְק֖וּ וִהְי֥וּ לִבְנֵי־חָֽיִל׃‬ And Absalom commanded his servant-lads and said, “Now watch for when Amnon is light-hearted with wine, and when I say to you, ‘Strike Amnon’, you will kill him. Do not be afraid; have I not commanded you? Be strong and be bold.” bold ← sons of valour.
2 Sam 13:29 ‫וַֽיַּעֲשׂ֞וּ נַעֲרֵ֤י אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ לְאַמְנ֔וֹן כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֖ה אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם וַיָּקֻ֣מוּ ׀ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וַֽיִּרְכְּב֛וּ אִ֥ישׁ עַל־פִּרְדּ֖וֹ וַיָּנֻֽסוּ׃‬ And Absalom's servant-lads did to Amnon as Absalom had commanded. Then all the king's sons arose, and each rode on his mule, and they fled.
2 Sam 13:30 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ הֵ֣מָּה בַדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְהַשְּׁמֻעָ֣ה בָ֔אָה אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד לֵאמֹ֑ר הִכָּ֤ה אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ אֶת־כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְלֹֽא־נוֹתַ֥ר מֵהֶ֖ם אֶחָֽד׃ ס‬ And it came to pass, while they were on the road, that the rumour came to David as follows: “Absalom has struck down all the king's sons, and not one of them remains.” as follows ← to say.
2 Sam 13:31 ‫וַיָּ֧קָם הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וַיִּקְרַ֥ע אֶת־בְּגָדָ֖יו וַיִּשְׁכַּ֣ב אָ֑רְצָה וְכָל־עֲבָדָ֥יו נִצָּבִ֖ים קְרֻעֵ֥י בְגָדִֽים׃ ס‬ And the king arose and tore his clothes and lay on the ground, and all his servants stood with torn clothes. on the ground ← onto the ground.
2 Sam 13:32 ‫וַיַּ֡עַן יוֹנָדָ֣ב ׀ בֶּן־שִׁמְעָ֨ה אֲחִֽי־דָוִ֜ד וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אַל־יֹאמַ֤ר אֲדֹנִי֙ אֵ֣ת כָּל־הַנְּעָרִ֤ים בְּנֵֽי־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הֵמִ֔יתוּ כִּֽי־אַמְנ֥וֹן לְבַדּ֖וֹ מֵ֑ת כִּֽי־עַל־פִּ֤י אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ הָיְתָ֣ה שׂוּמָ֔ה מִיּוֹם֙ עַנֹּת֔וֹ אֵ֖ת תָּמָ֥ר אֲחֹתֽוֹ׃‬ But Jonadab, the son of Shimah David's brother, reacted and said, “Don't let my lord say that they have killed all the lads who are the king's sons, for only Amnon is dead, for this was plotted by Absalom from the day when Amnon violated Tamar his sister. Shimah: see 2 Sam 13:3.

reacted ← answered, but no question asked.

plotted ← set by the mouth.
2 Sam 13:33 ‫וְעַתָּ֡ה אַל־יָשֵׂם֩ אֲדֹנִ֨י הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ אֶל־לִבּוֹ֙ דָּבָ֣ר לֵאמֹ֔ר כָּל־בְּנֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מֵ֑תוּ כִּֽי־אִם־אַמְנ֥וֹן לְבַדּ֖וֹ מֵֽת׃ פ‬ So now, don't let my lord the king take anything to heart, saying, ‘All the king's sons have died’, for only Amnon is dead.” to heart ← to his heart.
2 Sam 13:34 ‫וַיִּבְרַ֖ח אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם וַיִּשָּׂ֞א הַנַּ֤עַר הַצֹּפֶה֙ אֶת־*עינו **עֵינָ֔יו וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֨ה עַם־רַ֜ב הֹלְכִ֥ים מִדֶּ֛רֶךְ אַחֲרָ֖יו מִצַּ֥ד הָהָֽר׃‬ And Absalom fled, and the young lad who kept watch lifted up his {Q: eyes} [K: eye] and saw that there was a large number of people following him on the road at the side of the mountain. there wasand behold.

on the road at the side ← from the road from the side.
2 Sam 13:35 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יֽוֹנָדָב֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הִנֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ בָּ֑אוּ כִּדְבַ֥ר עַבְדְּךָ֖ כֵּ֥ן הָיָֽה׃‬ And Jonadab said to the king, “Look, the king's sons have come. It is according to your servant's word.” it is according to your servant's word ← as (is) the word of your servant, so it has become.
2 Sam 13:36 ‫וַיְהִ֣י ׀ כְּכַלֹּת֣וֹ לְדַבֵּ֗ר וְהִנֵּ֤ה בְנֵֽי־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ בָּ֔אוּ וַיִּשְׂא֥וּ קוֹלָ֖ם וַיִּבְכּ֑וּ וְגַם־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְכָל־עֲבָדָ֔יו בָּכ֕וּ בְּכִ֖י גָּד֥וֹל מְאֹֽד׃‬ And it came to pass, when he had finished speaking, that indeed the king's sons came, and they raised their voices and wept, and the king and all his servants also wept very profusely. indeed ← behold.

very profusely ← with very great weeping.
2 Sam 13:37 ‫וְאַבְשָׁל֣וֹם בָּרַ֔ח וַיֵּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־תַּלְמַ֥י בֶּן־*עמיחור **עַמִּיה֖וּד מֶ֣לֶךְ גְּשׁ֑וּר וַיִּתְאַבֵּ֥ל עַל־בְּנ֖וֹ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃‬ And Absalom fled and went to Talmai the son of {Q: Ammihud} [K: Ammihur] king of Geshur. And David mourned for his son every day.
2 Sam 13:38 ‫וְאַבְשָׁל֥וֹם בָּרַ֖ח וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ גְּשׁ֑וּר וַיְהִי־שָׁ֖ם שָׁלֹ֥שׁ שָׁנִֽים׃‬ So Absalom fled and went to Geshur, and he was there for three years.
2 Sam 13:39 ‫וַתְּכַל֙ דָּוִ֣ד הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לָצֵ֖את אֶל־אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם כִּֽי־נִחַ֥ם עַל־אַמְנ֖וֹן כִּֽי־מֵֽת׃ ס‬ And David the king's whole being resolved to go out to Absalom, because he had been consoled about Amnon, for he was dead. whole beingsoul (by implication), because the verb is feminine. Compare Ps 16:2.

resolved ← consumed; determined; wasted (one's strength). We suggest in a hostile sense; see the next chapter.
2 Sam 14:1 ‫וַיֵּ֖דַע יוֹאָ֣ב בֶּן־צְרֻיָ֑ה כִּֽי־לֵ֥ב הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ עַל־אַבְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ And Joab the son of Zeruiah became aware that the king's heart was against Absalom. against: AV differs (toward), reading אֶל for עַל, which is possible, but Joab's plot is to persuade David to have Absalom brought back to Jerusalem and to be reconciled to him.
2 Sam 14:2 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח יוֹאָב֙ תְּק֔וֹעָה וַיִּקַּ֥ח מִשָּׁ֖ם אִשָּׁ֣ה חֲכָמָ֑ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵ֠לֶיהָ הִֽתְאַבְּלִי־נָ֞א וְלִבְשִׁי־נָ֣א בִגְדֵי־אֵ֗בֶל וְאַל־תָּס֙וּכִי֙ שֶׁ֔מֶן וְהָיִ֕ית כְּאִשָּׁ֗ה זֶ֚ה יָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים מִתְאַבֶּ֖לֶת עַל־מֵֽת׃‬ And Joab sent messengers to Tekoa, and he brought a wise woman from there, and he said to her, “Pretend to mourn, would you, and dress in mourning clothes, and do not anoint yourself with oil, so that you are like a woman who has been mourning for one deceased for many days now. Tekoa ← Tekoah here, but we take the as a locative ending. Elsewhere Tekoa.

pretend to mourn: hithpael for feigning. See Gen 42:7.

so that: purposive use of the vav.
2 Sam 14:3 ‫וּבָאת֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְדִבַּ֥רְתְּ אֵלָ֖יו כַּדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַיָּ֧שֶׂם יוֹאָ֛ב אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים בְּפִֽיהָ׃‬ And go to the king and speak to him with these words ...” And Joab put the words in her mouth. with these words ← according to this word.
2 Sam 14:4 ‫וַ֠תֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁ֤ה הַתְּקֹעִית֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַתִּפֹּ֧ל עַל־אַפֶּ֛יהָ אַ֖רְצָה וַתִּשְׁתָּ֑חוּ וַתֹּ֖אמֶר הוֹשִׁ֥עָה הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ And the Tekoan woman spoke to the king, and she fell face down to the ground, and she prostrated herself, and she said, “O king, help.” face down ← on her face.

help ← save.
2 Sam 14:5 ‫וַיֹּֽאמֶר־לָ֥הּ הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מַה־לָּ֑ךְ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר אֲבָ֛ל אִשָּֽׁה־אַלְמָנָ֥ה אָ֖נִי וַיָּ֥מָת אִישִֽׁי׃‬ And the king said to her, “What is the matter?” And she said, “I am truly a widow and my husband has died. what is the matter? ← what to you?

truly: perhaps a play on words – consonantally both truly and mourning.

widow ← widow woman.
2 Sam 14:6 ‫וּלְשִׁפְחָֽתְךָ֙ שְׁנֵ֣י בָנִ֔ים וַיִּנָּצ֤וּ שְׁנֵיהֶם֙ בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְאֵ֥ין מַצִּ֖יל בֵּֽינֵיהֶ֑ם וַיַּכּ֧וֹ הָאֶחָ֛ד אֶת־הָאֶחָ֖ד וַיָּ֥מֶת אֹתֽוֹ׃‬ And your maidservant had two sons, and the two of them argued in the field, and there was no-one to separate them, and one struck the other and killed him. separate ← deliver between.
2 Sam 14:7 ‫וְהִנֵּה֩ קָ֨מָה כָֽל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָ֜ה עַל־שִׁפְחָתֶ֗ךָ וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ תְּנִ֣י ׀ אֶת־מַכֵּ֣ה אָחִ֗יו וּנְמִתֵ֙הוּ֙ בְּנֶ֤פֶשׁ אָחִיו֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָרָ֔ג וְנַשְׁמִ֖ידָה גַּ֣ם אֶת־הַיּוֹרֵ֑שׁ וְכִבּ֗וּ אֶת־גַּֽחַלְתִּי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְׁאָ֔רָה לְבִלְתִּ֧י *שום־**שִׂים־לְאִישִׁ֛י שֵׁ֥ם וּשְׁאֵרִ֖ית עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָֽה׃ פ‬ And look what happened: the whole family rose up against your maidservant and said, ‘Give us the one who struck his brother down, so we can put him to death for the life of his brother whom he killed, and we will also destroy the heir.’ And so they would extinguish the burning coal which remains to me, so not establishing a name or a remnant to my husband on the face of the earth.” establishing: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

life ← soul.

also: perhaps translate in so doing.

the burning coal which remains to me ← my burning coal which remains.
2 Sam 14:8 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה לְכִ֣י לְבֵיתֵ֑ךְ וַאֲנִ֖י אֲצַוֶּ֥ה עָלָֽיִךְ׃‬ Then the king said to the woman, “Go to your house, and I will issue commands concerning you.”
2 Sam 14:9 ‫וַתֹּ֜אמֶר הָאִשָּׁ֤ה הַתְּקוֹעִית֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ עָלַ֞י אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ הֶעָוֺ֖ן וְעַל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑י וְהַמֶּ֥לֶךְ וְכִסְא֖וֹ נָקִֽי׃ ס‬ Then the Tekoan woman said to the king, “O my lord the king, let the iniquity be on me and my father's house, and let the king and his throne be guiltless.”
2 Sam 14:10 ‫וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ הַֽמְדַבֵּ֤ר אֵלַ֙יִךְ֙ וַֽהֲבֵאת֣וֹ אֵלַ֔י וְלֹֽא־יֹסִ֥יף ע֖וֹד לָגַ֥עַת בָּֽךְ׃‬ And the king said, “If anyone speaks to you, then have him brought to me, and he shall no longer unsettle you.” have him brought ← ring him, but as the verb is already hiphil, it must do duty for a causative sense.

unsettle ← touch, meddle, strike.
2 Sam 14:11 ‫וַתֹּאמֶר֩ יִזְכָּר־נָ֨א הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ *מהרבית **מֵהַרְבַּ֞ת גֹּאֵ֤ל הַדָּם֙ לְשַׁחֵ֔ת וְלֹ֥א יַשְׁמִ֖ידוּ אֶת־בְּנִ֑י וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ חַי־יְהוָ֔ה אִם־יִפֹּ֛ל מִשַּׂעֲרַ֥ת בְּנֵ֖ךְ אָֽרְצָה׃‬ And she said, “Do let the king remember the Lord your God by not giving free rein to the avenger of blood to destroy, so that they do not destroy my son.” And he said, “As the Lord lives, not a hair of your son will fall to the ground.” by not giving free rein ← from increasing. Gerundial use of the infinitive. The ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

not a hair ← if a hair. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
2 Sam 14:12 ‫וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה תְּדַבֶּר־נָ֧א שִׁפְחָתְךָ֛ אֶל־אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ דָּבָ֑ר וַיֹּ֖אמֶר דַּבֵּֽרִי׃ ס‬ And the woman said, “Do let your maidservant speak a word to my lord the king.” And he said, “Speak.”
2 Sam 14:13 ‫וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה וְלָ֧מָּה חָשַׁ֛בְתָּה כָּזֹ֖את עַל־עַ֣ם אֱלֹהִ֑ים וּמִדַּבֵּ֨ר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ הַדָּבָ֤ר הַזֶּה֙ כְּאָשֵׁ֔ם לְבִלְתִּ֛י הָשִׁ֥יב הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶֽת־נִדְּחֽוֹ׃‬ And the woman said, “Now why did you scheme like this against the people of God, and with the king not speaking on this matter he is guilty, in that the king has not brought his banished son back. scheme ← think, but also in a negative sense.

not speaking ← from speaking. See [AnLx] under מִן, VII (c) and VIII for use as a negative.

guilty ← as guilty.
2 Sam 14:14 ‫כִּי־מ֣וֹת נָמ֔וּת וְכַמַּ֙יִם֙ הַנִּגָּרִ֣ים אַ֔רְצָה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֣א יֵאָסֵ֑פוּ וְלֹֽא־יִשָּׂ֤א אֱלֹהִים֙ נֶ֔פֶשׁ וְחָשַׁב֙ מַֽחֲשָׁב֔וֹת לְבִלְתִּ֛י יִדַּ֥ח מִמֶּ֖נּוּ נִדָּֽח׃‬ For we will certainly die, and we are like water being poured onto the ground, which cannot be gathered up, and God is not partial, but he designs ways by which he who is banished is not banished from him. we will certainly die: infinitive absolute.

is not partial ← does not take up a soul.

designs ways ← thinks thoughts.
2 Sam 14:15 ‫וְ֠עַתָּה אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֜אתִי לְדַבֵּ֨ר אֶל־הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ אֲדֹנִי֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה כִּ֥י יֵֽרְאֻ֖נִי הָעָ֑ם וַתֹּ֤אמֶר שִׁפְחָֽתְךָ֙ אֲדַבְּרָה־נָּ֣א אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אוּלַ֛י יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶת־דְּבַ֥ר אֲמָתֽוֹ׃‬ But now that I have come to speak these words to my lord the king – for the people frighten me – your maidservant said to herself, ‘Let me then speak to the king; perhaps the king will act on the case of his maidservant. these words ← this word.

case ← word.
2 Sam 14:16 ‫כִּ֚י יִשְׁמַ֣ע הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לְהַצִּ֥יל אֶת־אֲמָת֖וֹ מִכַּ֣ף הָאִ֑ישׁ לְהַשְׁמִ֨יד אֹתִ֤י וְאֶת־בְּנִי֙ יַ֔חַד מִֽנַּחֲלַ֖ת אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬ For the king will hear me, so delivering his maidservant from the hand of the man intent on eliminating me and my son together from an inheritance from God.’ from God ← of God. Wider use of the construct state.
2 Sam 14:17 ‫וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ שִׁפְחָ֣תְךָ֔ יִֽהְיֶה־נָּ֛א דְּבַר־אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לִמְנוּחָ֑ה כִּ֣י ׀ כְּמַלְאַ֣ךְ הָאֱלֹהִ֗ים כֵּ֣ן אֲדֹנִ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לִשְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ הַטּ֣וֹב וְהָרָ֔ע וַֽיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ יְהִ֥י עִמָּֽךְ׃ פ‬ Then your maidservant said, ‘Let the words of my lord the king be settled, for my lord the king is like an angel of God in assessing good and evil.’ And may the Lord your God be with you.” words ← word.

be settled ← become rest.

assessing ← to hear. Gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 14:18 ‫וַיַּ֣עַן הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־הָ֣אִשָּׁ֔ה אַל־נָ֨א תְכַחֲדִ֤י מִמֶּ֙נִּי֙ דָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י שֹׁאֵ֣ל אֹתָ֑ךְ וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה יְדַבֶּר־נָ֖א אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ Then the king answered and said to the woman, “Please do not conceal anything from me which I am asking you about.” And the woman said, “Let my lord the king speak.”
2 Sam 14:19 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הֲיַ֥ד יוֹאָ֛ב אִתָּ֖ךְ בְּכָל־זֹ֑את וַתַּ֣עַן הָאִשָּׁ֣ה וַתֹּ֡אמֶר חֵֽי־נַפְשְׁךָ֩ אֲדֹנִ֨י הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אִם־אִ֣שׁ ׀ לְהֵמִ֣ין וּלְהַשְׂמִ֗יל מִכֹּ֤ל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּֽי־עַבְדְּךָ֤ יוֹאָב֙ ה֣וּא צִוָּ֔נִי וְה֗וּא שָׂ֚ם בְּפִ֣י שִׁפְחָֽתְךָ֔ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה׃‬ And the king said, “Is Joab's hand with you in all this?” And the woman answered and said, “By your own life, my lord the king, no-one can possibly deviate to the right or to the left from anything that my lord the king has said, for your servant Joab did command me, and he put all these words in the mouth of your maidservant. your own life ← the life of your soul.

can possibly deviate: strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.

anything ← everything.
2 Sam 14:20 ‫לְבַעֲב֤וּר סַבֵּב֙ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י הַדָּבָ֔ר עָשָׂ֛ה עַבְדְּךָ֥ יוֹאָ֖ב אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַאדֹנִ֣י חָכָ֗ם כְּחָכְמַת֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים לָדַ֖עַת אֶֽת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּאָֽרֶץ׃ ס‬ Your servant Joab did this thing so as to raise the issue in a roundabout way, and my lord is wise as if with the wisdom of an angel of God in knowing everything on earth.” to raise the issue in a roundabout way ← to encircle the face of the thing.

in knowing: gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 14:21 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב הִנֵּה־נָ֥א עָשִׂ֖יתִי אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וְלֵ֛ךְ הָשֵׁ֥ב אֶת־הַנַּ֖עַר אֶת־אַבְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ Then the king said to Joab, “Here you are, I have settled this matter, so go and bring the lad, Absalom, back.” here you arebehold please.

settled this matter ← done this thing.
2 Sam 14:22 ‫וַיִּפֹּל֩ יוֹאָ֨ב אֶל־פָּנָ֥יו אַ֛רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֶת־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יוֹאָ֡ב הַיּוֹם֩ יָדַ֨ע עַבְדְּךָ֜ כִּי־מָצָ֨אתִי חֵ֤ן בְּעֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶת־דְּבַ֥ר *עבדו **עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃‬ At this Joab fell face down to the ground and prostrated himself, and he blessed the king, and Joab said, “Today your servant knows that I have found favour in your sight, O my lord the king, in that the king has acted on the concern of {K: his} [Q: your] servant.” at this: wider use of the vav.

face down ← on his face.

acted on the concern of ← done the matter of.
2 Sam 14:23 ‫וַיָּ֥קָם יוֹאָ֖ב וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ גְּשׁ֑וּרָה וַיָּבֵ֥א אֶת־אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ פ‬ Then Joab arose and went to Geshur and brought Absalom to Jerusalem.
2 Sam 14:24 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ יִסֹּ֣ב אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ וּפָנַ֖י לֹ֣א יִרְאֶ֑ה וַיִּסֹּ֤ב אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ וּפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לֹ֥א רָאָֽה׃ ס‬ And the king said, “Let him wend his way to his house, but don't let him see my face.” So Absalom wended his way to his house, but he did not see the king's face. wend his way ... wended his wayturn round ... turned round.
2 Sam 14:25 ‫וּכְאַבְשָׁל֗וֹם לֹא־הָיָ֧ה אִישׁ־יָפֶ֛ה בְּכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְהַלֵּ֣ל מְאֹ֑ד מִכַּ֤ף רַגְלוֹ֙ וְעַ֣ד קָדְקֳד֔וֹ לֹא־הָ֥יָה ב֖וֹ מֽוּם׃‬ Now in all Israel there wasn't a man so highly celebrated for his good looks as Absalom – there was no blemish on him from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head, so highly celebrated for his good looks ← fair to praise much.
2 Sam 14:26 ‫וּֽבְגַלְּחוֹ֮ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ֒ וְֽ֠הָיָה מִקֵּ֨ץ יָמִ֤ים ׀ לַיָּמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְגַלֵּ֔חַ כִּֽי־כָבֵ֥ד עָלָ֖יו וְגִלְּח֑וֹ וְשָׁקַל֙ אֶת־שְׂעַ֣ר רֹאשׁ֔וֹ מָאתַ֥יִם שְׁקָלִ֖ים בְּאֶ֥בֶן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ and when he shaved his head – and it was at the end of each year that he would shave it, for it was heavy on him, so he shaved it – he weighed the hair of his head: two hundred shekels according to the king's weight. the end of each year ← from the end of days to days. The plural “days” sometimes stands for a year. See 1 Sam 1:21 and [AnLx].

weight ← stone.
2 Sam 14:27 ‫וַיִּֽוָּלְד֤וּ לְאַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ שְׁלוֹשָׁ֣ה בָנִ֔ים וּבַ֥ת אַחַ֖ת וּשְׁמָ֣הּ תָּמָ֑ר הִ֣יא הָיְתָ֔ה אִשָּׁ֖ה יְפַ֥ת מַרְאֶֽה׃ פ‬ And three sons were born to Absalom, and one daughter whose name was Tamar. She was a woman of beautiful appearance.
2 Sam 14:28 ‫וַיֵּ֧שֶׁב אַבְשָׁל֛וֹם בִּירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם שְׁנָתַ֣יִם יָמִ֑ים וּפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לֹ֥א רָאָֽה׃‬ And Absalom resided in Jerusalem for two full years, and he did not see the king's face. for two full years ← two years (in) days.
2 Sam 14:29 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח אַבְשָׁל֜וֹם אֶל־יוֹאָ֗ב לִשְׁלֹ֤חַ אֹתוֹ֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לָב֣וֹא אֵלָ֑יו וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח עוֹד֙ שֵׁנִ֔ית וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לָבֽוֹא׃‬ And Absalom contacted Joab in order that he might send Joab to the king, but he was not willing to come to him. So he contacted him again – a second time – but he was not willing to come. he might send Joabhe might send him, i.e. Absalom might send Joab (with a message), as is seen from 2 Sam 14:32.

contacted (2x)sent to.
2 Sam 14:30 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֶל־עֲבָדָ֜יו רְאוּ֩ חֶלְקַ֨ת יוֹאָ֤ב אֶל־יָדִי֙ וְלוֹ־שָׁ֣ם שְׂעֹרִ֔ים לְכ֖וּ *והוצתיה **וְהַצִּית֣וּהָ בָאֵ֑שׁ וַיַּצִּ֜תוּ עַבְדֵ֧י אַבְשָׁל֛וֹם אֶת־הַחֶלְקָ֖ה בָּאֵֽשׁ׃ פ‬ So he said to his servants, “Look, there is an estate of Joab's next to mine, where he has barley. Go and set it on fire.” So Absalom's servants set the estate on fire. set it on fire: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

mine ← me.
2 Sam 14:31 ‫וַיָּ֣קָם יוֹאָ֔ב וַיָּבֹ֥א אֶל־אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם הַבָּ֑יְתָה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔יו לָ֣מָּה הִצִּ֧יתוּ עֲבָדֶ֛ךָ אֶת־הַחֶלְקָ֥ה אֲשֶׁר־לִ֖י בָּאֵֽשׁ׃‬ At this Joab arose and went to Absalom at his house, and he said to him, “Why have your servants set my estate on fire?” at this: wider use of the vav.

at his house ← to (his) house.
2 Sam 14:32 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אַבְשָׁל֣וֹם אֶל־יוֹאָ֡ב הִנֵּ֣ה שָׁלַ֣חְתִּי אֵלֶ֣יךָ ׀ לֵאמֹ֡ר בֹּ֣א הֵ֠נָּה וְאֶשְׁלְחָה֩ אֹתְךָ֨ אֶל־הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לֵאמֹ֗ר לָ֤מָּה בָּ֙אתִי֙ מִגְּשׁ֔וּר ט֥וֹב לִ֖י עֹ֣ד אֲנִי־שָׁ֑ם וְעַתָּ֗ה אֶרְאֶה֙ פְּנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְאִם־יֶשׁ־בִּ֥י עָוֺ֖ן וֶהֱמִתָֽנִי׃‬ And Absalom said to Joab, “Look, I contacted you and said, ‘Come here and let me send you to the king with the words, «Why have I come from Geshur? It would have been better for me to still be there.» ’ So now, let me see the king's face, and if there is any iniquity in me, let him put me to death.” contacted ← sent to.

with the words ← saying.
2 Sam 14:33 ‫וַיָּבֹ֨א יוֹאָ֣ב אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ֮ וַיַּגֶּד־לוֹ֒ וַיִּקְרָ֤א אֶל־אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ וַיָּבֹ֣א אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיִּשְׁתַּ֨חוּ ל֧וֹ עַל־אַפָּ֛יו אַ֖רְצָה לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיִּשַּׁ֥ק הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לְאַבְשָׁלֽוֹם׃ פ‬ Then Joab went to the king and told him this. Then the king called for Absalom, and he came to the king, and he prostrated himself to him face down to the ground before the king. And the king kissed Absalom. face down ← on his face.
2 Sam 15:1 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ מֵאַ֣חֲרֵי כֵ֔ן וַיַּ֤עַשׂ לוֹ֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם מֶרְכָּבָ֖ה וְסֻסִ֑ים וַחֲמִשִּׁ֥ים אִ֖ישׁ רָצִ֥ים לְפָנָֽיו׃‬ And it came to pass after that, that Absalom acquired chariots and horses and fifty men who ran before him. acquired ← made for himself.
2 Sam 15:2 ‫וְהִשְׁכִּים֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם וְעָמַ֕ד עַל־יַ֖ד דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַשָּׁ֑עַר וַיְהִ֡י כָּל־הָאִ֣ישׁ אֲשֶֽׁר־יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ־רִיב֩ לָב֨וֹא אֶל־הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֗ט וַיִּקְרָ֨א אַבְשָׁל֤וֹם אֵלָיו֙ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֵֽי־מִזֶּ֥ה עִיר֙ אַ֔תָּה וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מֵאַחַ֥ד שִׁבְטֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃‬ And Absalom rose early and stood at the side of the road at the gate. And whenever any man who had a dispute was about to go to the king for a verdict, Absalom would call to him and ask, “From which city are you?” And he would reply, “Your servant is from one of the tribes of Israel.” the road at ← the road of. Wider use of the construct state.

