The Far Above All Translation of the Old Testament / Tanakh


Version 0.33.105, 15 February 2024


We offer a freely copyable translation of the Old Testament / Tanakh based on the Masoretic Text. The translation follows the Masoretic Text, ketiv or qeré (which will be indicated), and vowels (but we retain freedom regarding word grouping), except that the changes made by the Sopherim are reversed (see Companion Bible Appendices 32 and 33). Textual and explanatory remarks may be made in the notes. Our translation may be freely copied (see copyright notices below).


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The Hebrew / Aramaic text as starting material is the Westminster Leningrad Codex [4.18], obtained from

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Our copyright

The Introduction, the English translation and notes (referred to as "this text" below) Copyright © 2012-2022 by Graham G. Thomason. Anyone is permitted to copy and distribute this text or any portion of this text. It may be incorporated in a larger work, and/or quoted from, stored in a database retrieval system, photocopied, reprinted, or otherwise duplicated by anyone without prior notification, permission, compensation to the holder, or any other restrictions. All rights to this text are released to everyone and no-one can reduce these rights at any time. The permitted use or reproduction of the above-mentioned text does not imply doctrinal or theological agreement by the present translator and publisher with whatever views may be maintained or promulgated by other publishers. For the purpose of assigning responsibility, it is requested that the present translator's name and the title associated with this text and its availability at as well as this disclaimer be retained in any subsequent reproduction of this material.
- end of quotation -


Please see the separate Introduction to this Hebrew / Aramaic text and translation.

Isa 1:1 ‫חֲזוֹן֙ יְשַֽׁעְיָ֣הוּ בֶן־אָמ֔וֹץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָזָ֔ה עַל־יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם בִּימֵ֨י עֻזִּיָּ֧הוּ יוֹתָ֛ם אָחָ֥ז יְחִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ מַלְכֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה׃‬ The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. Isaiah ← Jeshaiahu, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.
Isa 1:2 ‫שִׁמְע֤וּ שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְהַאֲזִ֣ינִי אֶ֔רֶץ כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּ֑ר בָּנִים֙ גִּדַּ֣לְתִּי וְרוֹמַ֔מְתִּי וְהֵ֖ם פָּ֥שְׁעוּ בִֽי׃‬

Hear, O heavens, and listen, O earth,

For the Lord has spoken.

“I have raised sons and brought them up,

But they have rebelled against me.

but: adversative use of the vav.
Isa 1:3 ‫יָדַ֥ע שׁוֹר֙ קֹנֵ֔הוּ וַחֲמ֖וֹר אֵב֣וּס בְּעָלָ֑יו יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֹ֣א יָדַ֔ע עַמִּ֖י לֹ֥א הִתְבּוֹנָֽן׃‬

The ox knows his owner,

And the donkey his master's stall,

But Israel does not know

– My people do not understand.

Isa 1:4 ‫ה֣וֹי ׀ גּ֣וֹי חֹטֵ֗א עַ֚ם כֶּ֣בֶד עָוֺ֔ן זֶ֣רַע מְרֵעִ֔ים בָּנִ֖ים מַשְׁחִיתִ֑ים עָזְב֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֗ה נִֽאֲצ֛וּ אֶת־קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נָזֹ֥רוּ אָחֽוֹר׃‬

Alas, a sinful nation,

A people laden with iniquity,

A seed acting wickedly,

Sons acting corruptly.

They have deserted the Lord,

They have despised the holy one of Israel;

They have drawn back.

laden with ← heavy of.
Isa 1:5 ‫עַ֣ל מֶ֥ה תֻכּ֛וּ ע֖וֹד תּוֹסִ֣יפוּ סָרָ֑ה כָּל־רֹ֣אשׁ לָחֳלִ֔י וְכָל־לֵבָ֖ב דַּוָּֽי׃‬

Why should you be struck any more?

You would add to the apostasy.

Every head is ailing,

And every heart is faint.

you (2x): plural.

ailing ← to ailment.
Isa 1:6 ‫מִכַּף־רֶ֤גֶל וְעַד־רֹאשׁ֙ אֵֽין־בּ֣וֹ מְתֹ֔ם פֶּ֥צַע וְחַבּוּרָ֖ה וּמַכָּ֣ה טְרִיָּ֑ה לֹא־זֹ֙רוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א חֻבָּ֔שׁוּ וְלֹ֥א רֻכְּכָ֖ה בַּשָּֽׁמֶן׃‬

From the sole of the foot to the head

There is no health in it,

But bruising and scars and raw wounds.

They have not been bathed,

And they have not been bound up,

And they have not been dressed with oil.

wounds ← a blow.

bathed: either qal of זוּר (pressed out), or pual of זָרָה (besprinkled).

they have not been dressed ← it has not been softened.
Isa 1:7 ‫אַרְצְכֶ֣ם שְׁמָמָ֔ה עָרֵיכֶ֖ם שְׂרֻפ֣וֹת אֵ֑שׁ אַדְמַתְכֶ֗ם לְנֶגְדְּכֶם֙ זָרִים֙ אֹכְלִ֣ים אֹתָ֔הּ וּשְׁמָמָ֖ה כְּמַהְפֵּכַ֥ת זָרִֽים׃‬

Your land is a desolation,

Your cities have been burned with fire;

As for your land in front of you,

Foreigners are devouring it,

And it is a desolation,

As overthrown by foreigners.

overthrown ← overthrow of.
Isa 1:8 ‫וְנוֹתְרָ֥ה בַת־צִיּ֖וֹן כְּסֻכָּ֣ה בְכָ֑רֶם כִּמְלוּנָ֥ה בְמִקְשָׁ֖ה כְּעִ֥יר נְצוּרָֽה׃‬

And the daughter of Zion is left like a shed in a vineyard,

Like a shack in a cucumber field,

Like a besieged city.”

Isa 1:9 ‫לוּלֵי֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת הוֹתִ֥יר לָ֛נוּ שָׂרִ֖יד כִּמְעָ֑ט כִּסְדֹ֣ם הָיִ֔ינוּ לַעֲמֹרָ֖ה דָּמִֽינוּ׃ ס‬

If the Lord of hosts had not left us a very small remnant,

We would be like Sodom;

We would resemble Gomorrah.

Rom 9:29.

very small: the ke denoting intensity. Compare [AnLx] כְּ II (c). Compare also Gen 24:28, Neh 7:2.
Isa 1:10 ‫שִׁמְע֥וּ דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה קְצִינֵ֣י סְדֹ֑ם הַאֲזִ֛ינוּ תּוֹרַ֥ת אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ עַ֥ם עֲמֹרָֽה׃‬

Hear the word of the Lord,

You leaders of Sodom;

Listen to the word of our God,

You people of Gomorrah.

Isa 1:11 ‫לָמָּה־לִּ֤י רֹב־זִבְחֵיכֶם֙ יֹאמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה שָׂבַ֛עְתִּי עֹל֥וֹת אֵילִ֖ים וְחֵ֣לֶב מְרִיאִ֑ים וְדַ֨ם פָּרִ֧ים וּכְבָשִׂ֛ים וְעַתּוּדִ֖ים לֹ֥א חָפָֽצְתִּי׃‬

“To what end is the abundance of your sacrifices to me?

Says the Lord.

I am replete with burnt offerings of rams

And the fat of fatted calves,

And I do not take pleasure in the blood of bulls

And lambs and he-goats.

The verse is alluded to in Mark 12:33.
Isa 1:12 ‫כִּ֣י תָבֹ֔אוּ לֵרָא֖וֹת פָּנָ֑י מִי־בִקֵּ֥שׁ זֹ֛את מִיֶּדְכֶ֖ם רְמֹ֥ס חֲצֵרָֽי׃‬

When you come {P: to see my face} [M: to appear before me],

I will ask, ‘Who requested this on your part

To trample over my courtyards?’

An amendment by the Sopherim, as in Ex 23:15. P= לִרְאוֹת. AV differs.

on your part ← from your hand.

trample over: i.e. profane.
Isa 1:13 ‫לֹ֣א תוֹסִ֗יפוּ הָבִיא֙ מִנְחַת־שָׁ֔וְא קְטֹ֧רֶת תּוֹעֵבָ֛ה הִ֖יא לִ֑י חֹ֤דֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת֙ קְרֹ֣א מִקְרָ֔א לֹא־אוּכַ֥ל אָ֖וֶן וַעֲצָרָֽה׃‬

Do not bring a vain meal-offering any more;

Incense is an abomination to me.

I cannot bear the new moon and the Sabbath

Or the convening of a convocation.

They are iniquity,

As is the solemn assembly.

Isa 1:14 ‫חָדְשֵׁיכֶ֤ם וּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם֙ שָׂנְאָ֣ה נַפְשִׁ֔י הָי֥וּ עָלַ֖י לָטֹ֑רַח נִלְאֵ֖יתִי נְשֹֽׂא׃‬

My being hates your new moons and your festivals;

They are a burden on me,

Which I am weary of bearing.

being ← soul.
Isa 1:15 ‫וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶ֣ם כַּפֵּיכֶ֗ם אַעְלִ֤ים עֵינַי֙ מִכֶּ֔ם גַּ֛ם כִּֽי־תַרְבּ֥וּ תְפִלָּ֖ה אֵינֶ֣נִּי שֹׁמֵ֑עַ יְדֵיכֶ֖ם דָּמִ֥ים מָלֵֽאוּ׃‬

And when you stretch out your hands,

I will hide my eyes from you.

Even if you make much prayer,

I will not hear it.

Your hands are full of blood.

Isa 1:16 ‫רַחֲצוּ֙ הִזַּכּ֔וּ הָסִ֛ירוּ רֹ֥עַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶ֖ם מִנֶּ֣גֶד עֵינָ֑י חִדְל֖וּ הָרֵֽעַ׃‬

Wash, cleanse yourselves,

Banish evil from your works in my sight;

Cease doing wrong.

banish ← remove.

evil from ← evil of.
Isa 1:17 ‫לִמְד֥וּ הֵיטֵ֛ב דִּרְשׁ֥וּ מִשְׁפָּ֖ט אַשְּׁר֣וּ חָמ֑וֹץ שִׁפְט֣וּ יָת֔וֹם רִ֖יבוּ אַלְמָנָֽה׃ ס‬

Learn to do good,

Seek justice,

Succour the oppressed,

Give the orphan justice;

Defend the case of the widow.

succour ← set right, straighten [BDB].

defend the case of ← contend (for).
Isa 1:18 ‫לְכוּ־נָ֛א וְנִוָּֽכְחָ֖ה יֹאמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה אִם־יִֽהְי֨וּ חֲטָאֵיכֶ֤ם כַּשָּׁנִים֙ כַּשֶּׁ֣לֶג יַלְבִּ֔ינוּ אִם־יַאְדִּ֥ימוּ כַתּוֹלָ֖ע כַּצֶּ֥מֶר יִהְיֽוּ׃‬

Come now, and let us come to a settlement,

Says the Lord,

Even if your sins are as scarlet,

They will become as white as snow.

Even if they are as red as the cochineal worm,

They will become like wool.

come to a settlement ← dispute.

scarlet ← scarlets, i.e. scarlet clothes.
Isa 1:19 ‫אִם־תֹּאב֖וּ וּשְׁמַעְתֶּ֑ם ט֥וּב הָאָ֖רֶץ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ׃‬

If you are willing, and you are heedful,

You will eat the goodness of the land.

Isa 1:20 ‫וְאִם־תְּמָאֲנ֖וּ וּמְרִיתֶ֑ם חֶ֣רֶב תְּאֻכְּל֔וּ כִּ֛י פִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃ ס‬

But if you refuse and rebel,

You will be consumed by the sword,

For the mouth of the Lord has spoken.”

but: adversative use of the vav.
Isa 1:21 ‫אֵיכָה֙ הָיְתָ֣ה לְזוֹנָ֔ה קִרְיָ֖ה נֶאֱמָנָ֑ה מְלֵאֲתִ֣י מִשְׁפָּ֗ט צֶ֛דֶק יָלִ֥ין בָּ֖הּ וְעַתָּ֥ה מְרַצְּחִֽים׃‬

How did the faithful city become a prostitute?

She was full of justice,

Righteousness used to dwell in her,

But now – murderers.

Isa 1:22 ‫כַּסְפֵּ֖ךְ הָיָ֣ה לְסִיגִ֑ים סָבְאֵ֖ךְ מָה֥וּל בַּמָּֽיִם׃‬

Your silver has become dross;

Your liquor has been adulterated

With water.

Isa 1:23 ‫שָׂרַ֣יִךְ סוֹרְרִ֗ים וְחַבְרֵי֙ גַּנָּבִ֔ים כֻּלּוֹ֙ אֹהֵ֣ב שֹׁ֔חַד וְרֹדֵ֖ף שַׁלְמֹנִ֑ים יָתוֹם֙ לֹ֣א יִשְׁפֹּ֔טוּ וְרִ֥יב אַלְמָנָ֖ה לֹֽא־יָב֥וֹא אֲלֵיהֶֽם׃ פ‬

Your officials are recalcitrant

And are friends of thieves.

Each one loves bribes

And pursues corrupt payments.

They do not give the orphan justice,

And the case of the widow does not reach them.

Isa 1:24 ‫לָכֵ֗ן נְאֻ֤ם הָֽאָדוֹן֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֲבִ֖יר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל ה֚וֹי אֶנָּחֵ֣ם מִצָּרַ֔י וְאִנָּקְמָ֖ה מֵאוֹיְבָֽי׃‬

“That is why,

Says the Lord

– The Lord of hosts,

The mighty one of Israel –

Alas, I will rid myself of my adversaries,

And I will avenge myself on my enemies.

rid ← comfort.
Isa 1:25 ‫וְאָשִׁ֤יבָה יָדִי֙ עָלַ֔יִךְ וְאֶצְרֹ֥ף כַּבֹּ֖ר סִיגָ֑יִךְ וְאָסִ֖ירָה כָּל־בְּדִילָֽיִךְ׃‬

And I will draw my hand over you

And refine your dross,

As is done with potash,

And I will remove all your tin.

remove all your tin: i.e. from the silver.
Isa 1:26 ‫וְאָשִׁ֤יבָה שֹׁפְטַ֙יִךְ֙ כְּבָרִ֣אשֹׁנָ֔ה וְיֹעֲצַ֖יִךְ כְּבַתְּחִלָּ֑ה אַחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן יִקָּ֤רֵא לָךְ֙ עִ֣יר הַצֶּ֔דֶק קִרְיָ֖ה נֶאֱמָנָֽה׃‬

And I will restore your judges as in the beginning,

And your counsellors as at the start.

After that you will be called

The City of Righteousness,

The Faithful Town.

Isa 1:27 ‫צִיּ֖וֹן בְּמִשְׁפָּ֣ט תִּפָּדֶ֑ה וְשָׁבֶ֖יהָ בִּצְדָקָֽה׃‬

Zion will be redeemed justly,

As will those returning to her, righteously.

justly ...righteously ← in justice ... in righteousness.
Isa 1:28 ‫וְשֶׁ֧בֶר פֹּשְׁעִ֛ים וְחַטָּאִ֖ים יַחְדָּ֑ו וְעֹזְבֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה יִכְלֽוּ׃‬

And it will be the demise of transgressors and sinners together,

Whilst those who abandon the Lord

Will be annihilated.

annihilated ← terminated.
Isa 1:29 ‫כִּ֣י יֵבֹ֔שׁוּ מֵאֵילִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר חֲמַדְתֶּ֑ם וְתַ֨חְפְּר֔וּ מֵהַגַּנּ֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּחַרְתֶּֽם׃‬

For they will be ashamed of the terebinths

Which you delighted in,

And you will be ashamed of the parks

Which you were partial to.

Isa 1:30 ‫כִּ֣י תִֽהְי֔וּ כְּאֵלָ֖ה נֹבֶ֣לֶת עָלֶ֑הָ וּֽכְגַנָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־מַ֖יִם אֵ֥ין לָֽהּ׃‬

For they will be like a terebinth

Whose leaves are withering,

And like a park

Which has no water.

Isa 1:31 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה הֶחָסֹן֙ לִנְעֹ֔רֶת וּפֹעֲל֖וֹ לְנִיצ֑וֹץ וּבָעֲר֧וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֛ם יַחְדָּ֖ו וְאֵ֥ין מְכַבֶּֽה׃ ס‬

And he who is strong

Will be like hemp fibres,

And his work will be tinder to a spark,

And both will burn together,

And there will be no-one to put them out.”

Isa 2:1 ‫הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָזָ֔ה יְשַֽׁעְיָ֖הוּ בֶּן־אָמ֑וֹץ עַל־יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.
Isa 2:2 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בְּאַחֲרִ֣ית הַיָּמִ֗ים נָכ֨וֹן יִֽהְיֶ֜ה הַ֤ר בֵּית־יְהוָה֙ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ הֶהָרִ֔ים וְנִשָּׂ֖א מִגְּבָע֑וֹת וְנָהֲר֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם׃‬

And it will come to pass in the last days

That the mountain of the house of the Lord will be established

As the foremost of the mountains.

And it will be exalted above the hills,

And all the Gentiles will flock to it.

|| Mic 4:1.

as the foremost ← on the top / at the head.

flock ← stream.
Isa 2:3 ‫וְֽהָלְכ֞וּ עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֗ים וְאָמְרוּ֙ לְכ֣וּ ׀ וְנַעֲלֶ֣ה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָ֗ה אֶל־בֵּית֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְיֹרֵ֙נוּ֙ מִדְּרָכָ֔יו וְנֵלְכָ֖ה בְּאֹרְחֹתָ֑יו כִּ֤י מִצִּיּוֹן֙ תֵּצֵ֣א תוֹרָ֔ה וּדְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה מִירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

And many peoples will go,

And they will say,

“Come, let's go up to the mountain of the Lord

– To the house of the God of Jacob –

And he will instruct us concerning his ways,

And let us walk in his paths.”

For the law will go out from Zion,

And the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

|| Mic 4:2.
Isa 2:4 ‫וְשָׁפַט֙ בֵּ֣ין הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְהוֹכִ֖יחַ לְעַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים וְכִתְּת֨וּ חַרְבוֹתָ֜ם לְאִתִּ֗ים וַחֲנִיתֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙ לְמַזְמֵר֔וֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂ֨א ג֤וֹי אֶל־גּוֹי֙ חֶ֔רֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְד֥וּ ע֖וֹד מִלְחָמָֽה׃ פ‬

And he will judge among nations

And convict many peoples.

And they will beat their swords into ploughshares

And their spears into pruning shears.

Nation will not lift up sword against nation,

And they will no longer learn warfare.

|| Mic 4:3.

convict: or reprove. Less judicial than judge; the sense is to demonstrate that someone is wrong.
Isa 2:5 ‫בֵּ֖ית יַעֲקֹ֑ב לְכ֥וּ וְנֵלְכָ֖ה בְּא֥וֹר יְהוָֽה׃‬

O house of Jacob,

Come, and let us walk in the light of the Lord.

Isa 2:6 ‫כִּ֣י נָטַ֗שְׁתָּה עַמְּךָ֙ בֵּ֣ית יַעֲקֹ֔ב כִּ֤י מָלְאוּ֙ מִקֶּ֔דֶם וְעֹֽנְנִ֖ים כַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים וּבְיַלְדֵ֥י נָכְרִ֖ים יַשְׂפִּֽיקוּ׃‬

For you have forsaken your people

– The house of Jacob –

For they are full of eastern practices,

And they divine by clouds like the Philistines,

And they make alliances with foreigners.

foreigners ← children of foreigners. The usual expression is sons of foreigners, but see Isa 57:4.
Isa 2:7 ‫וַתִּמָּלֵ֤א אַרְצוֹ֙ כֶּ֣סֶף וְזָהָ֔ב וְאֵ֥ין קֵ֖צֶה לְאֹצְרֹתָ֑יו וַתִּמָּלֵ֤א אַרְצוֹ֙ סוּסִ֔ים וְאֵ֥ין קֵ֖צֶה לְמַרְכְּבֹתָֽיו׃‬

And his land has been filled with silver and gold,

And there is no end to his treasure stores.

And his land has been filled with horses,

And there is no end to his chariots.

his (4x): i.e. Jacob's, standing for the whole people.
Isa 2:8 ‫וַתִּמָּלֵ֥א אַרְצ֖וֹ אֱלִילִ֑ים לְמַעֲשֵׂ֤ה יָדָיו֙ יִֽשְׁתַּחֲו֔וּ לַאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשׂ֖וּ אֶצְבְּעֹתָֽיו׃‬

And his land has been filled with idols.

They worship the work of their hands

– What their fingers have made.

their (2x)his, i.e. Jacob's, standing for the whole people, as in the previous verse.
Isa 2:9 ‫וַיִּשַּׁ֥ח אָדָ֖ם וַיִּשְׁפַּל־אִ֑ישׁ וְאַל־תִּשָּׂ֖א לָהֶֽם׃‬

Then when a man is made low,

And a person is humbled,

Do not lift them up.

then when: from the first and third prefixed vav.
Isa 2:10 ‫בּ֣וֹא בַצּ֔וּר וְהִטָּמֵ֖ן בֶּֽעָפָ֑ר מִפְּנֵי֙ פַּ֣חַד יְהוָ֔ה וּמֵהֲדַ֖ר גְּאֹנֽוֹ׃‬

Go into the rock,

And hide in the dust,

For fear of the Lord

And because of the splendour of his majesty.

Isa 2:11 ‫עֵינֵ֞י גַּבְה֤וּת אָדָם֙ שָׁפֵ֔ל וְשַׁ֖ח ר֣וּם אֲנָשִׁ֑ים וְנִשְׂגַּ֧ב יְהוָ֛ה לְבַדּ֖וֹ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃ ס‬

A man's arrogant eyes will be humbled,

And the haughtiness of the people will be brought low,

And the Lord alone will be exalted

On that day.

a man's arrogant eyes ← the eyes of arrogance of a man, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 2:12 ‫כִּ֣י י֞וֹם לַיהוָ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת עַ֥ל כָּל־גֵּאֶ֖ה וָרָ֑ם וְעַ֖ל כָּל־נִשָּׂ֥א וְשָׁפֵֽל׃‬

For the day of the Lord of hosts

Is against all the proud and haughty,

And against everyone exalted,

And each one will be humbled,

Rev 1:10.
Isa 2:13 ‫וְעַל֙ כָּל־אַרְזֵ֣י הַלְּבָנ֔וֹן הָרָמִ֖ים וְהַנִּשָּׂאִ֑ים וְעַ֖ל כָּל־אַלּוֹנֵ֥י הַבָּשָֽׁן׃‬

And against all the cedars of Lebanon,

Which are high and exalted,

And against all the oaks of Bashan,

Bashan ← the Bashan.
Isa 2:14 ‫וְעַ֖ל כָּל־הֶהָרִ֣ים הָרָמִ֑ים וְעַ֖ל כָּל־הַגְּבָע֥וֹת הַנִּשָּׂאֽוֹת׃‬

And against all the high mountains,

And against all the exalted hills,

Isa 2:15 ‫וְעַ֖ל כָּל־מִגְדָּ֣ל גָּבֹ֑הַ וְעַ֖ל כָּל־חוֹמָ֥ה בְצוּרָֽה׃‬

And against every tall tower,

And against every fortified wall,

Isa 2:16 ‫וְעַ֖ל כָּל־אֳנִיּ֣וֹת תַּרְשִׁ֑ישׁ וְעַ֖ל כָּל־שְׂכִיּ֥וֹת הַחֶמְדָּֽה׃‬

And against all the ships of Tarshish,

And against all attractive sights.

attractive ← desirable.
Isa 2:17 ‫וְשַׁח֙ גַּבְה֣וּת הָאָדָ֔ם וְשָׁפֵ֖ל ר֣וּם אֲנָשִׁ֑ים וְנִשְׂגַּ֧ב יְהוָ֛ה לְבַדּ֖וֹ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃‬

And the arrogance of man will be brought low,

And the haughtiness of people will be humbled,

And the Lord alone will be exalted

On that day.

Isa 2:18 ‫וְהָאֱלִילִ֖ים כָּלִ֥יל יַחֲלֹֽף׃‬

And the idols will vanish in their entirety.

will vanish in their entirety ← the entirety will vanish.
Isa 2:19 ‫וּבָ֙אוּ֙ בִּמְעָר֣וֹת צֻרִ֔ים וּבִמְחִלּ֖וֹת עָפָ֑ר מִפְּנֵ֞י פַּ֤חַד יְהוָה֙ וּמֵהֲדַ֣ר גְּאוֹנ֔וֹ בְּקוּמ֖וֹ לַעֲרֹ֥ץ הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

And they will go into the caves in the rocks

And the caverns of the ground,

For fear of the Lord

And because of the splendour of his majesty

When he arises to terrify the earth.