ask ... reply ← say ... say.
2 Sam 15:3 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם רְאֵ֥ה דְבָרֶ֖ךָ טוֹבִ֣ים וּנְכֹחִ֑ים וְשֹׁמֵ֥עַ אֵין־לְךָ֖ מֵאֵ֥ת הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Absalom would say to him, “Look, your contentions are right and proper, but you do not have anyone from the king to hear you.” your contentions are right and proper ← your words (are) good and right.
2 Sam 15:4 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם מִי־יְשִׂמֵ֥נִי שֹׁפֵ֖ט בָּאָ֑רֶץ וְעָלַ֗י יָב֥וֹא כָּל־אִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶֽׁר־יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ־רִ֥יב וּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וְהִצְדַּקְתִּֽיו׃‬ And Absalom would say, “If only I were appointed a judge in the land! Then everyone who has a dispute or a lawsuit would come to me, and I would do him justice.” if only I were appointed ← who will appoint me? Idiomatic; compare Ex 16:3, Num 11:29, Deut 5:29 etc.

or: disjunctive use of the vav.

do him justice ← justify him.
2 Sam 15:5 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בִּקְרָב־אִ֔ישׁ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֖ת ל֑וֹ וְשָׁלַ֧ח אֶת־יָד֛וֹ וְהֶחֱזִ֥יק ל֖וֹ וְנָ֥שַׁק לֽוֹ׃‬ And it would come to pass, when a man approached to prostrate himself to him, that he would stretch out his hand and take hold of him and kiss him. stretch out ← send.
2 Sam 15:6 ‫וַיַּ֨עַשׂ אַבְשָׁל֜וֹם כַּדָּבָ֤ר הַזֶּה֙ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־יָבֹ֥אוּ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיְגַנֵּב֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם אֶת־לֵ֖ב אַנְשֵׁ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ פ‬ And Absalom acted in this way towards all of Israel that came to the king for judgment, and Absalom stole the heart of the men of Israel. in this way ← according to this word.
2 Sam 15:7 ‫וַיְהִ֕י מִקֵּ֖ץ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֵ֣לֲכָה נָּ֗א וַאֲשַׁלֵּ֛ם אֶת־נִדְרִ֛י אֲשֶׁר־נָדַ֥רְתִּי לַֽיהוָ֖ה בְּחֶבְרֽוֹן׃‬ And it came to pass after forty years that Absalom said to the king, “Please let me go to pay my vow in Hebron which I made to the Lord. after ← at the end of.

made ← vowed.
2 Sam 15:8 ‫כִּי־נֵ֙דֶר֙ נָדַ֣ר עַבְדְּךָ֔ בְּשִׁבְתִּ֥י בִגְשׁ֛וּר בַּאֲרָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר אִם־*ישיב **יָשׁ֨וֹב יְשִׁיבֵ֤נִי יְהוָה֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְעָבַדְתִּ֖י אֶת־יְהוָֽה׃‬ For your servant made a vow when I lived in Geshur in Aramaea and said, ‘If the Lord decidedly brings me back to Jerusalem, then I will serve the Lord.’ ” decidedly brings me back: the ketiv would have to be regarded as a variant form of the qeré. The construction is with an irregular infinitive absolute (הָשֵׁב expected), under ↴

made ← vowed.
2 Sam 15:9 ‫וַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לֵ֣ךְ בְּשָׁל֑וֹם וַיָּ֖קָם וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ חֶבְרֽוֹנָה׃ פ‬ And the king said to him, “Go in peace.” So he arose and went to Hebron. ↳ influence of the root ישׁב, hiphil= to settle.
2 Sam 15:10 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ מְרַגְּלִ֔ים בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל הַשֹּׁפָ֔ר וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם מָלַ֥ךְ אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם בְּחֶבְרֽוֹן׃‬ Then Absalom sent spies among all the tribes of Israel and said, “When you hear the sound of the ramshorn, you will say, ‘Absalom reigns in Hebron.’ ”
2 Sam 15:11 ‫וְאֶת־אַבְשָׁל֗וֹם הָלְכ֞וּ מָאתַ֤יִם אִישׁ֙ מִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם קְרֻאִ֖ים וְהֹלְכִ֣ים לְתֻמָּ֑ם וְלֹ֥א יָדְע֖וּ כָּל־דָּבָֽר׃‬ And with Absalom went two hundred men from Jerusalem, who were called up, but who went in their naivety, and who didn't know anything. anything ← every thing.
2 Sam 15:12 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח אַ֠בְשָׁלוֹם אֶת־אֲחִיתֹ֨פֶל הַגִּֽילֹנִ֜י יוֹעֵ֣ץ דָּוִ֗ד מֵֽעִירוֹ֙ מִגִּלֹ֔ה בְּזָבְח֖וֹ אֶת־הַזְּבָחִ֑ים וַיְהִ֤י הַקֶּ֙שֶׁר֙ אַמִּ֔ץ וְהָעָ֛ם הוֹלֵ֥ךְ וָרָ֖ב אֶת־אַבְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ And Absalom sent Ahithophel the Gilonite, an adviser to David, from his city – from Giloh – while he offered sacrifices. And the conspiracy was powerful, and the people who were with Absalom became more and more numerous. offered ← sacrificed.
2 Sam 15:13 ‫וַיָּבֹא֙ הַמַּגִּ֔יד אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד לֵאמֹ֑ר הָיָ֛ה לֶב־אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אַחֲרֵ֥י אַבְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ Then an informant came to David and said, “The heart of the men of Israel is behind Absalom.” an informant ← the informant. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
2 Sam 15:14 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּ֠וִד לְכָל־עֲבָדָ֨יו אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֤וֹ בִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ ק֣וּמוּ וְנִבְרָ֔חָה כִּ֛י לֹא־תִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֥נוּ פְלֵיטָ֖ה מִפְּנֵ֣י אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם מַהֲר֣וּ לָלֶ֗כֶת פֶּן־יְמַהֵ֤ר וְהִשִּׂגָ֙נוּ֙ וְהִדִּ֤יחַ עָלֵ֙ינוּ֙ אֶת־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה וְהִכָּ֥ה הָעִ֖יר לְפִי־חָֽרֶב׃‬ At this David said to all his servants who were with him in Jerusalem, “Get up and let us flee, for we won't be left with a survivor in confronting Absalom. Get going quickly or he will quickly catch up with us and bring disaster on us and strike the city with the blade of the sword.” at this: wider use of the vav.

be left with a survivor ← have an escaped remnant.

in confronting ← from facing.

get going quickly ← be quick to go.

bring disaster ← thrust evil.
2 Sam 15:15 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ עַבְדֵֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ כְּכֹ֧ל אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֛ר אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ הִנֵּ֥ה עֲבָדֶֽיךָ׃‬ And the king's servants said to the king, “Whatever my lord the king chooses to do, here we are as your servants.” whatever ← according to everything.

here we arebehold.
2 Sam 15:16 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֥א הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְכָל־בֵּית֖וֹ בְּרַגְלָ֑יו וַיַּעֲזֹ֣ב הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ אֵ֣ת עֶ֧שֶׂר נָשִׁ֛ים פִּֽלַגְשִׁ֖ים לִשְׁמֹ֥ר הַבָּֽיִת׃‬ And the king departed, and all his household went in his footsteps, and the king left the ten concubine ladies to keep the house. footsteps ← feet.
2 Sam 15:17 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֥א הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְכָל־הָעָ֖ם בְּרַגְלָ֑יו וַיַּעַמְד֖וּ בֵּ֥ית הַמֶּרְחָֽק׃‬ So the king departed with all the people in his footsteps, and they stopped at a remote house. with ← and.

footsteps ← feet.

a remote house: [CB] regards the words as a proper name, Beth-hammerhak.
2 Sam 15:18 ‫וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו֙ עֹבְרִ֣ים עַל־יָד֔וֹ וְכָל־הַכְּרֵתִ֖י וְכָל־הַפְּלֵתִ֑י וְכָֽל־הַגִּתִּ֞ים שֵׁשׁ־מֵא֣וֹת אִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֤אוּ בְרַגְלוֹ֙ מִגַּ֔ת עֹבְרִ֖ים עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And all his servants crossed over next to him, as did all the Cherethites, and all the Pelethites, and all the Gittites. Six hundred men who had followed in his footsteps from Gath crossed over alongside the king. followed in his footsteps ← came at his feet.
2 Sam 15:19 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־אִתַּ֣י הַגִּתִּ֔י לָ֧מָּה תֵלֵ֛ךְ גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה אִתָּ֑נוּ שׁ֣וּב וְשֵׁ֤ב עִם־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ כִּֽי־נָכְרִ֣י אַ֔תָּה וְגַם־גֹּלֶ֥ה אַתָּ֖ה לִמְקוֹמֶֽךָ׃‬ And the king said to Ittai the Gittite, “Why are you too going with us? Go back and stay with the king, for you are a foreigner and an exile from your place. and an exile ← and also an exile.

from your place ← of your place.
2 Sam 15:20 ‫תְּמ֣וֹל ׀ בּוֹאֶ֗ךָ וְהַיּ֞וֹם *אנועך **אֲנִֽיעֲךָ֤ עִמָּ֙נוּ֙ לָלֶ֔כֶת וַאֲנִ֣י הוֹלֵ֔ךְ עַ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֖י הוֹלֵ֑ךְ שׁ֣וּב וְהָשֵׁ֧ב אֶת־אַחֶ֛יךָ עִמָּ֖ךְ חֶ֥סֶד וֶאֱמֶֽת׃‬ You arrived yesterday, so should I cause you to wander around today in going with us? For I am going wherever I may go. Go back and take your brothers back. May kindness and truth be with you.” should I cause you to wander around: the ketiv has to be regarded as a variant form (qal, but with a hiphil sense) of the qeré.

in going: gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 15:21 ‫וַיַּ֧עַן אִתַּ֛י אֶת־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וַיֹּאמַ֑ר חַי־יְהוָ֗ה וְחֵי֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּ֠י אִם־בִּמְק֞וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִֽהְיֶה־שָּׁ֣ם ׀ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ אִם־לְמָ֙וֶת֙ אִם־לְחַיִּ֔ים כִּי־שָׁ֖ם יִהְיֶ֥ה עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃‬ But Ittai answered the king and said, “As the Lord lives and by the life of my lord the king, wherever my lord the king may be – whether in death or in life – there your servant will certainly be.” wherever ← in a place that.

certainly: expressed by כִּי ... כִּי.
2 Sam 15:22 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אֶל־אִתַּ֖י לֵ֣ךְ וַעֲבֹ֑ר וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֞ר אִתַּ֤י הַגִּתִּי֙ וְכָל־אֲנָשָׁ֔יו וְכָל־הַטַּ֖ף אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ׃‬ But David said to Ittai, “Go and cross back over.” So Ittai the Gittite crossed back over, with all his men and all the children who were with him.
2 Sam 15:23 ‫וְכָל־הָאָ֗רֶץ בּוֹכִים֙ ק֣וֹל גָּד֔וֹל וְכָל־הָעָ֖ם עֹֽבְרִ֑ים וְהַמֶּ֗לֶךְ עֹבֵר֙ בְּנַ֣חַל קִדְר֔וֹן וְכָל־הָעָם֙ עֹבְרִ֔ים עַל־פְּנֵי־דֶ֖רֶךְ אֶת־הַמִּדְבָּֽר׃‬ And the whole land wept with a loud voice, and all the people crossed over, and the king crossed over at the Kidron Brook, and all the people crossed over along the road through the desert.
2 Sam 15:24 ‫וְהִנֵּ֨ה גַם־צָד֜וֹק וְכָֽל־הַלְוִיִּ֣ם אִתּ֗וֹ נֹֽשְׂאִים֙ אֶת־אֲרוֹן֙ בְּרִ֣ית הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיַּצִּ֙קוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיַּ֖עַל אֶבְיָתָ֑ר עַד־תֹּ֥ם כָּל־הָעָ֖ם לַעֲב֥וֹר מִן־הָעִֽיר׃‬ And there were also Zadok and all the Levites with him, carrying the ark of the covenant of God, and they put the ark of God down, and Abiathar offered burnt offerings, until all the people from the city had finished crossing over. there werebehold.

Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.
2 Sam 15:25 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְצָד֔וֹק הָשֵׁ֛ב אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים הָעִ֑יר אִם־אֶמְצָ֥א חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וֶהֱשִׁבַ֕נִי וְהִרְאַ֥נִי אֹת֖וֹ וְאֶת־נָוֵֽהוּ׃‬ And the king said to Zadok, “Take the ark of God back to the city. If I find grace in the Lord's eyes, he will bring me back and show me it and his dwelling place.
2 Sam 15:26 ‫וְאִם֙ כֹּ֣ה יֹאמַ֔ר לֹ֥א חָפַ֖צְתִּי בָּ֑ךְ הִנְנִ֕י יַֽעֲשֶׂה־לִּ֕י כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר ט֖וֹב בְּעֵינָֽיו׃ ס‬ But if he says this: ‘I do not take pleasure in you’, then here I am; let him do to me whatever is right in his sight.” this ← thus.

here I ambehold me.

whatever ← as what.

right ← good.
2 Sam 15:27 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־צָד֣וֹק הַכֹּהֵ֔ן הֲרוֹאֶ֣ה אַתָּ֔ה שֻׁ֥בָה הָעִ֖יר בְּשָׁל֑וֹם וַאֲחִימַ֨עַץ בִּנְךָ֜ וִיהוֹנָתָ֧ן בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָ֛ר שְׁנֵ֥י בְנֵיכֶ֖ם אִתְּכֶֽם׃‬ And the king said to Zadok the priest, “Are you a seer? Go back to the city in peace with Ahimaaz your son and Jonathan Abiathar's son – your two sons with you. with Ahimaaz ← and Ahimaaz.

Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.

your two sons with you: you and your are plural.
2 Sam 15:28 ‫רְאוּ֙ אָנֹכִ֣י מִתְמַהְמֵ֔הַּ *בעברות **בְּעַֽרְב֖וֹת הַמִּדְבָּ֑ר עַ֣ד בּ֥וֹא דָבָ֛ר מֵעִמָּכֶ֖ם לְהַגִּ֥יד לִֽי׃‬ Look, I will wait {K: at the crossings in} [Q: in the arid tracts of] the desert until word comes from you to inform me.” at the crossings in: (in the ketiv) wider use of the construct state.
2 Sam 15:29 ‫וַיָּ֨שֶׁב צָד֧וֹק וְאֶבְיָתָ֛ר אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וַיֵּשְׁב֖וּ שָֽׁם׃‬ So Zadok and Abiathar brought the ark of God back to Jerusalem, and they stayed there. Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.
2 Sam 15:30 ‫וְדָוִ֡ד עֹלֶה֩ בְמַעֲלֵ֨ה הַזֵּיתִ֜ים עֹלֶ֣ה ׀ וּבוֹכֶ֗ה וְרֹ֥אשׁ לוֹ֙ חָפ֔וּי וְה֖וּא הֹלֵ֣ךְ יָחֵ֑ף וְכָל־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֗וֹ חָפוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וְעָל֥וּ עָלֹ֖ה וּבָכֹֽה׃‬ And David went up by the ascent of the Olives, weeping as he went up, with his head covered, and he went barefoot. And of all the people who were with him, each one covered his head, and they went up weeping as they did so. they went up weeping as they did sothey went up going up and weeping. Infinitive absolute of both verbs.
2 Sam 15:31 ‫וְדָוִד֙ הִגִּ֣יד לֵאמֹ֔ר אֲחִיתֹ֥פֶל בַּקֹּשְׁרִ֖ים עִם־אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד סַכֶּל־נָ֛א אֶת־עֲצַ֥ת אֲחִיתֹ֖פֶל יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then David received a report which said, “Ahithophel is among the conspirators with Absalom.” And David said, “O Lord, please frustrate Ahithophel's plan.” David received a report ← David reported, or, fitting the context, (as for) David, (one) reported, from which our translation.

frustrate ← make foolish.

plan ← counsel.
2 Sam 15:32 ‫וַיְהִ֤י דָוִד֙ בָּ֣א עַד־הָרֹ֔אשׁ אֲשֶֽׁר־יִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֥ה שָׁ֖ם לֵאלֹהִ֑ים וְהִנֵּ֤ה לִקְרָאתוֹ֙ חוּשַׁ֣י הָאַרְכִּ֔י קָר֙וּעַ֙ כֻּתָּנְתּ֔וֹ וַאֲדָמָ֖ה עַל־רֹאשֽׁוֹ׃‬ Then when David was going to the summit where he worshipped God, it so happened that Hushai the Archite came towards him with his tunic torn and soil on his head. it so happened that ← behold.
2 Sam 15:33 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ דָּוִ֑ד אִ֚ם עָבַ֣רְתָּ אִתִּ֔י וְהָיִ֥תָ עָלַ֖י לְמַשָּֽׂא׃‬ And David said to him, “If you come over with me, you will be a burden to me.
2 Sam 15:34 ‫וְאִם־הָעִ֣יר תָּשׁ֗וּב וְאָמַרְתָּ֤ לְאַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ עַבְדְּךָ֨ אֲנִ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶֽהְיֶ֔ה עֶ֣בֶד אָבִ֤יךָ וַֽאֲנִי֙ מֵאָ֔ז וְעַתָּ֖ה וַאֲנִ֣י עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וְהֵפַרְתָּ֣ה לִ֔י אֵ֖ת עֲצַ֥ת אֲחִיתֹֽפֶל׃‬ But if you go back to the city and say to Absalom, ‘O king, I will be your servant; I was your father's servant, and as I was then, so now I am your servant’, then you will frustrate Ahithophel's plan for me. then ← from then.

plan ← counsel.
2 Sam 15:35 ‫וַהֲל֤וֹא עִמְּךָ֙ שָׁ֔ם צָד֥וֹק וְאֶבְיָתָ֖ר הַכֹּהֲנִ֑ים וְהָיָ֗ה כָּל־הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּשְׁמַע֙ מִבֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ תַּגִּ֕יד לְצָד֥וֹק וּלְאֶבְיָתָ֖ר הַכֹּהֲנִֽים׃‬ For will not Zadok and Abiathar the priests be there with you? And it will come to pass that you will tell Zadok and Abiathar the priests everything you hear from the king's house. Abiathar (2x): see 1 Sam 22:20.
2 Sam 15:36 ‫הִנֵּה־שָׁ֤ם עִמָּם֙ שְׁנֵ֣י בְנֵיהֶ֔ם אֲחִימַ֣עַץ לְצָד֔וֹק וִיהוֹנָתָ֖ן לְאֶבְיָתָ֑ר וּשְׁלַחְתֶּ֤ם בְּיָדָם֙ אֵלַ֔י כָּל־דָּבָ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּשְׁמָֽעוּ׃‬ Moreover their two sons are there with them – Ahimaaz Zadok's and Jonathan Abiathar's – and you will send word to me through their intermediacy of everything you hear.” moreover ← behold.

Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.

intermediacy ← hand.
2 Sam 15:37 ‫וַיָּבֹ֥א חוּשַׁ֛י רֵעֶ֥ה דָוִ֖ד הָעִ֑יר וְאַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם יָבֹ֖א יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ So Hushai David's friend went to the city, and Absalom arrived in Jerusalem.
2 Sam 16:1 ‫וְדָוִ֗ד עָבַ֤ר מְעַט֙ מֵֽהָרֹ֔אשׁ וְהִנֵּ֥ה צִיבָ֛א נַ֥עַר מְפִי־בֹ֖שֶׁת לִקְרָאת֑וֹ וְצֶ֨מֶד חֲמֹרִ֜ים חֲבֻשִׁ֗ים וַעֲלֵיהֶם֩ מָאתַ֨יִם לֶ֜חֶם וּמֵאָ֧ה צִמּוּקִ֛ים וּמֵ֥אָה קַ֖יִץ וְנֵ֥בֶל יָֽיִן׃‬ Then when David had moved on a little from the summit, he saw Ziba, Mephibosheth's servant-lad coming towards him, and a pair of donkeys pack-saddled with two hundred loaves of bread on them and one hundred cakes of raisins and one hundred summer fruits and a skin-bottle of wine. he saw ← behold.
2 Sam 16:2 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־צִיבָ֖א מָה־אֵ֣לֶּה לָּ֑ךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר צִ֠יבָא הַחֲמוֹרִ֨ים לְבֵית־הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לִרְכֹּ֗ב *ולהלחם **וְהַלֶּ֤חֶם וְהַקַּ֙יִץ֙ לֶאֱכ֣וֹל הַנְּעָרִ֔ים וְהַיַּ֕יִן לִשְׁתּ֥וֹת הַיָּעֵ֖ף בַּמִּדְבָּֽר׃‬ And the king said to Ziba, “What are these things of yours?” And Ziba said, “The donkeys are for the king's household to ride on, {Q: and the bread} [K: and for the bread], and the summer fruits are for the lads to eat, and the wine is for anyone weary in the desert to drink.” The ketiv reading we have given is irregular (no contraction of preposition and the article). Alternatively the ketiv could be read as and to fight (from).
2 Sam 16:3 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְאַיֵּ֖ה בֶּן־אֲדֹנֶ֑יךָ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר צִיבָ֜א אֶל־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ הִנֵּה֙ יוֹשֵׁ֣ב בִּירוּשָׁלִַ֔ם כִּ֣י אָמַ֔ר הַיּ֗וֹם יָשִׁ֤יבוּ לִי֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֵ֖ת מַמְלְכ֥וּת אָבִֽי׃‬ Then the king said, “And where is your master's son?” And Ziba said to the king, “Well now, he is staying in Jerusalem, for he said, ‘Today the house of Israel will restore my father's kingdom to me.’ ” your master's son: i.e. Saul's grandson, Jonathan's son, Mephibosheth.

Ziba said: we agree with [CB] that this was slander against Mephibosheth. Mephibosheth presents his ↴

well now ← behold.
2 Sam 16:4 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְצִבָ֔א הִנֵּ֣ה לְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר לִמְפִי־בֹ֑שֶׁת וַיֹּ֤אמֶר צִיבָא֙ הִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֵ֔יתִי אֶמְצָא־חֵ֥ן בְּעֵינֶ֖יךָ אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And the king said to Ziba, “Look, everything which was Mephibosheth's is yours.” And Ziba said, “I am humbled in that I find grace in your sight, my lord the king.” ↳ side of the story, which is much more credible, in 2 Sam 19:25 (2 Sam 19:24AV) - 2 Sam 19:30 (2 Sam 19:29AV).

am humbled ← prostrate myself.
2 Sam 16:5 ‫וּבָ֛א הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ דָּוִ֖ד עַד־בַּֽחוּרִ֑ים וְהִנֵּ֣ה מִשָּׁם֩ אִ֨ישׁ יוֹצֵ֜א מִמִּשְׁפַּ֣חַת בֵּית־שָׁא֗וּל וּשְׁמוֹ֙ שִׁמְעִ֣י בֶן־גֵּרָ֔א יֹצֵ֥א יָצ֖וֹא וּמְקַלֵּֽל׃‬ Then when King David was approaching Bahurim, he saw a man of the family of the house of Saul coming out from there, whose name was Shimei the son of Gera, cursing incessantly as he came out. he saw ← behold.

Shimei ← Shim'i, the first syllable being closed, but we retain the AV / traditional English name. Compare Ex 6:17. See Gen 31:21.

cursing incessantly as he came out ← coming out coming out and cursing. Infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 16:6 ‫וַיְסַקֵּ֤ל בָּֽאֲבָנִים֙ אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד וְאֶת־כָּל־עַבְדֵ֖י הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֑ד וְכָל־הָעָם֙ וְכָל־הַגִּבֹּרִ֔ים מִימִינ֖וֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלֽוֹ׃‬ And he threw stones at David and all King David's servants, and at all the people, and at all the warriors, to the right and to the left. threw stones ← pelted with stones.

to the right and to the left: more loosely, left, right and centre.
2 Sam 16:7 ‫וְכֹֽה־אָמַ֥ר שִׁמְעִ֖י בְּקַֽלְל֑וֹ צֵ֥א צֵ֛א אִ֥ישׁ הַדָּמִ֖ים וְאִ֥ישׁ הַבְּלִיָּֽעַל׃‬ And this is what Shimei said in his cursing: “Come out, come out, you man of blood and useless man. this is whatthus.