Rev 6:15.

in the rocks ← of the rocks.

ground ← dust.
Isa 2:20 ‫בַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ יַשְׁלִ֣יךְ הָאָדָ֔ם אֵ֚ת אֱלִילֵ֣י כַסְפּ֔וֹ וְאֵ֖ת אֱלִילֵ֣י זְהָב֑וֹ אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָֽשׂוּ־לוֹ֙ לְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֔ת לַחְפֹּ֥ר פֵּר֖וֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִֽים׃‬

On that day

Man will throw his silver idols

And his golden idols,

Which were made for him to worship,

To the moles and bats,

|| Isa 31:7.

were made ← they made. Avoidance of the passive.
Isa 2:21 ‫לָבוֹא֙ בְּנִקְר֣וֹת הַצֻּרִ֔ים וּבִסְעִפֵ֖י הַסְּלָעִ֑ים מִפְּנֵ֞י פַּ֤חַד יְהוָה֙ וּמֵהֲדַ֣ר גְּאוֹנ֔וֹ בְּקוּמ֖וֹ לַעֲרֹ֥ץ הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

As he goes into the clefts in the rocks,

And into the cracks in the outcrops,

For fear of the Lord

And because of the splendour of his majesty

When he arises to terrify the earth.

Isa 2:22 ‫חִדְל֤וּ לָכֶם֙ מִן־הָ֣אָדָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר נְשָׁמָ֖ה בְּאַפּ֑וֹ כִּֽי־בַמֶּ֥ה נֶחְשָׁ֖ב הֽוּא׃ פ‬

Renounce your ties with man,

Whose breath is in his nose,

For what is he considered worth?

renounce your ties withcease for yourselves from.
Isa 3:1 ‫כִּי֩ הִנֵּ֨ה הָאָד֜וֹן יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת מֵסִ֤יר מִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ וּמִ֣יהוּדָ֔ה מַשְׁעֵ֖ן וּמַשְׁעֵנָ֑ה כֹּ֚ל מִשְׁעַן־לֶ֔חֶם וְכֹ֖ל מִשְׁעַן־מָֽיִם׃‬

For behold, the Lord – the Lord of hosts –

Is removing supplies and provisions from Jerusalem and from Judah –

All supplies of bread

And all supplies of water,

bread: standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
Isa 3:2 ‫גִּבּ֖וֹר וְאִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֑ה שׁוֹפֵ֥ט וְנָבִ֖יא וְקֹסֵ֥ם וְזָקֵֽן׃‬

Affecting the warrior and soldier,

Judge and prophet and diviner,

And old man,

Isa 3:3 ‫שַׂר־חֲמִשִּׁ֖ים וּנְשׂ֣וּא פָנִ֑ים וְיוֹעֵ֛ץ וַחֲכַ֥ם חֲרָשִׁ֖ים וּנְב֥וֹן לָֽחַשׁ׃‬

Commander of fifty and dignitary,

And counsellor and skilled craftsman,

And the initiate in incantations.

dignitary ← elevated of face.

skilled craftsman ← wise in artisanries.
Isa 3:4 ‫וְנָתַתִּ֥י נְעָרִ֖ים שָׂרֵיהֶ֑ם וְתַעֲלוּלִ֖ים יִמְשְׁלוּ־בָֽם׃‬

And I will appoint youngsters as their officials,

And children will rule over them.

Isa 3:5 ‫וְנִגַּ֣שׂ הָעָ֔ם אִ֥ישׁ בְּאִ֖ישׁ וְאִ֣ישׁ בְּרֵעֵ֑הוּ יִרְהֲב֗וּ הַנַּ֙עַר֙ בַּזָּקֵ֔ן וְהַנִּקְלֶ֖ה בַּנִּכְבָּֽד׃‬

And the people will be oppressed,

One man by another,

And one man by his neighbour.

And a young man will be insolent to an old man,

As will a common man to an honourable man.

another ← a man.
Isa 3:6 ‫כִּֽי־יִתְפֹּ֨שׂ אִ֤ישׁ בְּאָחִיו֙ בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔יו שִׂמְלָ֣ה לְכָ֔ה קָצִ֖ין תִּֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑נוּ וְהַמַּכְשֵׁלָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את תַּ֥חַת יָדֶֽךָ׃‬

For a man will take hold of his brother in his father's house,

And he will say, “You have a coat;

You shall be our leader,

And these ruins will be under your direction.”

direction ← hand.
Isa 3:7 ‫יִשָּׂא֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַה֤וּא ׀ לֵאמֹר֙ לֹא־אֶהְיֶ֣ה חֹבֵ֔שׁ וּבְבֵיתִ֕י אֵ֥ין לֶ֖חֶם וְאֵ֣ין שִׂמְלָ֑ה לֹ֥א תְשִׂימֻ֖נִי קְצִ֥ין עָֽם׃‬

He will take an oath

On that day, and he will say,

“I will not be the one who remedies this

While there is no food and no coat in my house.

Do not make me a leader of the people.”

take an oath ← lift up (the hand).

remedies ← binds up.

while: wider use of the vav.
Isa 3:8 ‫כִּ֤י כָשְׁלָה֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וִיהוּדָ֖ה נָפָ֑ל כִּֽי־לְשׁוֹנָ֤ם וּמַֽעַלְלֵיהֶם֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה לַמְר֖וֹת עֵנֵ֥י כְבוֹדֽוֹ׃‬

For Jerusalem has toppled over,

And Judah has fallen down,

For their tongue and their deeds were directed against the Lord,

In grieving his majestic gaze.

in grieving: gerundial use of the infinitive.

his majestic gaze ← the eyes of his majesty, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 3:9 ‫הַכָּרַ֤ת פְּנֵיהֶם֙ עָ֣נְתָה בָּ֔ם וְחַטָּאתָ֛ם כִּסְדֹ֥ם הִגִּ֖ידוּ לֹ֣א כִחֵ֑דוּ א֣וֹי לְנַפְשָׁ֔ם כִּֽי־גָמְל֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם רָעָֽה׃‬

The expression on their faces testifies against them,

And they betray their sin like Sodom;

They do not conceal it.

Woe to their very selves,

For they are recompensed with evil.

betray ← declare, but betray also in Job 17:5.

to their very selves ← to their souls.

they are recompensed ← they recompense them. Avoidance of the passive.
Isa 3:10 ‫אִמְר֥וּ צַדִּ֖יק כִּי־ט֑וֹב כִּֽי־פְרִ֥י מַעַלְלֵיהֶ֖ם יֹאכֵֽלוּ׃‬

Say to the righteous man that this is pleasing:

That men will eat the fruit of their works.

Isa 3:11 ‫א֖וֹי לְרָשָׁ֣ע רָ֑ע כִּֽי־גְמ֥וּל יָדָ֖יו יֵעָ֥שֶׂה לּֽוֹ׃‬

Woe to the evil wicked man!

For the just deserts of his hands

Will be repaid him.

just deserts ← reprisal.

repaid ← done, dealt.
Isa 3:12 ‫עַמִּי֙ נֹגְשָׂ֣יו מְעוֹלֵ֔ל וְנָשִׁ֖ים מָ֣שְׁלוּ ב֑וֹ עַמִּי֙ מְאַשְּׁרֶ֣יךָ מַתְעִ֔ים וְדֶ֥רֶךְ אֹֽרְחֹתֶ֖יךָ בִּלֵּֽעוּ׃ ס‬

As for my people, their taskmasters are juvenile,

And women rule over them.

My people, those guiding you are leading you astray,

And they have subverted the way of your paths.

are juvenile: or are brutish.

subverted ← swallowed.
Isa 3:13 ‫נִצָּ֥ב לָרִ֖יב יְהוָ֑ה וְעֹמֵ֖ד לָדִ֥ין עַמִּֽים׃‬

The Lord is poised to take issue,

And he is taking a stand in judging various peoples.

in judging: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 3:14 ‫יְהוָה֙ בְּמִשְׁפָּ֣ט יָב֔וֹא עִם־זִקְנֵ֥י עַמּ֖וֹ וְשָׂרָ֑יו וְאַתֶּם֙ בִּֽעַרְתֶּ֣ם הַכֶּ֔רֶם גְּזֵלַ֥ת הֶֽעָנִ֖י בְּבָתֵּיכֶֽם׃‬

The Lord will enter into a judicial process

With the elders of his people and their officials,

For you have consumed the vineyard,

And the plunder taken from the poor is in your houses.

consumed ← burned.
Isa 3:15 ‫*מלכם **מַה־**לָּכֶם֙ תְּדַכְּא֣וּ עַמִּ֔י וּפְנֵ֥י עֲנִיִּ֖ים תִּטְחָ֑נוּ נְאֻם־אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִ֖ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ ס‬

What concern has it been to you

Who tread my people down

And grind down the dignity of the poor?”

Says the Lord,

The Lord of hosts.

what ... to you: the ketiv is a contracted form of the qeré.

dignity ← face.
Isa 3:16 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֗ה יַ֚עַן כִּ֤י גָֽבְהוּ֙ בְּנ֣וֹת צִיּ֔וֹן וַתֵּלַ֙כְנָה֙ *נטוות **נְטוּי֣וֹת גָּר֔וֹן וּֽמְשַׂקְּר֖וֹת עֵינָ֑יִם הָל֤וֹךְ וְטָפֹף֙ תֵּלַ֔כְנָה וּבְרַגְלֵיהֶ֖ם תְּעַכַּֽסְנָה׃‬

And the Lord said,

“Since the daughters of Zion have been haughty

And have walked vaunting their throats

And flirting with their eyes,

Mincing along as they walk,

And wearing anklets on their feet,

vaunting: the ketiv has to be regarded as a variant form of the qeré.

flirting: alternatively agreeing with eyes.

mincing along as they walk ← going and mincing they go, with 2 infinitives absolute.
Isa 3:17 ‫וְשִׂפַּ֣ח אֲדֹנָ֔י קָדְקֹ֖ד בְּנ֣וֹת צִיּ֑וֹן וַיהוָ֖ה פָּתְהֵ֥ן יְעָרֶֽה׃ ס‬

The Lord* will make the hair of the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion fall out,

And the Lord will expose their nakedness.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

nakedness: or pudenda.
Isa 3:18 ‫בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא יָסִ֣יר אֲדֹנָ֗י אֵ֣ת תִּפְאֶ֧רֶת הָעֲכָסִ֛ים וְהַשְּׁבִיסִ֖ים וְהַשַּׂהֲרֹנִֽים׃‬

On that day the Lord* will remove the adornment of anklets,

And the sun-disks,

And the moon-bangles,

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.
Isa 3:19 ‫הַנְּטִיפ֥וֹת וְהַשֵּׁיר֖וֹת וְהָֽרְעָלֽוֹת׃‬

The pendants, and the bracelets,

And the veils,

Isa 3:20 ‫הַפְּאֵרִ֤ים וְהַצְּעָדוֹת֙ וְהַקִּשֻּׁרִ֔ים וּבָתֵּ֥י הַנֶּ֖פֶשׁ וְהַלְּחָשִֽׁים׃‬

The headdresses and the ankle-chains and the waistbands,

And the perfume boxes,

And the amulets,

perfume boxes ← houses of the soul; [AnLx]= perfume boxes, [BDB]= vials of perfume.
Isa 3:21 ‫הַטַּבָּע֖וֹת וְנִזְמֵ֥י הָאָֽף׃‬

The rings on fingers and the noserings,

Isa 3:22 ‫הַמַּֽחֲלָצוֹת֙ וְהַמַּ֣עֲטָפ֔וֹת וְהַמִּטְפָּח֖וֹת וְהָחֲרִיטִֽים׃‬

The mantles and the fine coats,

And the cloaks,

And the purses,

Isa 3:23 ‫וְהַגִּלְיֹנִים֙ וְהַסְּדִינִ֔ים וְהַצְּנִיפ֖וֹת וְהָרְדִידִֽים׃‬

And the mirrors,

And the linen underwear,

And the turbans

And the scarves.

Isa 3:24 ‫וְהָיָה֩ תַ֨חַת בֹּ֜שֶׂם מַ֣ק יִֽהְיֶ֗ה וְתַ֨חַת חֲגוֹרָ֤ה נִקְפָּה֙ וְתַ֨חַת מַעֲשֶׂ֤ה מִקְשֶׁה֙ קָרְחָ֔ה וְתַ֥חַת פְּתִיגִ֖יל מַחֲגֹ֣רֶת שָׂ֑ק כִּי־תַ֖חַת יֹֽפִי׃‬

And it will come to pass

That instead of perfume there will be rottenness,

And instead of a girdle, a cord,

And instead of hairstyling, baldness,

And instead of an overcoat, a wrapping of sackcloth;

Burn marks instead of beauty.

cord: or bruising. AV differs (rent).

hairstyling ← work of plaiting.
Isa 3:25 ‫מְתַ֖יִךְ בַּחֶ֣רֶב יִפֹּ֑לוּ וּגְבוּרָתֵ֖ךְ בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬

Your men will fall by the sword,

As will your military might in war.

Isa 3:26 ‫וְאָנ֥וּ וְאָבְל֖וּ פְּתָחֶ֑יהָ וְנִקָּ֖תָה לָאָ֥רֶץ תֵּשֵֽׁב׃‬

And her gates will sigh and mourn,

And she will be vacated

And remain on the ground.”

Isa 4:1 ‫וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ֩ שֶׁ֨בַע נָשִׁ֜ים בְּאִ֣ישׁ אֶחָ֗ד בַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לַחְמֵ֣נוּ נֹאכֵ֔ל וְשִׂמְלָתֵ֖נוּ נִלְבָּ֑שׁ רַ֗ק יִקָּרֵ֤א שִׁמְךָ֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ אֱסֹ֖ף חֶרְפָּתֵֽנוּ׃ ס‬

And on that day,

Seven women will take hold of one man

And will say,

“We will eat our own bread,

And we will wear our own clothing,

Only let us be called by your name

To remove our reproach.”

bread: standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.

let us be called by your name ← let your name be called over us.

our reproach: an objective genitive.
Isa 4:2 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ צֶ֣מַח יְהוָ֔ה לִצְבִ֖י וּלְכָב֑וֹד וּפְרִ֤י הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ לְגָא֣וֹן וּלְתִפְאֶ֔רֶת לִפְלֵיטַ֖ת יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

On that day the Lord's branch will be

The source of beauty and of honour,

And the fruit of the land

Will demonstrate excellence and splendour

To the escaped remnant of Israel.

the source of ← for.

will demonstrate(be) for.
Isa 4:3 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ הַנִּשְׁאָ֣ר בְּצִיּ֗וֹן וְהַנּוֹתָר֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם קָד֖וֹשׁ יֵאָ֣מֶר ל֑וֹ כָּל־הַכָּת֥וּב לַחַיִּ֖ים בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ And it will come to pass that he who is left in Zion, and he who remains in Jerusalem, will be declared holy to him – everyone in Jerusalem who is written as destined for life,
Isa 4:4 ‫אִ֣ם ׀ רָחַ֣ץ אֲדֹנָ֗י אֵ֚ת צֹאַ֣ת בְּנוֹת־צִיּ֔וֹן וְאֶת־דְּמֵ֥י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם יָדִ֣יחַ מִקִּרְבָּ֑הּ בְּר֥וּחַ מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּבְר֥וּחַ בָּעֵֽר׃‬ when the Lord* washes away the excrement of the daughters of Zion and purges the blood of Jerusalem from its confines, with a spirit of judgment and with a spirit of burning. Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

confines ← midst.
Isa 4:5 ‫וּבָרָ֣א יְהוָ֡ה עַל֩ כָּל־מְכ֨וֹן הַר־צִיּ֜וֹן וְעַל־מִקְרָאֶ֗הָ עָנָ֤ן ׀ יוֹמָם֙ וְעָשָׁ֔ן וְנֹ֛גַהּ אֵ֥שׁ לֶהָבָ֖ה לָ֑יְלָה כִּ֥י עַל־כָּל־כָּב֖וֹד חֻפָּֽה׃‬ And the Lord will create over every dwelling place in Mount Zion, and over its assemblies, a cloud by day, and smoke, and a flaming fiery glow by night, for all glory will have a canopy over it. flaming fiery glow ← a glow of fire of flame, Hebraic genitives.
Isa 4:6 ‫וְסֻכָּ֛ה תִּהְיֶ֥ה לְצֵל־יוֹמָ֖ם מֵחֹ֑רֶב וּלְמַחְסֶה֙ וּלְמִסְתּ֔וֹר מִזֶּ֖רֶם וּמִמָּטָֽר׃ פ‬ But there will be a booth as a shade from the heat, and as a shelter and refuge from storm and rain. booth: as in the Festival of Tabernacles (Lev 23:34). Perhaps here a more solid pavilion.
Isa 5:1 ‫אָשִׁ֤ירָה נָּא֙ לִֽידִידִ֔י שִׁירַ֥ת דּוֹדִ֖י לְכַרְמ֑וֹ כֶּ֛רֶם הָיָ֥ה לִֽידִידִ֖י בְּקֶ֥רֶן בֶּן־שָֽׁמֶן׃‬

Let me now sing to my lover

The song of my loved one about his vineyard.

My lover had a vineyard

On a fertile hilltop.

fertile ← son of fatness.

hilltop ← horn.
Isa 5:2 ‫וַֽיְעַזְּקֵ֣הוּ וַֽיְסַקְּלֵ֗הוּ וַיִּטָּעֵ֙הוּ֙ שֹׂרֵ֔ק וַיִּ֤בֶן מִגְדָּל֙ בְּתוֹכ֔וֹ וְגַם־יֶ֖קֶב חָצֵ֣ב בּ֑וֹ וַיְקַ֛ו לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת עֲנָבִ֖ים וַיַּ֥עַשׂ בְּאֻשִֽׁים׃‬

And he dug it and cleared it of stones,

And he planted it with a choice vine,

And he built a tower in the middle of it,

And he also hewed out a wine vat in it.

And he expected it to produce good grapes,

But it produced blighted ones.

produce ... produced ← make ... made.

blighted: or stinking, or sour.

but: adversative use of the vav.
Isa 5:3 ‫וְעַתָּ֛ה יוֹשֵׁ֥ב יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וְאִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֑ה שִׁפְטוּ־נָ֕א בֵּינִ֖י וּבֵ֥ין כַּרְמִֽי׃‬

So now, O inhabitant of Jerusalem,

And men of Judah,

Please judge between me and my vineyard.

men ← man.
Isa 5:4 ‫מַה־לַּעֲשׂ֥וֹת עוֹד֙ לְכַרְמִ֔י וְלֹ֥א עָשִׂ֖יתִי בּ֑וֹ מַדּ֧וּעַ קִוֵּ֛יתִי לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת עֲנָבִ֖ים וַיַּ֥עַשׂ בְּאֻשִֽׁים׃‬

What more was there to do to my vineyard

That I didn't do in it?

How is it that I expected it to produce good grapes,

But it produced blighted ones?

blighted: see Isa 5:2.
Isa 5:5 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ אוֹדִֽיעָה־נָּ֣א אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֥י עֹשֶׂ֖ה לְכַרְמִ֑י הָסֵ֤ר מְשׂוּכָּתוֹ֙ וְהָיָ֣ה לְבָעֵ֔ר פָּרֹ֥ץ גְּדֵר֖וֹ וְהָיָ֥ה לְמִרְמָֽס׃‬

So now let me make known to you what I am about to do to my vineyard.

I will remove its hedge,

And it will be consigned to burning;

And I will tear down its wall,

And it will become a place trodden down.

I will remove ... I will tear down: both infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.
Isa 5:6 ‫וַאֲשִׁיתֵ֣הוּ בָתָ֗ה לֹ֤א יִזָּמֵר֙ וְלֹ֣א יֵעָדֵ֔ר וְעָלָ֥ה שָׁמִ֖יר וָשָׁ֑יִת וְעַ֤ל הֶעָבִים֙ אֲצַוֶּ֔ה מֵהַמְטִ֥יר עָלָ֖יו מָטָֽר׃‬

And I will make it a desolate place,

Where it is not pruned or hoed,

And the briar and thorn will come up.

And I will command the rainclouds

Not to precipitate rain on it.

desolate place ← cutting up.
Isa 5:7 ‫כִּ֣י כֶ֜רֶם יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֔ה נְטַ֖ע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָ֑יו וַיְקַ֤ו לְמִשְׁפָּט֙ וְהִנֵּ֣ה מִשְׂפָּ֔ח לִצְדָקָ֖ה וְהִנֵּ֥ה צְעָקָֽה׃ ס‬

For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts

Is the house of Israel,

And the men of Judah

Are his delightful plantation.

And he expected justice

But what came was bloodshed;

And righteousness,

But what came was crying out.

but what came was (2x)and behold.
Isa 5:8 ‫ה֗וֹי מַגִּיעֵ֥י בַ֙יִת֙ בְּבַ֔יִת שָׂדֶ֥ה בְשָׂדֶ֖ה יַקְרִ֑יבוּ עַ֚ד אֶ֣פֶס מָק֔וֹם וְהֽוּשַׁבְתֶּ֥ם לְבַדְּכֶ֖ם בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

Woe to those who join house to house,

And who adjoin field to field,

Until there is no room,

And you are housed on your own,

In the middle of the land.

you are housed: AV differs (they may be placed).
Isa 5:9 ‫בְּאָזְנָ֖י יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת אִם־לֹ֞א בָּתִּ֤ים רַבִּים֙ לְשַׁמָּ֣ה יִֽהְי֔וּ גְּדֹלִ֥ים וְטוֹבִ֖ים מֵאֵ֥ין יוֹשֵֽׁב׃‬

In my ear, the Lord of hosts said,

“Many houses will certainly become a desolation

– Large ones and good ones –

For want of an occupant.

ear ← ears.

will certainly become ← if they do not become. Asseveration using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 19:14 (2 Sam 19:13AV).
Isa 5:10 ‫כִּ֗י עֲשֶׂ֙רֶת֙ צִמְדֵּי־כֶ֔רֶם יַעֲשׂ֖וּ בַּ֣ת אֶחָ֑ת וְזֶ֥רַע חֹ֖מֶר יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֵיפָֽה׃ פ‬

For ten times what a yoke of oxen plough in a day in a vineyard

Will yield one bath,

And seed for a homer

Will yield one ephah.”

bath: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.

homer: about 60 imperial gallons or 270 litres.

ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.
Isa 5:11 ‫ה֛וֹי מַשְׁכִּימֵ֥י בַבֹּ֖קֶר שֵׁכָ֣ר יִרְדֹּ֑פוּ מְאַחֲרֵ֣י בַנֶּ֔שֶׁף יַ֖יִן יַדְלִיקֵֽם׃‬

Woe to those who get up early in the morning

And go looking for strong drink;

They stay up until late in the night,

While wine inflames them.

go looking for ← pursue.
Isa 5:12 ‫וְהָיָ֨ה כִנּ֜וֹר וָנֶ֗בֶל תֹּ֧ף וְחָלִ֛יל וָיַ֖יִן מִשְׁתֵּיהֶ֑ם וְאֵ֨ת פֹּ֤עַל יְהוָה֙ לֹ֣א יַבִּ֔יטוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדָ֖יו לֹ֥א רָאֽוּ׃‬

And there will be at their banquets

The harp and the lute,

The drum and the pipe, and wine,

But they do not have respect for the Lord's deeds,

And they do not regard the work of his hands,

but they do not have respect (etc.): compare with Ps 28:5.

deeds ← deed, but also collective usage, activity, operation.
Isa 5:13 ‫לָכֵ֛ן גָּלָ֥ה עַמִּ֖י מִבְּלִי־דָ֑עַת וּכְבוֹדוֹ֙ מְתֵ֣י רָעָ֔ב וַהֲמוֹנ֖וֹ צִחֵ֥ה צָמָֽא׃‬

Which is why my people have gone into captivity,

For want of knowledge.

And what was its glory

Is now hungry men,

And what was its populousness

Is now thirsty dryness.

hungry men ... thirsty dryness ← men of hunger ... dryness of thirst, Hebraic genitives.
Isa 5:14 ‫לָכֵ֗ן הִרְחִ֤יבָה שְּׁאוֹל֙ נַפְשָׁ֔הּ וּפָעֲרָ֥ה פִ֖יהָ לִבְלִי־חֹ֑ק וְיָרַ֨ד הֲדָרָ֧הּ וַהֲמוֹנָ֛הּ וּשְׁאוֹנָ֖הּ וְעָלֵ֥ז בָּֽהּ׃‬

That is why the grave has opened itself wide

And distended its mouth without limit,

And their glory and their many people, and their bustling,

And he who is joyful

Will descend into it.

itself ← its soul.

limit ← statute, but also limit.

their (3x)her. Perhaps a reference to Jerusalem (Isa 5:3), or, as [CB] probably intended, to indicate that the nouns belong to the grave.
Isa 5:15 ‫וַיִּשַּׁ֥ח אָדָ֖ם וַיִּשְׁפַּל־אִ֑ישׁ וְעֵינֵ֥י גְבֹהִ֖ים תִּשְׁפַּֽלְנָה׃‬

A man is made low,

And a person is humbled,

And the eyes of the arrogant will be brought down,

brought down ← humbled. Otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Isa 5:16 ‫וַיִּגְבַּ֛ה יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט וְהָאֵל֙ הַקָּד֔וֹשׁ נִקְדָּ֖שׁ בִּצְדָקָֽה׃‬

But the Lord of hosts is exalted by justice,

And holy God is sanctified by righteousness.

Isa 5:17 ‫וְרָע֥וּ כְבָשִׂ֖ים כְּדָבְרָ֑ם וְחָרְב֥וֹת מֵחִ֖ים גָּרִ֥ים יֹאכֵֽלוּ׃‬

And lambs will feed according to what pasture they have,

And foreigners will eat from the desolate places of the well-fed.

well-fed ← fat.
Isa 5:18 ‫ה֛וֹי מֹשְׁכֵ֥י הֶֽעָוֺ֖ן בְּחַבְלֵ֣י הַשָּׁ֑וְא וְכַעֲב֥וֹת הָעֲגָלָ֖ה חַטָּאָֽה׃‬

Woe to those who pull iniquity along

With cords of vanity,

And sinfulness,

As if with a cart-rope,

pull iniquity along ← draw iniquity out.
Isa 5:19 ‫הָאֹמְרִ֗ים יְמַהֵ֧ר ׀ יָחִ֛ישָׁה מַעֲשֵׂ֖הוּ לְמַ֣עַן נִרְאֶ֑ה וְתִקְרַ֣ב וְתָב֗וֹאָה עֲצַ֛ת קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְנֵדָֽעָה׃ ס‬

Who say, “Let his work come quickly,

Let it hasten so we can see it,

And let the counsel of the holy one of Israel draw near and arrive

So we can acknowledge it.”

come quickly ... hasten: these verbs could be taken transitively, let him expedite ... hasten (his work).
Isa 5:20 ‫ה֣וֹי הָאֹמְרִ֥ים לָרַ֛ע ט֖וֹב וְלַטּ֣וֹב רָ֑ע שָׂמִ֨ים חֹ֤שֶׁךְ לְאוֹר֙ וְא֣וֹר לְחֹ֔שֶׁךְ שָׂמִ֥ים מַ֛ר לְמָת֖וֹק וּמָת֥וֹק לְמָֽר׃ ס‬

Woe to those who call bad good,

And good bad,

Substituting darkness for light,

And light for darkness,

Substituting bitter for sweet,

And sweet for bitter.

Isa 5:21 ‫ה֖וֹי חֲכָמִ֣ים בְּעֵֽינֵיהֶ֑ם וְנֶ֥גֶד פְּנֵיהֶ֖ם נְבֹנִֽים׃‬

Woe to the wise in their own eyes,

And the intelligent in their own opinion.

their own opinion ← against their own faces.
Isa 5:22 ‫ה֕וֹי גִּבּוֹרִ֖ים לִשְׁתּ֣וֹת יָ֑יִן וְאַנְשֵׁי־חַ֖יִל לִמְסֹ֥ךְ שֵׁכָֽר׃‬

Woe to the champions in drinking liquor,

And the masters in mixing strong drink,

masters ← men of might.

in drinking ... in mixing: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 5:23 ‫מַצְדִּיקֵ֥י רָשָׁ֖ע עֵ֣קֶב שֹׁ֑חַד וְצִדְקַ֥ת צַדִּיקִ֖ים יָסִ֥ירוּ מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃ ס‬

And those who justify the wicked for a bribe,

But as for the justice of the righteous,

They deny him it.

deny him itremove (it) from him.
Isa 5:24 ‫לָכֵן֩ כֶּאֱכֹ֨ל קַ֜שׁ לְשׁ֣וֹן אֵ֗שׁ וַחֲשַׁ֤שׁ לֶֽהָבָה֙ יִרְפֶּ֔ה שָׁרְשָׁם֙ כַּמָּ֣ק יִֽהְיֶ֔ה וּפִרְחָ֖ם כָּאָבָ֣ק יַעֲלֶ֑ה כִּ֣י מָאֲס֗וּ אֵ֚ת תּוֹרַת֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וְאֵ֛ת אִמְרַ֥ת קְדֽוֹשׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נִאֵֽצוּ׃‬

That is why as a tongue of fire consumes the stubble,

And the hay collapses before the flame.

Their root will be rotten,

And their blossoms will appear like dust,

For they have rejected the law of the Lord of hosts,

And they have despised the words of the holy one of Israel.

rotten ← like rottenness.

appear ← come up.

words ← word, saying.
Isa 5:25 ‫עַל־כֵּ֡ן חָרָה֩ אַף־יְהוָ֨ה בְּעַמּ֜וֹ וַיֵּ֣ט יָד֧וֹ עָלָ֣יו וַיַּכֵּ֗הוּ וַֽיִּרְגְּזוּ֙ הֶֽהָרִ֔ים וַתְּהִ֧י נִבְלָתָ֛ם כַּסּוּחָ֖ה בְּקֶ֣רֶב חוּצ֑וֹת בְּכָל־זֹאת֙ לֹא־שָׁ֣ב אַפּ֔וֹ וְע֖וֹד יָד֥וֹ נְטוּיָֽה׃‬

This is why the Lord's anger is kindled against his people,

And why he stretched out his hand against them and struck them,

And the mountains stood in awe,

And their corpses were like the filth in the middle of the open places.

Yet for all this,

His anger is not receding,

And his hand is still stretched out.

his people: singular, with singular pronouns following in the Hebrew, but translated in the plural.

filth: or sweepings.
Isa 5:26 ‫וְנָֽשָׂא־נֵ֤ס לַגּוֹיִם֙ מֵרָח֔וֹק וְשָׁ֥רַק ל֖וֹ מִקְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ וְהִנֵּ֥ה מְהֵרָ֖ה קַ֥ל יָבֽוֹא׃‬

And he will raise a banner to the Gentiles from afar off,

And he will whistle for them from the end of the earth,

And behold, they will come

With haste and speed.

Isa 5:27 ‫אֵין־עָיֵ֤ף וְאֵין־כּוֹשֵׁל֙ בּ֔וֹ לֹ֥א יָנ֖וּם וְלֹ֣א יִישָׁ֑ן וְלֹ֤א נִפְתַּח֙ אֵז֣וֹר חֲלָצָ֔יו וְלֹ֥א נִתַּ֖ק שְׂר֥וֹךְ נְעָלָֽיו׃‬

There is no-one weary, and no-one stumbles among them;

They do not slumber and do not sleep,

And the girdle around their waist does not come loose,

And the fastening of their shoes does not come undone.

girdle around ← girdle of. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 5:28 ‫אֲשֶׁ֤ר חִצָּיו֙ שְׁנוּנִ֔ים וְכָל־קַשְּׁתֹתָ֖יו דְּרֻכ֑וֹת פַּרְס֤וֹת סוּסָיו֙ כַּצַּ֣ר נֶחְשָׁ֔בוּ וְגַלְגִּלָּ֖יו כַּסּוּפָֽה׃‬

And their arrows are sharp,

And all their bows are drawn,

And the hoofs of their horses are considered as flint,

And their chariot wheels are like a hurricane.

Isa 5:29 ‫שְׁאָגָ֥ה ל֖וֹ כַּלָּבִ֑יא *ושאג **יִשְׁאַ֨ג כַּכְּפִירִ֤ים וְיִנְהֹם֙ וְיֹאחֵ֣ז טֶ֔רֶף וְיַפְלִ֖יט וְאֵ֥ין מַצִּֽיל׃‬

They have a roar like a lion,

{Q: And they roar} [K: And their roar is] like lion cubs,

And they growl and seize prey,

And they make off with it,

And there is no-one to rescue it.

Isa 5:30 ‫וְיִנְהֹ֥ם עָלָ֛יו בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא כְּנַהֲמַת־יָ֑ם וְנִבַּ֤ט לָאָ֙רֶץ֙ וְהִנֵּה־חֹ֔שֶׁךְ צַ֣ר וָא֔וֹר חָשַׁ֖ךְ בַּעֲרִיפֶֽיהָ׃ פ‬

But he will roar at them on that day,

Like the roaring of the sea.

And if one looks at the earth,

There will be darkness and distress,

And the light will be made dark

By its overclouding.

he will roar: AV differs (they shall roar). We take “on that day” as referring to the day of the Lord (Zech 12 etc.).

roar ... roaring ← growl ... growling, not the usual word for the roaring of a lion, but the context requires roar.

there will bebehold.

its overclouding: i.e. the earth's overclouding.
Isa 6:1 ‫בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ עֻזִּיָּ֔הוּ וָאֶרְאֶ֧ה אֶת־אֲדֹנָ֛י יֹשֵׁ֥ב עַל־כִּסֵּ֖א רָ֣ם וְנִשָּׂ֑א וְשׁוּלָ֖יו מְלֵאִ֥ים אֶת־הַהֵיכָֽל׃‬ In the year of the death of King Uzziah, I saw the Lord* sitting on a throne, high and exalted, and his robe-train filled the temple. Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.
Isa 6:2 ‫שְׂרָפִ֨ים עֹמְדִ֤ים ׀ מִמַּ֙עַל֙ ל֔וֹ שֵׁ֧שׁ כְּנָפַ֛יִם שֵׁ֥שׁ כְּנָפַ֖יִם לְאֶחָ֑ד בִּשְׁתַּ֣יִם ׀ יְכַסֶּ֣ה פָנָ֗יו וּבִשְׁתַּ֛יִם יְכַסֶּ֥ה רַגְלָ֖יו וּבִשְׁתַּ֥יִם יְעוֹפֵֽף׃‬ Seraphim were standing around him, each having six wings. With two each covered his face, and with two each covered his feet, and with two each flew. around ← above, but see [BDB] p.759, and 2 Chr 26:19.

him: or it, as AV. So AV differs.
Isa 6:3 ‫וְקָרָ֨א זֶ֤ה אֶל־זֶה֙ וְאָמַ֔ר קָד֧וֹשׁ ׀ קָד֛וֹשׁ קָד֖וֹשׁ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת מְלֹ֥א כָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ כְּבוֹדֽוֹ׃‬ And one called to another and said,

“Holy, holy, holy,

Is the Lord of hosts.

His glory is the fulness

Of all the earth.”

Rev 4:8.
Isa 6:4 ‫וַיָּנֻ֙עוּ֙ אַמּ֣וֹת הַסִּפִּ֔ים מִקּ֖וֹל הַקּוֹרֵ֑א וְהַבַּ֖יִת יִמָּלֵ֥א עָשָֽׁן׃‬ And the bases of the thresholds moved at the sound of the one calling, and the house became filled with smoke. Rev 15:8.
Isa 6:5 ‫וָאֹמַ֞ר אֽוֹי־לִ֣י כִֽי־נִדְמֵ֗יתִי כִּ֣י אִ֤ישׁ טְמֵֽא־שְׂפָתַ֙יִם֙ אָנֹ֔כִי וּבְתוֹךְ֙ עַם־טְמֵ֣א שְׂפָתַ֔יִם אָנֹכִ֖י יוֹשֵׁ֑ב כִּ֗י אֶת־הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת רָא֥וּ עֵינָֽי׃‬ Then I said,

Woe is me,

For I am reduced to silence,

For I am a man of unclean lips,

And I live among a people of unclean lips,

For my eyes have seen the king

– The Lord of hosts.”

woe iswoe to.

reduced to silence: or ruined. [AnLx], [BDB], [ST], [Ges-HCL] only recognize the reduce to silence sense in qal, not niphal, but the context of lips militates for reduced to silence.
Isa 6:6 ‫וַיָּ֣עָף אֵלַ֗י אֶחָד֙ מִן־הַשְּׂרָפִ֔ים וּבְיָד֖וֹ רִצְפָּ֑ה בְּמֶ֨לְקַחַ֔יִם לָקַ֖ח מֵעַ֥ל הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ׃‬ And one of the Seraphim flew towards me, in whose hand was a hot coal in tongs, which he had taken from the altar.
Isa 6:7 ‫וַיַּגַּ֣ע עַל־פִּ֔י וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּ֛ה נָגַ֥ע זֶ֖ה עַל־שְׂפָתֶ֑יךָ וְסָ֣ר עֲוֺנֶ֔ךָ וְחַטָּאתְךָ֖ תְּכֻפָּֽר׃‬ And he brought it in contact with my mouth, and he said,

“Look, this has touched your lips,

And your iniquity has departed,

And your sin has been expiated.”

Isa 6:8 ‫וָאֶשְׁמַ֞ע אֶת־ק֤וֹל אֲדֹנָי֙ אֹמֵ֔ר אֶת־מִ֥י אֶשְׁלַ֖ח וּמִ֣י יֵֽלֶךְ־לָ֑נוּ וָאֹמַ֖ר הִנְנִ֥י שְׁלָחֵֽנִי׃‬ And I heard the voice of the Lord*, who said,

“Whom shall I send,

And who will go on our behalf?”

And I said, “Here I am; send me.”
Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

here I ambehold me.
Isa 6:9 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לֵ֥ךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה שִׁמְע֤וּ שָׁמ֙וֹעַ֙ וְאַל־תָּבִ֔ינוּ וּרְא֥וּ רָא֖וֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָֽעוּ׃‬ And he said,

“Go and say to this people,

‘You will definitely hear

But certainly not understand,

And you will definitely see

But certainly not discern.

Matt 13:14, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10, John 12:40, Acts 28:26, Rom 11:8.

definitely hear ... definitely see: both infinitive absolute.

certainly not (2x): strong negation, the negating particle also being used for prohibitions.
Isa 6:10 ‫הַשְׁמֵן֙ לֵב־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְאָזְנָ֥יו הַכְבֵּ֖ד וְעֵינָ֣יו הָשַׁ֑ע פֶּן־יִרְאֶ֨ה בְעֵינָ֜יו וּבְאָזְנָ֣יו יִשְׁמָ֗ע וּלְבָב֥וֹ יָבִ֛ין וָשָׁ֖ב וְרָ֥פָא לֽוֹ׃‬

Make the heart of this people obtuse,

And make their ears dull,

And cover their eyes,

Lest they should see with their eyes,

Or hear with their ears,

And their heart would understand,

And they would come back,

And it would heal them.’ ”

Matt 13:15, Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10, John 12:40, Acts 28:27.

obtuse ← fat.

dull ← heavy.

cover their eyes: from root שׁעע. Or turn their eyes away, from root שׁעה.

The imperatives in this verse could ↴
Isa 6:11 ‫וָאֹמַ֕ר עַד־מָתַ֖י אֲדֹנָ֑י וַיֹּ֡אמֶר עַ֣ד אֲשֶׁר֩ אִם־שָׁא֨וּ עָרִ֜ים מֵאֵ֣ין יוֹשֵׁ֗ב וּבָתִּים֙ מֵאֵ֣ין אָדָ֔ם וְהָאֲדָמָ֖ה תִּשָּׁאֶ֥ה שְׁמָמָֽה׃‬ Then I said, “For how long is it, Lord*?” And he said,

“Until the cities have become desolate,

For want of an inhabitant,

And houses, for want of a man,

And the ground will be laid waste in desolation.

↳ conceivably be taken as cases of infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb (has become obtuse ... have made dull ... cover).

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.
Isa 6:12 ‫וְרִחַ֥ק יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־הָאָדָ֑ם וְרַבָּ֥ה הָעֲזוּבָ֖ה בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

And the Lord will put man at a distance,

And the abandonment within the land will be great.

Isa 6:13 ‫וְע֥וֹד בָּהּ֙ עֲשִׂ֣רִיָּ֔ה וְשָׁ֖בָה וְהָיְתָ֣ה לְבָעֵ֑ר כָּאֵלָ֣ה וְכָאַלּ֗וֹן אֲשֶׁ֤ר בְּשַׁלֶּ֙כֶת֙ מַצֶּ֣בֶת בָּ֔ם זֶ֥רַע קֹ֖דֶשׁ מַצַּבְתָּֽהּ׃ פ‬

But there will still be a tenth in it,

For that tenth will return,

But it will be ravaged.

Yet just as the terebinth and the oak

After felling retain a stump,

So shall the holy seed be, as its stump.”

for ... but: wider use of the vav.

ravaged ← for consuming.

holy seed ← seed of holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 7:1 ‫וַיְהִ֡י בִּימֵ֣י אָ֠חָז בֶּן־יוֹתָ֨ם בֶּן־עֻזִּיָּ֜הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֗ה עָלָ֣ה רְצִ֣ין מֶֽלֶךְ־אֲ֠רָם וּפֶ֨קַח בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֤הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה עָלֶ֑יהָ וְלֹ֥א יָכֹ֖ל לְהִלָּחֵ֥ם עָלֶֽיהָ׃‬ And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz, the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, the king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Aramaea, with Pekah the son of Remaliah, the king of Israel, went up to Jerusalem in a war against it, but he could not prevail against it. prevail ← fight (successfully).
Isa 7:2 ‫וַיֻּגַּ֗ד לְבֵ֤ית דָּוִד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר נָ֥חָֽה אֲרָ֖ם עַל־אֶפְרָ֑יִם וַיָּ֤נַע לְבָבוֹ֙ וּלְבַ֣ב עַמּ֔וֹ כְּנ֥וֹעַ עֲצֵי־יַ֖עַר מִפְּנֵי־רֽוּחַ׃‬ And it was reported to the house of David as follows: “Aramaea has taken up a position in Ephraim.” And his heart and the heart of his people were moved, like the movement of the trees of the forest by the wind. as follows ← saying.

taken up a position ← alighted, rested.
Isa 7:3 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָה֮ אֶֽל־יְשַׁעְיָהוּ֒ צֵא־נָא֙ לִקְרַ֣את אָחָ֔ז אַתָּ֕ה וּשְׁאָ֖ר יָשׁ֣וּב בְּנֶ֑ךָ אֶל־קְצֵ֗ה תְּעָלַת֙ הַבְּרֵכָ֣ה הָעֶלְיוֹנָ֔ה אֶל־מְסִלַּ֖ת שְׂדֵ֥ה כוֹבֵֽס׃‬ And the Lord said to Isaiah, “Go out now to meet Ahaz, you and Shear-Jashub your son, at the end of the conduit at the upper pool, to the road of the fuller's field,
Isa 7:4 ‫וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֵ֠לָיו הִשָּׁמֵ֨ר וְהַשְׁקֵ֜ט אַל־תִּירָ֗א וּלְבָבְךָ֙ אַל־יֵרַ֔ךְ מִשְּׁנֵ֨י זַנְב֧וֹת הָאוּדִ֛ים הָעֲשֵׁנִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה בָּחֳרִי־אַ֛ף רְצִ֥ין וַאֲרָ֖ם וּבֶן־רְמַלְיָֽהוּ׃‬ and say to him, ‘Take care, and keep quiet. Do not fear and do not become faint-hearted at these two tails of smoking firebrands, at the burning anger of Rezin and Aramaea and the son of Remaliah, become faint-hearted ← let your heart faint.
Isa 7:5 ‫יַ֗עַן כִּֽי־יָעַ֥ץ עָלֶ֛יךָ אֲרָ֖ם רָעָ֑ה אֶפְרַ֥יִם וּבֶן־רְמַלְיָ֖הוּ לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ in that Aramaea has taken evil counsel against you, with Ephraim and the son of Remaliah, saying,
Isa 7:6 ‫נַעֲלֶ֤ה בִֽיהוּדָה֙ וּנְקִיצֶ֔נָּה וְנַבְקִעֶ֖נָּה אֵלֵ֑ינוּ וְנַמְלִ֥יךְ מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ בְּתוֹכָ֔הּ אֵ֖ת בֶּן־טָֽבְאַֽל׃ ס‬ «Let us go up into Judah and besiege it and divide it among ourselves and appoint a king in it – the son of Tabeal.» among ← to.
Isa 7:7 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה לֹ֥א תָק֖וּם וְלֹ֥א תִֽהְיֶֽה׃‬ This is what my Lord the Lord, says:

«It will not arise

And it will not come to pass.

this is whatthus.
Isa 7:8 ‫כִּ֣י רֹ֤אשׁ אֲרָם֙ דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וְרֹ֥אשׁ דַּמֶּ֖שֶׂק רְצִ֑ין וּבְע֗וֹד שִׁשִּׁ֤ים וְחָמֵשׁ֙ שָׁנָ֔ה יֵחַ֥ת אֶפְרַ֖יִם מֵעָֽם׃‬

For the head of Aramaea is Damascus,

And the head of Damascus is Rezin,

And in sixty-five years' time,

Ephraim will be severed from being a people.

severed ← broken.
Isa 7:9 ‫וְרֹ֤אשׁ אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ שֹׁמְר֔וֹן וְרֹ֥אשׁ שֹׁמְר֖וֹן בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֑הוּ אִ֚ם לֹ֣א תַאֲמִ֔ינוּ כִּ֖י לֹ֥א תֵאָמֵֽנוּ׃ ס‬

And the head of Ephraim is Samaria,

And the head of Samaria is the son of Remaliah.

If your faith does not hold up,

You will not be upheld.» ’ ”

if your faith does not hold up ... you will not be upheld ← if you do not believe, you will not be believed / established; the figure of speech is adnominatio or paronomasia.
Isa 7:10 ‫וַיּ֣וֹסֶף יְהוָ֔ה דַּבֵּ֥ר אֶל־אָחָ֖ז לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ Then the Lord spoke to Ahaz again and said,
Isa 7:11 ‫שְׁאַל־לְךָ֣ א֔וֹת מֵעִ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ הַעְמֵ֣ק שְׁאָ֔לָה א֖וֹ הַגְבֵּ֥הַּ לְמָֽעְלָה׃‬ “Ask for a sign for yourself from the Lord your God. Make the request profound or make it soaringly high.” soaringly ← upwards.
Isa 7:12 ‫וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָחָ֑ז לֹא־אֶשְׁאַ֥ל וְלֹֽא־אֲנַסֶּ֖ה אֶת־יְהוָֽה׃‬ But Ahaz said, “I will not ask, and I will not test the Lord.”
Isa 7:13 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֖א בֵּ֣ית דָּוִ֑ד הַמְעַ֤ט מִכֶּם֙ הַלְא֣וֹת אֲנָשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י תַלְא֖וּ גַּ֥ם אֶת־אֱלֹהָֽי׃‬ Then Isaiah said, “Listen now, O house of David. Is it a small matter to you to weary men? For you are also wearying my God.
Isa 7:14 ‫לָ֠כֵן יִתֵּ֨ן אֲדֹנָ֥י ה֛וּא לָכֶ֖ם א֑וֹת הִנֵּ֣ה הָעַלְמָ֗ה הָרָה֙ וְיֹלֶ֣דֶת בֵּ֔ן וְקָרָ֥את שְׁמ֖וֹ עִמָּ֥נוּ אֵֽל׃‬ Therefore the Lord* himself will give you a sign. Behold, a virgin will conceive and bear a son, and she will call him Immanuel. Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

Matt 1:23.

virgin ← the virgin. Although there is another word for virgin (בְּתוּלָה), it is inconceivable that this word (עַלְמָה), implying marriageability, should not also imply virginity, considering God's strict laws in place and the necessarily miraculous nature of the sign.

she will call: in an Aramaic form.

Immanuel: God with us.
Isa 7:15 ‫חֶמְאָ֥ה וּדְבַ֖שׁ יֹאכֵ֑ל לְדַעְתּ֛וֹ מָא֥וֹס בָּרָ֖ע וּבָח֥וֹר בַּטּֽוֹב׃‬ He will eat curds and honey, for him to know to reject evil and to choose good. to reject ... to choose: both infinitive absolute, according to [Ges-HG] §113 emphasizing an idea in the abstract.
Isa 7:16 ‫כִּ֠י בְּטֶ֨רֶם יֵדַ֥ע הַנַּ֛עַר מָאֹ֥ס בָּרָ֖ע וּבָחֹ֣ר בַּטּ֑וֹב תֵּעָזֵ֤ב הָאֲדָמָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתָּ֣ה קָ֔ץ מִפְּנֵ֖י שְׁנֵ֥י מְלָכֶֽיהָ׃‬ For before the boy knows to reject evil and choose good, the land which you loathe will be deserted by its two kings.
Isa 7:17 ‫יָבִ֨יא יְהוָ֜ה עָלֶ֗יךָ וְעַֽל־עַמְּךָ֮ וְעַל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִיךָ֒ יָמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־בָ֔אוּ לְמִיּ֥וֹם סוּר־אֶפְרַ֖יִם מֵעַ֣ל יְהוּדָ֑ה אֵ֖ת מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר׃ פ‬ The Lord will bring on you and on your people and on the house of your father days which have not come before, since the day when Ephraim departed from Judah allying himself with the king of Assyria. with the king: AV differs (even the king). We take the word אֵת as sociative; the AV as accusative.
Isa 7:18 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִשְׁרֹ֤ק יְהוָה֙ לַזְּב֔וּב אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּקְצֵ֖ה יְאֹרֵ֣י מִצְרָ֑יִם וְלַ֨דְּבוֹרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּאֶ֥רֶץ אַשּֽׁוּר׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the Lord will whistle for the fly

Which is at the far end of the River of Egypt,

And for the bee

Which is in the land of Assyria.