Shimei: see 2 Sam 16:5.
2 Sam 16:8 ‫הֵשִׁיב֩ עָלֶ֨יךָ יְהוָ֜ה כֹּ֣ל ׀ דְּמֵ֣י בֵית־שָׁא֗וּל אֲשֶׁ֤ר מָלַ֙כְתָּ֙ *תחתו **תַּחְתָּ֔יו וַיִּתֵּ֤ן יְהוָה֙ אֶת־הַמְּלוּכָ֔ה בְּיַ֖ד אַבְשָׁל֣וֹם בְּנֶ֑ךָ וְהִנְּךָ֙ בְּרָ֣עָתֶ֔ךָ כִּ֛י אִ֥ישׁ דָּמִ֖ים אָֽתָּה׃‬ The Lord has requited you all the blood of the house of Saul in whose place you have reigned, but the Lord has put the kingdom in the house of Absalom your son, and here you are in your plight, because you are a man of blood.” in whose place: the ketiv and qeré are different declined forms of the same word, with the same meaning, as in 2 Sam 2:23.

here you arebehold you.
2 Sam 16:9 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲבִישַׁ֤י בֶּן־צְרוּיָה֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לָ֣מָּה יְקַלֵּ֞ל הַכֶּ֤לֶב הַמֵּת֙ הַזֶּ֔ה אֶת־אֲדֹנִ֖י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ אֶעְבְּרָה־נָּ֖א וְאָסִ֥ירָה אֶת־רֹאשֽׁוֹ׃ ס‬ At this Abishai the son of Zeruiah said to the king, “Why should this dead dog curse my lord the king? Please let me go over and remove his head.” at this: wider use of the vav.
2 Sam 16:10 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מַה־לִּ֥י וְלָכֶ֖ם בְּנֵ֣י צְרֻיָ֑ה *כי **כֹּ֣ה יְקַלֵּ֗ל *וכי **כִּ֤י יְהוָה֙ אָ֤מַר לוֹ֙ קַלֵּ֣ל אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד וּמִ֣י יֹאמַ֔ר מַדּ֖וּעַ עָשִׂ֥יתָה כֵּֽן׃ ס‬ But the king said, “What does it matter to me and to you, you sons of Zeruiah, {K: if he curses and if} [Q: let him so curse, for] the Lord has said to him, ‘Curse David’? So who can say, ‘Why have you done this?’?” why have you: a formula for criticism. See 2 Sam 3:7 - 2 Sam 3:8.

this ← so.
2 Sam 16:11 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֤ד אֶל־אֲבִישַׁי֙ וְאֶל־כָּל־עֲבָדָ֔יו הִנֵּ֥ה בְנִ֛י אֲשֶׁר־יָצָ֥א מִמֵּעַ֖י מְבַקֵּ֣שׁ אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֑י וְאַ֨ף כִּֽי־עַתָּ֜ה בֶּן־הַיְמִינִ֗י הַנִּ֤חוּ לוֹ֙ וִֽיקַלֵּ֔ל כִּ֥י אָֽמַר־ל֖וֹ יְהוָֽה׃‬ And David said to Abishai and to all his servants, “Look, my son who came out of my inward parts is seeking my life. So now, how much more may this Benjaminite? Leave him to curse, for so the Lord has said to him. inward parts ← bowels.

life ← soul.
2 Sam 16:12 ‫אוּלַ֛י יִרְאֶ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה *בעוני **בְּעֵינִ֑י וְהֵשִׁ֨יב יְהוָ֥ה לִי֙ טוֹבָ֔ה תַּ֥חַת קִלְלָת֖וֹ הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃‬ It may be that the Lord will look {P: with his eye,} [K: at my iniquity,] [Q: in my eye,] and that the Lord will render me good for that man's cursing this day.” An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB] App. 33. P= בעינו. AV differs, reading the ketiv, but from עֳנִי, ‘oni, affliction, which is possible, but the full holem is exceptional.

that man's ← his.
2 Sam 16:13 ‫וַיֵּ֧לֶךְ דָּוִ֛ד וַאֲנָשָׁ֖יו בַּדָּ֑רֶךְ ס וְשִׁמְעִ֡י הֹלֵךְ֩ בְּצֵ֨לַע הָהָ֜ר לְעֻמָּת֗וֹ הָלוֹךְ֙ וַיְקַלֵּ֔ל וַיְסַקֵּ֤ל בָּֽאֲבָנִים֙ לְעֻמָּת֔וֹ וְעִפַּ֖ר בֶּעָפָֽר׃ פ‬ And David and his men went on their way, while Shimei went on the mountain flank opposite him, cursing as he went and throwing stones at him, and throwing soil. Shimei: see 2 Sam 16:5.

as he went: infinitive absolute.

throwing stones: see 2 Sam 16:6.

soil ← dust, but also earth.
2 Sam 16:14 ‫וַיָּבֹ֥א הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְכָל־הָעָ֥ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֖וֹ עֲיֵפִ֑ים וַיִּנָּפֵ֖שׁ שָֽׁם׃‬ And the king and all the people who were with him arrived tired, and he refreshed himself there. he refreshed himself: or, with collective use of “the people”, they refreshed themselves.
2 Sam 16:15 ‫וְאַבְשָׁל֗וֹם וְכָל־הָעָם֙ אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בָּ֖אוּ יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וַאֲחִיתֹ֖פֶל אִתּֽוֹ׃‬ And Absalom and all the people – men of Israel – arrived in Jerusalem, and Ahithophel was with him.
2 Sam 16:16 ‫וַיְהִ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־בָּ֞א חוּשַׁ֧י הָאַרְכִּ֛י רֵעֶ֥ה דָוִ֖ד אֶל־אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר חוּשַׁי֙ אֶל־אַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם יְחִ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ יְחִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And it came to pass when Hushai the Archite, David's friend, went to Absalom, that Hushai said to Absalom, “May the king live, may the king live.”
2 Sam 16:17 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ אֶל־חוּשַׁ֔י זֶ֥ה חַסְדְּךָ֖ אֶת־רֵעֶ֑ךָ לָ֥מָּה לֹֽא־הָלַ֖כְתָּ אֶת־רֵעֶֽךָ׃‬ And Absalom said to Hushai, “That is your gracious courtesy with your friend. Why have you not gone with your friend?” that ← this.

gracious courtesy ← graciousness.
2 Sam 16:18 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חוּשַׁי֮ אֶל־אַבְשָׁלֹם֒ לֹ֕א כִּי֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּחַ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה וְהָעָ֥ם הַזֶּ֖ה וְכָל־אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל *לא **ל֥וֹ אֶהְיֶ֖ה וְאִתּ֥וֹ אֵשֵֽׁב׃‬ And Hushai said to Absalom, “No, for my loyalty is to whomever the Lord chooses, and this people, and every man of Israel. {Q: I will be for him,} [K: I will not be so,] and I will stay with him. On the ketiv, see Ex 21:8.
2 Sam 16:19 ‫וְהַשֵּׁנִ֗ית לְמִי֙ אֲנִ֣י אֶֽעֱבֹ֔ד הֲל֖וֹא לִפְנֵ֣י בְנ֑וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָבַ֙דְתִּי֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ כֵּ֖ן אֶהְיֶ֥ה לְפָנֶֽיךָ׃ פ‬ And secondly, whom should I serve? Should it not be in the presence of his son? As I have served in the presence of your father, so I will be in your presence.”
2 Sam 16:20 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם אֶל־אֲחִיתֹ֑פֶל הָב֥וּ לָכֶ֛ם עֵצָ֖ה מַֽה־נַּעֲשֶֽׂה׃‬ Then Absalom said to Ahithophel, “Give your advice as to what we should do.”
2 Sam 16:21 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲחִיתֹ֙פֶל֙ אֶל־אַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם בּ֚וֹא אֶל־פִּלַגְשֵׁ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִנִּ֖יחַ לִשְׁמ֣וֹר הַבָּ֑יִת וְשָׁמַ֤ע כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כִּֽי־נִבְאַ֣שְׁתָּ אֶת־אָבִ֔יךָ וְחָ֣זְק֔וּ יְדֵ֖י כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתָּֽךְ׃‬ And Ahithophel said to Absalom, “Go in to your father's concubines whom he has left to keep the house, and all Israel will hear that you have become abhorrent to your father, and the hands of all those who are with you will be strengthened.”
2 Sam 16:22 ‫וַיַּטּ֧וּ לְאַבְשָׁל֛וֹם הָאֹ֖הֶל עַל־הַגָּ֑ג וַיָּבֹ֤א אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ אֶל־פִּֽלַגְשֵׁ֣י אָבִ֔יו לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ Then they pitched a tent for Absalom on the roof, and Absalom went in to his father's concubines in the sight of the whole of Israel.
2 Sam 16:23 ‫וַעֲצַ֣ת אֲחִיתֹ֗פֶל אֲשֶׁ֤ר יָעַץ֙ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשְׁאַל־**אִ֖ישׁ בִּדְבַ֣ר הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים כֵּ֚ן כָּל־עֲצַ֣ת אֲחִיתֹ֔פֶל גַּם־לְדָוִ֖ד גַּ֥ם לְאַבְשָׁלֹֽם׃ ס‬ And Ahithophel's advice which he gave in those days was as when {K: a man} [Q: a man] asks for the word of God. So was all Ahithophel's advice, both to David and to Absalom. gave ← advised.
2 Sam 17:1 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲחִיתֹ֖פֶל אֶל־אַבְשָׁלֹ֑ם אֶבְחֲרָ֣ה נָּ֗א שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֥ר אֶ֙לֶף֙ אִ֔ישׁ וְאָק֛וּמָה וְאֶרְדְּפָ֥ה אַחֲרֵי־דָוִ֖ד הַלָּֽיְלָה׃‬ And Ahithophel said to Absalom, “Let me select twelve thousand men, and I will arise and pursue David tonight.
2 Sam 17:2 ‫וְאָב֣וֹא עָלָ֗יו וְה֤וּא יָגֵ֙עַ֙ וּרְפֵ֣ה יָדַ֔יִם וְהַֽחֲרַדְתִּ֣י אֹת֔וֹ וְנָ֖ס כָּל־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֑וֹ וְהִכֵּיתִ֥י אֶת־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לְבַדּֽוֹ׃‬ And I will come upon him when he is tired and weak in the hands, and I will frighten him, and all the people who are with him will flee. But I will strike the king only.
2 Sam 17:3 ‫וְאָשִׁ֥יבָה כָל־הָעָ֖ם אֵלֶ֑יךָ כְּשׁ֣וּב הַכֹּ֔ל הָאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתָּ֣ה מְבַקֵּ֔שׁ כָּל־הָעָ֖ם יִהְיֶ֥ה שָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ And I will cause all the people to return to you. The man whose life you seek is key to everyone returning. All the people will be at peace.” is key to ← (is) according to.
2 Sam 17:4 ‫וַיִּישַׁ֥ר הַדָּבָ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֣י אַבְשָׁלֹ֑ם וּבְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬ And the proposal was sound in Absalom's eyes and the eyes of all the elders of Israel. proposal ← word.

was sound ← was upright.
2 Sam 17:5 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם קְרָ֣א נָ֔א גַּ֖ם לְחוּשַׁ֣י הָאַרְכִּ֑י וְנִשְׁמְעָ֥ה מַה־בְּפִ֖יו גַּם־הֽוּא׃‬ Then Absalom said, “Please also call Hushai the Archite, and let us hear what he has to say as well.” what he has to say ← what (is) in his mouth.
2 Sam 17:6 ‫וַיָּבֹ֣א חוּשַׁי֮ אֶל־אַבְשָׁלוֹם֒ וַיֹּאמֶר֩ אַבְשָׁל֨וֹם אֵלָ֜יו לֵאמֹ֗ר כַּדָּבָ֤ר הַזֶּה֙ דִּבֶּ֣ר אֲחִיתֹ֔פֶל הֲנַעֲשֶׂ֖ה אֶת־דְּבָר֑וֹ אִם־אַ֖יִן אַתָּ֥ה דַבֵּֽר׃ ס‬ And when Hushai came to Absalom, Absalom spoke to him and said, “Ahithophel put this proposal forward. Should we carry out his proposal? If not, you speak up.” put this proposal forward ← spoke this word.

proposal (second occurrence in verse)word.
2 Sam 17:7 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר חוּשַׁ֖י אֶל־אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם לֹֽא־טוֹבָ֧ה הָעֵצָ֛ה אֲשֶׁר־יָעַ֥ץ אֲחִיתֹ֖פֶל בַּפַּ֥עַם הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ At this, Hushai said to Absalom, “The advice which Ahithophel gave is not good on this occasion.” at this: wider use of the vav.

gave ← advised.
2 Sam 17:8 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חוּשַׁ֗י אַתָּ֣ה יָ֠דַעְתָּ אֶת־אָבִ֨יךָ וְאֶת־אֲנָשָׁ֜יו כִּ֧י גִבֹּרִ֣ים הֵ֗מָּה וּמָרֵ֥י נֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ הֵ֔מָּה כְּדֹ֥ב שַׁכּ֖וּל בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וְאָבִ֙יךָ֙ אִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א יָלִ֖ין אֶת־הָעָֽם׃‬ And Hushai said, “You know your father and his men – how valiant they are, and how embittered they are in spirit, like a bear bereaved of young in the wild, and your father is a man of war, and he will not pass the night with the people. how ← that.

spirit ← soul.

wild ← field.
2 Sam 17:9 ‫הִנֵּ֨ה עַתָּ֤ה הֽוּא־נֶחְבָּא֙ בְּאַחַ֣ת הַפְּחָתִ֔ים א֖וֹ בְּאַחַ֣ד הַמְּקוֹמֹ֑ת וְהָיָ֗ה כִּנְפֹ֤ל בָּהֶם֙ בַּתְּחִלָּ֔ה וְשָׁמַ֤ע הַשֹּׁמֵ֙עַ֙ וְאָמַ֔ר הָֽיְתָה֙ מַגֵּפָ֔ה בָּעָ֕ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר אַחֲרֵ֥י אַבְשָׁלֹֽם׃‬ Look, he is now hidden in one of the pits or in one of the hiding places, and it would come to pass, when some of those among them fell at the start, that one hearing it would say, ‘There was a massacre among the people who were following Absalom.’ them: i.e. Absalom's men, the conspirators.

one hearing ← a hearer hearing.
2 Sam 17:10 ‫וְה֣וּא גַם־בֶּן־חַ֗יִל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִבּ֛וֹ כְּלֵ֥ב הָאַרְיֵ֖ה הִמֵּ֣ס יִמָּ֑ס כִּֽי־יֹדֵ֤עַ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כִּי־גִבּ֣וֹר אָבִ֔יךָ וּבְנֵי־חַ֖יִל אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ׃‬ And even he who is a soldier, whose heart is like the heart of a lion, would utterly melt, for all Israel knows that your father is valiant, as are the soldiers who are with him. soldier ← son of force.

would utterly melt: infinitive absolute (in a secondary form).
2 Sam 17:11 ‫כִּ֣י יָעַ֗צְתִּי הֵ֠אָסֹף יֵאָסֵ֨ף עָלֶ֤יךָ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִדָּן֙ וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע כַּח֥וֹל אֲשֶׁר־עַל־הַיָּ֖ם לָרֹ֑ב וּפָנֶ֥יךָ הֹלְכִ֖ים בַּקְרָֽב׃‬ So I advise that all Israel be solidly gathered around you, from Dan to Beersheba, like the sand which is by the sea in abundance, and that you go to battle in person. be solidly gathered: infinitive absolute.

around you ← to you.

you go to battle in person ← your face goes to battle.
2 Sam 17:12 ‫וּבָ֣אנוּ אֵלָ֗יו *באחת **בְּאַחַ֤ד הַמְּקוֹמֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִמְצָ֣א שָׁ֔ם וְנַ֣חְנוּ עָלָ֔יו כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר יִפֹּ֥ל הַטַּ֖ל עַל־הָאֲדָמָ֑ה וְלֹֽא־נ֥וֹתַר בּ֛וֹ וּבְכָל־הָאֲנָשִׁ֥ים אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֖וֹ גַּם־אֶחָֽד׃‬ And we will come upon him in one of the places where he is found, and we will descend on him as the dew falls on the ground, and not even one of all the men who are with him will remain. one: the ketiv is feminine; the qeré, masculine.

even ← also, but the scope is wider.
2 Sam 17:13 ‫וְאִם־אֶל־עִיר֙ יֵֽאָסֵ֔ף וְהִשִּׂ֧יאוּ כָֽל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶל־הָעִ֥יר הַהִ֖יא חֲבָלִ֑ים וְסָחַ֤בְנוּ אֹתוֹ֙ עַד־הַנַּ֔חַל עַ֛ד אֲשֶֽׁר־לֹא־נִמְצָ֥א שָׁ֖ם גַּם־צְרֽוֹר׃ פ‬ And if he is concentrated in a city, then all Israel will bring ropes against that city, and we will drag it to the brook until not so much as a grain is found there.” concentrated ← gathered.

drag it: discordant in gender with city, but it can hardly be translated drag him.

so much as ← also, but the scope is wider.
2 Sam 17:14 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ וְכָל־אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל טוֹבָ֗ה עֲצַת֙ חוּשַׁ֣י הָאַרְכִּ֔י מֵעֲצַ֖ת אֲחִיתֹ֑פֶל וַיהוָ֣ה צִוָּ֗ה לְהָפֵ֞ר אֶת־עֲצַ֤ת אֲחִיתֹ֙פֶל֙ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה לְבַעֲב֗וּר הָבִ֧יא יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם אֶת־הָרָעָֽה׃ ס‬ At this Absalom and every man of Israel said, “The advice of Hushai the Archite is better than the advice of Ahithophel.” So the Lord ordained to frustrate the good advice of Ahithophel in order that the Lord should bring demise on Absalom. at this: wider use of the vav.

ordained ← commanded.

demise ← the evil.
2 Sam 17:15 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חוּשַׁ֗י אֶל־צָד֤וֹק וְאֶל־אֶבְיָתָר֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים כָּזֹ֣את וְכָזֹ֗את יָעַ֤ץ אֲחִיתֹ֙פֶל֙ אֶת־אַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת זִקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְכָזֹ֥את וְכָזֹ֖את יָעַ֥צְתִּי אָֽנִי׃‬ And Hushai said to Zadok and to Abiathar the priests, “Ahithophel advised Absalom and the elders of Israel such and such, and I myself advised such and such. Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.
2 Sam 17:16 ‫וְעַתָּ֡ה שִׁלְח֣וּ מְהֵרָה֩ וְהַגִּ֨ידוּ לְדָוִ֜ד לֵאמֹ֗ר אַל־תָּ֤לֶן הַלַּ֙יְלָה֙ בְּעַֽרְב֣וֹת הַמִּדְבָּ֔ר וְגַ֖ם עָב֣וֹר תַּעֲב֑וֹר פֶּ֚ן יְבֻלַּ֣ע לַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וּלְכָל־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ׃‬ So now, send word quickly for them to tell David and say, ‘Do not spend the night tonight in the arid tracts of the desert, but rather cross right over so that the king and all the people who are with him are not swallowed up.’ ” rather ← also, but the scope is wider.

cross right over: infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 17:17 ‫וִיהוֹנָתָ֨ן וַאֲחִימַ֜עַץ עֹמְדִ֣ים בְּעֵין־רֹגֵ֗ל וְהָלְכָ֤ה הַשִּׁפְחָה֙ וְהִגִּ֣ידָה לָהֶ֔ם וְהֵם֙ יֵֽלְכ֔וּ וְהִגִּ֖ידוּ לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֑ד כִּ֣י לֹ֥א יוּכְל֛וּ לְהֵרָא֖וֹת לָב֥וֹא הָעִֽירָה׃‬ Now Jonathan and Ahimaaz were stationed in En-Rogel, and a servant-girl came and told them, and they proceeded to tell King David, because the others could not be seen going to the city. stationed ← standing.

a servant-girl ← the servant girl. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.

the others ← they, presumably the priests.
2 Sam 17:18 ‫וַיַּ֤רְא אֹתָם֙ נַ֔עַר וַיַּגֵּ֖ד לְאַבְשָׁלֹ֑ם וַיֵּלְכוּ֩ שְׁנֵיהֶ֨ם מְהֵרָ֜ה וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ ׀ אֶל־בֵּֽית־אִ֣ישׁ בְּבַחוּרִ֗ים וְל֥וֹ בְאֵ֛ר בַּחֲצֵר֖וֹ וַיֵּ֥רְדוּ שָֽׁם׃‬ But a lad saw them, and he told Absalom, so the two of them went on quickly and came to the house of a man in Bahurim, who had a well in his courtyard, and they went down into it. into it ← there.
2 Sam 17:19 ‫וַתִּקַּ֣ח הָאִשָּׁ֗ה וַתִּפְרֹ֤שׂ אֶת־הַמָּסָךְ֙ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַבְּאֵ֔ר וַתִּשְׁטַ֥ח עָלָ֖יו הָֽרִפ֑וֹת וְלֹ֥א נוֹדַ֖ע דָּבָֽר׃‬ And the woman took and spread a cover over the top of the well, and she strewed crushed grain over it, and nothing was made known. a cover ← the cover. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
2 Sam 17:20 ‫וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ עַבְדֵי֩ אַבְשָׁל֨וֹם אֶֽל־הָאִשָּׁ֜ה הַבַּ֗יְתָה וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ אַיֵּ֗ה אֲחִימַ֙עַץ֙ וִיה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַתֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה עָבְר֖וּ מִיכַ֣ל הַמָּ֑יִם וַיְבַקְשׁוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א מָצָ֔אוּ וַיָּשֻׁ֖בוּ יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ ס‬ And when Absalom's servants came to the woman at the house, they said, “Where are Ahimaaz and Jonathan?” And the woman said to them, “They have crossed the brook.” Then they searched, but they did not find anyone, and they returned to Jerusalem. at the house ← to the house.

brook ← brook of water.
2 Sam 17:21 ‫וַיְהִ֣י ׀ אַחֲרֵ֣י לֶכְתָּ֗ם וַֽיַּעֲלוּ֙ מֵֽהַבְּאֵ֔ר וַיֵּ֣לְכ֔וּ וַיַּגִּ֖דוּ לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֑ד וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד ק֣וּמוּ וְעִבְר֤וּ מְהֵרָה֙ אֶת־הַמַּ֔יִם כִּי־כָ֛כָה יָעַ֥ץ עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם אֲחִיתֹֽפֶל׃‬ And it came to pass, after they were gone, that they came up out of the well, and they departed and reported to King David, and they said to David, “Get up and cross the water quickly, for Ahithophel gave advice against you in such and such a way.” against you: you plural.
2 Sam 17:22 ‫וַיָּ֣קָם דָּוִ֗ד וְכָל־הָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ וַיַּעַבְר֖וּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן עַד־א֣וֹר הַבֹּ֗קֶר עַד־אַחַד֙ לֹ֣א נֶעְדָּ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־עָבַ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּֽן׃‬ So David got up, as did all the people with him, and they crossed the Jordan. By morning light not as much as one had failed to cross the Jordan. as much as ← up to.

had failed to cross ← was lacking who had not crossed.
2 Sam 17:23 ‫וַאֲחִיתֹ֣פֶל רָאָ֗ה כִּ֣י לֹ֣א נֶעֶשְׂתָה֮ עֲצָתוֹ֒ וַיַּחֲבֹ֣שׁ אֶֽת־הַחֲמ֗וֹר וַיָּ֜קָם וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ֙ אֶל־עִיר֔וֹ וַיְצַ֥ו אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ וַיֵּחָנַ֑ק וַיָּ֕מָת וַיִּקָּבֵ֖ר בְּקֶ֥בֶר אָבִֽיו׃ ס‬ Then when Ahithophel saw that his advice had not been carried out, he saddled his donkey and arose and went to his house – to his city – and gave instructions to his household, and he strangled himself and died, and he was buried in his father's grave.
2 Sam 17:24 ‫וְדָוִ֖ד בָּ֣א מַחֲנָ֑יְמָה וְאַבְשָׁלֹ֗ם עָבַר֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן ה֕וּא וְכָל־אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עִמּֽוֹ׃‬ Then David went to Mahanaim, and Absalom crossed the Jordan – he and every man of Israel with him.
2 Sam 17:25 ‫וְאֶת־עֲמָשָׂ֗א שָׂ֧ם אַבְשָׁלֹ֛ם תַּ֥חַת יוֹאָ֖ב עַל־הַצָּבָ֑א וַעֲמָשָׂ֣א בֶן־אִ֗ישׁ וּשְׁמוֹ֙ יִתְרָ֣א הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִ֔י אֲשֶׁר־בָּא֙ אֶל־אֲבִיגַ֣ל בַּת־נָחָ֔שׁ אֲח֥וֹת צְרוּיָ֖ה אֵ֥ם יוֹאָֽב׃‬ And Absalom appointed Amasa in charge of the army as Joab's counterpart. Now Amasa was the son of a man whose name was Ithra, the Israelite who went in to Abigail the daughter of Nahash, the sister of Zeruiah, the mother of Joab. || 1 Chr 2:17.

in charge of ← over.

as Joab's counterpart ← in Joab's position. Joab is still in charge of an army – see next chapter.
2 Sam 17:26 ‫וַיִּ֤חַן יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם אֶ֖רֶץ הַגִּלְעָֽד׃ ס‬ And Israel and Absalom encamped in the land of Gilead. Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
2 Sam 17:27 ‫וַיְהִ֕י כְּב֥וֹא דָוִ֖ד מַחֲנָ֑יְמָה וְשֹׁבִ֨י בֶן־נָחָ֜שׁ מֵרַבַּ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־עַמּ֗וֹן וּמָכִ֤יר בֶּן־עַמִּיאֵל֙ מִלֹּ֣א דְבָ֔ר וּבַרְזִלַּ֥י הַגִּלְעָדִ֖י מֵרֹגְלִֽים׃‬ And it came to pass when David arrived in Mahanaim that Shobi the son of Nahash from Rabbah of the sons of Ammon, and Machir the son of Ammiel from Lo-Debar, and Barzillai the Gileadite from Rogelim, in Mahanaim ← to Mahanaim.