Isa 7:19 ‫וּבָ֨אוּ וְנָח֤וּ כֻלָּם֙ בְּנַחֲלֵ֣י הַבַּתּ֔וֹת וּבִנְקִיקֵ֖י הַסְּלָעִ֑ים וּבְכֹל֙ הַנַּ֣עֲצוּצִ֔ים וּבְכֹ֖ל הַנַּהֲלֹלִֽים׃‬

And they will all come and settle

In the watercourses of the ravines,

And the fissures in the rocks,

And in all the thorn bushes

And in all the pasture lands.

settle ← rest.
Isa 7:20 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֡וּא יְגַלַּ֣ח אֲדֹנָי֩ בְּתַ֨עַר הַשְּׂכִירָ֜ה בְּעֶבְרֵ֤י נָהָר֙ בְּמֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר אֶת־הָרֹ֖אשׁ וְשַׂ֣עַר הָרַגְלָ֑יִם וְגַ֥ם אֶת־הַזָּקָ֖ן תִּסְפֶּֽה׃ ס‬

On that day, the Lord* will shave with a razor

With the hired company on the far side of the river –

With the king of Assyria,

Shaving the head and the hair on the feet,

And it will also remove the beard.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.
Isa 7:21 ‫וְהָיָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא יְחַיֶּה־אִ֛ישׁ עֶגְלַ֥ת בָּקָ֖ר וּשְׁתֵּי־צֹֽאן׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That a man will keep a heifer and two sheep,

keep ← keep alive.
Isa 7:22 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה מֵרֹ֛ב עֲשׂ֥וֹת חָלָ֖ב יֹאכַ֣ל חֶמְאָ֑ה כִּֽי־חֶמְאָ֤ה וּדְבַשׁ֙ יֹאכֵ֔ל כָּל־הַנּוֹתָ֖ר בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

And it will come to pass,

From the high yield of the production of milk,

That he will eat curds.

For everyone who remains in the land

Will eat curds and honey.

Isa 7:23 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יִֽהְיֶ֣ה כָל־מָק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֧ר יִֽהְיֶה־שָּׁ֛ם אֶ֥לֶף גֶּ֖פֶן בְּאֶ֣לֶף כָּ֑סֶף לַשָּׁמִ֥יר וְלַשַּׁ֖יִת יִֽהְיֶֽה׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That in every place where there were a thousand vineyards for a thousand pieces of silver,

It will be consigned to briars and thorns.

Isa 7:24 ‫בַּחִצִּ֥ים וּבַקֶּ֖שֶׁת יָ֣בוֹא שָׁ֑מָּה כִּי־שָׁמִ֥יר וָשַׁ֖יִת תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה כָל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

With arrows and the bow one will go there,

For all the land will be briars and thorns.

Isa 7:25 ‫וְכֹ֣ל הֶהָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר בַּמַּעְדֵּר֙ יֵעָ֣דֵר֔וּן לֹֽא־תָב֣וֹא שָׁ֔מָּה יִרְאַ֖ת שָׁמִ֣יר וָשָׁ֑יִת וְהָיָה֙ לְמִשְׁלַ֣ח שׁ֔וֹר וּלְמִרְמַ֖ס שֶֽׂה׃ פ‬

And as for all the mountains which had been hoed with a hoe,

You shall not go there,

For fear of briars and thorns.

And it will be a place to drive oxen to,

And for sheep to tread down.”

you shall not go there: AV differs (there shall not come thither).
Isa 8:1 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י קַח־לְךָ֖ גִּלָּי֣וֹן גָּד֑וֹל וּכְתֹ֤ב עָלָיו֙ בְּחֶ֣רֶט אֱנ֔וֹשׁ לְמַהֵ֥ר שָׁלָ֖ל חָ֥שׁ בַּֽז׃‬ And the Lord said to me, “Get yourself a large tablet, and write on it with a stylus of a common man, for Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz.” Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz: i.e. quick-spoil-haste-plunder.
Isa 8:2 ‫וְאָעִ֣ידָה לִּ֔י עֵדִ֖ים נֶאֱמָנִ֑ים אֵ֚ת אוּרִיָּ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְאֶת־זְכַרְיָ֖הוּ בֶּ֥ן יְבֶרֶכְיָֽהוּ׃‬ And I took faithful witnesses to be witnesses for me: Uriah the priest and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah.
Isa 8:3 ‫וָאֶקְרַב֙ אֶל־הַנְּבִיאָ֔ה וַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י קְרָ֣א שְׁמ֔וֹ מַהֵ֥ר שָׁלָ֖ל חָ֥שׁ בַּֽז׃‬ And I approached the prophetess, and she conceived and bore a son, and the Lord said to me, “Call him Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz.
Isa 8:4 ‫כִּ֗י בְּטֶ֙רֶם֙ יֵדַ֣ע הַנַּ֔עַר קְרֹ֖א אָבִ֣י וְאִמִּ֑י יִשָּׂ֣א ׀ אֶת־חֵ֣יל דַּמֶּ֗שֶׂק וְאֵת֙ שְׁלַ֣ל שֹׁמְר֔וֹן לִפְנֵ֖י מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר׃ ס‬ For before the boy knows how to shout, ‘My father’, or, ‘My mother’, an army will carry away the wealth of Damascus and the plunder of Samaria in the presence of the king of Assyria.”
Isa 8:5 ‫וַיֹּ֣סֶף יְהוָ֔ה דַּבֵּ֥ר אֵלַ֛י ע֖וֹד לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ The Lord spoke to me yet again and said,
Isa 8:6 ‫יַ֗עַן כִּ֤י מָאַס֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֵ֚ת מֵ֣י הַשִּׁלֹ֔חַ הַהֹלְכִ֖ים לְאַ֑ט וּמְשׂ֥וֹשׂ אֶת־רְצִ֖ין וּבֶן־רְמַלְיָֽהוּ׃‬

“Since this people rejects the waters of Shiloah,

Which flow gently,

And rejoices in Rezin and the son of Remaliah,

flow ← go.

gently ← slowly.

rejoices in ← (there is) rejoicing with.
Isa 8:7 ‫וְלָכֵ֡ן הִנֵּ֣ה אֲדֹנָי֩ מַעֲלֶ֨ה עֲלֵיהֶ֜ם אֶת־מֵ֣י הַנָּהָ֗ר הָעֲצוּמִים֙ וְהָ֣רַבִּ֔ים אֶת־מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּׁ֖וּר וְאֶת־כָּל־כְּבוֹד֑וֹ וְעָלָה֙ עַל־כָּל־אֲפִיקָ֔יו וְהָלַ֖ךְ עַל־כָּל־גְּדוֹתָֽיו׃‬

You will see the Lord* bringing up over them

The mighty and massive waters of the river

– The king of Assyria and all his glory –

And he will come up through all his channels

And overflow all his banks.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

you will see ← behold.
Isa 8:8 ‫וְחָלַ֤ף בִּֽיהוּדָה֙ שָׁטַ֣ף וְעָבַ֔ר עַד־צַוָּ֖אר יַגִּ֑יעַ וְהָיָה֙ מֻטּ֣וֹת כְּנָפָ֔יו מְלֹ֥א רֹֽחַב־אַרְצְךָ֖ עִמָּ֥נוּ אֵֽל׃ ס‬

And he will pass through Judah,

Inundating and crossing through,

Coming up to the neck.

And he will spread his wings

Over the full width of your land, Immanuel.

he will spread his wings ← and it will be spreading out of his wings.
Isa 8:9 ‫רֹ֤עוּ עַמִּים֙ וָחֹ֔תּוּ וְהַֽאֲזִ֔ינוּ כֹּ֖ל מֶרְחַקֵּי־אָ֑רֶץ הִתְאַזְּר֣וּ וָחֹ֔תּוּ הִֽתְאַזְּר֖וּ וָחֹֽתּוּ׃‬

Do harm, you various peoples,

And come to harm.

So listen, all you distant parts of the earth,

Gird yourselves,

And come to harm,

Gird yourselves,

And come to harm.

do harm ... gird yourselves ... gird yourselves: ironic. AV differs for the first verb (associate yourselves), taking it from a different root (רעה against our רעע).
Isa 8:10 ‫עֻ֥צוּ עֵצָ֖ה וְתֻפָ֑ר דַּבְּר֤וּ דָבָר֙ וְלֹ֣א יָק֔וּם כִּ֥י עִמָּ֖נוּ אֵֽל׃ ס‬

Take counsel,

But it will be frustrated.

Speak a word,

But it will not stand,

For God is with us.”

take counsel ... speak a word: ironic.
Isa 8:11 ‫כִּי֩ כֹ֨ה אָמַ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה אֵלַ֖י כְּחֶזְקַ֣ת הַיָּ֑ד וְיִסְּרֵ֕נִי מִלֶּ֛כֶת בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ For this is what the Lord said to me, as a shot in the arm, and he warned me against walking in the way of this people and said, this is whatthus.

a shot in the arm ← strengthening of the hand.
Isa 8:12 ‫לֹא־תֹאמְר֣וּן קֶ֔שֶׁר לְכֹ֧ל אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמַ֛ר הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּ֖ה קָ֑שֶׁר וְאֶת־מוֹרָא֥וֹ לֹֽא־תִֽירְא֖וּ וְלֹ֥א תַעֲרִֽיצוּ׃‬

You shall not say, ‘A conspiracy’,

To everything where the people say, ‘A conspiracy.’

And do not fear their fearsomeness,

And do not be afraid.

1 Pet 3:14.

you: plural.

their fearsomeness: i.e. their show of being fearsome, a subjective genitive, relating to causing fear. Compare the next verse.
Isa 8:13 ‫אֶת־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת אֹת֣וֹ תַקְדִּ֑ישׁוּ וְה֥וּא מוֹרַאֲכֶ֖ם וְה֥וּא מַֽעֲרִֽצְכֶֽם׃‬

Sanctify the Lord of hosts himself,

For he is to be your fearfulness,

And he is to be your trepidation.

1 Pet 3:15.

your fearfulness: a subjective genitive of feeling fear, which is why we choose a different but cognate word in this verse compared with fearsomeness above.
Isa 8:14 ‫וְהָיָ֖ה לְמִקְדָּ֑שׁ וּלְאֶ֣בֶן נֶ֠גֶף וּלְצ֨וּר מִכְשׁ֜וֹל לִשְׁנֵ֨י בָתֵּ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לְפַ֣ח וּלְמוֹקֵ֔שׁ לְיוֹשֵׁ֖ב יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

And he will become a sanctuary,

But a stumbling block and a rock of offence

To the two houses of Israel,

And a trap and a snare

To the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

Rom 9:33, 1 Pet 2:8.

but: adversative use of the vav.

block ← stone.
Isa 8:15 ‫וְכָ֥שְׁלוּ בָ֖ם רַבִּ֑ים וְנָפְל֣וּ וְנִשְׁבָּ֔רוּ וְנוֹקְשׁ֖וּ וְנִלְכָּֽדוּ׃ ס‬

And many will stumble at them,

And they will fall and be broken,

And be ensnared and be caught.

Matt 24:10.
Isa 8:16 ‫צ֖וֹר תְּעוּדָ֑ה חֲת֥וֹם תּוֹרָ֖ה בְּלִמֻּדָֽי׃‬

Bind up the testimony;

Seal the law among those who learn from me.”

those who learn from me ← my learners.
Isa 8:17 ‫וְחִכִּ֙יתִי֙ לַיהוָ֔ה הַמַּסְתִּ֥יר פָּנָ֖יו מִבֵּ֣ית יַעֲקֹ֑ב וְקִוֵּ֖יתִֽי־לֽוֹ׃‬

And I will wait for the Lord,

Who is hiding his face from the house of Jacob,

And I will confide in him.

Isa 8:18 ‫הִנֵּ֣ה אָנֹכִ֗י וְהַיְלָדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָֽתַן־לִ֣י יְהוָ֔ה לְאֹת֥וֹת וּלְמוֹפְתִ֖ים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מֵעִם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת הַשֹּׁכֵ֖ן בְּהַ֥ר צִיּֽוֹן׃ ס‬

Here am I,

And the children whom the Lord has given me,

As signs and as miracles in Israel

From the Lord of hosts,

Who dwells in Mount Zion.

Heb 2:13.

here am I ← behold me.
Isa 8:19 ‫וְכִֽי־יֹאמְר֣וּ אֲלֵיכֶ֗ם דִּרְשׁ֤וּ אֶל־הָאֹבוֹת֙ וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִ֔ים הַֽמְצַפְצְפִ֖ים וְהַמַּהְגִּ֑ים הֲלוֹא־עַם֙ אֶל־אֱלֹהָ֣יו יִדְרֹ֔שׁ בְּעַ֥ד הַחַיִּ֖ים אֶל־הַמֵּתִֽים׃‬ “Now when they say to you, ‘Seek the necromancers and the wizards, who whisper and who mutter’, and say, ‘Should not a people seek their God? Does one really turn to the dead for the benefit of the living?’
Isa 8:20 ‫לְתוֹרָ֖ה וְלִתְעוּדָ֑ה אִם־לֹ֤א יֹֽאמְרוּ֙ כַּדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽין־ל֖וֹ שָֽׁחַר׃‬ If they do not speak in accordance with the law and the testimony – so these wordsit is because they do not have a glimmer of reason. these words ← this word / discourse.

glimmer ← dawn.
Isa 8:21 ‫וְעָ֥בַר בָּ֖הּ נִקְשֶׁ֣ה וְרָעֵ֑ב וְהָיָ֨ה כִֽי־יִרְעַ֜ב וְהִתְקַצַּ֗ף וְקִלֵּ֧ל בְּמַלְכּ֛וֹ וּבֵאלֹהָ֖יו וּפָנָ֥ה לְמָֽעְלָה׃‬ And one will pass through the land suffering hardship, and hungry, and it will come to pass when he is hungry that he will become angry and curse his king and his God, and he will turn to things above, the landit.
Isa 8:22 ‫וְאֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ יַבִּ֑יט וְהִנֵּ֨ה צָרָ֤ה וַחֲשֵׁכָה֙ מְע֣וּף צוּקָ֔ה וַאֲפֵלָ֖ה מְנֻדָּֽח׃‬ and he will look to the earth, and he will find adversity, and darkness and oppressive gloom, and repulsive murkiness. he will find ← behold.

oppressive gloom ← gloom of oppression, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 8:23
Isa 9:1AV
‫כִּ֣י לֹ֣א מוּעָף֮ לַאֲשֶׁ֣ר מוּצָ֣ק לָהּ֒ כָּעֵ֣ת הָרִאשׁ֗וֹן הֵקַ֞ל אַ֤רְצָה זְבֻלוּן֙ וְאַ֣רְצָה נַפְתָּלִ֔י וְהָאַחֲר֖וֹן הִכְבִּ֑יד דֶּ֤רֶךְ הַיָּם֙ עֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן גְּלִ֖יל הַגּוֹיִֽם׃‬ For it will not be faint, as regards the land's straitness, as on the first occasion when he brought the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali into contempt, and later made it more grievous, on the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, in Galilee of the Gentiles. Matt 4:15.

faint: we take this as hophal from root יעף, not the noun from root עוף.

the land'sher / its.
Isa 9:1
Isa 9:2AV
‫הָעָם֙ הַהֹלְכִ֣ים בַּחֹ֔שֶׁךְ רָא֖וּ א֣וֹר גָּד֑וֹל יֹשְׁבֵי֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ צַלְמָ֔וֶת א֖וֹר נָגַ֥הּ עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬

The people who walked in darkness

Have seen a great light,

And on those who dwelt in the land of the shadow of death

A light has shone.

Matt 4:16.
Isa 9:2
Isa 9:3AV
‫הִרְבִּ֣יתָ הַגּ֔וֹי *לא **ל֖וֹ הִגְדַּ֣לְתָּ הַשִּׂמְחָ֑ה שָׂמְח֤וּ לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ כְּשִׂמְחַ֣ת בַּקָּצִ֔יר כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָגִ֖ילוּ בְּחַלְּקָ֥ם שָׁלָֽל׃‬

You have multiplied the nation,

{Q: You have increased its joy} [K: where you had not increased the joy];

They rejoice before you

As they do with joy at harvest time,

Or as when they delight

As they share the spoil.

Isa 9:3
Isa 9:4AV
‫כִּ֣י ׀ אֶת־עֹ֣ל סֻבֳּל֗וֹ וְאֵת֙ מַטֵּ֣ה שִׁכְמ֔וֹ שֵׁ֖בֶט הַנֹּגֵ֣שׂ בּ֑וֹ הַחִתֹּ֖תָ כְּי֥וֹם מִדְיָֽן׃‬

For you have broken their burdensome yoke

And their shoulder bar

– The rod which was used to drive them on –

As on the day of Midian.

their burdensome yoke ... their shoulder bar ← the yoke of its burden ... the bar of its shoulder, Hebraic genitives.
Isa 9:4
Isa 9:5AV
‫כִּ֤י כָל־סְאוֹן֙ סֹאֵ֣ן בְּרַ֔עַשׁ וְשִׂמְלָ֖ה מְגוֹלָלָ֣ה בְדָמִ֑ים וְהָיְתָ֥ה לִשְׂרֵפָ֖ה מַאֲכֹ֥לֶת אֵֽשׁ׃‬

For every boot treading in the tumult

And shirt rolled in blood

Will be fit for burning,

As fuel for fire.

Isa 9:5
Isa 9:6AV
‫כִּי־יֶ֣לֶד יֻלַּד־לָ֗נוּ בֵּ֚ן נִתַּן־לָ֔נוּ וַתְּהִ֥י הַמִּשְׂרָ֖ה עַל־שִׁכְמ֑וֹ וַיִּקְרָ֨א שְׁמ֜וֹ פֶּ֠לֶא יוֹעֵץ֙ אֵ֣ל גִּבּ֔וֹר אֲבִיעַ֖ד שַׂר־שָׁלֽוֹם׃‬

For a child is to be born for us,

A son is to be given to us,

And he will shoulder government,

And he will be called Wonderful, Counsellor,

Mighty God, Father of Perpetuity,

Prince of Peace.

Alluded to in Luke 2:11.

he will shoulder government ← government will be on his shoulder.

Wonderful: see Judg 13:18.
Isa 9:6
Isa 9:7AV
‫*לם*רבה **לְמַרְבֵּ֨ה הַמִּשְׂרָ֜ה וּלְשָׁל֣וֹם אֵֽין־קֵ֗ץ עַל־כִּסֵּ֤א דָוִד֙ וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתּ֔וֹ לְהָכִ֤ין אֹתָהּ֙ וּֽלְסַעֲדָ֔הּ בְּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּבִצְדָקָ֑ה מֵעַתָּה֙ וְעַד־עוֹלָ֔ם קִנְאַ֛ת יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־זֹּֽאת׃ ס‬

There will be no end to the great extent of government,

Or to peace on the throne of David and over his kingdom,

In setting it up and in perpetuating it in justice and in righteousness,

From that time and age-abidingly.

The zeal of the Lord of hosts will accomplish this.

to the great extent: in qeré this is one word; in ketiv two words, but untranslatable as such.

In setting it up ... in perpetuating: gerundial use of the infinitives.

that time ← now.
Isa 9:7
Isa 9:8AV
‫דָּבָ֛ר שָׁלַ֥ח אֲדֹנָ֖י בְּיַעֲקֹ֑ב וְנָפַ֖ל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

The Lord* sent a word through Jacob,

And it alighted on Israel.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.
Isa 9:8
Isa 9:9AV
‫וְיָדְעוּ֙ הָעָ֣ם כֻּלּ֔וֹ אֶפְרַ֖יִם וְיוֹשֵׁ֣ב שֹׁמְר֑וֹן בְּגַאֲוָ֛ה וּבְגֹ֥דֶל לֵבָ֖ב לֵאמֹֽר׃‬

And the entire people will know

– Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria –

Those who in the arrogance

And haughtiness of their heart said,

Isa 9:9
Isa 9:10AV
‫לְבֵנִ֥ים נָפָ֖לוּ וְגָזִ֣ית נִבְנֶ֑ה שִׁקְמִ֣ים גֻּדָּ֔עוּ וַאֲרָזִ֖ים נַחֲלִֽיף׃‬

“The bricks have fallen,

But we will build with hewn stone;

The sycamores have been cut down,

But we will replace them with cedars.”

but (2x): adversative use of the vav.
Isa 9:10
Isa 9:11AV
‫וַיְשַׂגֵּ֧ב יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־צָרֵ֥י רְצִ֖ין עָלָ֑יו וְאֶת־אֹיְבָ֖יו יְסַכְסֵֽךְ׃‬

But the Lord will strengthen the adversaries of Rezin against the people,

And he will incite their enemies –

the peoplehim. Referring to the people of Isa 9:8 (Isa 9:9AV).
Isa 9:11
Isa 9:12AV
‫אֲרָ֣ם מִקֶּ֗דֶם וּפְלִשְׁתִּים֙ מֵֽאָח֔וֹר וַיֹּאכְל֥וּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּכָל־פֶּ֑ה בְּכָל־זֹאת֙ לֹא־שָׁ֣ב אַפּ֔וֹ וְע֖וֹד יָד֥וֹ נְטוּיָֽה׃‬

Aramaea from the east

And the Philistines from the west –

And they will consume Israel with a voracious appetite.

Yet for all this, his anger will not recede,

And his hand will still be stretched out.

with a voracious appetite ← with all mouth.
Isa 9:12
Isa 9:13AV
‫וְהָעָ֥ם לֹא־שָׁ֖ב עַד־הַמַּכֵּ֑הוּ וְאֶת־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֹ֥א דָרָֽשׁוּ׃ ס‬

But the people are not returning

To him who is striking them,

And they have not sought the Lord of hosts.

Isa 9:13
Isa 9:14AV
‫וַיַּכְרֵ֨ת יְהוָ֜ה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֗ל רֹ֧אשׁ וְזָנָ֛ב כִּפָּ֥ה וְאַגְמ֖וֹן י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד׃‬

And the Lord will cut off from Israel

Head and tail,

Palm-branch and bulrush,

In one day.

palm-branch and bulrush: standing for upper and lower class, but not as extreme as head and tail.
Isa 9:14
Isa 9:15AV
‫זָקֵ֥ן וּנְשׂוּא־פָנִ֖ים ה֣וּא הָרֹ֑אשׁ וְנָבִ֥יא מֽוֹרֶה־שֶּׁ֖קֶר ה֥וּא הַזָּנָֽב׃‬

The elder and dignitary

Is who the head is,

And the prophet who teaches lies

Is who the tail is.

dignitary ← elevated of face.

lies ← the lie.
Isa 9:15
Isa 9:16AV
‫וַיִּֽהְי֛וּ מְאַשְּׁרֵ֥י הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה מַתְעִ֑ים וּמְאֻשָּׁרָ֖יו מְבֻלָּעִֽים׃‬

And those guiding this people

Have led it astray,

And those guided by them

Have been swallowed up.

Isa 9:16
Isa 9:17AV
‫עַל־כֵּ֨ן עַל־בַּחוּרָ֜יו לֹֽא־יִשְׂמַ֣ח ׀ אֲדֹנָ֗י וְאֶת־יְתֹמָ֤יו וְאֶת־אַלְמְנֹתָיו֙ לֹ֣א יְרַחֵ֔ם כִּ֤י כֻלּוֹ֙ חָנֵ֣ף וּמֵרַ֔ע וְכָל־פֶּ֖ה דֹּבֵ֣ר נְבָלָ֑ה בְּכָל־זֹאת֙ לֹא־שָׁ֣ב אַפּ֔וֹ וְע֖וֹד יָד֥וֹ נְטוּיָֽה׃‬

This is why the Lord* will not rejoice over their young men

And will not have compassion on their orphans and their widows,

For they are all profane and wrongdoing,

And every mouth speaks foolishness.

Despite all this, his anger will not recede,

And his hand will still be stretched out.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

profane: on a translation as hypocrite, see [AnLx] note at end of p.267.
Isa 9:17
Isa 9:18AV
‫כִּֽי־בָעֲרָ֤ה כָאֵשׁ֙ רִשְׁעָ֔ה שָׁמִ֥יר וָשַׁ֖יִת תֹּאכֵ֑ל וַתִּצַּת֙ בְּסִֽבְכֵ֣י הַיַּ֔עַר וַיִּֽתְאַבְּכ֖וּ גֵּא֥וּת עָשָֽׁן׃‬

For wickedness burns like fire;

It consumes briars and thorns,

And it kindles fire in the thickets of the forest,

And they will swell up

Like the billowing of smoke.

swell up: or roll around.
Isa 9:18
Isa 9:19AV
‫בְּעֶבְרַ֛ת יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת נֶעְתַּ֣ם אָ֑רֶץ וַיְהִ֤י הָעָם֙ כְּמַאֲכֹ֣לֶת אֵ֔שׁ אִ֥ישׁ אֶל־אָחִ֖יו לֹ֥א יַחְמֹֽלוּ׃‬

In the wrath of the Lord of hosts,

The land will be burned,

And the people will be like fuel for the fire.

A man will not spare his brother.

burned: or darkened.
Isa 9:19
Isa 9:20AV
‫וַיִּגְזֹ֤ר עַל־יָמִין֙ וְרָעֵ֔ב וַיֹּ֥אכַל עַל־שְׂמֹ֖אול וְלֹ֣א שָׂבֵ֑עוּ אִ֥ישׁ בְּשַׂר־זְרֹע֖וֹ יֹאכֵֽלוּ׃‬

And he will divide a portion on the right hand side,

Yet be hungry,

And eat on the left hand side.

But they will not be satisfied.

Each will eat the flesh of his own arm.

yet ... but: adversative use of the vav.
Isa 9:20
Isa 9:21AV
‫מְנַשֶּׁ֣ה אֶת־אֶפְרַ֗יִם וְאֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ אֶת־מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה יַחְדָּ֥ו הֵ֖מָּה עַל־יְהוּדָ֑ה בְּכָל־זֹאת֙ לֹא־שָׁ֣ב אַפּ֔וֹ וְע֖וֹד יָד֥וֹ נְטוּיָֽה׃ ס‬

Manasseh will eat Ephraim,

And Ephraim Manasseh.

Together they will be against Judah.

Despite all this, his anger will not recede,

And his hand will still be stretched out.

Isa 10:1 ‫ה֥וֹי הַחֹֽקְקִ֖ים חִקְקֵי־אָ֑וֶן וּֽמְכַתְּבִ֥ים עָמָ֖ל כִּתֵּֽבוּ׃‬

Woe to those who issue vain decrees,

And the state secretaries who draw up iniquitous edicts,

issue ← decree, legislate.

draw up iniquitous edicts ← decree iniquity (which) they write. The word translated iniquity here more commonly means toil.
Isa 10:2 ‫לְהַטּ֤וֹת מִדִּין֙ דַּלִּ֔ים וְלִגְזֹ֕ל מִשְׁפַּ֖ט עֲנִיֵּ֣י עַמִּ֑י לִהְי֤וֹת אַלְמָנוֹת֙ שְׁלָלָ֔ם וְאֶת־יְתוֹמִ֖ים יָבֹֽזּוּ׃‬

In denying the needy a legal process,

In robbing the poor among my people of justice,

With widows being their spoil,

And who plunder orphans.

in denying ... in robbing ... with widows being ← in turning away etc., gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 10:3 ‫וּמַֽה־תַּעֲשׂוּ֙ לְי֣וֹם פְּקֻדָּ֔ה וּלְשׁוֹאָ֖ה מִמֶּרְחָ֣ק תָּב֑וֹא עַל־מִי֙ תָּנ֣וּסוּ לְעֶזְרָ֔ה וְאָ֥נָה תַעַזְב֖וּ כְּבוֹדְכֶֽם׃‬

What will you do on the day of punishment,

And in the destruction which will come from far away?

To whom will you flee for help,

And where will you leave your honour?

Isa 10:4 ‫בִּלְתִּ֤י כָרַע֙ תַּ֣חַת אַסִּ֔יר וְתַ֥חַת הֲרוּגִ֖ים יִפֹּ֑לוּ בְּכָל־זֹאת֙ לֹא־שָׁ֣ב אַפּ֔וֹ וְע֖וֹד יָד֥וֹ נְטוּיָֽה׃ ס‬

How will one not collapse in imprisonment,

Or what if they fall to join those killed?

Despite all this, his anger will not recede,

And his hand will still be stretched out.

not: AV differs (without me).

in imprisonment ← under (being) a prisoner.

to join ← under.
Isa 10:5 ‫ה֥וֹי אַשּׁ֖וּר שֵׁ֣בֶט אַפִּ֑י וּמַטֶּה־ה֥וּא בְיָדָ֖ם זַעְמִֽי׃‬

O Assyria, the rod of my anger,

The stick in whose hand is my indignation!

rod: i.e. instrument.
Isa 10:6 ‫בְּג֤וֹי חָנֵף֙ אֲשַׁלְּחֶ֔נּוּ וְעַל־עַ֥ם עֶבְרָתִ֖י אֲצַוֶּ֑נּוּ לִשְׁלֹ֤ל שָׁלָל֙ וְלָבֹ֣ז בַּ֔ז *ולשימו **וּלְשׂוּמ֥וֹ מִרְמָ֖ס כְּחֹ֥מֶר חוּצֽוֹת׃‬

I will send against them a profane nation,

And I will command them to go against the people with whom I am angry,

To take spoil and to seize plunder,

And to make them a trodden down phenomenon

Like the mire of the streets.

to make them: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

with whom I am angry ← of my wrath.

to take spoil ... to seize plunder ← to spoil spoil ... to plunder plunder.
Isa 10:7 ‫וְהוּא֙ לֹא־כֵ֣ן יְדַמֶּ֔ה וּלְבָב֖וֹ לֹא־כֵ֣ן יַחְשֹׁ֑ב כִּ֚י לְהַשְׁמִ֣יד בִּלְבָב֔וֹ וּלְהַכְרִ֥ית גּוֹיִ֖ם לֹ֥א מְעָֽט׃‬

However, they will not be conscious of this purpose,

And their heart will not so reason,

For it will just be in their heart

To destroy and cut off

Not a few nations.

they: i.e. Assyria.

be conscious of this purposeimagine thus.
Isa 10:8 ‫כִּ֖י יֹאמַ֑ר הֲלֹ֥א שָׂרַ֛י יַחְדָּ֖ו מְלָכִֽים׃‬

For he will say,

“Are not my officials a collection of kings?

collection of kings ← kings together.
Isa 10:9 ‫הֲלֹ֥א כְּכַרְכְּמִ֖ישׁ כַּלְנ֑וֹ אִם־לֹ֤א כְאַרְפַּד֙ חֲמָ֔ת אִם־לֹ֥א כְדַמֶּ֖שֶׂק שֹׁמְרֽוֹן׃‬

Is Calno not like Carchemish?

Or is Hamath not like Arpad?

Or is Samaria not like Damascus?

Isa 10:10 ‫כַּאֲשֶׁר֙ מָצְאָ֣ה יָדִ֔י לְמַמְלְכֹ֖ת הָאֱלִ֑יל וּפְסִ֣ילֵיהֶ֔ם מִירֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וּמִשֹּׁמְרֽוֹן׃‬

When my hand finds idolatrous kingdoms,

And their carved images,

Surpassing those of Jerusalem and Samaria,

idolatrous kingdoms ← kingdoms of the idol, a Hebraic genitive.

surpassing ← (more) than.
Isa 10:11 ‫הֲלֹ֗א כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִׂ֛יתִי לְשֹׁמְר֖וֹן וְלֶאֱלִילֶ֑יהָ כֵּ֛ן אֶעֱשֶׂ֥ה לִירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וְלַעֲצַבֶּֽיהָ׃ ס‬

Will I not do to Jerusalem and its images

What I did to Samaria and its idols?”

what ← as.
Isa 10:12 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כִּֽי־יְבַצַּ֤ע אֲדֹנָי֙ אֶת־כָּל־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֔הוּ בְּהַ֥ר צִיּ֖וֹן וּבִירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם אֶפְקֹ֗ד עַל־פְּרִי־גֹ֙דֶל֙ לְבַ֣ב מֶֽלֶךְ־אַשּׁ֔וּר וְעַל־תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת ר֥וּם עֵינָֽיו׃‬ And it will come to pass, when the Lord* has carried out all his work in Mount Zion and Jerusalem, that I will inflict punishment for the result of the high-mindedness of the king of Assyria and for the glorying of his haughty eyes. Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

I will: effectively he will here.

result ← fruit.

high-mindedness ← greatness of heart.

his haughty eyes ← the exalting of his eyes.
Isa 10:13 ‫כִּ֣י אָמַ֗ר בְּכֹ֤חַ יָדִי֙ עָשִׂ֔יתִי וּבְחָכְמָתִ֖י כִּ֣י נְבֻנ֑וֹתִי וְאָסִ֣יר ׀ גְּבוּלֹ֣ת עַמִּ֗ים *ועתידתיהם **וַעֲתוּדֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙ שׁוֹשֵׂ֔תִי וְאוֹרִ֥יד כַּאבִּ֖יר יוֹשְׁבִֽים׃‬ For he said,

“I acted in the strength of my hand,

And in my own wisdom,

For I am astute,

And I remove national borders,

And I plunder their lucre,

And I overthrow populations,

Like a mighty man.

lucre: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

populations ← inhabitants.
Isa 10:14 ‫וַתִּמְצָ֨א כַקֵּ֤ן ׀ יָדִי֙ לְחֵ֣יל הָֽעַמִּ֔ים וְכֶאֱסֹף֙ בֵּיצִ֣ים עֲזֻב֔וֹת כָּל־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲנִ֣י אָסָ֑פְתִּי וְלֹ֤א הָיָה֙ נֹדֵ֣ד כָּנָ֔ף וּפֹצֶ֥ה פֶ֖ה וּמְצַפְצֵֽף׃‬

And my hand found the riches of various peoples like a nest.

And as one collects eggs that are abandoned,

So I collected the whole earth,

And there was no-one that fluttered a wing

Or opened his mouth and whispered.”

Isa 10:15 ‫הֲיִתְפָּאֵר֙ הַגַּרְזֶ֔ן עַ֖ל הַחֹצֵ֣ב בּ֑וֹ אִם־יִתְגַּדֵּ֤ל הַמַּשּׂוֹר֙ עַל־מְנִיפ֔וֹ כְּהָנִ֥יף שֵׁ֙בֶט֙ וְאֶת־מְרִימָ֔יו כְּהָרִ֥ים מַטֶּ֖ה לֹא־עֵֽץ׃‬

Will the axe vaunt itself over him who hews with it?

Or will the saw make itself greater than him who handles it?

Likewise, can a rod lift the very ones who raise it?

Similarly, can a stick raise him who is not wood?

than him: or, if the reader prefers, than he.

handles ← lifts.

him who is not wood: i.e. flesh and blood. AV differs (as if it were no wood).
Isa 10:16 ‫לָ֠כֵן יְשַׁלַּ֨ח הָאָד֜וֹן יְהוָ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת בְּמִשְׁמַנָּ֖יו רָז֑וֹן וְתַ֧חַת כְּבֹד֛וֹ יֵקַ֥ד יְקֹ֖ד כִּיק֥וֹד אֵֽשׁ׃‬

This is why my Lord the Lord of hosts

Will send leanness into his fat places,

And instead of his glory,

There will be burning, as a fire burns.

fat: i.e. fertile.

there will be burning, as a fire burns ← burning will burn like the burning of fire.
Isa 10:17 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה אֽוֹר־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לְאֵ֔שׁ וּקְדוֹשׁ֖וֹ לְלֶהָבָ֑ה וּבָעֲרָ֗ה וְאָֽכְלָ֛ה שִׁית֥וֹ וּשְׁמִיר֖וֹ בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָֽד׃‬

And the light of Israel will become fire,

And its holy one a flame,

And it will blaze and consume

Its briars and its thorns

In one day.

Isa 10:18 ‫וּכְב֤וֹד יַעְרוֹ֙ וְכַרְמִלּ֔וֹ מִנֶּ֥פֶשׁ וְעַד־בָּשָׂ֖ר יְכַלֶּ֑ה וְהָיָ֖ה כִּמְסֹ֥ס נֹסֵֽס׃‬

And he will lay the glory of his forest and his orchard waste,

Both spiritually and physically,

And it will become like the exhausted state

Of one wasting away.

both spiritually and physically ← from soul and up to flesh.

one wasting away: AV differs (a standardbearer).
Isa 10:19 ‫וּשְׁאָ֥ר עֵ֛ץ יַעְר֖וֹ מִסְפָּ֣ר יִֽהְי֑וּ וְנַ֖עַר יִכְתְּבֵֽם׃ פ‬

And the remainder of the trees of his forest will be few in number,

And a boy will be able to set them down in writing.

set them down in writing ← write them, i.e. register them individually.
Isa 10:20 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא לֹֽא־יוֹסִ֨יף ע֜וֹד שְׁאָ֤ר יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וּפְלֵיטַ֣ת בֵּֽית־יַעֲקֹ֔ב לְהִשָּׁעֵ֖ן עַל־מַכֵּ֑הוּ וְנִשְׁעַ֗ן עַל־יְהוָ֛ה קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בֶּאֱמֶֽת׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the remainder of Israel

And the escaped remnant of the house of Jacob

Will no longer rely on the one who struck them,

And they will rely on the Lord

– The holy one of Israel –

In truth.

Isa 10:21 ‫שְׁאָ֥ר יָשׁ֖וּב שְׁאָ֣ר יַעֲקֹ֑ב אֶל־אֵ֖ל גִּבּֽוֹר׃‬

The remainder will return

– The remainder of Jacob –

To the mighty God.

Isa 10:22 ‫כִּ֣י אִם־יִהְיֶ֞ה עַמְּךָ֤ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כְּח֣וֹל הַיָּ֔ם שְׁאָ֖ר יָשׁ֣וּב בּ֑וֹ כִּלָּי֥וֹן חָר֖וּץ שׁוֹטֵ֥ף צְדָקָֽה׃‬

Even if your people Israel

Are like the sand of the sea,

A remainder of them will return,

And the conclusion determined

Will overflow with righteousness.

Rom 9:27, Rom 9:28.
Isa 10:23 ‫כִּ֥י כָלָ֖ה וְנֶחֱרָצָ֑ה אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ צְבָא֔וֹת עֹשֶׂ֖ה בְּקֶ֥רֶב כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃ ס‬

For my Lord the Lord of hosts

Will bring about the conclusion

And what has been determined

In the precincts of the whole land.

Rom 9:28.

what: relative use of the vav.

precincts ← midst.
Isa 10:24 ‫לָכֵ֗ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ צְבָא֔וֹת אַל־תִּירָ֥א עַמִּ֛י יֹשֵׁ֥ב צִיּ֖וֹן מֵֽאַשּׁ֑וּר בַּשֵּׁ֣בֶט יַכֶּ֔כָּה וּמַטֵּ֥הוּ יִשָּֽׂא־עָלֶ֖יךָ בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬ Therefore my Lord the Lord of hosts says this:

“My people who live in Zion,

Do not be afraid of Assyria.

They will strike you with a rod,

And lift their stick up against you,

In the way Egypt did,

this ← thus.

the way Egypt didthe way of Egypt.
Isa 10:25 ‫כִּי־ע֖וֹד מְעַ֣ט מִזְעָ֑ר וְכָ֣לָה זַ֔עַם וְאַפִּ֖י עַל־תַּבְלִיתָֽם׃‬

But in a very short time,

The indignation will be concluded,

As will my anger,

At the time of their destruction.”

Isa 10:26 ‫וְעוֹרֵ֨ר עָלָ֜יו יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ שׁ֔וֹט כְּמַכַּ֥ת מִדְיָ֖ן בְּצ֣וּר עוֹרֵ֑ב וּמַטֵּ֙הוּ֙ עַל־הַיָּ֔ם וּנְשָׂא֖וֹ בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬

And the Lord of hosts will stir up a scourge over them,

Like the attack in Midian at the rock of Oreb.

And as his rod was on the sea,

So he will raise it,

In the same way as in Egypt.

as in ← of.
Isa 10:27 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יָס֤וּר סֻבֳּלוֹ֙ מֵעַ֣ל שִׁכְמֶ֔ךָ וְעֻלּ֖וֹ מֵעַ֣ל צַוָּארֶ֑ךָ וְחֻבַּ֥ל עֹ֖ל מִפְּנֵי־שָֽׁמֶן׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That his burden will be removed from your shoulder,

And his yoke from your neck.

And the yoke will be destroyed in front of the anointing oil.

his burden ... his yoke: subjective genitives.
Isa 10:28 ‫בָּ֥א עַל־עַיַּ֖ת עָבַ֣ר בְּמִגְר֑וֹן לְמִכְמָ֖שׂ יַפְקִ֥יד כֵּלָֽיו׃‬

He has come to Aiath,

He has crossed over to Migron;

He has deposited his equipment in Michmas.

Michmas: see 1 Sam 13:2.
Isa 10:29 ‫עָֽבְרוּ֙ מַעְבָּרָ֔ה גֶּ֖בַע מָל֣וֹן לָ֑נוּ חָֽרְדָה֙ הָֽרָמָ֔ה גִּבְעַ֥ת שָׁא֖וּל נָֽסָה׃‬

They have crossed the pass;

They have taken up quarters in Geba.

Ramah is trembling;

Gibeah of Saul has fled.

Ramah ← the Ramah.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.
Isa 10:30 ‫צַהֲלִ֥י קוֹלֵ֖ךְ בַּת־גַּלִּ֑ים הַקְשִׁ֥יבִי לַ֖יְשָׁה עֲנִיָּ֥ה עֲנָתֽוֹת׃‬

Shout out, O daughter of Gallim,

Listen, O Laish,

O poor Anathoth.

shout out ← neigh your voice; compare Mark 1:43, John 11:38.

listen, O Laish: AV differs (cause it to be heard unto Laish).
Isa 10:31 ‫נָדְדָ֖ה מַדְמֵנָ֑ה יֹשְׁבֵ֥י הַגֵּבִ֖ים הֵעִֽיזוּ׃‬

Madmenah has moved away;

The inhabitants of Gebim have secured their effects.

Gebim ← the Gebim.
Isa 10:32 ‫ע֥וֹד הַיּ֖וֹם בְּנֹ֣ב לַֽעֲמֹ֑ד יְנֹפֵ֤ף יָדוֹ֙ הַ֣ר *בית־**בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן גִּבְעַ֖ת יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ ס‬

On the very day when he stands in Nob,

He will shake his fist

At the mountain of the {Q: daughter} [K: house] of Zion

– The hill of Jerusalem.

on the very day ← still / yet on the day.

fist ← hand.
Isa 10:33 ‫הִנֵּ֤ה הָאָדוֹן֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת מְסָעֵ֥ף פֻּארָ֖ה בְּמַעֲרָצָ֑ה וְרָמֵ֤י הַקּוֹמָה֙ גְּדוּעִ֔ים וְהַגְּבֹהִ֖ים יִשְׁפָּֽלוּ׃‬

Behold, the Lord, the Lord of hosts,

Will cut off a bough with terror,

And those of high stature will be cut down,

And the haughty will be humbled.

Isa 10:34 ‫וְנִקַּ֛ף סִֽבְכֵ֥י הַיַּ֖עַר בַּבַּרְזֶ֑ל וְהַלְּבָנ֖וֹן בְּאַדִּ֥יר יִפּֽוֹל׃ ס‬

And he will cut down the thickets of the forest with iron,

And Lebanon will be felled by a mighty one.

be felled: qal for passive of hiphil. Compare Ex 20:5, Deut 5:9.
Isa 11:1 ‫וְיָצָ֥א חֹ֖טֶר מִגֵּ֣זַע יִשָׁ֑י וְנֵ֖צֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁ֥יו יִפְרֶֽה׃‬

And a shoot will come out of the stem of Jesse,

And a branch from his roots will become fruitful.

John 7:42.

shoot ... of the stem of Jesse: Christ, as Jesse's descendant. Contrast Isa 11:10.

branch: Hebrew nezer, in modern pronunciation netser; perhaps the reference to Nazarene in Matt 2:23.
Isa 11:2 ‫וְנָחָ֥ה עָלָ֖יו ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֑ה ר֧וּחַ חָכְמָ֣ה וּבִינָ֗ה ר֤וּחַ עֵצָה֙ וּגְבוּרָ֔ה ר֥וּחַ דַּ֖עַת וְיִרְאַ֥ת יְהוָֽה׃‬

And the spirit of the Lord will rest on him

– The spirit of wisdom and understanding,

The spirit of counsel and valour,

The spirit of knowledge and fear of the Lord.

Isa 11:3 ‫וַהֲרִיח֖וֹ בְּיִרְאַ֣ת יְהוָ֑ה וְלֹֽא־לְמַרְאֵ֤ה עֵינָיו֙ יִשְׁפּ֔וֹט וְלֹֽא־לְמִשְׁמַ֥ע אָזְנָ֖יו יוֹכִֽיחַ׃‬

He will delight in him

Through his fear of the Lord,

And he will not judge by appearance to the eyes,

Nor will he arbitrate by what his ears hear,

He will delight ... fear of the Lord: a possible alternative translation would be What (is) fragrant to him (is being) in fear of the Lord.

by what his ears hear ← according to the hearing of his ears.
Isa 11:4 ‫וְשָׁפַ֤ט בְּצֶ֙דֶק֙ דַּלִּ֔ים וְהוֹכִ֥יחַ בְּמִישׁ֖וֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָ֑רֶץ וְהִֽכָּה־אֶ֙רֶץ֙ בְּשֵׁ֣בֶט פִּ֔יו וּבְר֥וּחַ שְׂפָתָ֖יו יָמִ֥ית רָשָֽׁע׃‬

But he will judge the poor righteously,

And he will arbitrate for the meek of the land equitably,

And he will strike the land with the rod of his mouth,

And he will kill the wicked by the breath of his lips.

Isa 11:5 ‫וְהָ֥יָה צֶ֖דֶק אֵז֣וֹר מָתְנָ֑יו וְהָאֱמוּנָ֖ה אֵז֥וֹר חֲלָצָֽיו׃‬

And righteousness will be the girdle around his waist,

And faithfulness the girdle around his loins.

girdle around (2x)girdle of. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 11:6 ‫וְגָ֤ר זְאֵב֙ עִם־כֶּ֔בֶשׂ וְנָמֵ֖ר עִם־גְּדִ֣י יִרְבָּ֑ץ וְעֵ֨גֶל וּכְפִ֤יר וּמְרִיא֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו וְנַ֥עַר קָטֹ֖ן נֹהֵ֥ג בָּֽם׃‬

And the wolf will dwell with the lamb,

And the leopard will lie down with the goat,

And the calf and the young lion and the fatted calf will be together,

And a small boy will lead them.

|| Isa 65:25.
Isa 11:7 ‫וּפָרָ֤ה וָדֹב֙ תִּרְעֶ֔ינָה יַחְדָּ֖ו יִרְבְּצ֣וּ יַלְדֵיהֶ֑ן וְאַרְיֵ֖ה כַּבָּקָ֥ר יֹֽאכַל־תֶּֽבֶן׃‬

And the cow and the bear will graze,

And their young will lie down together,

And the lion will eat straw like the ox.

young ← children.
Isa 11:8 ‫וְשִֽׁעֲשַׁ֥ע יוֹנֵ֖ק עַל־חֻ֣ר פָּ֑תֶן וְעַל֙ מְאוּרַ֣ת צִפְעוֹנִ֔י גָּמ֖וּל יָד֥וֹ הָדָֽה׃‬

And a baby will play at a vipers' den,

And an infant will put his hand on an adder's hole.

baby ← suckling.

infant ← weaned (one).
Isa 11:9 ‫לֹֽא־יָרֵ֥עוּ וְלֹֽא־יַשְׁחִ֖יתוּ בְּכָל־הַ֣ר קָדְשִׁ֑י כִּֽי־מָלְאָ֣ה הָאָ֗רֶץ דֵּעָה֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כַּמַּ֖יִם לַיָּ֥ם מְכַסִּֽים׃ פ‬

They will not do harm

And they will not cause damage

Anywhere in my holy mountain,

For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord,

As the waters cover the sea.

|| Isa 65:25, Hab 2:14.

anywhere in ← in all of.

my holy mountain ← the mountain of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 11:10 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא שֹׁ֣רֶשׁ יִשַׁ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר עֹמֵד֙ לְנֵ֣ס עַמִּ֔ים אֵלָ֖יו גּוֹיִ֣ם יִדְרֹ֑שׁוּ וְהָיְתָ֥ה מְנֻחָת֖וֹ כָּבֽוֹד׃ פ‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the Gentiles will seek the root of Jesse,

Which will stand as a sign to the nations.

And rest in him will be glorious.