Gileadite: see Gen 31:21.
2 Sam 17:28 ‫מִשְׁכָּ֤ב וְסַפּוֹת֙ וּכְלִ֣י יוֹצֵ֔ר וְחִטִּ֥ים וּשְׂעֹרִ֖ים וְקֶ֣מַח וְקָלִ֑י וּפ֥וֹל וַעֲדָשִׁ֖ים וְקָלִֽי׃‬ all brought bedding and trays and crockery and wheat and barley and flour and roasted corn and beans and lentils and roasted lentils, brought: the Hebrew word occurs in the next verse.

crockery ← vessels of a potter.
2 Sam 17:29 ‫וּדְבַ֣שׁ וְחֶמְאָ֗ה וְצֹאן֙ וּשְׁפ֣וֹת בָּקָ֔ר הִגִּ֧ישׁוּ לְדָוִ֛ד וְלָעָ֥ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֖וֹ לֶאֱכ֑וֹל כִּ֣י אָמְר֔וּ הָעָ֗ם רָעֵ֛ב וְעָיֵ֥ף וְצָמֵ֖א בַּמִּדְבָּֽר׃‬ and honey and buttermilk, and sheep, and cows' cheese, to David and the people who were with him, for sustenance, for they had said, “The people are hungry and weary and thirsty in the desert.” buttermilk: or butter.

for sustenance ← to eat.
2 Sam 18:1 ‫וַיִּפְקֹ֣ד דָּוִ֔ד אֶת־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ וַיָּ֣שֶׂם עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם שָׂרֵ֥י אֲלָפִ֖ים וְשָׂרֵ֥י מֵאֽוֹת׃‬ And David took stock of the people who were with him, and he appointed commanders of a thousand and commanders of a hundred over them. commanders of a thousand and commanders of a hundred: equivalent to generals and brigadiers.
2 Sam 18:2 ‫וַיְשַׁלַּ֨ח דָּוִ֜ד אֶת־הָעָ֗ם הַשְּׁלִשִׁ֤ית בְּיַד־יוֹאָב֙ וְ֠הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בְּיַ֨ד אֲבִישַׁ֤י בֶּן־צְרוּיָה֙ אֲחִ֣י יוֹאָ֔ב וְהַ֨שְּׁלִשִׁ֔ת בְּיַ֖ד אִתַּ֣י הַגִּתִּ֑י ס וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם יָצֹ֥א אֵצֵ֛א גַּם־אֲנִ֖י עִמָּכֶֽם׃‬ And David sent out one third of the people under Joab's charge, and one third under the charge of Abishai the son of Zeruiah, Joab's brother, and one third under the charge of Ittai the Gittite. And the king said to the people, “I too will certainly go out with you.” under Joab's charge ← in Joab's hand.

will certainly go out: infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 18:3 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָעָ֜ם לֹ֣א תֵצֵ֗א כִּי֩ אִם־נֹ֨ס נָנ֜וּס לֹא־יָשִׂ֧ימוּ אֵלֵ֣ינוּ לֵ֗ב וְאִם־יָמֻ֤תוּ חֶצְיֵ֙נוּ֙ לֹֽא־יָשִׂ֤ימוּ אֵלֵ֙ינוּ֙ לֵ֔ב כִּֽי־עַתָּ֥ה כָמֹ֖נוּ עֲשָׂרָ֣ה אֲלָפִ֑ים וְעַתָּ֣ה ט֔וֹב כִּי־תִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֥נוּ מֵעִ֖יר *לעזיר **לַעְזֽוֹר׃ ס‬ But the people said, “You will not go out, for if we have to flee, they will not pay attention to us, and if half of us die, they will not pay attention to us, but you are now like ten thousand of us, and you are better placed now if you are available to us to help from the city.” to help: the ketiv (hiphil stem-formation, contracted) is a variant of the qeré (qal stem-formation), with the same meaning.

we have to flee: infinitive absolute.

better placed ← good.
2 Sam 18:4 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־יִיטַ֥ב בְּעֵינֵיכֶ֖ם אֶעֱשֶׂ֑ה וַיַּעֲמֹ֤ד הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־יַ֣ד הַשַּׁ֔עַר וְכָל־הָעָם֙ יָֽצְא֔וּ לְמֵא֖וֹת וְלַאֲלָפִֽים׃‬ And the king said to them, “I will do whatever is right in your eyes.” And the king stood next to the gate, while all the people went out in hundreds and in thousands.
2 Sam 18:5 ‫וַיְצַ֣ו הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ אֶת־י֠וֹאָב וְאֶת־אֲבִישַׁ֤י וְאֶת־אִתַּי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לְאַט־לִ֖י לַנַּ֣עַר לְאַבְשָׁל֑וֹם וְכָל־הָעָ֣ם שָׁמְע֗וּ בְּצַוֺּ֥ת הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶת־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִ֖ים עַל־דְּבַ֥ר אַבְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ And the king ordered Joab and Abishai and Ittai and said, “Deal gently with the young man Absalom for me.” And all the people heard when the king gave orders to all the commanders about Absalom. about ← on the matter of.
2 Sam 18:6 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֥א הָעָ֛ם הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לִקְרַ֣את יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַתְּהִ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה בְּיַ֥עַר אֶפְרָֽיִם׃‬ And the people went out into the country to confront Israel, and the battle took place in the forest of Ephraim. took place ← was.
2 Sam 18:7 ‫וַיִּנָּ֤גְפוּ שָׁם֙ עַ֣ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִפְנֵ֖י עַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֑ד וַתְּהִי־שָׁ֞ם הַמַּגֵּפָ֧ה גְדוֹלָ֛ה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא עֶשְׂרִ֥ים אָֽלֶף׃‬ And the people of Israel were defeated there by David's servants, and there was a great massacre on that day – twenty thousand dead. by ← before.
2 Sam 18:8 ‫וַתְּהִי־שָׁ֧ם הַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה *נפצית **נָפֹ֖צֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיֶּ֤רֶב הַיַּ֙עַר֙ לֶאֱכֹ֣ל בָּעָ֔ם מֵאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָכְלָ֛ה הַחֶ֖רֶב בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃‬ And the battle there was spread out over the face of all the land, and the forest consumed the people in greater numbers than the sword consumed on that day. was spread out: the ketiv and qeré are different spellings of the same word.

consumed the people in greater numbers ← increased to consume among the people.
2 Sam 18:9 ‫וַיִּקָּרֵא֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם לִפְנֵ֖י עַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֑ד וְאַבְשָׁל֞וֹם רֹכֵ֣ב עַל־הַפֶּ֗רֶד וַיָּבֹ֣א הַפֶּ֡רֶד תַּ֣חַת שׂוֹבֶךְ֩ הָאֵלָ֨ה הַגְּדוֹלָ֜ה וַיֶּחֱזַ֧ק רֹאשׁ֣וֹ בָאֵלָ֗ה וַיֻּתַּן֙ בֵּ֤ין הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וּבֵ֣ין הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהַפֶּ֥רֶד אֲשֶׁר־תַּחְתָּ֖יו עָבָֽר׃‬ And Absalom happened to be confronted by David's servants, and Absalom was riding on a mule, and the mule went under a thicket of large terebinth trees, and his head became stuck in a terebinth tree, and he was lodged between the sky and the ground, while the mule which was under him passed on. happened to be confronted by ← happened to meet before.

a mule ← the mule. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.

stuck ← firm.
2 Sam 18:10 ‫וַיַּרְא֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶחָ֔ד וַיַּגֵּ֖ד לְיוֹאָ֑ב וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּה֙ רָאִ֣יתִי אֶת־אַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם תָּל֖וּי בָּאֵלָֽה׃‬ And a certain man saw him, and he told Joab, and he said, “Look, I have seen Absalom hanging in a terebinth tree.” a certain man ← one man.

a terebinth tree ← the terebinth tree. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
2 Sam 18:11 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יוֹאָ֗ב לָאִישׁ֙ הַמַּגִּ֣יד ל֔וֹ וְהִנֵּ֣ה רָאִ֔יתָ וּמַדּ֛וּעַ לֹֽא־הִכִּית֥וֹ שָׁ֖ם אָ֑רְצָה וְעָלַ֗י לָ֤תֶת לְךָ֙ עֲשָׂ֣רָה כֶ֔סֶף וַחֲגֹרָ֖ה אֶחָֽת׃‬ And Joab said to the man who told him, “Well, if you saw him, then why did you not strike him down on the spot to the ground? And I would have been obliged to give you ten pieces of silver and a girdle.” if: the root word הֵן, hen, means behold or if.

on the spot ← there.

a girdle ← one girdle.
2 Sam 18:12 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הָאִישׁ֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב *ולא **וְל֨וּא אָנֹכִ֜י שֹׁקֵ֤ל עַל־כַּפַּי֙ אֶ֣לֶף כֶּ֔סֶף לֹֽא־אֶשְׁלַ֥ח יָדִ֖י אֶל־בֶּן־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ כִּ֣י בְאָזְנֵ֜ינוּ צִוָּ֣ה הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ אֹ֠תְךָ וְאֶת־אֲבִישַׁ֤י וְאֶת־אִתַּי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר שִׁמְרוּ־מִ֕י בַּנַּ֖עַר בְּאַבְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ Then the man said to Joab, “Even if I were to feel the weight of one thousand pieces of silver in my hand, I would not stretch out my hand against the king's son, because the king gave commandment, with us hearing, to you and Abishai and Ittai, when he said, ‘Be on your guard – let no-one harm the lad Absalom.’ if I were to: the ketiv has to be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.

feel the weight of ← weigh.

with us hearing ← in our ears.

no-one: the word מִי, mi, who, can express a negative [ST].
2 Sam 18:13 ‫אֽוֹ־עָשִׂ֤יתִי *בנפשו **בְנַפְשִׁי֙ שֶׁ֔קֶר וְכָל־דָּבָ֖ר לֹא־יִכָּחֵ֣ד מִן־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְאַתָּ֖ה תִּתְיַצֵּ֥ב מִנֶּֽגֶד׃‬ Otherwise, I would have committed a dishonesty against {K: his very self} [Q: myself], and nothing can be concealed from the king, and you would have taken a stand against me.” his very self (ketiv) ... myself (qeré)his soul ... my soul.
2 Sam 18:14 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יוֹאָ֔ב לֹא־כֵ֖ן אֹחִ֣ילָה לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וַיִּקַּח֩ שְׁלֹשָׁ֨ה שְׁבָטִ֜ים בְּכַפּ֗וֹ וַיִּתְקָעֵם֙ בְּלֵ֣ב אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם עוֹדֶ֥נּוּ חַ֖י בְּלֵ֥ב הָאֵלָֽה׃‬ Then Joab said, “I can't wait around with you like this”, and he took three spears in his hand, and he drove them into Absalom's heart while he was still alive in the heart of the terebinth tree. with ← in the presence of.
2 Sam 18:15 ‫וַיָּסֹ֙בּוּ֙ עֲשָׂרָ֣ה נְעָרִ֔ים נֹשְׂאֵ֖י כְּלֵ֣י יוֹאָ֑ב וַיַּכּ֥וּ אֶת־אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם וַיְמִיתֻֽהוּ׃‬ And the ten youths who bore Joab's equipment surrounded Absalom and struck him and killed him. surrounded Absalom and struck him ← surrounded ... and struck Absalom.
2 Sam 18:16 ‫וַיִּתְקַ֤ע יוֹאָב֙ בַּשֹּׁפָ֔ר וַיָּ֣שָׁב הָעָ֔ם מִרְדֹ֖ף אַחֲרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּֽי־חָשַׂ֥ךְ יוֹאָ֖ב אֶת־הָעָֽם׃‬ Then Joab sounded the ramshorn, and the people stopped pursuing Israel, for Joab spared the people. spared the people: i.e. spared Israel, or alternatively, held back (his own) people.
2 Sam 18:17 ‫וַיִּקְח֣וּ אֶת־אַבְשָׁל֗וֹם וַיַּשְׁלִ֨יכוּ אֹת֤וֹ בַיַּ֙עַר֙ אֶל־הַפַּ֣חַת הַגָּד֔וֹל וַיַּצִּ֧בוּ עָלָ֛יו גַּל־אֲבָנִ֖ים גָּד֣וֹל מְאֹ֑ד וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נָ֖סוּ אִ֥ישׁ *לאהלו **לְאֹהָלָֽיו׃ ס‬ And they took Absalom and threw him in a large pit in the forest, and they erected a very large pile of stones over him, and all Israel fled, each to {K: his tent} [Q: his tents]. his tents (qeré): the plural attracted by each.

a large pit ← the large pit. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
2 Sam 18:18 ‫וְאַבְשָׁלֹ֣ם לָקַ֗ח וַיַּצֶּב־ל֤וֹ *בחיו **בְחַיָּיו֙ אֶת־מַצֶּ֙בֶת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּעֵֽמֶק־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּ֤י אָמַר֙ אֵֽין־לִ֣י בֵ֔ן בַּעֲב֖וּר הַזְכִּ֣יר שְׁמִ֑י וַיִּקְרָ֤א לַמַּצֶּ֙בֶת֙ עַל־שְׁמ֔וֹ וַיִּקָּ֤רֵא לָהּ֙ יַ֣ד אַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ ס‬ For in his life Absalom had taken and erected for himself the pillar which is in the King's Valley, for he said, “I do not have a son to remember my name.” And he called the pillar after his name, and it is called the Memorial of Absalom up to this day. in his life: the ketiv could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.

to remember ← for the sake of to remember.

memorial: compare Isa 56:5.
2 Sam 18:19 ‫וַאֲחִימַ֤עַץ בֶּן־צָדוֹק֙ אָמַ֔ר אָר֣וּצָה נָּ֔א וַאֲבַשְּׂרָ֖ה אֶת־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ כִּי־שְׁפָט֥וֹ יְהוָ֖ה מִיַּ֥ד אֹיְבָֽיו׃‬ Then Ahimaaz the son of Zadok said, “Let me run and bring the good news to the king, for the Lord has done him justice by delivering him from the hand of his enemy.”
2 Sam 18:20 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ יוֹאָ֗ב לֹא֩ אִ֨ישׁ בְּשֹׂרָ֤ה אַתָּה֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וּבִשַּׂרְתָּ֖ בְּי֣וֹם אַחֵ֑ר וְהַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ לֹ֣א תְבַשֵּׂ֔ר כִּֽי־*על **עַל־**כֵּ֥ן בֶּן־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מֵֽת׃‬ But Joab said to him, “You will not be a bringer of good news today, but you will bring the good news another day. So today you will not bring good news, because the king's son is dead.” because: the ketiv is an abbreviated formation of the qeré.

be a bringer ← a man, but the sense of bringing is present in the word for good news.
2 Sam 18:21 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹאָב֙ לַכּוּשִׁ֔י לֵ֛ךְ הַגֵּ֥ד לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָאִ֑יתָה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֧חוּ כוּשִׁ֛י לְיוֹאָ֖ב וַיָּרֹֽץ׃‬ Then Joab said to Cushi, “Go and tell the king what you have seen.” And Cushi prostrated himself to Joab and ran. Cushi (first occurrence in verse): often, as here, the Cushi, suggesting that the name is a demonym, the Ethiopian.
2 Sam 18:22 ‫וַיֹּ֨סֶף ע֜וֹד אֲחִימַ֤עַץ בֶּן־צָדוֹק֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב וִ֣יהִי מָ֔ה אָרֻֽצָה־נָּ֥א גַם־אָ֖נִי אַחֲרֵ֣י הַכּוּשִׁ֑י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יוֹאָ֗ב לָֽמָּה־זֶּ֞ה אַתָּ֥ה רָץ֙ בְּנִ֔י וּלְכָ֖ה אֵין־בְּשׂוֹרָ֥ה מֹצֵֽאת׃‬ Then Ahimaaz the son of Zadok spoke again to Joab and said, “However it may be, do let me run as well after Cushi.” And Joab said, “Why should you run, my son, when you will have no good news coming in?” coming in ← finding, but also coming in.
2 Sam 18:23 ‫וִיהִי־מָ֣ה אָר֔וּץ וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ ר֑וּץ וַיָּ֤רָץ אֲחִימַ֙עַץ֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַכִּכָּ֔ר וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־הַכּוּשִֽׁי׃‬ He replied, “However it may be, I will certainly run.” And he said to him, “Run.” Then Ahimaaz ran by the route of the adjacent tract, and he overtook Cushi. I will certainly run: infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 18:24 ‫וְדָוִ֥ד יוֹשֵׁ֖ב בֵּין־שְׁנֵ֣י הַשְּׁעָרִ֑ים וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ הַצֹּפֶ֜ה אֶל־גַּ֤ג הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ אֶל־הַ֣חוֹמָ֔ה וַיִּשָּׂ֤א אֶת־עֵינָיו֙ וַיַּ֔רְא וְהִנֵּה־אִ֖ישׁ רָ֥ץ לְבַדּֽוֹ׃‬ Now David was sitting between the two gates when the look-out went onto the gate roof above the wall, and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and what he saw was a man running on his own. what he saw wasbehold.
2 Sam 18:25 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֤א הַצֹּפֶה֙ וַיַּגֵּ֣ד לַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אִם־לְבַדּ֖וֹ בְּשׂוֹרָ֣ה בְּפִ֑יו וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ הָל֖וֹךְ וְקָרֵֽב׃‬ And the look-out called out and told the king. And the king said, “If he is on his own, there will be good news in his mouth.” And he came nearer and nearer. he came nearer and nearer ← he went going and approaching. Infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 18:26 ‫וַיַּ֣רְא הַצֹּפֶה֮ אִישׁ־אַחֵ֣ר רָץ֒ וַיִּקְרָ֤א הַצֹּפֶה֙ אֶל־הַשֹּׁעֵ֔ר וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּה־אִ֖ישׁ רָ֣ץ לְבַדּ֑וֹ וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ גַּם־זֶ֥ה מְבַשֵּֽׂר׃‬ Then the look-out saw another man running, and the look-out called to the gatekeeper and said, “There is another man running on his own.” And the king said, “He too is bringing good news.” there isbehold.

he too ← this one too.
2 Sam 18:27 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הַצֹּפֶ֔ה אֲנִ֤י רֹאֶה֙ אֶת־מְרוּצַ֣ת הָרִאשׁ֔וֹן כִּמְרֻצַ֖ת אֲחִימַ֣עַץ בֶּן־צָד֑וֹק וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אִֽישׁ־ט֣וֹב זֶ֔ה וְאֶל־בְּשׂוֹרָ֥ה טוֹבָ֖ה יָבֽוֹא׃‬ Then the look-out said, “I make out the gait of the first one to be the gait of Ahimaaz the son of Zadok.” And the king said, “He is a good man, and he will come with good news.” make out ← see, observe.

the gait of Ahimaaz ← as the gait of Ahimaaz.

he isthis (is).
2 Sam 18:28 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֣א אֲחִימַ֗עַץ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֶל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ שָׁל֔וֹם וַיִּשְׁתַּ֧חוּ לַמֶּ֛לֶךְ לְאַפָּ֖יו אָ֑רְצָה ס וַיֹּ֗אמֶר בָּרוּךְ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר סִגַּר֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־נָשְׂא֥וּ אֶת־יָדָ֖ם בַּֽאדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And Ahimaaz called out and said to the king, “Peace”, and he prostrated himself to the king with his face to the ground. And he said, “Blessed be the Lord your God, who has delivered up the men who lifted up their hand against my lord the king.”
2 Sam 18:29 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ שָׁל֥וֹם לַנַּ֖עַר לְאַבְשָׁל֑וֹם וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲחִימַ֡עַץ רָאִיתִי֩ הֶהָמ֨וֹן הַגָּד֜וֹל לִ֠שְׁלֹחַ אֶת־עֶ֨בֶד הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ יוֹאָב֙ וְאֶת־עַבְדֶּ֔ךָ וְלֹ֥א יָדַ֖עְתִּי מָֽה׃‬ At this the king asked, “Is the lad Absalom all right?” And Ahimaaz said, “When Joab was on the point of sending the king's servant and your servant, I saw a great commotion, but I did not know what it was.” at this: wider use of the vav.

asked ← said.

is ... all right ← (has) ... peace.
2 Sam 18:30 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ סֹ֖ב הִתְיַצֵּ֣ב כֹּ֑ה וַיִּסֹּ֖ב וַֽיַּעֲמֹֽד׃‬ Then the king said, “Stand aside here.” So he stood aside. stand aside ... stood aside ← turn and station yourself ... turned and stood.
2 Sam 18:31 ‫וְהִנֵּ֥ה הַכּוּשִׁ֖י בָּ֑א וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַכּוּשִׁ֗י יִתְבַּשֵּׂר֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּֽי־שְׁפָטְךָ֤ יְהוָה֙ הַיּ֔וֹם מִיַּ֖ד כָּל־הַקָּמִ֥ים עָלֶֽיךָ׃ ס‬ And it was then that Cushi came, and Cushi said, “Let my lord the king receive good tidings, for the Lord has done you justice today delivering you from the hand of all those who rose up against you.” it was then that ← behold.
2 Sam 18:32 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־הַכּוּשִׁ֔י הֲשָׁל֥וֹם לַנַּ֖עַר לְאַבְשָׁל֑וֹם וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַכּוּשִׁ֗י יִהְי֤וּ כַנַּ֙עַר֙ אֹֽיְבֵי֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־קָ֥מוּ עָלֶ֖יךָ לְרָעָֽה׃ ס‬ Then the king said to Cushi, “How is the lad Absalom?” And Cushi said, “May the enemies of my lord the king and all those who rise up against you to do harm, be as the lad is.” how iswhat (is) the peace of.
2 Sam 19:1
2 Sam 18:33AV
‫וַיִּרְגַּ֣ז הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וַיַּ֛עַל עַל־עֲלִיַּ֥ת הַשַּׁ֖עַר וַיֵּ֑בְךְּ וְכֹ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר בְּלֶכְתּ֗וֹ בְּנִ֤י אַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ בְּנִ֣י בְנִ֣י אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם מִֽי־יִתֵּ֤ן מוּתִי֙ אֲנִ֣י תַחְתֶּ֔יךָ אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם בְּנִ֥י בְנִֽי׃‬ And the king was upset, and he went up into the attic room of the gate and wept. And this is what he said as he walked around: “My son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! If only I had died instead of you! Absalom my son, my son.” this is whatthus.

if only ← who will give?
2 Sam 19:2
2 Sam 19:1AV
‫וַיֻּגַּ֖ד לְיוֹאָ֑ב הִנֵּ֨ה הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ בֹּכֶ֛ה וַיִּתְאַבֵּ֖ל עַל־אַבְשָׁלֹֽם׃‬ And it was reported to Joab as follows: “Look, the king is weeping and mourning for Absalom.”
2 Sam 19:3
2 Sam 19:2AV
‫וַתְּהִ֨י הַתְּשֻׁעָ֜ה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֛וּא לְאֵ֖בֶל לְכָל־הָעָ֑ם כִּֽי־שָׁמַ֣ע הָעָ֗ם בַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר נֶעֱצַ֥ב הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ עַל־בְּנֽוֹ׃‬ So the victory on that day became mourning to all the people, for the people heard what was said on that day: “The king is grieved about his son.” victory ← salvation.

what was said ← to say.
2 Sam 19:4
2 Sam 19:3AV
‫וַיִּתְגַּנֵּ֥ב הָעָ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא לָב֣וֹא הָעִ֑יר כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יִתְגַּנֵּ֗ב הָעָם֙ הַנִּכְלָמִ֔ים בְּנוּסָ֖ם בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬ And on that day the people were stealthy in coming to the city, as a people who are put to shame are stealthy when they flee in battle. in coming: gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 19:5
2 Sam 19:4AV
‫וְהַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לָאַ֣ט אֶת־פָּנָ֔יו וַיִּזְעַ֥ק הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ ק֣וֹל גָּד֑וֹל בְּנִי֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם בְּנִ֥י בְנִֽי׃ ס‬ And the king covered his face, and the king would cry out in a loud voice, “My son Absalom, Absalom, my son, my son!”
2 Sam 19:6
2 Sam 19:5AV
‫וַיָּבֹ֥א יוֹאָ֛ב אֶל־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ הַבָּ֑יִת וַיֹּאמֶר֩ הֹבַ֨שְׁתָּ הַיּ֜וֹם אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־עֲבָדֶ֗יךָ הַֽמְמַלְּטִ֤ים אֶֽת־נַפְשְׁךָ֙ הַיּ֔וֹם וְאֵ֨ת נֶ֤פֶשׁ בָּנֶ֙יךָ֙ וּבְנֹתֶ֔יךָ וְנֶ֣פֶשׁ נָשֶׁ֔יךָ וְנֶ֖פֶשׁ פִּלַגְשֶֽׁיךָ׃‬ Then Joab came to the king at home and said, “You have put shame on the faces of all your servants today, who saved your life today, and the lives of your sons and your daughters, and the lives of your wives and the lives of your concubines, life ... lives ... lives ... lives ← soul ... soul ... soul ... soul.
2 Sam 19:7
2 Sam 19:6AV
‫לְאַֽהֲבָה֙ אֶת־שֹׂ֣נְאֶ֔יךָ וְלִשְׂנֹ֖א אֶת־אֹהֲבֶ֑יךָ כִּ֣י ׀ הִגַּ֣דְתָּ הַיּ֗וֹם כִּ֣י אֵ֤ין לְךָ֙ שָׂרִ֣ים וַעֲבָדִ֔ים כִּ֣י ׀ יָדַ֣עְתִּי הַיּ֗וֹם כִּ֠י *לא **ל֣וּ אַבְשָׁל֥וֹם חַי֙ וְכֻלָּ֤נוּ הַיּוֹם֙ מֵתִ֔ים כִּי־אָ֖ז יָשָׁ֥ר בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ׃‬ through love for those who hate you, and by hating those who love you, for you declared today that your commanders and servants mean nothing to you. For I learnt today that if Absalom had lived, and we had all died today, then that would have been all right in your sight. if: the ketiv, strictly not, has to be regarded as a variant spelling of the qeré.

through love ... by hating: gerundial use of the infinitive. The former infinitive can be regarded as a noun.

learnt ← knew, came to know.
2 Sam 19:8
2 Sam 19:7AV
‫וְעַתָּה֙ ק֣וּם צֵ֔א וְדַבֵּ֖ר עַל־לֵ֣ב עֲבָדֶ֑יךָ כִּי֩ בַיהוָ֨ה נִשְׁבַּ֜עְתִּי כִּי־אֵינְךָ֣ יוֹצֵ֗א אִם־יָלִ֨ין אִ֤ישׁ אִתְּךָ֙ הַלַּ֔יְלָה וְרָעָ֧ה לְךָ֣ זֹ֗את מִכָּל־הָרָעָה֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֣אָה עָלֶ֔יךָ מִנְּעֻרֶ֖יךָ עַד־עָֽתָּה׃ ס‬ So now, arise and go out, and speak encouragingly to your servants, for I swear by the Lord that if you do not go out, not a single man will pass the night in association with you tonight. And that would be worse for you than all the evil which has come on you from your youth up to now.” encouragingly ← to the heart of.

not a single man ← if a man, standing for if a man ... may God do this to me. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
2 Sam 19:9
2 Sam 19:8AV
‫וַיָּ֥קָם הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב בַּשָּׁ֑עַר וּֽלְכָל־הָעָ֞ם הִגִּ֣ידוּ לֵאמֹ֗ר הִנֵּ֤ה הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ יוֹשֵׁ֣ב בַּשַּׁ֔עַר וַיָּבֹ֤א כָל־הָעָם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נָ֖ס אִ֥ישׁ לְאֹהָלָֽיו׃ ס‬ So the king arose and sat at the gate, and they reported it to all the people and said, “Look, the king is sitting at the gate.” And all the people came before the king, but Israel had fled – each man to his tent. his tent ← his tents, the plural attracted by each.
2 Sam 19:10
2 Sam 19:9AV
‫וַיְהִ֤י כָל־הָעָם֙ נָד֔וֹן בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ הִצִּילָ֣נוּ ׀ מִכַּ֣ף אֹיְבֵ֗ינוּ וְה֤וּא מִלְּטָ֙נוּ֙ מִכַּ֣ף פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְעַתָּ֛ה בָּרַ֥ח מִן־הָאָ֖רֶץ מֵעַ֥ל אַבְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ And all the people were at strife among all the tribes of Israel, saying, “The king saved us from the hand of our enemies, and he delivered us from the hand of the Philistines, but now he has fled from the land away from Absalom.
2 Sam 19:11
2 Sam 19:10AV
‫וְאַבְשָׁלוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָשַׁ֣חְנוּ עָלֵ֔ינוּ מֵ֖ת בַּמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וְעַתָּ֗ה לָמָ֥ה אַתֶּ֛ם מַחֲרִשִׁ֖ים לְהָשִׁ֥יב אֶת־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ But Absalom whom we anointed over us has died in battle, so now, why are you silent about bringing the king back?” about bringing ... back: gerundial use of the infinitive. The people are reluctant to have David back, but they are persuaded to do so in 2 Sam 19:15 (2 Sam 19:14AV).
2 Sam 19:12
2 Sam 19:11AV
‫וְהַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד שָׁ֠לַח אֶל־צָד֨וֹק וְאֶל־אֶבְיָתָ֥ר הַכֹּהֲנִים֮ לֵאמֹר֒ דַּבְּר֞וּ אֶל־זִקְנֵ֤י יְהוּדָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לָ֤מָּה תִֽהְיוּ֙ אַֽחֲרֹנִ֔ים לְהָשִׁ֥יב אֶת־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ וּדְבַר֙ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בָּ֥א אֶל־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־בֵּיתֽוֹ׃‬ Then King David sent word to Zadok and Abiathar the priests as follows: “Ask the elders of Judah this, ‘Why are you the last to bring the king back to his house, whereas the talk of all Israel has come to the king – to his house? Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.

as follows ... this ← to say ... to say.

his house ... his house: the first occurrence of house must be David's house in Jerusalem. The second occurrence seems to refer to David's house in exile.
2 Sam 19:13
2 Sam 19:12AV
‫אַחַ֣י אַתֶּ֔ם עַצְמִ֥י וּבְשָׂרִ֖י אַתֶּ֑ם וְלָ֧מָּה תִהְי֛וּ אַחֲרֹנִ֖ים לְהָשִׁ֥יב אֶת־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ You are my brothers – you are my bone and my flesh, so why are you the last to bring the king back?’ my bone and my flesh: see 2 Sam 5:1.
2 Sam 19:14
2 Sam 19:13AV
‫וְלַֽעֲמָשָׂא֙ תֹּֽמְר֔וּ הֲל֛וֹא עַצְמִ֥י וּבְשָׂרִ֖י אָ֑תָּה כֹּ֣ה יַֽעֲשֶׂה־לִּ֤י אֱלֹהִים֙ וְכֹ֣ה יוֹסִ֔יף אִם־לֹ֠א שַׂר־צָבָ֞א תִּהְיֶ֧ה לְפָנַ֛י כָּל־הַיָּמִ֖ים תַּ֥חַת יוֹאָֽב׃‬ And to Amasa you will say, ‘Aren't you my bone and my flesh? May God do this to me and add more if you are not the commander of the army before me all the time instead of Joab.’ ” my bone and my flesh: see 2 Sam 5:1.

do this ... add more ← do thus ... add thus.

This verse contains the “oath formula” for asseveration in full (often abbreviated to simply if I do not ... with no apodosis). See also the oath formula for strong denial, as in 1 Sam 3:17.

time ← days.
2 Sam 19:15
2 Sam 19:14AV
‫וַיַּ֛ט אֶת־לְבַ֥ב כָּל־אִישׁ־יְהוּדָ֖ה כְּאִ֣ישׁ אֶחָ֑ד וַֽיִּשְׁלְחוּ֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ שׁ֥וּב אַתָּ֖ה וְכָל־עֲבָדֶֽיךָ׃‬ And he turned the heart of every man of Judah unanimously, and they sent word to the king, “Come back, you and all your servants.” unanimously ← as one man.
2 Sam 19:16
2 Sam 19:15AV
‫וַיָּ֣שָׁב הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיָּבֹ֖א עַד־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן וִיהוּדָ֞ה בָּ֣א הַגִּלְגָּ֗לָה לָלֶ֙כֶת֙ לִקְרַ֣את הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לְהַעֲבִ֥יר אֶת־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּֽן׃‬ So the king came back, and when he had come as far as the Jordan, Judah went to Gilgal, to go to meet the king, to conduct the king over the Jordan. Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
2 Sam 19:17
2 Sam 19:16AV
‫וַיְמַהֵ֗ר שִׁמְעִ֤י בֶן־גֵּרָא֙ בֶּן־הַיְמִינִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֖ר מִבַּֽחוּרִ֑ים וַיֵּ֙רֶד֙ עִם־אִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֔ה לִקְרַ֖את הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ דָּוִֽד׃‬ And Shimei the son of Gera, a Benjaminite, who was from Bahurim, quickly went down with the men of Judah to meet King David. Shimei: see 2 Sam 16:5.
2 Sam 19:18
2 Sam 19:17AV
‫וְאֶ֨לֶף אִ֣ישׁ עִמּוֹ֮ מִבִּנְיָמִן֒ וְצִיבָ֗א נַ֚עַר בֵּ֣ית שָׁא֔וּל וַחֲמֵ֨שֶׁת עָשָׂ֥ר בָּנָ֛יו וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים עֲבָדָ֖יו אִתּ֑וֹ וְצָלְח֥וּ הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ And a thousand Benjaminite men were with him, as was Ziba, the servant-lad of Saul's household, and his fifteen sons and his twenty servants with him, and they proceeded across the Jordan before the king.
2 Sam 19:19
2 Sam 19:18AV
‫וְעָבְרָ֣ה הָעֲבָרָ֗ה לַֽעֲבִיר֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְלַעֲשׂ֥וֹת הַטּ֖וֹב *בעינו **בְּעֵינָ֑יו וְשִׁמְעִ֣י בֶן־גֵּרָ֗א נָפַל֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ בְּעָבְר֖וֹ בַּיַּרְדֵּֽן׃‬ And a ferry crossed over to take the king's household across, and to do what was right in his sight. And Shimei the son of Gera fell down before the king when he crossed the Jordan. sight ← eye (ketiv) / eyes (qeré).

a ferry ← the ferry. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.

Shimei: see 2 Sam 16:5.
2 Sam 19:20
2 Sam 19:19AV
‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ אַל־יַחֲשָׁב־לִ֣י אֲדֹנִי֮ עָוֺן֒ וְאַל־תִּזְכֹּ֗ר אֵ֚ת אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶעֱוָ֣ה עַבְדְּךָ֔ בַּיּ֕וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יָׄצָ֥ׄאׄ אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מִירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם לָשׂ֥וּם הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־לִבּֽוֹ׃‬ And he said to the king, “My lord, do not impute iniquity to me, and do not recollect how your servant acted iniquitously on the day when my lord the king departed from Jerusalem, with the king taking it to heart. departed: the Hebrew is marked with supralinear dots. This is the verse intended by what [CB] App. 31 incorrectly lists as 2 Sam 19:29 (2 Sam 19:28AV).

heart ← his heart.
2 Sam 19:21
2 Sam 19:20AV
‫כִּ֚י יָדַ֣ע עַבְדְּךָ֔ כִּ֖י אֲנִ֣י חָטָ֑אתִי וְהִנֵּֽה־בָ֣אתִי הַיּ֗וֹם רִאשׁוֹן֙ לְכָל־בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵ֔ף לָרֶ֕דֶת לִקְרַ֖את אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ For your servant knows that I have sinned, but look, I have been the first to come of the whole house of Joseph, in coming down to meet my lord the king.” I have been the first to come ← I have come first.

in coming down: gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 19:22
2 Sam 19:21AV
‫וַיַּ֨עַן אֲבִישַׁ֤י בֶּן־צְרוּיָה֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר הֲתַ֣חַת זֹ֔את לֹ֥א יוּמַ֖ת שִׁמְעִ֑י כִּ֥י קִלֵּ֖ל אֶת־מְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ But Abishai the son of Zeruiah answered and said, “Will Shimei not be put to death for this, for he cursed the Lord's anointed?” Shimei: see 2 Sam 16:5.
2 Sam 19:23
2 Sam 19:22AV
‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֗ד מַה־לִּ֤י וְלָכֶם֙ בְּנֵ֣י צְרוּיָ֔ה כִּי־תִֽהְיוּ־לִ֥י הַיּ֖וֹם לְשָׂטָ֑ן הַיּ֗וֹם י֤וּמַת אִישׁ֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּ֚י הֲל֣וֹא יָדַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֥י הַיּ֖וֹם אֲנִי־מֶ֥לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ However, David said, “What concern is it to me or to you, you sons of Zeruiah, that you should be an adversary of mine today? Will any man in Israel be put to death today? For am I not aware that today I am king over Israel?” however: adversative use of the vav.

an adversary: the same word as Satan.
2 Sam 19:24
2 Sam 19:23AV
‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־שִׁמְעִ֖י לֹ֣א תָמ֑וּת וַיִּשָּׁ֥בַֽע ל֖וֹ הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ Then the king said to Shimei, “You will not die.” And the king swore it to him. Shimei: see 2 Sam 16:5.
2 Sam 19:25
2 Sam 19:24AV
‫וּמְפִבֹ֙שֶׁת֙ בֶּן־שָׁא֔וּל יָרַ֖ד לִקְרַ֣את הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְלֹא־עָשָׂ֨ה רַגְלָ֜יו וְלֹא־עָשָׂ֣ה שְׂפָמ֗וֹ וְאֶת־בְּגָדָיו֙ לֹ֣א כִבֵּ֔ס לְמִן־הַיּוֹם֙ לֶ֣כֶת הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ עַד־הַיּ֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א בְשָׁלֽוֹם׃‬ Then Mephibosheth, Saul's son, went down to meet the king, not having attended to his feet, and not having attended to his beard, and not having washed his clothes from the day the king departed until the day when he came back in peace. attended to (2x)done.
2 Sam 19:26
2 Sam 19:25AV
‫וַיְהִ֛י כִּי־בָ֥א יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם לִקְרַ֣את הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לָ֛מָּה לֹא־הָלַ֥כְתָּ עִמִּ֖י מְפִיבֹֽשֶׁת׃‬ And it came to pass, when he went to Jerusalem to meet the king, that the king said to him, “Why did you not go with me, Mephibosheth?”
2 Sam 19:27
2 Sam 19:26AV
‫וַיֹּאמַ֕ר אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ עַבְדִּ֣י רִמָּ֑נִי כִּֽי־אָמַ֨ר עַבְדְּךָ֜ אֶחְבְּשָׁה־לִּי֩ הַחֲמ֨וֹר וְאֶרְכַּ֤ב עָלֶ֙יהָ֙ וְאֵלֵ֣ךְ אֶת־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּ֥י פִסֵּ֖חַ עַבְדֶּֽךָ׃‬ And he answered, “My lord the king, my servant dealt treacherously with me. So your servant said, ‘I will saddle the donkey for myself, and I will ride on it, and I will go with the king’, for your servant is lame. Compare this account with 2 Sam 16:3. It is clear that Ziba left Mephibosheth helpless. Perhaps the first occurrence in the verse of your servant here is an ironic way of referring to Ziba.
2 Sam 19:28
2 Sam 19:27AV
‫וַיְרַגֵּ֣ל בְּעַבְדְּךָ֔ אֶל־אֲדֹנִ֖י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַאדֹנִ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ כְּמַלְאַ֣ךְ הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַעֲשֵׂ֥ה הַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ׃‬ And he went around slandering your servant to my lord the king. But my lord the king is like an angel of God, so do what is right in your sight. right ← good.
2 Sam 19:29
2 Sam 19:28AV
‫כִּי֩ לֹ֨א הָיָ֜ה כָּל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֗י כִּ֤י אִם־אַנְשֵׁי־מָ֙וֶת֙ לַאדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַתָּ֙שֶׁת֙ אֶֽת־עַבְדְּךָ֔ בְּאֹכְלֵ֖י שֻׁלְחָנֶ֑ךָ וּמַה־יֶּשׁ־לִ֥י עוֹד֙ צְדָקָ֔ה וְלִזְעֹ֥ק ע֖וֹד אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ פ‬ For all my father's household was nothing but men deserving death before my lord the king, but you placed your servant among the diners at your table, so what more do I have by way of justification or in crying out any more to the king?” men deserving death ← men of death.

diners at ← eaters of.

in crying out: gerundial use of the infinitive.
2 Sam 19:30
2 Sam 19:29AV
‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לָ֛מָּה תְּדַבֵּ֥ר ע֖וֹד דְּבָרֶ֑יךָ אָמַ֕רְתִּי אַתָּ֣ה וְצִיבָ֔א תַּחְלְק֖וּ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬ Then the king said to him, “Why are you still talking about your affairs? I have said, ‘You and Ziba share the estate.’ ” [CB] App. 31 lists this verse as having supralinear dots, but [WLC] does not have them, and the reference should be 2 Sam 19:20 (2 Sam 19:19AV).

Ziba: we consider Ziba to be the liar. See 2 Sam 16:3.

estate ← field.
2 Sam 19:31
2 Sam 19:30AV
‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר מְפִיבֹ֙שֶׁת֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ גַּ֥ם אֶת־הַכֹּ֖ל יִקָּ֑ח אַ֠חֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֞א אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֛לֶך בְּשָׁל֖וֹם אֶל־בֵּיתֽוֹ׃ ס‬ Then Mephibosheth said to the king, “Let him even take it all, now that my lord the king has come to his house in peace.” now that ← after that.
2 Sam 19:32
2 Sam 19:31AV
‫וּבַרְזִלַּי֙ הַגִּלְעָדִ֔י יָרַ֖ד מֵרֹגְלִ֑ים וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ר אֶת־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן לְשַׁלְּח֖וֹ אֶת־*בירדן **הַיַּרְדֵּֽן׃‬ Now Barzillai the Gileadite was one who had gone down from Rogelim and crossed the Jordan with the king, so as to escort him {Q: across} [K: in] the Jordan. Gileadite: see Gen 31:21.

escort ← send.
2 Sam 19:33
2 Sam 19:32AV
‫וּבַרְזִלַּי֙ זָקֵ֣ן מְאֹ֔ד בֶּן־שְׁמֹנִ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וְהֽוּא־כִלְכַּ֤ל אֶת־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ בְּשִׁיבָת֣וֹ בְמַחֲנַ֔יִם כִּֽי־אִ֛ישׁ גָּד֥וֹל ה֖וּא מְאֹֽד׃‬ And Barzillai was very old – eighty years old – and he had sustained the king during his stay in Mahanaim, for he was a very great man. during his stay: the consonantal text reads in his (i.e. Barzillai's) old age (בְּשֵׂיבָתוֹ). The MT word in the sense of stay, taken from root ישׁב, as by [AnLx] and [BDB], occurs nowhere else. There is a homonym from root שׁוּב, return.
2 Sam 19:34
2 Sam 19:33AV
‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־בַּרְזִלָּ֑י אַתָּה֙ עֲבֹ֣ר אִתִּ֔י וְכִלְכַּלְתִּ֥י אֹתְךָ֛ עִמָּדִ֖י בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ And the king had said to Barzillai, “You cross over with me, and I will sustain you with me in Jerusalem.”
2 Sam 19:35
2 Sam 19:34AV
‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר בַּרְזִלַּ֖י אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ כַּמָּ֗ה יְמֵי֙ שְׁנֵ֣י חַיַּ֔י כִּי־אֶעֱלֶ֥ה אֶת־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ But Barzillai said to the king, “How many are the days of the years of my life? For am I to go up with the king to Jerusalem?
2 Sam 19:36
2 Sam 19:35AV
‫בֶּן־שְׁמֹנִ֣ים שָׁנָה֩ אָנֹכִ֨י הַיּ֜וֹם הַאֵדַ֣ע ׀ בֵּין־ט֣וֹב לְרָ֗ע אִם־יִטְעַ֤ם עַבְדְּךָ֙ אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֹכַל֙ וְאֶת־אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶשְׁתֶּ֔ה אִם־אֶשְׁמַ֣ע ע֔וֹד בְּק֖וֹל שָׁרִ֣ים וְשָׁר֑וֹת וְלָמָּה֩ יִֽהְיֶ֨ה עַבְדְּךָ֥ עוֹד֙ לְמַשָּׂ֔א אֶל־אֲדֹנִ֖י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ I am eighty years old today. Can I distinguish between what is good and bad? Or can your servant taste what I eat and what I drink? Or can I still hear the sound of men singing and women singing? So why should your servant be any further burden to my lord the king? can I distinguish ← do I know.
2 Sam 19:37
2 Sam 19:36AV
‫כִּמְעַ֞ט יַעֲבֹ֧ר עַבְדְּךָ֛ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן אֶת־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְלָ֙מָּה֙ יִגְמְלֵ֣נִי הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הַגְּמוּלָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ Let your servant cross over the Jordan with the king for a short distance, but why should the king recompense me with this recompense?
2 Sam 19:38
2 Sam 19:37AV
‫יָֽשָׁב־נָ֤א עַבְדְּךָ֙ וְאָמֻ֣ת בְּעִירִ֔י עִ֛ם קֶ֥בֶר אָבִ֖י וְאִמִּ֑י וְהִנֵּ֣ה ׀ עַבְדְּךָ֣ כִמְהָ֗ם יַֽעֲבֹר֙ עִם־אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַעֲשֵׂה־ל֕וֹ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־ט֖וֹב בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ׃ ס‬ Do let your servant return so that I die in my city with the grave of my father and my mother. And look, here is your servant Chimham. Let him cross over with my lord the king, and do for him what is right in your sight.” Chimham: in AV's transliteration, the ch can represent a k sound before an e or an i. So this is not a mistaken lenition. We retain the AV / traditional English name.
2 Sam 19:39
2 Sam 19:38AV
‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ אִתִּי֙ יַעֲבֹ֣ר כִּמְהָ֔ם וַאֲנִי֙ אֶעֱשֶׂה־לּ֔וֹ אֶת־הַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֶ֑יךָ וְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־תִּבְחַ֥ר עָלַ֖י אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ׃‬ Then the king said, “Chimham will cross over with me, and I will do what is right in your sight for him, and I will do for you whatever you request of me.” whatever ← everything.

request ← choose; [BDB] also gives lay upon.
2 Sam 19:40
2 Sam 19:39AV
‫וַיַּעֲבֹ֧ר כָּל־הָעָ֛ם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן וְהַמֶּ֣לֶךְ עָבָ֑ר וַיִּשַּׁ֨ק הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ לְבַרְזִלַּי֙ וַיְבָ֣רֲכֵ֔הוּ וַיָּ֖שָׁב לִמְקֹמֽוֹ׃ ס‬ So all the people crossed the Jordan, and the king crossed over, and the king kissed Barzillai and blessed him. Then Barzillai returned to his place.
2 Sam 19:41
2 Sam 19:40AV
‫וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַגִּלְגָּ֔לָה וְכִמְהָ֖ן עָבַ֣ר עִמּ֑וֹ וְכָל־עַ֤ם יְהוּדָה֙ *ויעברו **הֶעֱבִ֣ירוּ אֶת־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְגַ֕ם חֲצִ֖י עַ֥ם יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And the king crossed over to Gilgal, and Chimham crossed over with him, and all the people of {Q: Judah conducted the king across} [K: Judah, and they crossed over with the king], as did half the people of Israel also. The ketiv is quite plausible, but the qeré agrees better with 2 Sam 19:42 (2 Sam 19:41AV).

Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
2 Sam 19:42
2 Sam 19:41AV
‫וְהִנֵּ֛ה כָּל־אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בָּאִ֣ים אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֶל־הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ מַדּוּעַ֩ גְּנָב֨וּךָ אַחֵ֜ינוּ אִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֗ה וַיַּעֲבִ֨רוּ אֶת־הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וְכָל־אַנְשֵׁ֥י דָוִ֖ד עִמּֽוֹ׃ ס‬ And it so happened that all the men of Israel came to the king, and they said to the king, “Why have our brothers – the men of Judah – stolen you and conducted the king and his household over the Jordan, and all David's men with him?” it so happened that ← behold.
2 Sam 19:43
2 Sam 19:42AV
‫וַיַּעַן֩ כָּל־אִ֨ישׁ יְהוּדָ֜ה עַל־אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כִּֽי־קָר֤וֹב הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֵלַ֔י וְלָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ חָרָ֣ה לְךָ֔ עַל־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה הֶאָכ֤וֹל אָכַ֙לְנוּ֙ מִן־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אִם־נִשֵּׂ֥את נִשָּׂ֖א לָֽנוּ׃ ס‬ And every man of Judah would answer the Israelite and say, “The king is closely related to me, so why should this matter anger you? Have we in any way eaten at the king's expense, or has he favoured us in any way?” why should this matter anger you ← why does this kindle to you about this matter.

have we in any way eaten ... has he favoured us in any way: both infinitive absolute.
2 Sam 19:44
2 Sam 19:43AV
‫וַיַּ֣עַן אִֽישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֩ אֶת־אִ֨ישׁ יְהוּדָ֜ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר עֶֽשֶׂר־יָד֨וֹת לִ֣י בַמֶּלֶךְ֮ וְגַם־בְּדָוִד֮ אֲנִ֣י מִמְּךָ֒ וּמַדּ֙וּעַ֙ הֱקִלֹּתַ֔נִי וְלֹא־הָיָ֨ה דְבָרִ֥י רִאשׁ֛וֹן לִ֖י לְהָשִׁ֣יב אֶת־מַלְכִּ֑י וַיִּ֙קֶשׁ֙ דְּבַר־אִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֔ה מִדְּבַ֖ר אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬ And the Israelite would answer the man of Judah and say, “I constitute ten of the king's limbs, and so I am more associated with David than you are, so why did you despise me? And wasn't it my first concern to bring my king back?” So the words of the man of Judah were harder than the words of the Israelite. words (2x)word.
2 Sam 20:1 ‫וְשָׁ֨ם נִקְרָ֜א אִ֣ישׁ בְּלִיַּ֗עַל וּשְׁמ֛וֹ שֶׁ֥בַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִ֖י אִ֣ישׁ יְמִינִ֑י וַיִּתְקַ֣ע בַּשֹּׁפָ֗ר וַ֠יֹּאמֶר אֵֽין־לָ֨נוּ חֵ֜לֶק בְּדָוִ֗ד וְלֹ֤א נַֽחֲלָה־לָ֙נוּ֙ בְּבֶן־יִשַׁ֔י אִ֥ישׁ לְאֹהָלָ֖יו יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And there happened to be a good-for-nothing man there, whose name was Sheba the son of Bichri, a Benjaminite, and he blew the ramshorn, and he said,

“We have no part in David,

And we have no inheritance in the son of Jesse.

Each man to his tent, O Israel!”

his tent ← his tents, the plural attracted by each.
2 Sam 20:2 ‫וַיַּ֜עַל כָּל־אִ֤ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵאַחֲרֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד אַחֲרֵ֖י שֶׁ֣בַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִ֑י וְאִ֤ישׁ יְהוּדָה֙ דָּבְק֣וּ בְמַלְכָּ֔ם מִן־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן וְעַד־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ And every Israelite went up after Sheba the son of Bichri, turning away from David. But each man of Judah clung to his king, from the Jordan to Jerusalem. from David ← from after David.

his king ← their king.
2 Sam 20:3 ‫וַיָּבֹ֨א דָוִ֣ד אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ֮ יְרֽוּשָׁלִַם֒ וַיִּקַּ֣ח הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ אֵ֣ת עֶֽשֶׂר־נָשִׁ֣ים ׀ פִּלַגְשִׁ֡ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִנִּיחַ֩ לִשְׁמֹ֨ר הַבַּ֜יִת וַֽיִּתְּנֵ֤ם בֵּית־מִשְׁמֶ֙רֶת֙ וַֽיְכַלְכְּלֵ֔ם וַאֲלֵיהֶ֖ם לֹא־בָ֑א וַתִּהְיֶ֧ינָה צְרֻר֛וֹת עַד־י֥וֹם מֻתָ֖ן אַלְמְנ֥וּת חַיּֽוּת׃ ס‬ And David arrived at his house in Jerusalem, and the king took the ten concubine women whom he had left to keep the house, and he put them in a guarded house and sustained them, but he did not go in to them, and they were confined until the day of their death, in lifelong widowhood. lifelong widowhood ← widowhood of life.
2 Sam 20:4 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־עֲמָשָׂ֔א הַזְעֶק־לִ֥י אֶת־אִישׁ־יְהוּדָ֖ה שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים וְאַתָּ֖ה פֹּ֥ה עֲמֹֽד׃‬ And the king said to Amasa, “Call up the men of Judah for me, within three days, then you present yourself here.” present yourself ← stand.
2 Sam 20:5 ‫וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ עֲמָשָׂ֖א לְהַזְעִ֣יק אֶת־יְהוּדָ֑ה *וייחר **וַיּ֕וֹחֶר מִן־הַמּוֹעֵ֖ד אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְעָדֽוֹ׃ ס‬ So Amasa went to call Judah up, but he took longer than the time that David had appointed him. took longer: the ketiv (qal stem-formation) is a variant of the qeré (hiphil stem-formation).

time ← fixed time.
2 Sam 20:6 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־אֲבִישַׁ֔י עַתָּ֗ה יֵ֧רַֽע לָ֛נוּ שֶׁ֥בַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִ֖י מִן־אַבְשָׁל֑וֹם אַ֠תָּה קַ֞ח אֶת־עַבְדֵ֤י אֲדֹנֶ֙יךָ֙ וּרְדֹ֣ף אַחֲרָ֔יו פֶּן־מָ֥צָא ל֛וֹ עָרִ֥ים בְּצֻר֖וֹת וְהִצִּ֥יל עֵינֵֽנוּ׃‬ Then David said to Abishai, “Now Sheba the son of Bichri will do us more harm than Absalom. You take your lord's servants and pursue him so that he does not find fortified cities for himself and elude us.” elude us ← deliver / take away our eye.
2 Sam 20:7 ‫וַיֵּצְא֤וּ אַֽחֲרָיו֙ אַנְשֵׁ֣י יוֹאָ֔ב וְהַכְּרֵתִ֥י וְהַפְּלֵתִ֖י וְכָל־הַגִּבֹּרִ֑ים וַיֵּֽצְאוּ֙ מִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם לִרְדֹּ֕ף אַחֲרֵ֖י שֶׁ֥בַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִֽי׃‬ So Joab's men and the Cherethites and the Pelethites and all the valiant warriors went out after him, and they departed from Jerusalem to pursue Sheba the son of Bichri.
2 Sam 20:8 ‫הֵ֗ם עִם־הָאֶ֤בֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּגִבְע֔וֹן וַעֲמָשָׂ֖א בָּ֣א לִפְנֵיהֶ֑ם וְיוֹאָ֞ב חָג֣וּר ׀ מִדּ֣וֹ לְבֻשׁ֗וּ *ועלו **וְעָלָ֞יו חֲג֥וֹר חֶ֙רֶב֙ מְצֻמֶּ֤דֶת עַל־מָתְנָיו֙ בְּתַעְרָ֔הּ וְה֥וּא יָצָ֖א וַתִּפֹּֽל׃ ס‬ They were at the great stone which is in Gibeon, and Amasa went in front of them. And Joab was girded up; his clothing was his livery, and on him was a girdle for a sword, fastened at his waist in its sheath. But as he went forwards, the sword fell out. on him: the ketiv has to be regarded as a variant form of the qeré.