Matt 12:21, Rom 15:12, John 7:42, Rev 5:5, Rev 22:16 (Jesse being David's father).

root of Jesse: Christ as Jesse's forbear as creator. Contrast Isa 11:1, and compare Rev 22:10 (root and offspring of David).

rest in him ← his rest.

glorious ← glory.
Isa 11:11 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יוֹסִ֨יף אֲדֹנָ֤י ׀ שֵׁנִית֙ יָד֔וֹ לִקְנ֖וֹת אֶת־שְׁאָ֣ר עַמּ֑וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשָּׁאֵר֩ מֵאַשּׁ֨וּר וּמִמִּצְרַ֜יִם וּמִפַּתְר֣וֹס וּמִכּ֗וּשׁ וּמֵעֵילָ֤ם וּמִשִּׁנְעָר֙ וּמֵ֣חֲמָ֔ת וּמֵאִיֵּ֖י הַיָּֽם׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the Lord* will extend his hand a second time

To acquire the remainder of his people, who remain,

From Assyria and from Egypt,

And from Pathros and from Ethiopia,

And from Elam and from Shinar,

And from Hamath and from the coastlands of the sea.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

a second time ← again a second time.

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 11:12 ‫וְנָשָׂ֥א נֵס֙ לַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְאָסַ֖ף נִדְחֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּנְפֻצ֤וֹת יְהוּדָה֙ יְקַבֵּ֔ץ מֵאַרְבַּ֖ע כַּנְפ֥וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

And he will raise a sign to the Gentiles,

And he will gather those driven out of Israel,

And he will collect up those of Judah who are dispersed,

From the four corners of the earth.

corners ← wings.
Isa 11:13 ‫וְסָ֙רָה֙ קִנְאַ֣ת אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְצֹרְרֵ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה יִכָּרֵ֑תוּ אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ לֹֽא־יְקַנֵּ֣א אֶת־יְהוּדָ֔ה וִֽיהוּדָ֖ה לֹֽא־יָצֹ֥ר אֶת־אֶפְרָֽיִם׃‬

And Ephraim's envy will fade away,

And the adversaries of Judah will be cut off.

Ephraim will not envy Judah,

And Judah will not be hostile to Ephraim.

fade away ← depart.
Isa 11:14 ‫וְעָפ֨וּ בְכָתֵ֤ף פְּלִשְׁתִּים֙ יָ֔מָּה יַחְדָּ֖ו יָבֹ֣זּוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי־קֶ֑דֶם אֱד֤וֹם וּמוֹאָב֙ מִשְׁל֣וֹח יָדָ֔ם וּבְנֵ֥י עַמּ֖וֹן מִשְׁמַעְתָּֽם׃‬

They will attack the Philistines on the slopes to the west;

Together they will spoil the inhabitants of the east.

Edom and Moab will be for them to lay their hands on,

And the Ammonites will be in subjection to them.

attack ← fly at.

slopes ← shoulder.

inhabitants ← sons.

them to lay their hands on ← a sending of their hands.

in subjection to them ← their obedience.
Isa 11:15 ‫וְהֶחֱרִ֣ים יְהוָ֗ה אֵ֚ת לְשׁ֣וֹן יָם־מִצְרַ֔יִם וְהֵנִ֥יף יָד֛וֹ עַל־הַנָּהָ֖ר בַּעְיָ֣ם רוּח֑וֹ וְהִכָּ֙הוּ֙ לְשִׁבְעָ֣ה נְחָלִ֔ים וְהִדְרִ֖יךְ בַּנְּעָלִֽים׃‬

And the Lord will lay the gulf of the Egyptian sea waste,

And he will lift his hand against the river with the ardour of his breath,

And he will strike it into seven streams,

And he will enable them to cross wearing shoes.

the river: [CB] → the Euphrates.

enable them to cross wearing shoes ← make tread in shoes.
Isa 11:16 ‫וְהָיְתָ֣ה מְסִלָּ֔ה לִשְׁאָ֣ר עַמּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשָּׁאֵ֖ר מֵֽאַשּׁ֑וּר כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר הָֽיְתָה֙ לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּי֥וֹם עֲלֹת֖וֹ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬

And there will be a highway for the rest of his people who remain,

To come from Assyria,

As there was for Israel

When they came up from the land of Egypt.

when ← on the day of.
Isa 12:1 ‫וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא אוֹדְךָ֣ יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י אָנַ֖פְתָּ בִּ֑י יָשֹׁ֥ב אַפְּךָ֖ וּֽתְנַחֲמֵֽנִי׃‬ And on that day you will say,

“I will praise you, O Lord.

Although you were angry with me,

Your anger has receded,

And you have comforted me.

Isa 12:2 ‫הִנֵּ֨ה אֵ֧ל יְשׁוּעָתִ֛י אֶבְטַ֖ח וְלֹ֣א אֶפְחָ֑ד כִּֽי־עָזִּ֤י וְזִמְרָת֙ יָ֣הּ יְהוָ֔ה וַֽיְהִי־לִ֖י לִֽישׁוּעָֽה׃‬

Behold, O God of my salvation,

I will trust and not be afraid,

For the Lord, the Lord

Is my strength and my song of praise,

And he has become my salvation.”

for the Lord ... is my strength (etc.): compare Ex 15:2 and Ps 118:14.

the Lord: AV differs (JEHOVAH). See Ex 6:3.
Isa 12:3 ‫וּשְׁאַבְתֶּם־מַ֖יִם בְּשָׂשׂ֑וֹן מִמַּעַיְנֵ֖י הַיְשׁוּעָֽה׃‬

And you will draw water with joy,

From the springs of this salvation.

John 7:38 (allusion).

this salvation ← the salvation.
Isa 12:4 ‫וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֞ם בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא הוֹד֤וּ לַֽיהוָה֙ קִרְא֣וּ בִשְׁמ֔וֹ הוֹדִ֥יעוּ בָֽעַמִּ֖ים עֲלִֽילֹתָ֑יו הַזְכִּ֕ירוּ כִּ֥י נִשְׂגָּ֖ב שְׁמֽוֹ׃‬ And on that day, you will say,

“Praise the Lord,

Call on his name,

Make his deeds known among the nations;

Bring to mind that his name is exalted.

Isa 12:5 ‫זַמְּר֣וּ יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י גֵא֖וּת עָשָׂ֑ה *מידעת **מוּדַ֥עַת זֹ֖את בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

Sing praises to the Lord,

For he has acted illustriously.

Let this be known over all the earth.

known: the ketiv (pual stem-formation) is a variant of the qeré (hophal stem-formation).
Isa 12:6 ‫צַהֲלִ֥י וָרֹ֖נִּי יוֹשֶׁ֣בֶת צִיּ֑וֹן כִּֽי־גָד֥וֹל בְּקִרְבֵּ֖ךְ קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ פ‬

Shout out and sing for joy,

O inhabitant of Zion,

For great among you

Is the holy one of Israel.”

shout out ← neigh. See Isa 10:30.

among ← in the midst of.
Isa 13:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א בָּבֶ֑ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָזָ֔ה יְשַׁעְיָ֖הוּ בֶּן־אָמֽוֹץ׃‬ The burden of Babylon which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw. burden: i.e. burden of prophecy, a solemn prophetic declaration.
Isa 13:2 ‫עַ֤ל הַר־נִשְׁפֶּה֙ שְֽׂאוּ־נֵ֔ס הָרִ֥ימוּ ק֖וֹל לָהֶ֑ם הָנִ֣יפוּ יָ֔ד וְיָבֹ֖אוּ פִּתְחֵ֥י נְדִיבִֽים׃‬

Set up a banner on a conspicuous mountain,

Raise a voice to them,

Lift up a hand,

So that they may come to the gates of the willing.

willing: AV differs (nobles).
Isa 13:3 ‫אֲנִ֥י צִוֵּ֖יתִי לִמְקֻדָּשָׁ֑י גַּ֣ם קָרָ֤אתִי גִבּוֹרַי֙ לְאַפִּ֔י עַלִּיזֵ֖י גַּאֲוָתִֽי׃‬

I have commanded my sanctified ones;

I have also summoned my warriors

In service of my anger,

Who exult in my exaltation.

Isa 13:4 ‫ק֥וֹל הָמ֛וֹן בֶּֽהָרִ֖ים דְּמ֣וּת עַם־רָ֑ב ק֠וֹל שְׁא֞וֹן מַמְלְכ֤וֹת גּוֹיִם֙ נֶֽאֱסָפִ֔ים יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת מְפַקֵּ֖ד צְבָ֥א מִלְחָמָֽה׃‬

The sound of a crowd in the mountains,

The image of a numerous people,

The tumultuous sound of kingdoms of Gentiles who have gathered

– The Lord of hosts is mobilizing an army for war.

for war ← of war.
Isa 13:5 ‫בָּאִ֛ים מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מֶרְחָ֖ק מִקְצֵ֣ה הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם יְהוָה֙ וּכְלֵ֣י זַעְמ֔וֹ לְחַבֵּ֖ל כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

They are coming from a distant land,

From the end of the horizon

– The Lord and instruments of his indignation –

To lay the whole land waste.

distant land ← land of distance.

horizon ← sky; heaven.

land: [CB] → Chaldea.
Isa 13:6 ‫הֵילִ֕ילוּ כִּ֥י קָר֖וֹב י֣וֹם יְהוָ֑ה כְּשֹׁ֖ד מִשַּׁדַּ֥י יָבֽוֹא׃‬

Howl, for the day of the Lord is near.

It will come as devastation from the Almighty.

Rev 1:10.
Isa 13:7 ‫עַל־כֵּ֖ן כָּל־יָדַ֣יִם תִּרְפֶּ֑ינָה וְכָל־לְבַ֥ב אֱנ֖וֹשׁ יִמָּס׃‬

For that reason, all hands will become limp,

And every human heart will melt.

Isa 13:8 ‫וְֽנִבְהָ֓לוּ ׀ צִירִ֤ים וַֽחֲבָלִים֙ יֹֽאחֵז֔וּן כַּיּוֹלֵדָ֖ה יְחִיל֑וּן אִ֤ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ יִתְמָ֔הוּ פְּנֵ֥י לְהָבִ֖ים פְּנֵיהֶֽם׃‬

And they will be terrified;

Writhings and pains will seize them;

They will writhe like a woman giving birth.

Every man will be astonished at his neighbour;

Their faces will be ablaze in appearance.

every ← each.

their faces will be ablaze in appearance ← faces of flames (will be) their faces.
Isa 13:9 ‫הִנֵּ֤ה יוֹם־יְהוָה֙ בָּ֔א אַכְזָרִ֥י וְעֶבְרָ֖ה וַחֲר֣וֹן אָ֑ף לָשׂ֤וּם הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ לְשַׁמָּ֔ה וְחַטָּאֶ֖יהָ יַשְׁמִ֥יד מִמֶּֽנָּה׃‬

Behold, the day of the Lord is coming,

Cruel in wrath and furious anger,

To make the land a desolation,

And he will obliterate its sinners from it.

Rev 1:10.

wrath and ← both wrath and.
Isa 13:10 ‫כִּֽי־כוֹכְבֵ֤י הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וּכְסִ֣ילֵיהֶ֔ם לֹ֥א יָהֵ֖לּוּ אוֹרָ֑ם חָשַׁ֤ךְ הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ בְּצֵאת֔וֹ וְיָרֵ֖חַ לֹֽא־יַגִּ֥יהַ אוֹרֽוֹ׃‬

For the stars of heaven and their constellations

Will not shine their light;

The sun will become dark as it rises,

And the moon will not beam its radiance.

Matt 24:29, Mark 13:24, Mark 13:25.

light ... radiance ← light ... light. Otiose, but it is not necessarily inelegant in Hebrew. Compare Gen 12:5.
Isa 13:11 ‫וּפָקַדְתִּ֤י עַל־תֵּבֵל֙ רָעָ֔ה וְעַל־רְשָׁעִ֖ים עֲוֺנָ֑ם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי֙ גְּא֣וֹן זֵדִ֔ים וְגַאֲוַ֥ת עָרִיצִ֖ים אַשְׁפִּֽיל׃‬

And I will inflict punishment on the world for its evil,

And on the wicked for their iniquity,

And I will put an end to the pride of the insolent,

And I will humble the haughtiness of the fierce.

Isa 13:12 ‫אוֹקִ֥יר אֱנ֖וֹשׁ מִפָּ֑ז וְאָדָ֖ם מִכֶּ֥תֶם אוֹפִֽיר׃‬

I will make a man more precious than pure gold,

And a human being more precious than fine gold from Ophir.

fine gold from ← fine gold of. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 13:13 ‫עַל־כֵּן֙ שָׁמַ֣יִם אַרְגִּ֔יז וְתִרְעַ֥שׁ הָאָ֖רֶץ מִמְּקוֹמָ֑הּ בְּעֶבְרַת֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וּבְי֖וֹם חֲר֥וֹן אַפּֽוֹ׃‬

For this reason I will shake the heavens,

And the earth will be wrenched from its place,

In the wrath of the Lord of hosts,

And on the day of his furious anger.

be wrenched: qal as passive of hiphil; compare Isa 14:8, Job 41:25 (Job 41:33AV). Or will shake.
Isa 13:14 ‫וְהָיָה֙ כִּצְבִ֣י מֻדָּ֔ח וּכְצֹ֖אן וְאֵ֣ין מְקַבֵּ֑ץ אִ֤ישׁ אֶל־עַמּוֹ֙ יִפְנ֔וּ וְאִ֥ישׁ אֶל־אַרְצ֖וֹ יָנֽוּסוּ׃‬

And it will be like a chased gazelle,

And like a sheep with no-one to gather it.

Every man will turn to his own people,

And each one will flee to his own country.

Isa 13:15 ‫כָּל־הַנִּמְצָ֖א יִדָּקֵ֑ר וְכָל־הַנִּסְפֶּ֖ה יִפּ֥וֹל בֶּחָֽרֶב׃‬

Everyone who is found

Will be thrust through,

And everyone who has withdrawn

Will fall by the sword.

Isa 13:16 ‫וְעֹלְלֵיהֶ֥ם יְרֻטְּשׁ֖וּ לְעֵֽינֵיהֶ֑ם יִשַּׁ֙סּוּ֙ בָּֽתֵּיהֶ֔ם וּנְשֵׁיהֶ֖ם *תשגלנה **תִּשָּׁכַֽבְנָה׃‬

And their children will be dashed before their eyes,

And their houses will be plundered,

And their women will be {K: raped} [Q: lain with].

The ketiv is a less polite word than the qeré.
Isa 13:17 ‫הִנְנִ֛י מֵעִ֥יר עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם אֶת־מָדָ֑י אֲשֶׁר־כֶּ֙סֶף֙ לֹ֣א יַחְשֹׁ֔בוּ וְזָהָ֖ב לֹ֥א יַחְפְּצוּ־בֽוֹ׃‬

I am about to stir Media up against them,

Medians who do not care for silver,

And who do not delight in gold.

I am about to ← behold me.

care for ← think (of).
Isa 13:18 ‫וּקְשָׁת֖וֹת נְעָרִ֣ים תְּרַטַּ֑שְׁנָה וּפְרִי־בֶ֙טֶן֙ לֹ֣א יְרַחֵ֔מוּ עַל־בָּנִ֖ים לֹֽא־תָח֥וּס עֵינָֽם׃‬

And bows will strike boys to the ground,

And they will not have mercy on the fruit of the womb

– Their eyes will not spare sons.

bows: i.e. arrows fired by bows.

eyes ← eye.
Isa 13:19 ‫וְהָיְתָ֤ה בָבֶל֙ צְבִ֣י מַמְלָכ֔וֹת תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת גְּא֣וֹן כַּשְׂדִּ֑ים כְּמַהְפֵּכַ֣ת אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־סְדֹ֖ם וְאֶת־עֲמֹרָֽה׃‬

And Babylon, the splendour of the kingdoms,

The proud grandeur of the Chaldeans,

Will be as God's overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah.

proud grandeur ← grandeur of the pride, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 13:20 ‫לֹֽא־תֵשֵׁ֣ב לָנֶ֔צַח וְלֹ֥א תִשְׁכֹּ֖ן עַד־דּ֣וֹר וָד֑וֹר וְלֹֽא־יַהֵ֥ל שָׁם֙ עֲרָבִ֔י וְרֹעִ֖ים לֹא־יַרְבִּ֥צוּ שָֽׁם׃‬

It will never be inhabited,

And it will not be dwelt in from generation to generation,

Nor will the Arabian pitch a tent there,

Nor will shepherds tend their sheep there.

|| Jer 50:39.

never ← not in perpetuity.

tend ← make lie.
Isa 13:21 ‫וְרָבְצוּ־שָׁ֣ם צִיִּ֔ים וּמָלְא֥וּ בָתֵּיהֶ֖ם אֹחִ֑ים וְשָׁ֤כְנוּ שָׁם֙ בְּנ֣וֹת יַֽעֲנָ֔ה וּשְׂעִירִ֖ים יְרַקְּדוּ־שָֽׁם׃‬

But desert creatures will rest there,

And their houses will be full of howling animals.

And ostriches will dwell there,

And demons will dance there.

Rev 18:2 (allusion).

|| Jer 50:39.
Isa 13:22 ‫וְעָנָ֤ה אִיִּים֙ בְּאַלְמנוֹתָ֔יו וְתַנִּ֖ים בְּהֵ֣יכְלֵי עֹ֑נֶג וְקָר֤וֹב לָבוֹא֙ עִתָּ֔הּ וְיָמֶ֖יהָ לֹ֥א יִמָּשֵֽׁכוּ׃‬

And jackals will howl in its desolate places,

And wild dogs in the luxurious palaces.

And its time is near to coming,

And its days will not be prolonged.

luxurious palaces ← palaces of luxury, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 14:1 ‫כִּי֩ יְרַחֵ֨ם יְהוָ֜ה אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹ֗ב וּבָחַ֥ר עוֹד֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהִנִּיחָ֖ם עַל־אַדְמָתָ֑ם וְנִלְוָ֤ה הַגֵּר֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וְנִסְפְּח֖וּ עַל־בֵּ֥ית יַעֲקֹֽב׃‬ When the Lord has mercy on Jacob, and he chooses Israel again, and he puts them in their land, the foreigner will join them, and they will be associated with the house of Jacob. when the Lord ... chooses Israel again: compare Isa 51:3 and especially Zech 1:17.
Isa 14:2 ‫וּלְקָח֣וּם עַמִּים֮ וֶהֱבִיא֣וּם אֶל־מְקוֹמָם֒ וְהִֽתְנַחֲל֣וּם בֵּֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל עַ֚ל אַדְמַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה לַעֲבָדִ֖ים וְלִשְׁפָח֑וֹת וְהָיוּ֙ שֹׁבִ֣ים לְשֹֽׁבֵיהֶ֔ם וְרָד֖וּ בְּנֹגְשֵׂיהֶֽם׃ ס‬ And various nations will take them and bring them to their place, and the house of Israel will possess them on the Lord's land, and they will be menservants and maidservants, and the house of Israel will take their captors captive, and they will subdue those who oppressed them. take them: i.e. take the house of Jacob. On the liberal use of the third person pronouns (they, them, their), see the note to Gen 41:13.

and the house of Israel will possess them: or, regrouping the words, they (the nations) will settle them (the house of Israel) – the house of Israel – (etc.).
Isa 14:3 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה בְּי֨וֹם הָנִ֤יחַ יְהוָה֙ לְךָ֔ מֵֽעָצְבְּךָ֖ וּמֵרָגְזֶ֑ךָ וּמִן־הָעֲבֹדָ֥ה הַקָּשָׁ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֻבַּד־בָּֽךְ׃‬ And it will come to pass on the day when the Lord gives you rest from your grief and from your disquiet, and from the hard labour which was imposed on you,
Isa 14:4 ‫וְנָשָׂ֜אתָ הַמָּשָׁ֥ל הַזֶּ֛ה עַל־מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶ֖ל וְאָמָ֑רְתָּ אֵ֚יךְ שָׁבַ֣ת נֹגֵ֔שׂ שָׁבְתָ֖ה מַדְהֵבָֽה׃‬ that you will quote this parable about the king of Babylon and say,

“How the oppressor has come to a stop!

How the golden city has come to a standstill!

quote ← take up.
Isa 14:5 ‫שָׁבַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה מַטֵּ֣ה רְשָׁעִ֑ים שֵׁ֖בֶט מֹשְׁלִֽים׃‬

The Lord has broken the rod of the wicked,

And the sceptre of rulers.

Isa 14:6 ‫מַכֶּ֤ה עַמִּים֙ בְּעֶבְרָ֔ה מַכַּ֖ת בִּלְתִּ֣י סָרָ֑ה רֹדֶ֤ה בָאַף֙ גּוֹיִ֔ם מֻרְדָּ֖ף בְּלִ֥י חָשָֽׂךְ׃‬

He strikes nations in wrath

With unremitting beating;

He subdues peoples in anger,

In a relentless pursuit.

Isa 14:7 ‫נָ֥חָה שָׁקְטָ֖ה כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ פָּצְח֖וּ רִנָּֽה׃‬

All the earth is at rest and is quiet;

They break out into jubilation.

Isa 14:8 ‫גַּם־בְּרוֹשִׁ֛ים שָׂמְח֥וּ לְךָ֖ אַרְזֵ֣י לְבָנ֑וֹן מֵאָ֣ז שָׁכַ֔בְתָּ לֹֽא־יַעֲלֶ֥ה הַכֹּרֵ֖ת עָלֵֽינוּ׃‬

Even the fir trees rejoice for you,

And the cedars of Lebanon,

Saying, ‘Since you have been brought down low,

The lumberjack has not come up against us.’

have been brought down low ← lie, qal as passive of hiphil. Compare Isa 13:13, Job 41:25 (Job 41:33AV).
Isa 14:9 ‫שְׁא֗וֹל מִתַּ֛חַת רָגְזָ֥ה לְךָ֖ לִקְרַ֣את בּוֹאֶ֑ךָ עוֹרֵ֨ר לְךָ֤ רְפָאִים֙ כָּל־עַתּ֣וּדֵי אָ֔רֶץ הֵקִים֙ מִכִּסְאוֹתָ֔ם כֹּ֖ל מַלְכֵ֥י גוֹיִֽם׃‬

The grave below stands in awe on account of you;

At the approach of your coming,

It arouses the Rephaim because of you

– All the he-goats of the earth.

It raises all the kings of the nations from their thrones.

Rephaim: see [CB] App. 25. AV differs (dead).

he-goats: [AnLx]= metaphorical for leaders or princes.
Isa 14:10 ‫כֻּלָּ֣ם יַֽעֲנ֔וּ וְיֹאמְר֖וּ אֵלֶ֑יךָ גַּם־אַתָּ֛ה חֻלֵּ֥יתָ כָמ֖וֹנוּ אֵלֵ֥ינוּ נִמְשָֽׁלְתָּ׃‬

They will all break silence and say to you,

‘Have you also become weak like us?

Have you come to resemble us?’

break silence ← answer, but no question asked. See Gen 18:27.
Isa 14:11 ‫הוּרַ֥ד שְׁא֛וֹל גְּאוֹנֶ֖ךָ הֶמְיַ֣ת נְבָלֶ֑יךָ תַּחְתֶּ֙יךָ֙ יֻצַּ֣ע רִמָּ֔ה וּמְכַסֶּ֖יךָ תּוֹלֵעָֽה׃‬

Your pride has been brought down to the grave

With the sound of your lutes.

Under you the worms have embedded themselves,

And maggots cover you.

worms ... maggots ← (the) worm ... (the) maggot. Compare Job 25:6.
Isa 14:12 ‫אֵ֛יךְ נָפַ֥לְתָּ מִשָּׁמַ֖יִם הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר נִגְדַּ֣עְתָּ לָאָ֔רֶץ חוֹלֵ֖שׁ עַל־גּוֹיִֽם׃‬

How you have fallen from heaven, Lucifer,

Son of the dawn!

You have been struck down to the earth,

You who overthrew nations.

heaven: or the sky.

Lucifer ← Helel, perhaps meaning morning star, a name of Satan. See [CB].
Isa 14:13 ‫וְאַתָּ֞ה אָמַ֤רְתָּ בִֽלְבָבְךָ֙ הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם אֶֽעֱלֶ֔ה מִמַּ֥עַל לְכֽוֹכְבֵי־אֵ֖ל אָרִ֣ים כִּסְאִ֑י וְאֵשֵׁ֥ב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵ֖ד בְּיַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן׃‬

And you have said in your heart,

‘I will ascend to heaven;

Above the stars of God,

I will set up my throne,

And I will sit at the mount of the assembly

In the remote parts of the north.

Isa 14:14 ‫אֶעֱלֶ֖ה עַל־בָּ֣מֳתֵי עָ֑ב אֶדַּמֶּ֖ה לְעֶלְיֽוֹן׃‬

I will ascend on the heights of a cloud;

I will be like the Most High.’

Isa 14:15 ‫אַ֧ךְ אֶל־שְׁא֛וֹל תּוּרָ֖ד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בֽוֹר׃‬

But you will be brought down to the grave,

To the remote parts of the pit.