Gibeon: see Josh 9:3.

went forwards ← went out.
2 Sam 20:9 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹאָב֙ לַעֲמָשָׂ֔א הֲשָׁל֥וֹם אַתָּ֖ה אָחִ֑י וַתֹּ֜חֶז יַד־יְמִ֥ין יוֹאָ֛ב בִּזְקַ֥ן עֲמָשָׂ֖א לִנְשָׁק־לֽוֹ׃‬ And Joab said to Amasa, “How are you, my brother?” And Joab's right hand took hold of Amasa's beard, so as to kiss him. how are you ← (are) you peace?

brother: standing for cousin. Joab and Amasa are grandsons of the parents of Zeruiah and Abigail.
2 Sam 20:10 ‫וַעֲמָשָׂ֨א לֹֽא־נִשְׁמַ֜ר בַּחֶ֣רֶב ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּיַד־יוֹאָ֗ב וַיַּכֵּהוּ֩ בָ֨הּ אֶל־הַחֹ֜מֶשׁ וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֨ךְ מֵעָ֥יו אַ֛רְצָה וְלֹא־שָׁ֥נָה ל֖וֹ וַיָּמֹ֑ת ס וְיוֹאָב֙ וַאֲבִישַׁ֣י אָחִ֔יו רָדַ֕ף אַחֲרֵ֖י שֶׁ֥בַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִֽי׃‬ But Amasa did not advert to the sword which was in Joab's hand, and he struck him with it in the abdomen, and he spilt his innards onto the ground. And Joab did not repeat the strike on him, and he died. Then Joab and Abishai his brother pursued Sheba the son of Bichri. in Joab's hand: i.e. in his left hand, the sword being caught when falling out, we presume.
2 Sam 20:11 ‫וְאִישׁ֙ עָמַ֣ד עָלָ֔יו מִֽנַּעֲרֵ֖י יוֹאָ֑ב וַיֹּ֗אמֶר מִי֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָפֵ֧ץ בְּיוֹאָ֛ב וּמִ֥י אֲשֶׁר־לְדָוִ֖ד אַחֲרֵ֥י יוֹאָֽב׃‬ And one of Joab's servant-lads was standing in his vicinity, and he said, “Whoever is content with Joab and whoever is for David, follow Joab!” in his vicinity ← at him.

follow ← after.
2 Sam 20:12 ‫וַעֲמָשָׂ֛א מִתְגֹּלֵ֥ל בַּדָּ֖ם בְּת֣וֹךְ הַֽמְסִּלָּ֑ה וַיַּ֨רְא הָאִ֜ישׁ כִּֽי־עָמַ֣ד כָּל־הָעָ֗ם וַיַּסֵּב֩ אֶת־עֲמָשָׂ֨א מִן־הַֽמְסִלָּ֤ה הַשָּׂדֶה֙ וַיַּשְׁלֵ֤ךְ עָלָיו֙ בֶּ֔גֶד כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר רָאָ֔ה כָּל־הַבָּ֥א עָלָ֖יו וְעָמָֽד׃‬ Then while Amasa was rolling in blood in the middle of the road, the man saw that all the people were stopping, so he moved Amasa from the road to the field, and he threw a garment over him when he saw that everyone coming to him was stopping. were stopping ... was stopping ← stood ... stood.

moved ← turned; perhaps rolled.
2 Sam 20:13 ‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הֹגָ֖ה מִן־הַֽמְסִלָּ֑ה עָבַ֤ר כָּל־אִישׁ֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י יוֹאָ֔ב לִרְדֹּ֕ף אַחֲרֵ֖י שֶׁ֥בַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִֽי׃‬ When he had removed him from the road, every man passed by, following Joab, to pursue Sheba the son of Bichri. following ← after.
2 Sam 20:14 ‫וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֞ר בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָבֵ֛לָה וּבֵ֥ית מַעֲכָ֖ה וְכָל־הַבֵּרִ֑ים ס *ויקלהו **וַיִּקָּ֣הֲל֔וּ וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ אַף־אַחֲרָֽיו׃‬ And he passed through all the tribes of Israel, to Abel and Beth-Maachah, and all the Berites. And {Q: they were assembled,} [K: they despised him,] and they went after him all the more keenly. The ketiv may be a transposition of letters of the word which the qeré reads. Otherwise, it has to be taken as יְקִלֵּהוּ, hiphil of קָלַל, as in our translation.

Berites: [CB] equates to Berechites (from Bichri).
2 Sam 20:15 ‫וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ וַיָּצֻ֣רוּ עָלָ֗יו בְּאָבֵ֙לָה֙ בֵּ֣ית הַֽמַּעֲכָ֔ה וַיִּשְׁפְּכ֤וּ סֹֽלְלָה֙ אֶל־הָעִ֔יר וַֽתַּעֲמֹ֖ד בַּחֵ֑ל וְכָל־הָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶת־יוֹאָ֔ב מַשְׁחִיתִ֖ם לְהַפִּ֥יל הַחוֹמָֽה׃‬ And when they arrived and besieged Sheba in Abel in Beth-Maachah, they raised up a rampart against the city, and it stood against the fortification, and all the people who were with Joab worked on breaking up the wall to bring it down. Shebahim.

worked on breaking up the wall to bring it down ← (were) demolishing to bring down the wall.
2 Sam 20:16 ‫וַתִּקְרָ֛א אִשָּׁ֥ה חֲכָמָ֖ה מִן־הָעִ֑יר שִׁמְע֤וּ שִׁמְעוּ֙ אִמְרוּ־נָ֣א אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב קְרַ֣ב עַד־הֵ֔נָּה וַאֲדַבְּרָ֖ה אֵלֶֽיךָ׃‬ Then a wise woman called out from the city, “Listen, listen. Please say to Joab, ‘Come up here, and I will speak to you.’ ” Come upapproach.
2 Sam 20:17 ‫וַיִּקְרַ֣ב אֵלֶ֔יהָ וַתֹּ֧אמֶר הָאִשָּׁ֛ה הַאַתָּ֥ה יוֹאָ֖ב וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אָ֑נִי וַתֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ שְׁמַע֙ דִּבְרֵ֣י אֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר שֹׁמֵ֥עַ אָנֹֽכִי׃‬ And he came up to her, and the woman asked, “Are you Joab?” And he said, “I am.” Then she said to him, “Listen to the words of your maidservant.” And he said, “I am listening.” asked ← said.
2 Sam 20:18 ‫וַתֹּ֖אמֶר לֵאמֹ֑ר דַּבֵּ֨ר יְדַבְּר֤וּ בָרִֽאשֹׁנָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר שָׁאֹ֧ל יְשָׁאֲל֛וּ בְּאָבֵ֖ל וְכֵ֥ן הֵתַֽמּוּ׃‬ And she spoke and said, “They used to have a saying in the past, and they said, ‘They will set store on asking in Abel’, and that is how they concluded the matter. they used to have a saying ... they will set store on asking: both infinitive absolute.

in the past ← at the beginning.
2 Sam 20:19 ‫אָנֹכִ֕י שְׁלֻמֵ֖י אֱמוּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אַתָּ֣ה מְבַקֵּ֗שׁ לְהָמִ֨ית עִ֤יר וְאֵם֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לָ֥מָּה תְבַלַּ֖ע נַחֲלַ֥ת יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬ I am one of those of Israel who are peaceable and faithful. You are attempting to massacre a city – and a metropolis – in Israel. Why should you swallow up the Lord's inheritance?” attempting ← seeking.

massacre ← kill.
2 Sam 20:20 ‫וַיַּ֥עַן יוֹאָ֖ב וַיֹּאמַ֑ר חָלִ֤ילָה חָלִ֙ילָה֙ לִ֔י אִם־אֲבַלַּ֖ע וְאִם־אַשְׁחִֽית׃‬ And Joab answered and said, “Far, far be it from me that I should swallow it up or that I should destroy it. that (2x)if.
2 Sam 20:21 ‫לֹא־כֵ֣ן הַדָּבָ֗ר כִּ֡י אִישׁ֩ מֵהַ֨ר אֶפְרַ֜יִם שֶׁ֧בַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִ֣י שְׁמ֗וֹ נָשָׂ֤א יָדוֹ֙ בַּמֶּ֣לֶךְ בְּדָוִ֔ד תְּנֽוּ־אֹת֣וֹ לְבַדּ֔וֹ וְאֵלְכָ֖ה מֵעַ֣ל הָעִ֑יר וַתֹּ֤אמֶר הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב הִנֵּ֥ה רֹאשׁ֛וֹ מֻשְׁלָ֥ךְ אֵלֶ֖יךָ בְּעַ֥ד הַחוֹמָֽה׃‬ The matter is not like that, but a man from Mount Ephraim – Sheba the son of Bichri is his name – has set himself against the king – against David. Hand just him over, and I will depart from the city.” And the woman said to Joab, “Behold, his head is to be thrown over the wall to you.” has set himself ← raised his hand.

is to be thrown: gerundival use of the participle.
2 Sam 20:22 ‫וַתָּבוֹא֩ הָאִשָּׁ֨ה אֶל־כָּל־הָעָ֜ם בְּחָכְמָתָ֗הּ וַֽיִּכְרְת֞וּ אֶת־רֹ֨אשׁ שֶׁ֤בַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִי֙ וַיַּשְׁלִ֣כוּ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב וַיִּתְקַע֙ בַּשּׁוֹפָ֔ר וַיָּפֻ֥צוּ מֵֽעַל־הָעִ֖יר אִ֣ישׁ לְאֹהָלָ֑יו וְיוֹאָ֛ב שָׁ֥ב יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ ס‬ Then the woman went to all the people in her wisdom, and they cut off the head of Sheba the son of Bichri and threw it to Joab. And he sounded the ramshorn, and they dispersed from the city – each to his tent – and Joab returned to Jerusalem, to the king. his tent ← his tents, the plural attracted by each.
2 Sam 20:23 ‫וְיוֹאָ֕ב אֶ֥ל כָּל־הַצָּבָ֖א יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּבְנָיָה֙ בֶּן־יְה֣וֹיָדָ֔ע עַל־*הכרי **הַכְּרֵתִ֖י וְעַל־הַפְּלֵתִֽי׃‬ And Joab was in charge of the whole army of Israel, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was in charge of the {Q: Cherethites} [K: Cherites] and of the Pelethites.
2 Sam 20:24 ‫וַאֲדֹרָ֖ם עַל־הַמַּ֑ס וִיהוֹשָׁפָ֥ט בֶּן־אֲחִיל֖וּד הַמַּזְכִּֽיר׃‬ And Adoram was in charge of the taxes, and Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was the secretary of state.
2 Sam 20:25 ‫*ושיא **וּשְׁוָ֖א סֹפֵ֑ר וְצָד֥וֹק וְאֶבְיָתָ֖ר כֹּהֲנִֽים׃‬ And {Q: Sheva} [K: Sheia] was the scribe, and Zadok and Abiathar were the priests. Abiathar: see 1 Sam 22:20.
2 Sam 20:26 ‫וְגַ֗ם עִירָא֙ הַיָּ֣אִרִ֔י הָיָ֥ה כֹהֵ֖ן לְדָוִֽד׃ ס‬ And also Ira the Jairite was a priest of David's.
2 Sam 21:1 ‫וַיְהִ֣י רָעָב֩ בִּימֵ֨י דָוִ֜ד שָׁלֹ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים שָׁנָה֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁנָ֔ה וַיְבַקֵּ֥שׁ דָּוִ֖ד אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה ס וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֗ה אֶל־שָׁאוּל֙ וְאֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַדָּמִ֔ים עַל־אֲשֶׁר־הֵמִ֖ית אֶת־הַגִּבְעֹנִֽים׃‬ Then there was a famine in David's days for three years, year after year, and David appealed to the Lord. And the Lord said, “It is on account of Saul and on account of the house of blood, because he killed the Gibeonites.” appealed to ← sought the face of.

Gibeonites: see Josh 9:3.
2 Sam 21:2 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֥א הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ לַגִּבְעֹנִ֖ים וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וְהַגִּבְעֹנִ֞ים לֹ֣א מִבְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל הֵ֗מָּה כִּ֚י אִם־מִיֶּ֣תֶר הָאֱמֹרִ֔י וּבְנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ נִשְׁבְּע֣וּ לָהֶ֔ם וַיְבַקֵּ֤שׁ שָׁאוּל֙ לְהַכֹּתָ֔ם בְּקַנֹּאת֥וֹ לִבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִיהוּדָֽה׃‬ So the king called the Gibeonites and spoke to them. Now the Gibeonites were not the sons of Israel, but the remainder of the Amorites, and the sons of Israel had sworn peace to them, but Saul had tried to strike them down in his zeal for the sons of Israel and Judah. Gibeonites (2x): see Josh 9:3.

not the sons ... the remainder ← not of the sons ... of the remainder.

Amorites: see Gen 10:16.

tried ← sought.
2 Sam 21:3 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־הַגִּבְעֹנִ֔ים מָ֥ה אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה לָכֶ֑ם וּבַמָּ֣ה אֲכַפֵּ֔ר וּבָרְכ֖וּ אֶת־נַחֲלַ֥ת יְהוָֽה׃‬ And David asked the Gibeonites, “What should I do for you, and by what means can I make atonement so that you bless the Lord's inheritance?” asked ← said to.

Gibeonites: see Josh 9:3.

so that you bless ← and bless. See [Ges-HG] §110i.
2 Sam 21:4 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמְרוּ ל֣וֹ הַגִּבְעֹנִ֗ים אֵֽין־*לי **לָ֜נוּ כֶּ֤סֶף וְזָהָב֙ עִם־שָׁא֣וּל וְעִם־בֵּית֔וֹ וְאֵֽין־לָ֥נוּ אִ֖ישׁ לְהָמִ֣ית בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֛אמֶר מָֽה־אַתֶּ֥ם אֹמְרִ֖ים אֶעֱשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶֽם׃‬ Then the Gibeonites said to him, “{K:I} [Q:We] do not have a demand for silver or gold with Saul or with his house, nor do we have a demand to kill any man in Israel.” And he said, “Whatever you say, I will do for you.” Gibeonites: see Josh 9:3.

have a demand to kill: the construction is the same as (have a demand for) silver or gold, so it has to stand. But it is followed by seven exceptions. Exceptions are known elsewhere in scripture, e.g. 2 Ki 11:1-2, 1 Cor 1:14-16.
2 Sam 21:5 ‫וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הָאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר כִּלָּ֔נוּ וַאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּמָּה־לָ֑נוּ נִשְׁמַ֕דְנוּ מֵֽהִתְיַצֵּ֖ב בְּכָל־גְּבֻ֥ל יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And they said to the king, “The man who was exterminating us and who schemed against us, that we should be destroyed, so as not to have a place in any of the territory of Israel – to have a place ← to set ourselves.

any ← all.

territory ← border.
2 Sam 21:6 ‫*ינתן־**יֻתַּן־לָ֜נוּ שִׁבְעָ֤ה אֲנָשִׁים֙ מִבָּנָ֔יו וְהוֹקַֽעֲנוּם֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה בְּגִבְעַ֥ת שָׁא֖וּל בְּחִ֣יר יְהוָ֑ה ס וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲנִ֥י אֶתֵּֽן׃‬ let seven men from his sons be given to us, and we will impale them to the Lord in Gibeah of Saul, the Lord's chosen one.” And the king said, “I will give you them.” let ... be given: the ketiv is niphal and the qeré is pual with the same meaning.

impale: or hang, but it is not the usual word for hang.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.
2 Sam 21:7 ‫וַיַּחְמֹ֣ל הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ עַל־מְפִי־בֹ֖שֶׁת בֶּן־יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בֶּן־שָׁא֑וּל עַל־שְׁבֻעַ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בֵּֽינֹתָ֔ם בֵּ֣ין דָּוִ֔ד וּבֵ֖ין יְהוֹנָתָ֥ן בֶּן־שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ But the king spared Mephibosheth the son of Jonathan the son of Saul, on account of the Lord's oath which was between them – between David and Jonathan the son of Saul.
2 Sam 21:8 ‫וַיִּקַּ֣ח הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ אֶת־שְׁ֠נֵי בְּנֵ֨י רִצְפָּ֤ה בַת־אַיָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָלְדָ֣ה לְשָׁא֔וּל אֶת־אַרְמֹנִ֖י וְאֶת־מְפִבֹ֑שֶׁת וְאֶת־חֲמֵ֗שֶׁת בְּנֵי֙ מִיכַ֣ל בַּת־שָׁא֔וּל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָלְדָ֛ה לְעַדְרִיאֵ֥ל בֶּן־בַּרְזִלַּ֖י הַמְּחֹלָתִֽי׃‬ So the king took the two sons of Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bore to Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth; and the five sons of the sister of Michal, Saul's daughter, whom she bore to Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite. the sister of Michal: Michal had no children (2 Sam 6:23), and her sister Merab was given to Adriel (1 Sam 18:19). The Targum supports the notion of Michal fostering Merab's children. Another apparent ellipsis of a sibling relation is in 2 Sam 21:19.
2 Sam 21:9 ‫וַֽיִּתְּנֵ֞ם בְּיַ֣ד הַגִּבְעֹנִ֗ים וַיֹּקִיעֻ֤ם בָּהָר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּפְּל֥וּ *שבעתים **שְׁבַעְתָּ֖ם יָ֑חַד *והם **וְהֵ֨מָּה הֻמְת֜וּ בִּימֵ֤י קָצִיר֙ בָּרִ֣אשֹׁנִ֔ים *תחלת **בִּתְחִלַּ֖ת קְצִ֥יר שְׂעֹרִֽים׃‬ And he handed them over to the Gibeonites, and they impaled them on the mountain before the Lord, and {Q: the seven of them} [K: sevenfold they] fell together, and they were put to death in the days of the harvest, at its start, {K: at} [Q: at] the beginning of the barley harvest. they: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

handed them over to ← gave them in the hand of.

Gibeonites: see Josh 9:3.

impaled: see 2 Sam 21:6.
2 Sam 21:10 ‫וַתִּקַּ֣ח רִצְפָּה֩ בַת־אַיָּ֨ה אֶת־הַשַּׂ֜ק וַתַּטֵּ֨הוּ לָ֤הּ אֶל־הַצּוּר֙ מִתְּחִלַּ֣ת קָצִ֔יר עַ֛ד נִתַּךְ־מַ֥יִם עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם מִן־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְלֹֽא־נָתְנָה֩ ע֨וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם לָנ֤וּחַ עֲלֵיהֶם֙ יוֹמָ֔ם וְאֶת־חַיַּ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לָֽיְלָה׃‬ And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took some sackcloth and spread it out for herself at the rock at the beginning of the harvest, until water from the sky flowed over them, and she did not let the birds of the sky rest on them by day, or the wild animals by night. rock: or refuge.

wild animals ← animal of the field.
2 Sam 21:11 ‫וַיֻּגַּ֖ד לְדָוִ֑ד אֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשְׂתָ֛ה רִצְפָּ֥ה בַת־אַיָּ֖ה פִּלֶ֥גֶשׁ שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ And it was reported to David – what Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, Saul's concubine did.
2 Sam 21:12 ‫וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד וַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת־עַצְמ֤וֹת שָׁאוּל֙ וְאֶת־עַצְמוֹת֙ יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֔וֹ מֵאֵ֕ת בַּעֲלֵ֖י יָבֵ֣ישׁ גִּלְעָ֑ד אֲשֶׁר֩ גָּנְב֨וּ אֹתָ֜ם מֵרְחֹ֣ב בֵּֽית־שַׁ֗ן אֲשֶׁ֨ר *תלום **תְּלָא֥וּם *שם *הפלשתים **שָׁ֙מָּה֙ **פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים בְּי֨וֹם הַכּ֧וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֛ים אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל בַּגִּלְבֹּֽעַ׃‬ And David went to get Saul's bones and the bones of Jonathan his son from the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead, who had stolen them from the square of Beth-Shan, where {K: the Philistines} [Q: the Philistines] had hanged them on the day when the Philistines struck Saul down in Gilboa. where: the qeré reads to where (pregnant usage). The ketiv is without motion.

had hanged: the ketiv is an apocopated form of the qeré.

inhabitants: or lords.

Jabesh-Gilead: see Gen 31:21.

square: or street.
2 Sam 21:13 ‫וַיַּ֤עַל מִשָּׁם֙ אֶת־עַצְמ֣וֹת שָׁא֔וּל וְאֶת־עַצְמ֖וֹת יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֑וֹ וַיַּ֣אַסְפ֔וּ אֶת־עַצְמ֖וֹת הַמּוּקָעִֽים׃‬ And he brought Saul's bones up from there, and the bones of Jonathan his son, and they gathered the bones of those who were impaled. impaled: see 2 Sam 21:6.
2 Sam 21:14 ‫וַיִּקְבְּר֣וּ אֶת־עַצְמוֹת־שָׁא֣וּל וִיהוֹנָֽתָן־בְּ֠נוֹ בְּאֶ֨רֶץ בִּנְיָמִ֜ן בְּצֵלָ֗ע בְּקֶ֙בֶר֙ קִ֣ישׁ אָבִ֔יו וַֽיַּעֲשׂ֔וּ כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֖ה הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֵּעָתֵ֧ר אֱלֹהִ֛ים לָאָ֖רֶץ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵֽן׃ פ‬ And they buried the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son in Benjamin's land, in Zela, in the grave of Kish his father. And they did everything that the king commanded. And God was prevailed on for the land after that. Zela: see Josh 18:28.
2 Sam 21:15 ‫וַתְּהִי־ע֧וֹד מִלְחָמָ֛ה לַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּ֨רֶד דָּוִ֜ד וַעֲבָדָ֥יו עִמּ֛וֹ וַיִּלָּחֲמ֥וּ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וַיָּ֥עַף דָּוִֽד׃‬ Then the Philistines had another war with Israel, and David went down, as did his servants with him, and he fought the Philistines, and David became fatigued.
2 Sam 21:16 ‫*וישבו **וְיִשְׁבִּ֨י בְּנֹ֜ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ בִּילִידֵ֣י הָרָפָ֗ה וּמִשְׁקַ֤ל קֵינוֹ֙ שְׁלֹ֤שׁ מֵאוֹת֙ מִשְׁקַ֣ל נְחֹ֔שֶׁת וְה֖וּא חָג֣וּר חֲדָשָׁ֑ה וַיֹּ֖אמֶר לְהַכּ֥וֹת אֶת־דָּוִֽד׃‬ And {K: Ishbo-Benob} [Q: Ishbi-Benob], who was among the offspring of Rapha, the weight of whose spear was three hundred copper weights, and who was newly girded up, stated his intention to strike David. the offspring of Rapha ← the offspring of the Rapha i.e. the Raphaim. See [CB], appendices 23 and 25.
2 Sam 21:17 ‫וַיַּֽעֲזָר־לוֹ֙ אֲבִישַׁ֣י בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֔ה וַיַּ֥ךְ אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י וַיְמִיתֵ֑הוּ אָ֣ז נִשְׁבְּעוּ֩ אַנְשֵׁי־דָוִ֨ד ל֜וֹ לֵאמֹ֗ר לֹא־תֵצֵ֨א ע֤וֹד אִתָּ֙נוּ֙ לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א תְכַבֶּ֖ה אֶת־נֵ֥ר יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ פ‬ But Abishai the son of Zeruiah helped him, and he struck the Philistine and killed him. Then David's men swore to him and said, “You shall no longer come out with us to battle, so that you do not snuff out Israel's lamp.”
2 Sam 21:18 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֔ן וַתְּהִי־ע֧וֹד הַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה בְּג֖וֹב עִם־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים אָ֣ז הִכָּ֗ה סִבְּכַי֙ הַחֻ֣שָׁתִ֔י אֶת־סַ֕ף אֲשֶׁ֖ר בִּילִדֵ֥י הָרָפָֽה׃ פ‬ And it came to pass after this, that there was another war in Gob with the Philistines, when Sibbechai the Hushathite struck down Saph, who was among the offspring of Rapha. || 1 Chr 20:4.

Rapha ← the Rapha.
2 Sam 21:19 ‫וַתְּהִי־ע֧וֹד הַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה בְּג֖וֹב עִם־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיַּ֡ךְ אֶלְחָנָן֩ בֶּן־יַעְרֵ֨י אֹרְגִ֜ים בֵּ֣ית הַלַּחְמִ֗י אֵ֚ת גָּלְיָ֣ת הַגִּתִּ֔י וְעֵ֣ץ חֲנִית֔וֹ כִּמְנ֖וֹר אֹרְגִֽים׃ ס‬ Then there was another war in Gob with the Philistines, and Elhanan the son of Jaare-Oregim, a Bethlehemite, struck the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver's beam. || 1 Chr 20:5.

a Bethlehemite ← the Bethlehemite. See Gen 35:19.

the brother of Goliath: inferring from 1 Chr 20:5, and noting a similar style in 2 Sam 21:8. For Goliath's spear, see 1 Sam 17:7. Alternatively, we have here another Goliath.

a weaver's beam ← a beam of weavers.
2 Sam 21:20 ‫וַתְּהִי־ע֥וֹד מִלְחָמָ֖ה בְּגַ֑ת וַיְהִ֣י ׀ אִ֣ישׁ *מדין **מָד֗וֹן וְאֶצְבְּעֹ֣ת יָדָיו֩ וְאֶצְבְּעֹ֨ת רַגְלָ֜יו שֵׁ֣שׁ וָשֵׁ֗שׁ עֶשְׂרִ֤ים וְאַרְבַּע֙ מִסְפָּ֔ר וְגַם־ה֖וּא יֻלַּ֥ד לְהָרָפָֽה׃‬ And there was another war in Gath, and there was a man of great stature, the fingers of whose hands and the toes of whose feet were six apiece – twenty-four in number – and he too had been born to Rapha. stature: the ketiv has to be regarded as a variant form of the qeré, or it means Media.

|| 1 Chr 20:6.

six apiecesix and six.

Rapha ← the Rapha.
2 Sam 21:21 ‫וַיְחָרֵ֖ף אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיַּכֵּ֙הוּ֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן בֶּן־*שמעי **שִׁמְעָ֖ה אֲחִ֥י דָוִֽד׃‬ And when he showed contempt for Israel, Jonathan the son of {Q: Shimah} [K: Shimei], David's brother, struck him down. Shimah (qeré): see 2 Sam 13:3.

Shimei (ketiv): see 2 Sam 16:5.

|| 1 Chr 20:7.
2 Sam 21:22 ‫אֶת־אַרְבַּ֥עַת אֵ֛לֶּה יֻלְּד֥וּ לְהָרָפָ֖ה בְּגַ֑ת וַיִּפְּל֥וּ בְיַד־דָּוִ֖ד וּבְיַ֥ד עֲבָדָֽיו׃ פ‬ These four were born to Rapha in Gath, and they fell at the hand of David and at the hand of his servants. || 1 Chr 20:8.

Rapha ← the Rapha.
2 Sam 22:1 ‫וַיְדַבֵּ֤ר דָּוִד֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַשִּׁירָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את בְּיוֹם֩ הִצִּ֨יל יְהוָ֥ה אֹת֛וֹ מִכַּ֥ף כָּל־אֹיְבָ֖יו וּמִכַּ֥ף שָׁאֽוּל׃‬ And David spoke the words of this song to the Lord on the day when the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from Saul's hand. || Ps 18:1.
2 Sam 22:2 ‫וַיֹּאמַ֑ר יְהוָ֛ה סַֽלְעִ֥י וּמְצֻדָתִ֖י וּמְפַלְטִי־לִֽי׃‬ And he said,

“The Lord is my rock and my fortress,

And my deliverer,

|| Ps 18:2, Ps 18:3 (Ps 18:1AV, Ps 18:2AV).
2 Sam 22:3 ‫אֱלֹהֵ֥י צוּרִ֖י אֶחֱסֶה־בּ֑וֹ מָגִנִּ֞י וְקֶ֣רֶן יִשְׁעִ֗י מִשְׂגַּבִּי֙ וּמְנוּסִ֔י מֹשִׁעִ֕י מֵחָמָ֖ס תֹּשִׁעֵֽנִי׃‬

The God of my rock;

I will put my trust in him

– My shield and the horn of my salvation,

My high stronghold and my refuge,

My saviour.

You save me from violence.

the God of my rock: alternative pointing, אֱלֺהַי, Elohai, would give my God (is) my rock.

Heb 2:13.

|| Ps 18:3 (Ps 18:2AV).
2 Sam 22:4 ‫מְהֻלָּ֖ל אֶקְרָ֣א יְהוָ֑ה וּמֵאֹיְבַ֖י אִוָּשֵֽׁעַ׃‬

I will call on the praiseworthy Lord,

And I will be saved from my enemies.

|| Ps 18:4 (Ps 18:3AV).

praiseworthy: gerundival use of the participle.
2 Sam 22:5 ‫כִּ֥י אֲפָפֻ֖נִי מִשְׁבְּרֵי־מָ֑וֶת נַחֲלֵ֥י בְלִיַּ֖עַל יְבַעֲתֻֽנִי׃‬

For the breaker-waves of death surrounded me,

And the onslaughts of the reprobate alarmed me,

|| Ps 18:5 (Ps 18:4AV).

onslaughts ← torrents.

reprobate ← useless; often used of the rebellious.
2 Sam 22:6 ‫חֶבְלֵ֥י שְׁא֖וֹל סַבֻּ֑נִי קִדְּמֻ֖נִי מֹֽקְשֵׁי־מָֽוֶת׃‬

The tightening grip of the grave encompassed me;

Deadly snares confronted me.

|| Ps 18:6 (Ps 18:5AV).

tightening grip ← cords, or pangs.

deadly snares ← snares of death, a Hebraic genitive.
2 Sam 22:7 ‫בַּצַּר־לִי֙ אֶקְרָ֣א יְהוָ֔ה וְאֶל־אֱלֹהַ֖י אֶקְרָ֑א וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע מֵהֵֽיכָלוֹ֙ קוֹלִ֔י וְשַׁוְעָתִ֖י בְּאָזְנָֽיו׃‬

When I was in a strait,

I called on the Lord,

And I called to my God,

And he heard my voice from his temple,

And my cry reached his ears.

|| Ps 18:7 (Ps 18:6AV).
2 Sam 22:8 ‫*ותגעש **וַיִּתְגָּעַ֤שׁ וַתִּרְעַשׁ֙ הָאָ֔רֶץ מוֹסְד֥וֹת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם יִרְגָּ֑זוּ וַיִּֽתְגָּעֲשׁ֖וּ כִּֽי־חָ֥רָה לֽוֹ׃‬

And the earth shook and trembled;

The foundations of heaven quaked and shook,

Because he was furious.

shook: the ketiv (various stem-formations possible; we suggest qal), and the qeré (hithpael), have the same meaning.

|| Ps 18:8 (Ps 18:7AV).
2 Sam 22:9 ‫עָלָ֤ה עָשָׁן֙ בְּאַפּ֔וֹ וְאֵ֥שׁ מִפִּ֖יו תֹּאכֵ֑ל גֶּחָלִ֖ים בָּעֲר֥וּ מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃‬

Smoke went up in his nostrils,

And fire from his mouth came devouring;

Coals were kindled by him.

|| Ps 18:9 (Ps 18:8AV).

nostrils ← nostril, nose, or anger.

by him: or by it, but fire is feminine here.
2 Sam 22:10 ‫וַיֵּ֥ט שָׁמַ֖יִם וַיֵּרַ֑ד וַעֲרָפֶ֖ל תַּ֥חַת רַגְלָֽיו׃‬

And he stretched out the heavens and descended,

And thick darkness was under his feet.

|| Ps 18:10 (Ps 18:9AV).
2 Sam 22:11 ‫וַיִּרְכַּ֥ב עַל־כְּר֖וּב וַיָּעֹ֑ף וַיֵּרָ֖א עַל־כַּנְפֵי־רֽוּחַ׃‬

And he rode on a cherub and flew

And was seen on the wings of the wind.

|| Ps 18:11 (Ps 18:10AV).
2 Sam 22:12 ‫וַיָּ֥שֶׁת חֹ֛שֶׁךְ סְבִיבֹתָ֖יו סֻכּ֑וֹת חַֽשְׁרַת־מַ֖יִם עָבֵ֥י שְׁחָקִֽים׃‬

And he set darkness around him as canopies;

There were accumulations of water

And the thick clouds of the upper skies.

|| Ps 18:12 (Ps 18:11AV).

canopies: or booths.
2 Sam 22:13 ‫מִנֹּ֖גַהּ נֶגְדּ֑וֹ בָּעֲר֖וּ גַּחֲלֵי־אֵֽשׁ׃‬

At the brightness ahead of him

Were fiery coals blazing away.

|| Ps 18:13 (Ps 18:12AV).

fiery coals ← coals of fire, metonymically for lightning [AnLx].
2 Sam 22:14 ‫יַרְעֵ֥ם מִן־שָׁמַ֖יִם יְהוָ֑ה וְעֶלְי֖וֹן יִתֵּ֥ן קוֹלֽוֹ׃‬

The Lord thunders from heaven,

And the Most High sounds his voice.

|| Ps 18:14 (Ps 18:13AV).
2 Sam 22:15 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח חִצִּ֖ים וַיְפִיצֵ֑ם בָּרָ֖ק *ויהמם **וַיָּהֹֽם׃‬

And he sent his arrows,

And he scattered them,

And lightning,

And he {K: routed them} [Q: caused rout].

|| Ps 18:15 (Ps 18:14AV).
2 Sam 22:16 ‫וַיֵּֽרָאוּ֙ אֲפִ֣קֵי יָ֔ם יִגָּל֖וּ מֹסְד֣וֹת תֵּבֵ֑ל בְּגַעֲרַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה מִנִּשְׁמַ֖ת ר֥וּחַ אַפּֽוֹ׃‬

Then channels of the sea appeared;

The foundations of the world were revealed

At the Lord's rebuke

– At the blast of the wind from his nostrils.

|| Ps 18:16 (Ps 18:15AV).

nostrils ← nostril, nose, or anger.
2 Sam 22:17 ‫יִשְׁלַ֥ח מִמָּר֖וֹם יִקָּחֵ֑נִי יַֽמְשֵׁ֖נִי מִמַּ֥יִם רַבִּֽים׃‬

He sent help from on high,

And he took hold of me;

He drew me out of great waters.

|| Ps 18:17 (Ps 18:16AV).
2 Sam 22:18 ‫יַצִּילֵ֕נִי מֵאֹיְבִ֖י עָ֑ז מִשֹּׂ֣נְאַ֔י כִּ֥י אָמְצ֖וּ מִמֶּֽנִּי׃‬

He delivered me from my strong enemy

– From those who hate me –

For they were stronger than I was.

|| Ps 18:18 (Ps 18:17AV).
2 Sam 22:19 ‫יְקַדְּמֻ֖נִי בְּי֣וֹם אֵידִ֑י וַיְהִ֧י יְהוָ֛ה מִשְׁעָ֖ן לִֽי׃‬

They confronted me on my day of distress,

But the Lord became a support for me,

|| Ps 18:19 (Ps 18:18AV).
2 Sam 22:20 ‫וַיֹּצֵ֥א לַמֶּרְחָ֖ב אֹתִ֑י יְחַלְּצֵ֖נִי כִּי־חָ֥פֵֽץ בִּֽי׃‬

And he brought me out into a wide place;

He delivered me

Because he delighted in me.

|| Ps 18:20 (Ps 18:19AV).
2 Sam 22:21 ‫יִגְמְלֵ֥נִי יְהוָ֖ה כְּצִדְקָתִ֑י כְּבֹ֥ר יָדַ֖י יָשִׁ֥יב לִֽי׃‬

The Lord recompensed me

According to my righteousness;

According to the cleanness of my hands

He rewarded me.

|| Ps 18:21 (Ps 18:20AV).
2 Sam 22:22 ‫כִּ֥י שָׁמַ֖רְתִּי דַּרְכֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וְלֹ֥א רָשַׁ֖עְתִּי מֵאֱלֹהָֽי׃‬

For I have kept the ways of the Lord,

And I have not committed wickedness against my God.

|| Ps 18:22 (Ps 18:21AV).
2 Sam 22:23 ‫כִּ֥י כָל־*משפטו **מִשְׁפָּטָ֖יו לְנֶגְדִּ֑י וְחֻקֹּתָ֖יו לֹא־אָס֥וּר מִמֶּֽנָּה׃‬

For {Q: all his injunctions were} [K: his whole body of injunctions was] before me,

And I did not depart from any of his statutes.

|| Ps 18:23 (Ps 18:22AV).
2 Sam 22:24 ‫וָאֶהְיֶ֥ה תָמִ֖ים ל֑וֹ וָאֶשְׁתַּמְּרָ֖ה מֵעֲוֺנִֽי׃‬

And I was perfect towards him,

And I kept myself from iniquity.

|| Ps 18:24 (Ps 18:23AV).

iniquity ← my iniquity.
2 Sam 22:25 ‫וַיָּ֧שֶׁב יְהוָ֛ה לִ֖י כְּצִדְקָתִ֑י כְּבֹרִ֖י לְנֶ֥גֶד עֵינָֽיו׃‬

And the Lord rewarded me according to my righteousness

– According to my cleanness

Before his eyes.

|| Ps 18:25 (Ps 18:24AV).
2 Sam 22:26 ‫עִם־חָסִ֖יד תִּתְחַסָּ֑ד עִם־גִּבּ֥וֹר תָּמִ֖ים תִּתַּמָּֽם׃‬

With the kind, you will act kindly;

With the perfect warrior, you will act in perfection.

|| Ps 18:26 (Ps 18:25AV).

kind: or devout.
2 Sam 22:27 ‫עִם־נָבָ֖ר תִּתָּבָ֑ר וְעִם־עִקֵּ֖שׁ תִּתַּפָּֽל׃‬

With the pure, you will act in purity,

But with the perverse, you will act in a convoluted way.

|| Ps 18:27 (Ps 18:26AV).

act in a convoluted way: or wrestle.
2 Sam 22:28 ‫וְאֶת־עַ֥ם עָנִ֖י תּוֹשִׁ֑יעַ וְעֵינֶ֖יךָ עַל־רָמִ֥ים תַּשְׁפִּֽיל׃‬

And you will save an afflicted people,

But your eyes are against those who are haughty;

You bring them low.

|| Ps 18:28 (Ps 18:27AV).

afflicted people ← people of affliction, an objective Hebraic genitive.
2 Sam 22:29 ‫כִּֽי־אַתָּ֥ה נֵירִ֖י יְהוָ֑ה וַיהוָ֖ה יַגִּ֥יהַּ חָשְׁכִּֽי׃‬

For you, O Lord, are my lamp,

And the Lord brightens my darkness.

|| Ps 18:29 (Ps 18:28AV).
2 Sam 22:30 ‫כִּ֥י בְכָ֖ה אָר֣וּץ גְּד֑וּד בֵּאלֹהַ֖י אֲדַלֶּג־שֽׁוּר׃‬

For through you, I can run through a battalion;

Through my God I can leap over a wall.

|| Ps 18:30 (Ps 18:29AV).
2 Sam 22:31 ‫הָאֵ֖ל תָּמִ֣ים דַּרְכּ֑וֹ אִמְרַ֤ת יְהוָה֙ צְרוּפָ֔ה מָגֵ֣ן ה֔וּא לְכֹ֖ל הַחֹסִ֥ים בּֽוֹ׃‬

As for God, his way is perfect.

The word of the Lord has been refined.

He is a shield to all who trust in him.

|| Ps 18:31 (Ps 18:30AV).
2 Sam 22:32 ‫כִּ֥י מִי־אֵ֖ל מִבַּלְעֲדֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וּמִ֥י צ֖וּר מִֽבַּלְעֲדֵ֥י אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ׃‬

For who is God

Apart from the Lord?

And who is a rock

Apart from our God?

Mark 12:32.

|| Ps 18:32 (Ps 18:31AV).
2 Sam 22:33 ‫הָאֵ֥ל מָעוּזִּ֖י חָ֑יִל וַיַּתֵּ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים *דרכו **דַּרְכִּֽי׃‬

God is my mighty fortress,

Who directs {Q: my} [K: his] perfect way,

|| Ps 18:33 (Ps 18:32AV).

God is my mighty fortress ← God my fortress (is) might.
2 Sam 22:34 ‫מְשַׁוֶּ֥ה *רגליו **רַגְלַ֖י כָּאַיָּל֑וֹת וְעַ֥ל בָּמוֹתַ֖י יַעֲמִדֵֽנִי׃‬

Who makes {Q: my} [K: his] feet like those of hinds,

And stands me on my heights;

|| Ps 18:34 (Ps 18:33AV).
2 Sam 22:35 ‫מְלַמֵּ֥ד יָדַ֖י לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וְנִחַ֥ת קֶֽשֶׁת־נְחוּשָׁ֖ה זְרֹעֹתָֽי׃‬

Who teaches my hands the skills of war,

So a copper bow can be drawn by my arms.

|| Ps 18:35 (Ps 18:34AV).

drawn: niphal (or perhaps piel) of נָחַת. AV differs (broken), from חָתַת.
2 Sam 22:36 ‫וַתִּתֶּן־לִ֖י מָגֵ֣ן יִשְׁעֶ֑ךָ וַעֲנֹתְךָ֖ תַּרְבֵּֽנִי׃‬

And you gave me the shield of your salvation,

Whilst your action makes me great.

|| Ps 18:36 (Ps 18:35AV).

action: [AnLx] analyzes this as a contraction of וַעַנְוָתְךָ, your meekness, but we take it as the infinitive of עָנָה, to bestow labour.
2 Sam 22:37 ‫תַּרְחִ֥יב צַעֲדִ֖י תַּחְתֵּ֑נִי וְלֹ֥א מָעֲד֖וּ קַרְסֻלָּֽי׃‬

You enlarged my step under me,

And my ankles did not slip.

|| Ps 18:37 (Ps 18:36AV).
2 Sam 22:38 ‫אֶרְדְּפָ֥ה אֹיְבַ֖י וָאַשְׁמִידֵ֑ם וְלֹ֥א אָשׁ֖וּב עַד־כַּלּוֹתָֽם׃‬

I pursued my enemies

And destroyed them,

And I did not return

Until I had made an end of them.

|| Ps 18:38 (Ps 18:37AV).
2 Sam 22:39 ‫וָאֲכַלֵּ֥ם וָאֶמְחָצֵ֖ם וְלֹ֣א יְקוּמ֑וּן וַֽיִּפְּל֖וּ תַּ֥חַת רַגְלָֽי׃‬

And I consumed them, and I crushed them,

So that they could not get up,

And they fell under my feet.

|| Ps 18:39 (Ps 18:38AV).

so that: consecutive (result) use of the vav.
2 Sam 22:40 ‫וַתַּזְרֵ֥נִי חַ֖יִל לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה תַּכְרִ֥יעַ קָמַ֖י תַּחְתֵּֽנִי׃‬

And you girded me with valour for war;

You brought down my opponents under me.

girded me: this word assumes aphaeresis of an aleph. Re-pointed as וַתִּזְרֵנִי it could read besprinkled me.

|| Ps 18:40 (Ps 18:39AV).
2 Sam 22:41 ‫וְאֹ֣יְבַ֔י תַּ֥תָּה לִּ֖י עֹ֑רֶף מְשַׂנְאַ֖י וָאַצְמִיתֵֽם׃‬

And you gave me the neck of my enemies

– Those who hate me –

And I cut them down.

|| Ps 18:41 (Ps 18:40AV).
2 Sam 22:42 ‫יִשְׁע֖וּ וְאֵ֣ין מֹשִׁ֑יעַ אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א עָנָֽם׃‬

They looked,

But there was no saviour;

They looked to the Lord,

But he did not answer them.

|| Ps 18:42 (Ps 18:41AV).
2 Sam 22:43 ‫וְאֶשְׁחָקֵ֖ם כַּעֲפַר־אָ֑רֶץ כְּטִיט־חוּצ֥וֹת אֲדִקֵּ֖ם אֶרְקָעֵֽם׃‬

And I pulverized them like the dust of the ground,

I ground them fine like the filth of the streets;

I trod them under foot.

|| Ps 18:43 (Ps 18:42AV).

trod them under foot: or scattered them.
2 Sam 22:44 ‫וַֽתְּפַלְּטֵ֔נִי מֵרִיבֵ֖י עַמִּ֑י תִּשְׁמְרֵ֙נִי֙ לְרֹ֣אשׁ גּוֹיִ֔ם עַ֥ם לֹא־יָדַ֖עְתִּי יַעַבְדֻֽנִי׃‬

And you delivered me from the contentions of my people;

You kept me at the head of nations.

A people that I did not know

Will serve me.

|| Ps 18:44 (Ps 18:43AV).
2 Sam 22:45 ‫בְּנֵ֥י נֵכָ֖ר יִתְכַּֽחֲשׁוּ־לִ֑י לִשְׁמ֥וֹעַ אֹ֖זֶן יִשָּׁ֥מְעוּ לִֽי׃‬

Foreigners will feign obedience to me.

At bidding coming to their ears,

They will be obedient to me.

|| Ps 18:45 (Ps 18:44AV).

feign obedience: hithpael for feigning. See Gen 42:7.

at bidding coming to their ears ← at the hearing of the ear.
2 Sam 22:46 ‫בְּנֵ֥י נֵכָ֖ר יִבֹּ֑לוּ וְיַחְגְּר֖וּ מִמִּסְגְּרוֹתָֽם׃‬

Foreigners will fade away;

They will be wrenched out of their confines.

|| Ps 18:46 (Ps 18:45AV).

be wrenched out: either from the root as written, or with metathesis of the gimel and resh of the root חרג, which means to be straitened or to fear. AV differs (be afraid).
2 Sam 22:47 ‫חַי־יְהוָ֖ה וּבָר֣וּךְ צוּרִ֑י וְיָרֻ֕ם אֱלֹהֵ֖י צ֥וּר יִשְׁעִֽי׃‬

How the Lord lives,

And my rock is blessed,

And the God of the rock of my salvation is exalted

|| Ps 18:47 (Ps 18:46AV).
2 Sam 22:48 ‫הָאֵ֕ל הַנֹּתֵ֥ן נְקָמֹ֖ת לִ֑י וּמוֹרִ֥יד עַמִּ֖ים תַּחְתֵּֽנִי׃‬

– The God who gives me vengeance,

And who subjugates various peoples under me,

|| Ps 18:48 (Ps 18:47AV).
2 Sam 22:49 ‫וּמוֹצִיאִ֖י מֵאֹֽיְבָ֑י וּמִקָּמַי֙ תְּר֣וֹמְמֵ֔נִי מֵאִ֥ישׁ חֲמָסִ֖ים תַּצִּילֵֽנִי׃‬

And who extricates me from my enemies.

You also raise me up above those who rise up against me;

You rescue me from the man of violence.

|| Ps 18:49 (Ps 18:48AV).

extricates ← brings out.

above ← from.
2 Sam 22:50 ‫עַל־כֵּ֛ן אוֹדְךָ֥ יְהוָ֖ה בַּגּוֹיִ֑ם וּלְשִׁמְךָ֖ אֲזַמֵּֽר׃‬

That is why I will praise you,

O Lord, among the nations,

And I will sing psalms to your name.

Rom 15:9.

|| Ps 18:50 (Ps 18:49AV).
2 Sam 22:51 ‫*מגדיל **מִגְדּ֖וֹל יְשׁוּע֣וֹת מַלְכּ֑וֹ וְעֹֽשֶׂה־חֶ֧סֶד לִמְשִׁיח֛וֹ לְדָוִ֥ד וּלְזַרְע֖וֹ עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃ פ‬

He {K: magnifies acts of} [Q: is the tower of] salvation of his king,

Also showing kindness to his anointed

– To David and to his seed,


magnifies: we read the ketiv as מַגְדִּיל.

|| Ps 18:51 (Ps 18:50AV).

anointed: the same word as messiah.
2 Sam 23:1 ‫וְאֵ֛לֶּה דִּבְרֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד הָאַֽחֲרֹנִ֑ים נְאֻ֧ם דָּוִ֣ד בֶּן־יִשַׁ֗י וּנְאֻ֤ם הַגֶּ֙בֶר֙ הֻ֣קַם עָ֔ל מְשִׁ֙יחַ֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וּנְעִ֖ים זְמִר֥וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

Now these are the last words of David,

The utterance of David the son of Jesse,

And the utterance of the man raised up high,

The anointed of the God of Jacob,

Which are the pleasantness of the songs of Israel.

the pleasantness of: AV differs (said), apparently reading נְאוּם.

anointed: the same word as messiah.
2 Sam 23:2 ‫ר֥וּחַ יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֶּר־בִּ֑י וּמִלָּת֖וֹ עַל־לְשׁוֹנִֽי׃‬

“The spirit of the Lord spoke through me,

And its word was on my tongue.

2 Sam 23:3 ‫אָמַר֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִ֥י דִבֶּ֖ר צ֣וּר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מוֹשֵׁל֙ בָּאָדָ֔ם צַדִּ֕יק מוֹשֵׁ֖ל יִרְאַ֥ת אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬

The God of Israel said

– The rock of Israel spoke to me –

‘A ruler over men shall be just;

A ruler shall have fear of God.

2 Sam 23:4 ‫וּכְא֥וֹר בֹּ֖קֶר יִזְרַח־שָׁ֑מֶשׁ בֹּ֚קֶר לֹ֣א עָב֔וֹת מִנֹּ֥גַהּ מִמָּטָ֖ר דֶּ֥שֶׁא מֵאָֽרֶץ׃‬

And he will shine like morning light

When the sun rises,

On a morning without clouds,

At the brilliance after rain

On the grass shooting up out of the ground.’

2 Sam 23:5 ‫כִּֽי־לֹא־כֵ֥ן בֵּיתִ֖י עִם־אֵ֑ל כִּי֩ בְרִ֨ית עוֹלָ֜ם שָׂ֣ם לִ֗י עֲרוּכָ֤ה בַכֹּל֙ וּשְׁמֻרָ֔ה כִּֽי־כָל־יִשְׁעִ֥י וְכָל־חֵ֖פֶץ כִּֽי־לֹ֥א יַצְמִֽיחַ׃‬

For is not my house like that with God?

For he has appointed an age-abiding covenant for me,

Ordered in all matters and secure,

For it is all my salvation and all my desire.

For shall he not make it spring up?

secure ← guarded.

AV differs in many respects. Our translation is similar to [CB] (in the notes).
2 Sam 23:6 ‫וּבְלִיַּ֕עַל כְּק֥וֹץ מֻנָ֖ד כֻּלָּ֑הַם כִּֽי־לֹ֥א בְיָ֖ד יִקָּֽחוּ׃‬

But the good-for-nothing is like a thorn bush;

All of them are cast out,

For they are not taken up in a hand.

good-for-nothing ← useless.

cast out ← driven about, but cognate with fleeing.

they are not taken up in a hand ← they do not take (them up). Avoidance of the passive.
2 Sam 23:7 ‫וְאִישׁ֙ יִגַּ֣ע בָּהֶ֔ם יִמָּלֵ֥א בַרְזֶ֖ל וְעֵ֣ץ חֲנִ֑ית וּבָאֵ֕שׁ שָׂר֥וֹף יִשָּׂרְפ֖וּ בַּשָּֽׁבֶת׃ פ‬

But if a man touches them,

Let him be furnished with iron

And the shaft of a spear.

And they will be utterly burned up

By the fire on the spot.”

furnished ← filled.

shaft ← wood.

be utterly burned up: infinitive absolute.

on the spot ← at sitting.
2 Sam 23:8 ‫אֵ֛לֶּה שְׁמ֥וֹת הַגִּבֹּרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְדָוִ֑ד יֹשֵׁ֨ב בַּשֶּׁ֜בֶת תַּחְכְּמֹנִ֣י ׀ רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׁלִשִׁ֗י ה֚וּא עֲדִינ֣וֹ *העצנו **הָֽעֶצְנִ֔י עַל־שְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵא֛וֹת חָלָ֖ל בְּפַ֥עַם *אחד **אֶחָֽת׃ ס‬ These are the names of David's warriors: Josheb Bashshebeth the Tahchemonite, a head of the third rank – he is Adino the Eznite, famed for the eight hundred who were struck down by him at one time. Eznite: the ketiv has to be regarded as a variant form of the qeré.

one: the ketiv is masculine (time is feminine), so discordant.

|| 1 Chr 11:11.

Josheb Bashshebeth: AV differs (that sat in the seat), translating it.

Tahchemonite: with a heth and a kaph. AV= Tachmonite.
2 Sam 23:9 ‫*ואחרו **וְאַחֲרָ֛יו אֶלְעָזָ֥ר בֶּן־*דדי **דֹּד֖וֹ בֶּן־אֲחֹחִ֑י בִּשְׁלֹשָׁ֨ה *גברים **הַגִּבֹּרִ֜ים עִם־דָּוִ֗ד בְּחָֽרְפָ֤ם בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים נֶאֶסְפוּ־שָׁ֣ם לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וַֽיַּעֲל֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And after him came Eleazar the son of {Q: Dodo} [K: Dodi] the Ahohite among {K: the three warriors} [Q: the three warriors] with David when they defied the Philistines who had assembled there for war, when the men of Israel had gone up to battle. after him: the ketiv and qeré are different declined forms of the same word, with the same meaning.

|| 1 Chr 11:12, 1 Chr 11:13.

Eleazar: see Ex 6:23.