Isa 14:16 ‫רֹאֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵלֶ֣יךָ יַשְׁגִּ֔יחוּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ יִתְבּוֹנָ֑נוּ הֲזֶ֤ה הָאִישׁ֙ מַרְגִּ֣יז הָאָ֔רֶץ מַרְעִ֖ישׁ מַמְלָכֽוֹת׃‬

Those who see you will gaze at you,

And contemplate and say,

Is this the man who held the earth in thrall

Who shook kingdoms?

Isa 14:17 ‫שָׂ֥ם תֵּבֵ֛ל כַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר וְעָרָ֣יו הָרָ֑ס אֲסִירָ֖יו לֹא־פָ֥תַח בָּֽיְתָה׃‬

Who made the world like a desert

And demolished its cities,

Who did not release his captive population,

For them to go home?’

home ← homewards.
Isa 14:18 ‫כָּל־מַלְכֵ֥י גוֹיִ֖ם כֻּלָּ֑ם שָׁכְב֥וּ בְכָב֖וֹד אִ֥ישׁ בְּבֵיתֽוֹ׃‬

All the kings of the nations

– All of them –

Lie in state,

Each one in his royal house,

Isa 14:19 ‫וְאַתָּ֞ה הָשְׁלַ֤כְתָּ מִֽקִּבְרְךָ֙ כְּנֵ֣צֶר נִתְעָ֔ב לְב֥וּשׁ הֲרֻגִ֖ים מְטֹ֣עֲנֵי חָ֑רֶב יוֹרְדֵ֥י אֶל־אַבְנֵי־ב֖וֹר כְּפֶ֥גֶר מוּבָֽס׃‬

But you have been cast down

Instead of having your tomb,

Like a repugnant branch of a tree,

Being clothed like those killed,

Like those struck through with the sword,

Who descend to the stones of the pit,

Like a carcase trodden under foot.

cast down ... instead of having your tomb: or cast out of your tomb, if ever he went in.

with the sword ← of the sword. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 14:20 ‫לֹֽא־תֵחַ֤ד אִתָּם֙ בִּקְבוּרָ֔ה כִּֽי־אַרְצְךָ֥ שִׁחַ֖תָּ עַמְּךָ֣ הָרָ֑גְתָּ לֹֽא־יִקָּרֵ֥א לְעוֹלָ֖ם זֶ֥רַע מְרֵעִֽים׃‬

You will not be united with them in burial,

Because you devastated your land,

And you killed your people.

The seed of those who do evil

Will never be spoken well of.

never ← not to the age.
Isa 14:21 ‫הָכִ֧ינוּ לְבָנָ֛יו מַטְבֵּ֖חַ בַּעֲוֺ֣ן אֲבוֹתָ֑ם בַּל־יָקֻ֙מוּ֙ וְיָ֣רְשׁוּ אָ֔רֶץ וּמָלְא֥וּ פְנֵֽי־תֵבֵ֖ל עָרִֽים׃‬

Prepare slaughter for his sons,

For the iniquity of their fathers.

They shall not rise or inherit the land,

Or fill the surface of the world with cities.”

slaughter: as [AnLx]. Or instruments of slaughter. On the word formation, see [Ges-HG] §85h(c).
Isa 14:22 ‫וְקַמְתִּ֣י עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת וְהִכְרַתִּ֨י לְבָבֶ֜ל שֵׁ֥ם וּשְׁאָ֛ר וְנִ֥ין וָנֶ֖כֶד נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

“And I will rise against them,

Says the Lord of hosts,

And I will cut off Babylon's fame

And remnant and posterity and progeny,

Says the Lord.

Isa 14:23 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֛יהָ לְמוֹרַ֥שׁ קִפֹּ֖ד וְאַגְמֵי־מָ֑יִם וְטֵֽאטֵאתִ֙יהָ֙ בְּמַטְאֲטֵ֣א הַשְׁמֵ֔ד נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ פ‬

And I will make it a habitat of the porcupine,

And pools of water,

And I will sweep it with the broom of destruction,

Says the Lord of hosts.”

habitat ← domain; possession.
Isa 14:24 ‫נִשְׁבַּ֛ע יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֵאמֹ֑ר אִם־לֹ֞א כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר דִּמִּ֙יתִי֙ כֵּ֣ן הָיָ֔תָה וְכַאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָעַ֖צְתִּי הִ֥יא תָקֽוּם׃‬

The Lord of hosts has sworn and said,

It will certainly come to pass just as I intended.

And as I have purposed it,

So it will be established,

it will certainly: asseveration using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 19:14 (2 Sam 19:13AV).

be established ← rise.
Isa 14:25 ‫לִשְׁבֹּ֤ר אַשּׁוּר֙ בְּאַרְצִ֔י וְעַל־הָרַ֖י אֲבוּסֶ֑נּוּ וְסָ֤ר מֵֽעֲלֵיהֶם֙ עֻלּ֔וֹ וְסֻ֨בֳּל֔וֹ מֵעַ֥ל שִׁכְמ֖וֹ יָסֽוּר׃‬

Namely that I will break the Assyrian in my land,

And I will trample on him on my mountains,

And his yoke will be removed from them,

And his burden will be removed from his shoulder.

my mountains: this could be re-pointed to my mountain.

be removed (2x)depart, qal for passive of hiphil.
Isa 14:26 ‫זֹ֛את הָעֵצָ֥ה הַיְּעוּצָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְזֹ֛את הַיָּ֥ד הַנְּטוּיָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם׃‬

This is the course of action decided on

In relation to the whole world,

And this is the hand which is stretched out

Over all the nations.

the course of action decided on ← the advice advised.
Isa 14:27 ‫כִּֽי־יְהוָ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת יָעָ֖ץ וּמִ֣י יָפֵ֑ר וְיָד֥וֹ הַנְּטוּיָ֖ה וּֽמִ֥י יְשִׁיבֶֽנָּה׃ פ‬

For the Lord of hosts has decided,

And who can frustrate it?

And his hand is stretched out,

And who can push it back?”

Isa 14:28 ‫בִּשְׁנַת־מ֖וֹת הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אָחָ֑ז הָיָ֖ה הַמַּשָּׂ֥א הַזֶּֽה׃‬ In the year of the death of King Ahaz, there was this burden: burden: see Isa 13:1.
Isa 14:29 ‫אַֽל־תִּשְׂמְחִ֤י פְלֶ֙שֶׁת֙ כֻּלֵּ֔ךְ כִּ֥י נִשְׁבַּ֖ר שֵׁ֣בֶט מַכֵּ֑ךְ כִּֽי־מִשֹּׁ֤רֶשׁ נָחָשׁ֙ יֵ֣צֵא צֶ֔פַע וּפִרְי֖וֹ שָׂרָ֥ף מְעוֹפֵֽף׃‬

Do not rejoice, Philistia – the whole of you –

On the basis that the rod which struck you has broken,

Because from a serpent's stock comes an adder,

And its fruit is a flying fiery serpent.

Philistia: AV= Palestina here. See Ex 15:14.

stock ← root.

fiery serpent ← saraph, the plural being seraphim, either an earthly venomous serpent, or an order of angelic beings.
Isa 14:30 ‫וְרָעוּ֙ בְּכוֹרֵ֣י דַלִּ֔ים וְאֶבְיוֹנִ֖ים לָבֶ֣טַח יִרְבָּ֑צוּ וְהֵמַתִּ֤י בָֽרָעָב֙ שָׁרְשֵׁ֔ךְ וּשְׁאֵרִיתֵ֖ךְ יַהֲרֹֽג׃‬

And the very poorest will be nourished,

And the needy will lie down in safety,

But I will bring death to your root with a famine,

And it will kill your remnant.

very poorest ← firstborn of the poor, an idiom for an extreme.

be nourished ← graze, feed.
Isa 14:31 ‫הֵילִ֤ילִֽי שַׁ֙עַר֙ זַֽעֲקִי־עִ֔יר נָמ֖וֹג פְּלֶ֣שֶׁת כֻּלֵּ֑ךְ כִּ֤י מִצָּפוֹן֙ עָשָׁ֣ן בָּ֔א וְאֵ֥ין בּוֹדֵ֖ד בְּמוֹעָדָֽיו׃‬

Howl, O gate!

Cry out, O city!

Philistia – the whole of you – has melted down,

For smoke has come from the north,

And there is not a solitary person at his festivals.

Philistia: as Isa 14:29.

AV differs in the last clause (and none shall be alone in his appointed times). [CB] also differs (there shall be no stragglers).
Isa 14:32 ‫וּמַֽה־יַּעֲנֶ֖ה מַלְאֲכֵי־ג֑וֹי כִּ֤י יְהוָה֙ יִסַּ֣ד צִיּ֔וֹן וּבָ֥הּ יֶחֱס֖וּ עֲנִיֵּ֥י עַמּֽוֹ׃ ס‬

And what will the messengers of the Gentiles report back?

That the Lord has established Zion.

And the poor of his people will put their trust in it.

what will the messengers of the Gentiles report back: as [CB], despite discordance of grammatical number. AV differs (what shall one answer the messengers of the Gentiles).

established: or founded.
Isa 15:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א מוֹאָ֑ב כִּ֠י בְּלֵ֞יל שֻׁדַּ֨ד עָ֤ר מוֹאָב֙ נִדְמָ֔ה כִּ֗י בְּלֵ֛יל שֻׁדַּ֥ד קִיר־מוֹאָ֖ב נִדְמָֽה׃‬ The burden of Moab.

For in a night

Ar-Moab will be laid waste

And reduced to silence,

For in a night

Kir-Moab will be laid waste

And reduced to silence.

burden: see Isa 13:1.

reduced to silence (2x): see Isa 6:5.
Isa 15:2 ‫עָלָ֨ה הַבַּ֧יִת וְדִיבֹ֛ן הַבָּמ֖וֹת לְבֶ֑כִי עַל־נְב֞וֹ וְעַ֤ל מֵֽידְבָא֙ מוֹאָ֣ב יְיֵלִ֔יל בְּכָל־רֹאשָׁ֣יו קָרְחָ֔ה כָּל־זָקָ֖ן גְּרוּעָֽה׃‬

The royal house and Dibon have gone up

To the idolatrous raised sites to weep.

Moab will wail over Nebo and over Medeba.

On all their heads will be baldness,

And every beard will be removed.

the royal house: AV differs (Bajith), but no such place mentioned in [LHG].

to weep ← for weeping.
Isa 15:3 ‫בְּחוּצֹתָ֖יו חָ֣גְרוּ שָׂ֑ק עַ֣ל גַּגּוֹתֶ֧יהָ וּבִרְחֹבֹתֶ֛יהָ כֻּלֹּ֥ה יְיֵלִ֖יל יֹרֵ֥ד בַּבֶּֽכִי׃‬

In its outlying areas,

They will gird themselves with sackcloth,

And on its roofs and in its streets

All will wail.

Tears will run down with weeping.

Isa 15:4 ‫וַתִּזְעַ֤ק חֶשְׁבּוֹן֙ וְאֶלְעָלֵ֔ה עַד־יַ֖הַץ נִשְׁמַ֣ע קוֹלָ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֗ן חֲלֻצֵ֤י מוֹאָב֙ יָרִ֔יעוּ נַפְשׁ֖וֹ יָ֥רְעָה לּֽוֹ׃‬

And Heshbon will cry out,

As will Elealeh.

Their voice will be heard as far as Jahaz,

Which is why the armed men of Moab will shout out.

His inner being will alarm him.

Elealeh: see Num 32:3.

inner being ← soul.
Isa 15:5 ‫לִבִּי֙ לְמוֹאָ֣ב יִזְעָ֔ק בְּרִיחֶ֕הָ עַד־צֹ֖עַר עֶגְלַ֣ת שְׁלִשִׁיָּ֑ה כִּ֣י ׀ מַעֲלֵ֣ה הַלּוּחִ֗ית בִּבְכִי֙ יַֽעֲלֶה־בּ֔וֹ כִּ֚י דֶּ֣רֶךְ חוֹרֹנַ֔יִם זַעֲקַת־שֶׁ֖בֶר יְעֹעֵֽרוּ׃‬

My heart will cry out for Moab,

Its fugitives will flee to Zoar

A heifer three years old.

For he will climb the ascent of Luhith with weeping,

For they will raise a cry of destruction

On the road to Horonaim.

its ... he ... they: feminine singular, masculine singular, plural respectively.

a heifer three years old: the expression also occurs in Jer 48:34.
Isa 15:6 ‫כִּֽי־מֵ֥י נִמְרִ֖ים מְשַׁמּ֣וֹת יִֽהְי֑וּ כִּֽי־יָבֵ֤שׁ חָצִיר֙ כָּ֣לָה דֶ֔שֶׁא יֶ֖רֶק לֹ֥א הָיָֽה׃‬

For the waters of Nimrim will become desolations,

For the pastures will dry up.

Grass will shrivel;

There will be no greenery.

shrivel ← be ended, be wasted, waste away.
Isa 15:7 ‫עַל־כֵּ֖ן יִתְרָ֣ה עָשָׂ֑ה וּפְקֻדָּתָ֔ם עַ֛ל נַ֥חַל הָעֲרָבִ֖ים יִשָּׂאֽוּם׃‬

This is why they will carry the wealth which they gained,

And their store,

To the brook of the willows.

Isa 15:8 ‫כִּֽי־הִקִּ֥יפָה הַזְּעָקָ֖ה אֶת־גְּב֣וּל מוֹאָ֑ב עַד־אֶגְלַ֙יִם֙ יִלְלָתָ֔הּ וּבְאֵ֥ר אֵילִ֖ים יִלְלָתָֽהּ׃‬

For the cry has gone around the border of Moab;

Its wailing has reached Eglaim,

And its lamentation has come to Beer-Elim.

wailing ... lamentation ← wailing ... wailing. Otiose, but see Gen 12:5.

has reached ← (is) up to.
Isa 15:9 ‫כִּ֣י מֵ֤י דִימוֹן֙ מָ֣לְאוּ דָ֔ם כִּֽי־אָשִׁ֥ית עַל־דִּימ֖וֹן נוֹסָפ֑וֹת לִפְלֵיטַ֤ת מוֹאָב֙ אַרְיֵ֔ה וְלִשְׁאֵרִ֖ית אֲדָמָֽה׃‬

For the waters of Dimon will be full of blood,

For I will appoint additional things concerning Dimon:

The lion for the escapees of Moab

And the remainder of the territory.

Isa 16:1 ‫שִׁלְחוּ־כַ֥ר מֹשֵֽׁל־אֶ֖רֶץ מִסֶּ֣לַע מִדְבָּ֑רָה אֶל־הַ֖ר בַּת־צִיּֽוֹן׃‬

Send a tribute-lamb to the ruler of the land,

From Sela to the desert,

To the mountain of the daughter of Zion.

Sela: now called Petra [CB].
Isa 16:2 ‫וְהָיָ֥ה כְעוֹף־נוֹדֵ֖ד קֵ֣ן מְשֻׁלָּ֑ח תִּֽהְיֶ֙ינָה֙ בְּנ֣וֹת מוֹאָ֔ב מַעְבָּרֹ֖ת לְאַרְנֽוֹן׃‬

And it will come to pass

That the daughters of Moab will be like a wandering bird,

From a rejected nest

At the Arnon fords.

Isa 16:3 ‫*הביאו **הָבִ֤יאִי עֵצָה֙ עֲשׂ֣וּ פְלִילָ֔ה שִׁ֧יתִי כַלַּ֛יִל צִלֵּ֖ךְ בְּת֣וֹךְ צָהֳרָ֑יִם סַתְּרִי֙ נִדָּחִ֔ים נֹדֵ֖ד אַל־תְּגַלִּֽי׃‬

Obtain advice,

Execute justice,

Cast your shadow like the night at noon,

Hide those driven out;

Do not betray the wanderer.

Obtain ← bring in. The ketiv is plural; qeré is feminine singular. The other imperatives are plural, feminine singular, feminine singular, feminine singular respectively.
Isa 16:4 ‫יָג֤וּרוּ בָךְ֙ נִדָּחַ֔י מוֹאָ֛ב הֱוִי־סֵ֥תֶר לָ֖מוֹ מִפְּנֵ֣י שׁוֹדֵ֑ד כִּֽי־אָפֵ֤ס הַמֵּץ֙ כָּ֣לָה שֹׁ֔ד תַּ֥מּוּ רֹמֵ֖ס מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

Let those of mine who have been driven out

Dwell with you.

Moab, be a shelter from the plunderer for them.

For the oppressor will come to nothing;

Plundering will come to an end,

And they who tread down

Will be obliterated from the land.

Isa 16:5 ‫וְהוּכַ֤ן בַּחֶ֙סֶד֙ כִּסֵּ֔א וְיָשַׁ֥ב עָלָ֛יו בֶּאֱמֶ֖ת בְּאֹ֣הֶל דָּוִ֑ד שֹׁפֵ֛ט וְדֹרֵ֥שׁ מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּמְהִ֥ר צֶֽדֶק׃‬

And a throne will be established in kindness,

And he will sit on it

In truth in David's tent,

Judging and seeking justice,

And being quick with righteousness.

quick with ← quick of. Wider use of the construct state, here of an adjective.
Isa 16:6 ‫שָׁמַ֥עְנוּ גְאוֹן־מוֹאָ֖ב גֵּ֣א מְאֹ֑ד גַּאֲוָת֧וֹ וּגְאוֹנ֛וֹ וְעֶבְרָת֖וֹ לֹא־כֵ֥ן בַּדָּֽיו׃ ס‬

And we have heard of the pride of Moab

He is very proud –

With his haughtiness and his pride and his presumptuousness.

His lies are groundless.

|| Jer 48:29, Jer 48:30.

presumptuousness: or wrath.

are groundless: AV differs (shall not be so).
Isa 16:7 ‫לָכֵ֗ן יְיֵלִ֥יל מוֹאָ֛ב לְמוֹאָ֖ב כֻּלֹּ֣ה יְיֵלִ֑יל לַאֲשִׁישֵׁ֧י קִיר־חֲרֶ֛שֶׂת תֶּהְגּ֖וּ אַךְ־נְכָאִֽים׃‬

This is why Moab will wail.

Each one will wail for all Moab;

You will lament the foundations of Kir-Hareseth,

Seeing how much they have been battered.

|| Jer 48:31.

this is why ... all Moab: AV differs in word association (therefore shall Moab howl for Moab, every one shall howl).
Isa 16:8 ‫כִּ֣י שַׁדְמוֹת֩ חֶשְׁבּ֨וֹן אֻמְלָ֜ל גֶּ֣פֶן שִׂבְמָ֗ה בַּעֲלֵ֤י גוֹיִם֙ הָלְמ֣וּ שְׂרוּקֶּ֔יהָ עַד־יַעְזֵ֥ר נָגָ֖עוּ תָּ֣עוּ מִדְבָּ֑ר שְׁלֻ֣חוֹתֶ֔יהָ נִטְּשׁ֖וּ עָ֥בְרוּ יָֽם׃‬

For the cornfields of Heshbon languish,

As does the vine of Sibmah.

The Gentile rulers have struck its tendrils;

They have reached Jazer;

Those struck wander in the desert.

Its shoots have been forsaken;

Those forsaken have crossed the sea.

|| Jer 48:32.

Jazer: see Num 21:32.
Isa 16:9 ‫עַל־כֵּ֡ן אֶבְכֶּ֞ה בִּבְכִ֤י יַעְזֵר֙ גֶּ֣פֶן שִׂבְמָ֔ה אֲרַיָּ֙וֶךְ֙ דִּמְעָתִ֔י חֶשְׁבּ֖וֹן וְאֶלְעָלֵ֑ה כִּ֧י עַל־קֵיצֵ֛ךְ וְעַל־קְצִירֵ֖ךְ הֵידָ֥ד נָפָֽל׃‬

That is why I will tearfully weep

For Jazer and the vine of Sibmah.

I will saturate you with my tears,

Heshbon and Elealeh,

For a war cry has fallen against your summer fruit

And against your harvest.

tearfully weep ← weep with weeping (not an infinitive absolute).

Jazer: see Num 21:32.

Elealeh: see Num 32:2.
Isa 16:10 ‫וְנֶאֱסַ֨ף שִׂמְחָ֤ה וָגִיל֙ מִן־הַכַּרְמֶ֔ל וּבַכְּרָמִ֥ים לֹֽא־יְרֻנָּ֖ן לֹ֣א יְרֹעָ֑ע יַ֗יִן בַּיְקָבִ֛ים לֹֽא־יִדְרֹ֥ךְ הַדֹּרֵ֖ךְ הֵידָ֥ד הִשְׁבַּֽתִּי׃‬

And joy and rejoicing will be taken away from the orchard,

And in the vineyards there will be neither shouting for joy nor jubilation.

The treader will not tread wine in the wine vats;

I have put a stop to shouting.

|| Jer 48:33.

taken away ← gathered in, an expression used of death, as in Gen 25:8.
Isa 16:11 ‫עַל־כֵּן֙ מֵעַ֣י לְמוֹאָ֔ב כַּכִּנּ֖וֹר יֶֽהֱמ֑וּ וְקִרְבִּ֖י לְקִ֥יר חָֽרֶשׂ׃‬

That is why my inward parts are humming for Moab,

Like a harp,

And my inside

For Kir-Hares.

|| Jer 48:36.

humming: or disquieted. The verb is used of emotion as well as physical motion and sounds.

Kir-Hares: AV= Kir-haresh, with a shin for a sin. Compare 2 Ki 3:25.
Isa 16:12 ‫וְהָיָ֧ה כִֽי־נִרְאָ֛ה כִּֽי־נִלְאָ֥ה מוֹאָ֖ב עַל־הַבָּמָ֑ה וּבָ֧א אֶל־מִקְדָּשׁ֛וֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֖ל וְלֹ֥א יוּכָֽל׃‬

And it will come to pass

That it will be seen

That Moab is weary on the idolatrous raised site,

And it will go to its sanctuary to pray,

But it will not gain strength.

gain strength ← be able / prevail.
Isa 16:13 ‫זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־מוֹאָ֖ב מֵאָֽז׃‬ This is the word which the Lord spoke to Moab at that time. at that time ← from that time.
Isa 16:14 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהוָה֮ לֵאמֹר֒ בְּשָׁלֹ֤שׁ שָׁנִים֙ כִּשְׁנֵ֣י שָׂכִ֔יר וְנִקְלָה֙ כְּב֣וֹד מוֹאָ֔ב בְּכֹ֖ל הֶהָמ֣וֹן הָרָ֑ב וּשְׁאָ֥ר מְעַ֛ט מִזְעָ֖ר ל֥וֹא כַבִּֽיר׃ ס‬ But the Lord has spoken now and said, “In three years according to the contractual years of a hired worker, the glory of Moab will be made light of, despite all its vast multitude. And the remnant will be few – minute – and by no means great.” despite ← in.
Isa 17:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א דַּמָּ֑שֶׂק הִנֵּ֤ה דַמֶּ֙שֶׂק֙ מוּסָ֣ר מֵעִ֔יר וְהָיְתָ֖ה מְעִ֥י מַפָּלָֽה׃‬ The burden of Damascus.

“Behold, Damascus will be deprived of its existence as a city,

And it will become a heap of ruins.

deprived of ← removed from.
Isa 17:2 ‫עֲזֻב֖וֹת עָרֵ֣י עֲרֹעֵ֑ר לַעֲדָרִ֣ים תִּֽהְיֶ֔ינָה וְרָבְצ֖וּ וְאֵ֥ין מַחֲרִֽיד׃‬

The cities of Aroer will be abandoned;

They will be for flocks,

Which will lie down,

And there will be no-one to cause fear.

Compare this verse with Lev 26:6, Job 11:19, Mic 4:4, Zeph 3:13, Ezek 34:28.
Isa 17:3 ‫וְנִשְׁבַּ֤ת מִבְצָר֙ מֵֽאֶפְרַ֔יִם וּמַמְלָכָ֥ה מִדַּמֶּ֖שֶׂק וּשְׁאָ֣ר אֲרָ֑ם כִּכְב֤וֹד בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יִֽהְי֔וּ נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ ס‬

Fortifications will cease to exist in Ephraim,

As will the kingdom in Damascus and the rest of Aramaea.

They will be like the glory of the sons of Israel,

Says the Lord of hosts.

fortifications ← a fortification.

in (2x)from.
Isa 17:4 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יִדַּ֖ל כְּב֣וֹד יַעֲקֹ֑ב וּמִשְׁמַ֥ן בְּשָׂר֖וֹ יֵרָזֶֽה׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the glory of Jacob will be brought low,

And his complexion will become leaner,

his complexion will become leaner ← the fatness of his flesh will be thinned.
Isa 17:5 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כֶּֽאֱסֹף֙ קָצִ֣יר קָמָ֔ה וּזְרֹע֖וֹ שִׁבֳּלִ֣ים יִקְצ֑וֹר וְהָיָ֛ה כִּמְלַקֵּ֥ט שִׁבֳּלִ֖ים בְּעֵ֥מֶק רְפָאִֽים׃‬

And it will come to pass,

When the reaper gathers the corn,

And his arm reaps the ears of corn,

That he will be like a gleaner of ears of corn

In the Valley of the Rephaim.

when the reaper gathers the corn ← at the gathering the harvest, the corn.