Ahohite ← son of Ahohi, but Ahohi is probably a race.

gone up: the verb is used ↴
2 Sam 23:10 ‫ה֣וּא קָם֩ וַיַּ֨ךְ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֜ים עַ֣ד ׀ כִּֽי־יָגְעָ֣ה יָד֗וֹ וַתִּדְבַּ֤ק יָדוֹ֙ אֶל־הַחֶ֔רֶב וַיַּ֧עַשׂ יְהוָ֛ה תְּשׁוּעָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וְהָעָ֛ם יָשֻׁ֥בוּ אַחֲרָ֖יו אַךְ־לְפַשֵּֽׁט׃ ס‬ He arose and struck the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand stuck to the sword. And the Lord effected a great salvation on that day, and the people came back after him only to collect spoil. ↳ of going to battle, as in Ex 1:10, Judg 20:18, Isa 21:2.
2 Sam 23:11 ‫וְאַחֲרָ֛יו שַׁמָּ֥א בֶן־אָגֵ֖א הָרָרִ֑י וַיֵּאָסְפ֨וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֜ים לַחַיָּ֗ה וַתְּהִי־שָׁ֞ם חֶלְקַ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ מְלֵאָ֣ה עֲדָשִׁ֔ים וְהָעָ֥ם נָ֖ס מִפְּנֵ֥י פְלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬ And after him came Shammah the son of Agee the Hararite. And the Philistines assembled into a battalion, and there was a parcel of land there in a field full of lentils, and the people fled from the presence of the Philistines. || 1 Chr 11:13.

Shammah ← Shamma here, but Shammah elsewhere except 1 Chr 7:37. We standardize on Shammah.

Agee ← Age, pronounced Ag-é, avoiding confusion with the English word age.
2 Sam 23:12 ‫וַיִּתְיַצֵּ֤ב בְּתוֹךְ־הַֽחֶלְקָה֙ וַיַּצִּילֶ֔הָ וַיַּ֖ךְ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וַיַּ֥עַשׂ יְהוָ֖ה תְּשׁוּעָ֥ה גְדוֹלָֽה׃ ס‬ But he took his stand in the middle of the parcel of land, and he saved it, and he struck the Philistines, and the Lord brought about a great salvation. || 1 Chr 11:14.
2 Sam 23:13 ‫וַיֵּרְד֨וּ *שלשים **שְׁלֹשָׁ֜ה מֵהַשְּׁלֹשִׁ֣ים רֹ֗אשׁ וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ אֶל־קָצִיר֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד אֶל־מְעָרַ֖ת עֲדֻלָּ֑ם וְחַיַּ֣ת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים חֹנָ֖ה בְּעֵ֥מֶק רְפָאִֽים׃‬ And {Q: three of the thirty heads} [K: thirty of the thirty heads] went down and came at harvest time to David at the cave of Adullam, while the battalion of the Philistines encamped in the Valley of the Rephaim. thirty of the thirty heads (ketiv): one could re-point מֵהַשְּׁלֹשִׁים as מֵהַשָּׁלִשִׁים to read thirty of the heads of the third rank. Compare 2 Sam 23:8. In support of the qeré is 2 Sam 23:16-17 where we have a threesome.

|| 1 Chr 11:15.

Rephaim: see [CB] App. 25.
2 Sam 23:14 ‫וְדָוִ֖ד אָ֣ז בַּמְּצוּדָ֑ה וּמַצַּ֣ב פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אָ֖ז בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם׃‬ And David was then in the stronghold, whereas the garrison of the Philistines was at that time in Bethlehem. || 1 Chr 11:16.

Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.
2 Sam 23:15 ‫וַיִּתְאַוֶּ֥ה דָוִ֖ד וַיֹּאמַ֑ר מִ֚י יַשְׁקֵ֣נִי מַ֔יִם מִבֹּ֥אר בֵּֽית־לֶ֖חֶם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּשָּֽׁעַר׃‬ And David had a longing, and he said, “Who will give me a drink of water from the cistern in Bethlehem, which is at the gate?” cistern in ← cistern of. Wider use of the construct state. But the word is pointed unusually, and unpointed it would normally be read well.

|| 1 Chr 11:17.

Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.
2 Sam 23:16 ‫וַיִּבְקְעוּ֩ שְׁלֹ֨שֶׁת הַגִּבֹּרִ֜ים בְּמַחֲנֵ֣ה פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיִּֽשְׁאֲבוּ־מַ֙יִם֙ מִבֹּ֤אר בֵּֽית־לֶ֙חֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּשַּׁ֔עַר וַיִּשְׂא֖וּ וַיָּבִ֣אוּ אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד וְלֹ֤א אָבָה֙ לִשְׁתּוֹתָ֔ם וַיַּסֵּ֥ךְ אֹתָ֖ם לַֽיהוָֽה׃‬ And the three warriors broke through into the Philistines' camp and drew water from the cistern in Bethlehem, which is at the gate, and they carried it and brought it to David, but he was not willing to drink it, and he poured it out to the Lord. || 1 Chr 11:18.

cistern in: see 2 Sam 23:15.

Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.
2 Sam 23:17 ‫וַיֹּ֡אמֶר חָלִילָה֩ לִּ֨י יְהוָ֜ה מֵעֲשֹׂ֣תִי זֹ֗את הֲדַ֤ם הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ הַהֹלְכִ֣ים בְּנַפְשׁוֹתָ֔ם וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לִשְׁתּוֹתָ֑ם אֵ֣לֶּה עָשׂ֔וּ שְׁלֹ֖שֶׁת הַגִּבֹּרִֽים׃ ס‬ And he said, “Far be it from me, O Lord, that I should do this. Is this not the blood of the men who went at the risk of their lives?” So he was not willing to drink it. The three warriors did these things. || 1 Chr 11:19.

lives ← souls.
2 Sam 23:18 ‫וַאֲבִישַׁ֞י אֲחִ֣י ׀ יוֹאָ֣ב בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֗ה ה֚וּא רֹ֣אשׁ *השלשי **הַשְּׁלֹשָׁ֔ה וְהוּא֙ עוֹרֵ֣ר אֶת־חֲנִית֔וֹ עַל־שְׁלֹ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת חָלָ֑ל וְלוֹ־שֵׁ֖ם בַּשְּׁלֹשָֽׁה׃‬ And Abishai the brother of Joab the son of Zeruiah was {Q: the head of the three} [K: a head of the third rank], and he raised his spear against three hundred who were struck down by him, and he had fame among the three. || 1 Chr 11:20.
2 Sam 23:19 ‫מִן־הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה֙ הֲכִ֣י נִכְבָּ֔ד וַיְהִ֥י לָהֶ֖ם לְשָׂ֑ר וְעַד־הַשְּׁלֹשָׁ֖ה לֹא־בָֽא׃ ס‬ Was he more honoured than the three? Now he became their commander, but he did not equal the three. || 1 Chr 11:21.

equal ← come up to.
2 Sam 23:20 ‫וּבְנָיָ֨הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָ֧ע בֶּן־אִֽישׁ־*חי **חַ֛יִל רַב־פְּעָלִ֖ים מִֽקַּבְצְאֵ֑ל ה֣וּא הִכָּ֗ה אֵ֣ת שְׁנֵ֤י אֲרִאֵל֙ מוֹאָ֔ב וְ֠הוּא יָרַ֞ד וְהִכָּ֧ה אֶֽת־*האריה **הָאֲרִ֛י בְּת֥וֹךְ הַבֹּ֖אר בְּי֥וֹם הַשָּֽׁלֶג׃‬ And there was Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada, the son of {Q: a valiant man} [K: Ish-Hai], of many exploits, from Kabzeel. He struck down two men of Ariel of Moab, and he went down and struck a lion inside a pit on a snowy day. a pit: the consonantal text would normally be read as a well. Compare 2 Sam 23:15.

|| 1 Chr 11:22.

Ariel: AV differs (lionlike), so not regarded as a place name. But see [CB] and Isa 29:1-2.

a lion ← the lion. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9. Also a play on words with Ariel, = lion of God.
2 Sam 23:21 ‫וְהוּא־הִכָּה֩ אֶת־אִ֨ישׁ מִצְרִ֜י *אשר **אִ֣ישׁ מַרְאֶ֗ה וּבְיַ֤ד הַמִּצְרִי֙ חֲנִ֔ית וַיֵּ֥רֶד אֵלָ֖יו בַּשָּׁ֑בֶט וַיִּגְזֹ֤ל אֶֽת־הַחֲנִית֙ מִיַּ֣ד הַמִּצְרִ֔י וַיַּהַרְגֵ֖הוּ בַּחֲנִיתֽוֹ׃‬ And he struck down an Egyptian man, {K: who was} [Q: a man] of fine appearance, and in the Egyptian's hand was a spear, and he went down against him with a staff, and he wrenched the spear from the Egyptian's hand and killed him with his spear. || 1 Chr 11:23.
2 Sam 23:22 ‫אֵ֣לֶּה עָשָׂ֔ה בְּנָיָ֖הוּ בֶּן־יְהוֹיָדָ֑ע וְלוֹ־שֵׁ֖ם בִּשְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה הַגִּבֹּרִֽים׃‬ Benaiah the son of Jehoiada did these things, and he had fame among the three warriors. || 1 Chr 11:24.

did: in a Hebrew “OVS” (object-verb-subject) sentence.
2 Sam 23:23 ‫מִן־הַשְּׁלֹשִׁ֣ים נִכְבָּ֔ד וְאֶל־הַשְּׁלֹשָׁ֖ה לֹא־בָ֑א וַיְשִׂמֵ֥הוּ דָוִ֖ד אֶל־מִשְׁמַעְתּֽוֹ׃ ס‬ He was more honoured than the thirty, but he was not equal to the three, and David appointed him to his council. || 1 Chr 11:25.

was not equal ← did not come to.

council ← audience; hearing. AV differs (guard), apparently reading מִשְׁמַרְתּוֹ.
2 Sam 23:24 ‫עֲשָׂה־אֵ֥ל אֲחִֽי־יוֹאָ֖ב בַּשְּׁלֹשִׁ֑ים אֶלְחָנָ֥ן בֶּן־דֹּד֖וֹ בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם׃‬ Asahel the brother of Joab was among the thirty, as were Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem, || 1 Chr 11:26.

Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.
2 Sam 23:25 ‫שַׁמָּה֙ הַֽחֲרֹדִ֔י אֱלִיקָ֖א הַחֲרֹדִֽי׃ ס‬ Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite, || 1 Chr 11:27.
2 Sam 23:26 ‫חֶ֚לֶץ הַפַּלְטִ֔י עִירָ֥א בֶן־עִקֵּ֖שׁ הַתְּקוֹעִֽי׃ ס‬ Helez the Paltite, Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite, || 1 Chr 11:27, 1 Chr 11:28.
2 Sam 23:27 ‫אֲבִיעֶ֙זֶר֙ הָֽעַנְּתֹתִ֔י מְבֻנַּ֖י הַחֻשָׁתִֽי׃ ס‬ Abiezer the Anathothite, Mebunnai the Hushathite, || 1 Chr 11:28, 1 Chr 11:29.

Anathothite ← Annethothite, and AV= Anethothite, but the town is Anathoth, and the Hebrew for this word is unmorphological in Jer 29:27, 1 Chr 11:28 and 1 Chr 12:3, where ↴
2 Sam 23:28 ‫צַלְמוֹן֙ הָֽאֲחֹחִ֔י מַהְרַ֖י הַנְּטֹפָתִֽי׃ ס‬ Zalmon the Ahohite, Mahrai the Netophathite, ↳ the MT pointing breaks a fundamental rule that two vocal shewas cannot occur together.

|| 1 Chr 11:29, 1 Chr 11:30.

Mahrai: AV= Maharai.
2 Sam 23:29 ‫חֵ֥לֶב בֶּֽן־בַּעֲנָ֖ה הַנְּטֹפָתִ֑י ס אִתַּי֙ בֶּן־רִיבַ֔י מִגִּבְעַ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י בִנְיָמִֽן׃ ס‬ Heleb the son of Baanah the Netophathite, Ittai the son of Ribai from Gibeah, of the sons of Benjamin, || 1 Chr 11:30, 1 Chr 11:31.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.
2 Sam 23:30 ‫בְּנָיָ֙הוּ֙ פִּרְעָ֣תֹנִ֔י הִדַּ֖י מִנַּ֥חֲלֵי גָֽעַשׁ׃ ס‬ Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai of the brooks of Gaash, || 1 Chr 11:31, 1 Chr 11:32.
2 Sam 23:31 ‫אֲבִֽי־עַלְבוֹן֙ הָֽעַרְבָתִ֔י עַזְמָ֖וֶת הַבַּרְחֻמִֽי׃ ס‬ Abi-Albon the Arbathite, Azmaveth the Barhumite, || 1 Chr 11:32, 1 Chr 11:33.
2 Sam 23:32 ‫אֶלְיַחְבָּא֙ הַשַּׁ֣עַלְבֹנִ֔י בְּנֵ֥י יָשֵׁ֖ן יְהוֹנָתָֽן׃ ס‬ Eliahba the Shaalbonite, the sons of Jashen, Jonathan, || 1 Chr 11:33, 1 Chr 11:34.

the sons of Jashen: perhaps 6 sons, which would make the total 37 (2 Sam 23:39).
2 Sam 23:33 ‫שַׁמָּה֙ הַֽהֲרָרִ֔י אֲחִיאָ֥ם בֶּן־שָׁרָ֖ר הָארָרִֽי׃ ס‬ Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam the son of Sharar the Ararite, || 1 Chr 11:35.

Ararite: perhaps a contracted form of Hararite.
2 Sam 23:34 ‫אֱלִיפֶ֥לֶט בֶּן־אֲחַסְבַּ֖י בֶּן־הַמַּֽעֲכָתִ֑י ס אֱלִיעָ֥ם בֶּן־אֲחִיתֹ֖פֶל הַגִּלֹנִֽי׃ ס‬ Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai the son of the Maachathite, Eliam the son of Ahithophel the Gilonite, || 1 Chr 11:35.
2 Sam 23:35 ‫*חצרו **חֶצְרַי֙ הַֽכַּרְמְלִ֔י פַּעֲרַ֖י הָאַרְבִּֽי׃ ס‬ {K: Hezro} [Q: Hezrai] the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite, || 1 Chr 11:37.
2 Sam 23:36 ‫יִגְאָ֤ל בֶּן־נָתָן֙ מִצֹּבָ֔ה ס בָּנִ֖י הַגָּדִֽי׃ ס‬ Igal the son of Nathan of Zobah, Bani the Gadite, || 1 Chr 11:38.
2 Sam 23:37 ‫צֶ֖לֶק הָעַמֹּנִ֑י ס נַחְרַי֙ הַבְּאֵ֣רֹתִ֔י *נשאי **נֹשֵׂ֕א כְּלֵ֖י יוֹאָ֥ב בֶּן־צְרֻיָֽה׃ ס‬ Zelek the Ammonite, Nahrai the Beerothite, {K: arms-bearers} [Q: arms-bearer] of Joab the son of Zeruiah, || 1 Chr 11:39.

Nahrai: AV= Naharai.
2 Sam 23:38 ‫עִירָא֙ הַיִּתְרִ֔י גָּרֵ֖ב הַיִּתְרִֽי׃ ס‬ Ira the Ithrite, Gareb the Ithrite, || 1 Chr 11:40.
2 Sam 23:39 ‫אֽוּרִיָּה֙ הַֽחִתִּ֔י כֹּ֖ל שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים וְשִׁבְעָֽה׃ פ‬ Uriah the Hittite – all thirty-seven of them. || 1 Chr 11:41.

thirty-seven: thirty (2 Sam 23:24) perhaps not a rigid number, or thirty-seven includes any that had died and their replacements.
2 Sam 24:1 ‫וַיֹּ֙סֶף֙ אַף־יְהוָ֔ה לַחֲר֖וֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיָּ֨סֶת אֶת־דָּוִ֤ד בָּהֶם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֵ֛ךְ מְנֵ֥ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְאֶת־יְהוּדָֽה׃‬ And the Lord's anger was again kindled against Israel, and he stirred David up against them and said, “Go and count Israel and Judah.” || 1 Chr 21:1.

stirred ... up: [CB] explains as he suffered David to be stirred up.
2 Sam 24:2 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶל־יוֹאָ֣ב ׀ שַׂר־הַחַ֣יִל אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֗וֹ שֽׁוּט־נָ֞א בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִדָּן֙ וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע וּפִקְד֖וּ אֶת־הָעָ֑ם וְיָ֣דַעְתִּ֔י אֵ֖ת מִסְפַּ֥ר הָעָֽם׃ ס‬ And the king said to Joab, the commander of the army, who was with him, “Go and cover the ground of all the tribes of Israel from Dan to Beersheba, and count the people, so that I know the number of the people.” || 1 Chr 21:2.

go and cover the ground ← run to and fro please.

so that: purposive use of the vav.
2 Sam 24:3 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יוֹאָ֜ב אֶל־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְיוֹסֵ֣ף יְהוָה֩ אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ אֶל־הָעָ֜ם כָּהֵ֤ם ׀ וְכָהֵם֙ מֵאָ֣ה פְעָמִ֔ים וְעֵינֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ רֹא֑וֹת וַאדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לָ֥מָּה חָפֵ֖ץ בַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃‬ But Joab said to the king, “Now may the Lord your God add to the people, some here and some there, a hundred times over, with the eyes of my lord the king observing it. But why does my lord the king delight in this matter?” || 1 Chr 21:3.
2 Sam 24:4 ‫וַיֶּחֱזַ֤ק דְּבַר־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב וְעַ֖ל שָׂרֵ֣י הֶחָ֑יִל וַיֵּצֵ֨א יוֹאָ֜ב וְשָׂרֵ֤י הַחַ֙יִל֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לִפְקֹ֥ד אֶת־הָעָ֖ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ But the king's decision was firm towards Joab and towards the commanders of the army, so Joab and the commanders of the army went out before the king to count the people – Israel. || 1 Chr 21:4.

decision ← word.

was firm ← was strong.
2 Sam 24:5 ‫וַיַּעַבְר֖וּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן וַיַּחֲנ֣וּ בַעֲרוֹעֵ֗ר יְמִ֥ין הָעִ֛יר אֲשֶׁ֛ר בְּתוֹךְ־הַנַּ֥חַל הַגָּ֖ד וְאֶל־יַעְזֵֽר׃‬ And they crossed the Jordan and encamped at Aroer, to the right of the city, this being in the middle of the ravine of Gad and towards Jazer. ravine ← stream, or wadi. See 1 Sam 15:5.

Jazer: see Num 21:32.
2 Sam 24:6 ‫וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ הַגִּלְעָ֔דָה וְאֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ תַּחְתִּ֖ים חָדְשִׁ֑י וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ דָּ֣נָה יַּ֔עַן וְסָבִ֖יב אֶל־צִידֽוֹן׃‬ And they came to Gilead and to the land of Tahtim-Hodshi. Then they came to Dan-Jaan and round towards Sidon. Gilead: see Gen 31:21.

Sidon: see Gen 10:15.
2 Sam 24:7 ‫וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ מִבְצַר־צֹ֔ר וְכָל־עָרֵ֥י הַחִוִּ֖י וְהַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֑י וַיֵּֽצְא֛וּ אֶל־נֶ֥גֶב יְהוּדָ֖ה בְּאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע׃‬ And they came to the fortification of Tyre and all the cities of the Hivites and the Canaanites, and they went out towards the south of Judah to Beersheba.
2 Sam 24:8 ‫וַיָּשֻׁ֖טוּ בְּכָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ מִקְצֵ֨ה תִשְׁעָ֧ה חֳדָשִׁ֛ים וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים י֖וֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ And they went up and down in all the land, and after nine months and twenty days they came to Jerusalem. || 1 Chr 21:4.

after ← at the end of.
2 Sam 24:9 ‫וַיִּתֵּ֥ן יוֹאָ֛ב אֶת־מִסְפַּ֥ר מִפְקַד־הָעָ֖ם אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַתְּהִ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֡ל שְׁמֹנֶה֩ מֵא֨וֹת אֶ֤לֶף אִֽישׁ־חַ֙יִל֙ שֹׁ֣לֵֽף חֶ֔רֶב וְאִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֔ה חֲמֵשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ׃‬ And Joab gave the number of the census of the people to the king, and Israel consisted of eight hundred thousand soldiers who drew the sword, and Judah consisted of five hundred thousand men. || 1 Chr 21:5.

consisted of ← was.

Judah ← man of Judah.

There is a different classification in 1 Chr 21:5.
2 Sam 24:10 ‫וַיַּ֤ךְ לֵב־דָּוִד֙ אֹת֔וֹ אַחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן סָפַ֣ר אֶת־הָעָ֑ם ס וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־יְהוָ֗ה חָטָ֤אתִי מְאֹד֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔יתִי וְעַתָּ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה הַֽעֲבֶר־נָא֙ אֶת־עֲוֺ֣ן עַבְדְּךָ֔ כִּ֥י נִסְכַּ֖לְתִּי מְאֹֽד׃‬ Then David's heart cut him up after he had counted the people, and David said to the Lord, “I have sinned greatly in that I did this. So now, O Lord, please remit the iniquity of your servant, for I have acted very foolishly.” || 1 Chr 21:8.

cut him up ← struck him.

remit ← transfer.
2 Sam 24:11 ‫וַיָּ֥קָם דָּוִ֖ד בַּבֹּ֑קֶר פ וּדְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה הָיָה֙ אֶל־גָּ֣ד הַנָּבִ֔יא חֹזֵ֥ה דָוִ֖ד לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And when David arose in the morning, the word of the Lord came to Gad the prophet, David's seer, as follows: || 1 Chr 21:9.

came ← became.

as follows ← to say.
2 Sam 24:12 ‫הָל֞וֹךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ֣ אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה שָׁלֹ֕שׁ אָנֹכִ֖י נוֹטֵ֣ל עָלֶ֑יךָ בְּחַר־לְךָ֥ אַֽחַת־מֵהֶ֖ם וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ׃‬ Go and say to David, ‘This is what the Lord says: «I have three things to impose on you. Choose one of them, and I will do it to you.» ’ ” || 1 Chr 21:10.

go: infinitive absolute.

this is whatthus.

I have three things to impose ← I am imposing three (things).
2 Sam 24:13 ‫וַיָּבֹא־גָ֥ד אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד וַיַּגֶּד־ל֑וֹ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֡וֹ הֲתָב֣וֹא לְךָ֣ שֶֽׁבַע שָׁנִ֣ים ׀ רָעָ֣ב ׀ בְּאַרְצֶ֡ךָ אִם־שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה חֳ֠דָשִׁים נֻסְךָ֨ לִפְנֵֽי־צָרֶ֜יךָ וְה֣וּא רֹדְפֶ֗ךָ וְאִם־הֱ֠יוֹת שְׁלֹ֨שֶׁת יָמִ֥ים דֶּ֙בֶר֙ בְּאַרְצֶ֔ךָ עַתָּה֙ דַּ֣ע וּרְאֵ֔ה מָה־אָשִׁ֥יב שֹׁלְחִ֖י דָּבָֽר׃ ס‬ So Gad went to David and told him and said to him, “Shall seven years of famine come in your land, or three months of you fleeing from your adversaries as they pursue you, or should there be three days of pestilence in your land? Now be aware of them and consider what answer I should give to him who sent me.” || 1 Chr 21:11, 1 Chr 21:12.

they pursue ← he pursues.

consider ← see; discern.

what answer I should give ← what word I should return.
2 Sam 24:14 ‫וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אֶל־גָּ֖ד צַר־לִ֣י מְאֹ֑ד נִפְּלָה־נָּ֤א בְיַד־יְהוָה֙ כִּֽי־רַבִּ֣ים *רחמו **רַֽחֲמָ֔יו וּבְיַד־אָדָ֖ם אַל־אֶפֹּֽלָה׃‬ Then David said to Gad, “I am very much in a strait. Let us, then, fall into the hand of the Lord, for his {Q: mercies are} [K: mercy is] great, and don't let me fall into the hand of man.” The ketiv could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré.

|| 1 Chr 21:13.

great: or many.
2 Sam 24:15 ‫וַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהוָ֥ה דֶּ֙בֶר֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵהַבֹּ֖קֶר וְעַד־עֵ֣ת מוֹעֵ֑ד וַיָּ֣מָת מִן־הָעָ֗ם מִדָּן֙ וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע שִׁבְעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ׃‬ So the Lord caused a pestilence in Israel, from the morning to the appointed time. And from Dan to Beersheba seventy thousand of the people died. || 1 Chr 21:14.

caused ← gave, put.

of the people ← man / person from the people.
2 Sam 24:16 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ יָד֨וֹ הַמַּלְאָ֥ךְ ׀ יְרֽוּשָׁלִַם֮ לְשַׁחֲתָהּ֒ וַיִּנָּ֤חֶם יְהוָה֙ אֶל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה וַ֠יֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ הַמַּשְׁחִ֤ית בָּעָם֙ רַ֔ב עַתָּ֖ה הֶ֣רֶף יָדֶ֑ךָ וּמַלְאַ֤ךְ יְהוָה֙ הָיָ֔ה עִם־גֹּ֖רֶן *האורנה **הָאֲרַ֥וְנָה הַיְבֻסִֽי׃ ס‬ But when the angel stretched out his hand over Jerusalem to destroy it, the Lord grieved over the harm, and he said to the angel who was to destroy the people, “Enough now; stay your hand.” And the angel of the Lord was at the threshing floor of {Q: Araunah} [K: Ornah] the Jebusite. Araunah (qeré): MT= Haaravnah or the Aravnah, but we retain the AV / traditional English name. In 1 and 2 Chronicles Ornan.

Ornah (ketiv)the Ornah.

|| 1 Chr 21:15.

destroy ... destroy: or ravage ... ravage.

stay ← slacken.
2 Sam 24:17 ‫וַיֹּאמֶר֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶל־יְהוָ֜ה בִּרְאֹת֣וֹ ׀ אֶֽת־הַמַּלְאָ֣ךְ ׀ הַמַּכֶּ֣ה בָעָ֗ם וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֤י חָטָ֙אתִי֙ וְאָנֹכִ֣י הֶעֱוֵ֔יתִי וְאֵ֥לֶּה הַצֹּ֖אן מֶ֣ה עָשׂ֑וּ תְּהִ֨י נָ֥א יָדְךָ֛ בִּ֖י וּבְבֵ֥ית אָבִֽי׃ פ‬ Then when David saw the angel who struck the people, he spoke to the Lord and said, “I see that I have sinned and that I have been iniquitous, but as for these sheep, what have they done? Let your hand, then, be against me and the house of my father.” || 1 Chr 21:17.

when David saw ... he spoke ← when he saw ... David spoke.

I see that ← behold.
2 Sam 24:18 ‫וַיּ