Rephaim: see [CB] App. 25.
Isa 17:6 ‫וְנִשְׁאַר־בּ֤וֹ עֽוֹלֵלֹת֙ כְּנֹ֣קֶף זַ֔יִת שְׁנַ֧יִם שְׁלֹשָׁ֛ה גַּרְגְּרִ֖ים בְּרֹ֣אשׁ אָמִ֑יר אַרְבָּעָ֣ה חֲמִשָּׁ֗ה בִּסְעִפֶ֙יהָ֙ פֹּֽרִיָּ֔ה נְאֻם־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬

But there will remain gleanings in it,

And at the beating of the olive tree

There will fall two or three fruits on the topmost bough,

And four or five on its fruit-bearing branches,

Says the Lord God of Israel.

at the beating ← as the beating.
Isa 17:7 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יִשְׁעֶ֥ה הָאָדָ֖ם עַל־עֹשֵׂ֑הוּ וְעֵינָ֕יו אֶל־קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תִּרְאֶֽינָה׃‬

On that day a man will behold his maker,

And his eyes will see the holy one of Israel.

Isa 17:8 ‫וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁעֶ֔ה אֶל־הַֽמִּזְבְּח֖וֹת מַעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדָ֑יו וַאֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשׂ֤וּ אֶצְבְּעֹתָיו֙ לֹ֣א יִרְאֶ֔ה וְהָאֲשֵׁרִ֖ים וְהָחַמָּנִֽים׃‬

And he will not behold the altars which are the work of his hands,

And he will not look at what his fingers have made –

Neither the phallic parks

Nor the sun-images.

Isa 17:9 ‫בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא יִהְי֣וּ ׀ עָרֵ֣י מָעֻזּ֗וֹ כַּעֲזוּבַ֤ת הַחֹ֙רֶשׁ֙ וְהָ֣אָמִ֔יר אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָזְב֔וּ מִפְּנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהָיְתָ֖ה שְׁמָמָֽה׃‬

On that day his fortified cities

Will be like the wilderness of a copse or a thicket,

Which they have abandoned because of the sons of Israel,

And they will become a desolation.

his fortified cities ← the cities of his stronghold, a Hebraic genitive.

wilderness ← abandonment.

thicket ← ramification.

they ← it, ref. what is abandoned.
Isa 17:10 ‫כִּ֤י שָׁכַ֙חַתְּ֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׁעֵ֔ךְ וְצ֥וּר מָעֻזֵּ֖ךְ לֹ֣א זָכָ֑רְתְּ עַל־כֵּ֗ן תִּטְּעִי֙ נִטְעֵ֣י נַעֲמָנִ֔ים וּזְמֹ֥רַת זָ֖ר תִּזְרָעֶֽנּוּ׃‬

For you have forgotten the God of your salvation,

And you have not remembered the rock of your stronghold,

Which is why you will plant pleasant plants,

But you will graft foreign branches on it.

graft ← sow, plant.

foreign branches ← a branch of the foreigner. A metaphor for idolatry.
Isa 17:11 ‫בְּי֤וֹם נִטְעֵךְ֙ תְּשַׂגְשֵׂ֔גִי וּבַבֹּ֖קֶר זַרְעֵ֣ךְ תַּפְרִ֑יחִי נֵ֥ד קָצִ֛יר בְּי֥וֹם נַחֲלָ֖ה וּכְאֵ֥ב אָנֽוּשׁ׃ ס‬

On the day you plant it,

You cause it to grow,

And on the morning you sow it,

You make it thrive,

But the harvest will be a worthless heap

On a day of sickness and grievous pain.

sow: perhaps graft, as in Isa 17:10.
Isa 17:12 ‫ה֗וֹי הֲמוֹן֙ עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים כַּהֲמ֥וֹת יַמִּ֖ים יֶהֱמָי֑וּן וּשְׁא֣וֹן לְאֻמִּ֔ים כִּשְׁא֛וֹן מַ֥יִם כַּבִּירִ֖ים יִשָּׁאֽוּן׃‬

Woe to the multitude of many nations,

Who are in a tumult like the turbulence of the seas,

And the uproar of peoples

– Like the roaring sound

When mighty waters roar.

Isa 17:13 ‫לְאֻמִּ֗ים כִּשְׁא֞וֹן מַ֤יִם רַבִּים֙ יִשָּׁא֔וּן וְגָ֥עַר בּ֖וֹ וְנָ֣ס מִמֶּרְחָ֑ק וְרֻדַּ֗ף כְּמֹ֤ץ הָרִים֙ לִפְנֵי־ר֔וּחַ וּכְגַלְגַּ֖ל לִפְנֵ֥י סוּפָֽה׃‬

The peoples roar

Like the roaring sound when mighty waters roar.

But he will rebuke them and they will flee far away,

And they will be chased like chaff of the mountains before the wind,

And like swirling debris in a whirlwind.

them ... they ... they ← him ... he ... he.

in a whirlwind ← before a whirlwind.
Isa 17:14 ‫לְעֵ֥ת עֶ֙רֶב֙ וְהִנֵּ֣ה בַלָּהָ֔ה בְּטֶ֥רֶם בֹּ֖קֶר אֵינֶ֑נּוּ זֶ֚ה חֵ֣לֶק שׁוֹסֵ֔ינוּ וְגוֹרָ֖ל לְבֹזְזֵֽינוּ׃ ס‬

At evening time there will be terror,

And before the morning they will not be there.

This is the part of those who spoil us,

And the fate of those who plunder us.

there will bebehold.

they ← he. The collective peoples of the previous verse.
Isa 18:1 ‫ה֥וֹי אֶ֖רֶץ צִלְצַ֣ל כְּנָפָ֑יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר מֵעֵ֖בֶר לְנַֽהֲרֵי־כֽוּשׁ׃‬

Woe to the land of rustling wings,

Which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia,

rustling: AV differs (shadowing with).
Isa 18:2 ‫הַשֹּׁלֵ֨חַ בַּיָּ֜ם צִירִ֗ים וּבִכְלֵי־גֹמֶא֮ עַל־פְּנֵי־מַיִם֒ לְכ֣וּ ׀ מַלְאָכִ֣ים קַלִּ֗ים אֶל־גּוֹי֙ מְמֻשָּׁ֣ךְ וּמוֹרָ֔ט אֶל־עַ֥ם נוֹרָ֖א מִן־ה֣וּא וָהָ֑לְאָה גּ֚וֹי קַו־קָ֣ו וּמְבוּסָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־בָּזְא֥וּ נְהָרִ֖ים אַרְצֽוֹ׃‬

Which sends ambassadors by sea

In papyrus vessels over the water,

To say, ‘Go, you swift messengers,

To a people under strain

And plucked bald,

To a people fearsome ever since when they first existed

– A nation of strong rule but trodden down,

Whose land the rivers have devastated.’

sea: also for inland water.

under strain ← stretched. AV differs (scattered).

ever since when they first existedfrom it and onwards.

strong rule ← a line, a line, or a rule, a rule.
Isa 18:3 ‫כָּל־יֹשְׁבֵ֥י תֵבֵ֖ל וְשֹׁ֣כְנֵי אָ֑רֶץ כִּנְשֹׂא־נֵ֤ס הָרִים֙ תִּרְא֔וּ וְכִתְקֹ֥עַ שׁוֹפָ֖ר תִּשְׁמָֽעוּ׃ ס‬

All you inhabitants of the world

And dwellers of the earth:

At the raising of an ensign on the mountains,

Observe it,

And at the sounding of the ramshorn,


Isa 18:4 ‫כִּי֩ כֹ֨ה אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י *אשקוטה **אֶשְׁקֳטָ֖ה וְאַבִּ֣יטָה בִמְכוֹנִ֑י כְּחֹ֥ם צַח֙ עֲלֵי־א֔וֹר כְּעָ֥ב טַ֖ל בְּחֹ֥ם קָצִֽיר׃‬

For this is what the Lord has said to me:

I will be quiet,

And I will look at my abode,

Like a serene heat in daylight,

And like a cloud of dew

In the heat of the harvest.’

I will be quiet: the ketiv can be regarded as the scriptio plena spelling of the qeré.

this is whatthus.

in daylight: AV differs (upon herbs).
Isa 18:5 ‫כִּֽי־לִפְנֵ֤י קָצִיר֙ כְּתָם־פֶּ֔רַח וּבֹ֥סֶר גֹּמֵ֖ל יִֽהְיֶ֣ה נִצָּ֑ה וְכָרַ֤ת הַזַּלְזַלִּים֙ בַּמַּזְמֵר֔וֹת וְאֶת־הַנְּטִישׁ֖וֹת הֵסִ֥יר הֵתַֽז׃‬

For before the harvest when the blossom has come to an end,

And unripe grapes become mature from the flower,

He will cut the branches with pruning shears

And cut and remove the shoots.

cut and remove ← remove, cut.
Isa 18:6 ‫יֵעָזְב֤וּ יַחְדָּו֙ לְעֵ֣יט הָרִ֔ים וּֽלְבֶהֱמַ֖ת הָאָ֑רֶץ וְקָ֤ץ עָלָיו֙ הָעַ֔יִט וְכָל־בֶּהֱמַ֥ת הָאָ֖רֶץ עָלָ֥יו תֶּחֱרָֽף׃‬

They will be left together

To the birds of prey of the mountains

And the wild animals.

And the birds of prey will prey on them in the summer,

While all the wild animals will be the predators in the winter.

wild animals (2x)animals of the land.

will prey on them in the summer ← will pass the summer on him.

will be the predators in the winter ← will pass the winter on him.
Isa 18:7 ‫בָּעֵת֩ הַהִ֨יא יֽוּבַל־שַׁ֜י לַיהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת עַ֚ם מְמֻשָּׁ֣ךְ וּמוֹרָ֔ט וּמֵעַ֥ם נוֹרָ֖א מִן־ה֣וּא וָהָ֑לְאָה גּ֣וֹי ׀ קַו־קָ֣ו וּמְבוּסָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּזְא֤וּ נְהָרִים֙ אַרְצ֔וֹ אֶל־מְק֛וֹם שֵׁם־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת הַר־צִיּֽוֹן׃ ס‬

At that time a gift will be brought to the Lord of hosts

By a people under strain

And plucked bald,

And from a people fearsome ever since when they first existed,

A nation of strong rule but trodden down,

Whose land the rivers have devastated –

Brought to the place of the name of the Lord of hosts:

Mount Zion.”

Compare Isa 18:2.
Isa 19:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א מִצְרָ֑יִם הִנֵּ֨ה יְהוָ֜ה רֹכֵ֨ב עַל־עָ֥ב קַל֙ וּבָ֣א מִצְרַ֔יִם וְנָע֞וּ אֱלִילֵ֤י מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ מִפָּנָ֔יו וּלְבַ֥ב מִצְרַ֖יִם יִמַּ֥ס בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ׃‬ The burden of Egypt.

“Behold, the Lord is riding on a swift cloud,

And is coming to Egypt.

Then the idols of Egypt will reel at his presence,

And Egypt's heart will melt inside it.

burden: see Isa 13:1.
Isa 19:2 ‫וְסִכְסַכְתִּ֤י מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וְנִלְחֲמ֥וּ אִישׁ־בְּאָחִ֖יו וְאִ֣ישׁ בְּרֵעֵ֑הוּ עִ֣יר בְּעִ֔יר מַמְלָכָ֖ה בְּמַמְלָכָֽה׃‬

And I will incite Egypt against Egypt,

And a man will fight his brother,

And a man his neighbour,

And a city a city,

And a kingdom a kingdom.

Matt 24:7, Mark 13:8, Luke 21:10, loosely.
Isa 19:3 ‫וְנָבְקָ֤ה רֽוּחַ־מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ בְּקִרְבּ֔וֹ וַעֲצָת֖וֹ אֲבַלֵּ֑עַ וְדָרְשׁ֤וּ אֶל־הָֽאֱלִילִים֙ וְאֶל־הָ֣אִטִּ֔ים וְאֶל־הָאֹב֖וֹת וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִֽים׃‬

And the spirit of Egypt will drain away inside them,

And I will overthrow their counsel,

And they will seek the idols and the necromancers,

And the soothsayers and the wizards.

drain away ← be emptied.

overthrow ← swallow.
Isa 19:4 ‫וְסִכַּרְתִּי֙ אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּיַ֖ד אֲדֹנִ֣ים קָשֶׁ֑ה וּמֶ֤לֶךְ עַז֙ יִמְשָׁל־בָּ֔ם נְאֻ֥ם הָאָד֖וֹן יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬

And I will deliver Egypt up into the hand of a harsh master,

And a fierce king will rule over them,

Says the Lord,

The Lord of hosts.

Isa 19:5 ‫וְנִשְּׁתוּ־מַ֖יִם מֵֽהַיָּ֑ם וְנָהָ֖ר יֶחֱרַ֥ב וְיָבֵֽשׁ׃‬

And the waters of the sea will dry up,

And the river will become parched and arid.

Isa 19:6 ‫וְהֶאֶזְנִ֣יחוּ נְהָר֔וֹת דָּלֲל֥וּ וְחָרְב֖וּ יְאֹרֵ֣י מָצ֑וֹר קָנֶ֥ה וָס֖וּף קָמֵֽלוּ׃‬

And the rivers will stink,

And the canals for fortifications will run low and will dry up;

The reed and the sedge will wither.

the rivers will stink: AV differs (they shall turn the rivers far away).
Isa 19:7 ‫עָר֥וֹת עַל־יְא֖וֹר עַל־פִּ֣י יְא֑וֹר וְכֹל֙ מִזְרַ֣ע יְא֔וֹר יִיבַ֥שׁ נִדַּ֖ף וְאֵינֶֽנּוּ׃‬

The pastures by the river

And in the river estuary,

And every crop dependent on the river

Will dry up and be driven about,

And it will be gone.

estuary ← mouth.

crop ← sowing.

dependent on ← of. Wider use of the construct state.

will be gone ← (will be) not.
Isa 19:8 ‫וְאָנוּ֙ הַדַּיָּגִ֔ים וְאָ֣בְל֔וּ כָּל־מַשְׁלִיכֵ֥י בַיְא֖וֹר חַכָּ֑ה וּפֹרְשֵׂ֥י מִכְמֹ֛רֶת עַל־פְּנֵי־מַ֖יִם אֻמְלָֽלוּ׃‬

And the fishermen will sigh and mourn;

All who cast a hook into the river,

And those who stretch a net over the water

Will languish.

Isa 19:9 ‫וּבֹ֛שׁוּ עֹבְדֵ֥י פִשְׁתִּ֖ים שְׂרִיק֑וֹת וְאֹרְגִ֖ים חוֹרָֽי׃‬

And the workers in combed flax will be at a loss,

As will the weavers of white linen.

be at a loss ← be ashamed.
Isa 19:10 ‫וְהָי֥וּ שָׁתֹתֶ֖יהָ מְדֻכָּאִ֑ים כָּל־עֹ֥שֵׂי שֶׂ֖כֶר אַגְמֵי־נָֽפֶשׁ׃‬

And its foundations will be broken in pieces

– All who earn wages from lakes

Harbouring aquatic life.

foundations: the river provides the foundation of the economy.

earn wages ← make wages. AV differs (make sluices).

life ← soul.
Isa 19:11 ‫אַךְ־אֱוִלִים֙ שָׂ֣רֵי צֹ֔עַן חַכְמֵי֙ יֹעֲצֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה עֵצָ֖ה נִבְעָרָ֑ה אֵ֚יךְ תֹּאמְר֣וּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה בֶּן־חֲכָמִ֥ים אֲנִ֖י בֶּן־מַלְכֵי־קֶֽדֶם׃‬

What fools the officials of Zoan are

– The wise men who give Pharaoh dim-witted advice!

How can you say to Pharaoh,

‘I am a son of the wise;

I am a son of the eastern kings’?

give ... advice ← advise ... advice.

dim-witted ← brutish.

eastern: or ancient, as AV. So AV differs.
Isa 19:12 ‫אַיָּם֙ אֵפ֣וֹא חֲכָמֶ֔יךָ וְיַגִּ֥ידוּ נָ֖א לָ֑ךְ וְיֵ֣דְע֔וּ מַה־יָּעַ֛ץ יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת עַל־מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬

Where are they?

Where are your wise men?

And may they tell you, and may they discern

What the Lord of hosts has decreed

Concerning Egypt.

Isa 19:13 ‫נֽוֹאֲלוּ֙ שָׂ֣רֵי צֹ֔עַן נִשְּׁא֖וּ שָׂ֣רֵי נֹ֑ף הִתְע֥וּ אֶת־מִצְרַ֖יִם פִּנַּ֥ת שְׁבָטֶֽיהָ׃‬

The officials of Zoan have become foolish;

The officials of Noph have been deceived.

They – the elite of its tribes –

Have led Egypt astray.

Noph: i.e. Memphis.
Isa 19:14 ‫יְהוָ֛ה מָסַ֥ךְ בְּקִרְבָּ֖הּ ר֣וּחַ עִוְעִ֑ים וְהִתְע֤וּ אֶת־מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ בְּכָֽל־מַעֲשֵׂ֔הוּ כְּהִתָּע֥וֹת שִׁכּ֖וֹר בְּקִיאֽוֹ׃‬

The Lord has infused a spirit of misdirection in its precincts,

And they have led Egypt astray in all its dealings,

As a drunk strays off in his vomit.

precincts ← midst.

Compare the verse to Job 12:25.
Isa 19:15 ‫וְלֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה לְמִצְרַ֖יִם מַֽעֲשֶׂ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר יַעֲשֶׂ֛ה רֹ֥אשׁ וְזָנָ֖ב כִּפָּ֥ה וְאַגְמֽוֹן׃ ס‬

And Egypt will not have any work,

Which the head or tail,

Palm-branch or bulrush

Might do.

palm-branch or bulrush: compare Isa 9:13 (Isa 9:14AV).
Isa 19:16 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יִֽהְיֶ֥ה מִצְרַ֖יִם כַּנָּשִׁ֑ים וְחָרַ֣ד ׀ וּפָחַ֗ד מִפְּנֵי֙ תְּנוּפַת֙ יַד־יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֲשֶׁר־ה֖וּא מֵנִ֥יף עָלָֽיו׃‬ On that day, Egypt will be like women, and it will tremble and be fearful of the Lord of hosts raising his hand which he raises over them. raises ← waves, but also raises.
Isa 19:17 ‫וְ֠הָיְתָה אַדְמַ֨ת יְהוּדָ֤ה לְמִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לְחָגָּ֔א כֹּל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַזְכִּ֥יר אֹתָ֛הּ אֵלָ֖יו יִפְחָ֑ד מִפְּנֵ֗י עֲצַת֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֲשֶׁר־ה֖וּא יוֹעֵ֥ץ עָלָֽיו׃ ס‬ And the land of Judah will be an object of dread to Egypt. Everyone who mentions it will fear for himself, because of the decision of the Lord of hosts which he has taken concerning it. decision ← counsel.

has taken ← counsels.
Isa 19:18 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֡וּא יִהְיוּ֩ חָמֵ֨שׁ עָרִ֜ים בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם מְדַבְּרוֹת֙ שְׂפַ֣ת כְּנַ֔עַן וְנִשְׁבָּע֖וֹת לַיהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת עִ֣יר הַהֶ֔רֶס יֵאָמֵ֖ר לְאֶחָֽת׃ ס‬ On that day there will be five cities in the land of Egypt speaking the language of Canaan, and who swear to the Lord of hosts. One will be called the City of Destruction. City of Destruction: [CB] argues that the original was, as in LXX, City of Righteousness, later changed to City of the Sun, Heliopolis, and finally to City of Destruction. See [CB] and [BHS-CA].
Isa 19:19 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶ֤ה מִזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה בְּת֖וֹךְ אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וּמַצֵּבָ֥ה אֵֽצֶל־גְּבוּלָ֖הּ לַֽיהוָֽה׃‬ On that day there will be an altar to the Lord in the middle of the land of Egypt, and a monument to the Lord at its border.
Isa 19:20 ‫וְהָיָ֨ה לְא֥וֹת וּלְעֵ֛ד לַֽיהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם כִּֽי־יִצְעֲק֤וּ אֶל־יְהוָה֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י לֹֽחֲצִ֔ים וְיִשְׁלַ֥ח לָהֶ֛ם מוֹשִׁ֥יעַ וָרָ֖ב וְהִצִּילָֽם׃‬ And it will be as a sign and a testimony to the Lord of hosts in the land of Egypt, for they will cry out to the Lord because of oppressors, and he will send them a saviour who will be great and who will save them. great: from רָבַב or, from רִיב, a defender [AnLx]. [BDB] admits great, but not [AnLx].
Isa 19:21 ‫וְנוֹדַ֤ע יְהוָה֙ לְמִצְרַ֔יִם וְיָדְע֥וּ מִצְרַ֛יִם אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וְעָֽבְדוּ֙ זֶ֣בַח וּמִנְחָ֔ה וְנָדְרוּ־נֵ֥דֶר לַֽיהוָ֖ה וְשִׁלֵּֽמוּ׃‬ And the Lord will be known to Egypt, and Egypt will know the Lord on that day, and they will make sacrifices and meal-offerings, and they will make vows to the Lord and fulfil them. sacrifices and meal-offerings ← sacrifice and meal-offering.

make vows ← vow a vow.
Isa 19:22 ‫וְנָגַ֧ף יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־מִצְרַ֖יִם נָגֹ֣ף וְרָפ֑וֹא וְשָׁ֙בוּ֙ עַד־יְהוָ֔ה וְנֶעְתַּ֥ר לָהֶ֖ם וּרְפָאָֽם׃‬ And the Lord will strike Egypt – strike and heal – and they will return to the Lord, and he will accede to their entreaty and heal them. strike and heal: both infinitive absolute.
Isa 19:23 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא תִּהְיֶ֨ה מְסִלָּ֤ה מִמִּצְרַ֙יִם֙ אַשּׁ֔וּרָה וּבָֽא־אַשּׁ֥וּר בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם וּמִצְרַ֣יִם בְּאַשּׁ֑וּר וְעָבְד֥וּ מִצְרַ֖יִם אֶת־אַשּֽׁוּר׃ ס‬ On that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and Assyria will come to Egypt, and Egypt to Assyria, and Egypt will serve with Assyria. serve with Assyria: or, theoretically, serve Assyria.
Isa 19:24 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִהְיֶ֤ה יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ שְׁלִ֣ישִׁיָּ֔ה לְמִצְרַ֖יִם וּלְאַשּׁ֑וּר בְּרָכָ֖ה בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ On that day, Israel will be a joint third with Egypt and Assyria, as a blessing in the middle of the land,
Isa 19:25 ‫אֲשֶׁ֧ר בֵּרֲכ֛וֹ יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֵאמֹ֑ר בָּר֨וּךְ עַמִּ֜י מִצְרַ֗יִם וּמַעֲשֵׂ֤ה יָדַי֙ אַשּׁ֔וּר וְנַחֲלָתִ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬ because the Lord of hosts will bless it and say, ‘Blessed is my people Egypt, and the work of my hands Assyria, and my inheritance Israel.’ ”
Isa 20:1 ‫בִּשְׁנַ֨ת בֹּ֤א תַרְתָּן֙ אַשְׁדּ֔וֹדָה בִּשְׁלֹ֣ח אֹת֔וֹ סַֽרְג֖וֹן מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֑וּר וַיִּלָּ֥חֶם בְּאַשְׁדּ֖וֹד וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ׃‬ In the year when Tartan came to Ashdod, when Sargon king of Assyria sent him, he fought against Ashdod and captured it.
Isa 20:2 ‫בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֗יא דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהוָה֮ בְּיַ֣ד יְשַׁעְיָ֣הוּ בֶן־אָמוֹץ֮ לֵאמֹר֒ לֵ֗ךְ וּפִתַּחְתָּ֤ הַשַּׂק֙ מֵעַ֣ל מָתְנֶ֔יךָ וְנַעַלְךָ֥ תַחֲלֹ֖ץ מֵעַ֣ל רַגְלֶ֑יךָ וַיַּ֣עַשׂ כֵּ֔ן הָלֹ֖ךְ עָר֥וֹם וְיָחֵֽף׃ ס‬ At that time the Lord spoke through Isaiah the son of Amoz and said, “Go and unbind the sackcloth around your waist, and remove your shoes from your feet.” And he did so and went around naked and barefoot. through ← by the hand of.

around ← from on.

went around: infinitive absolute.
Isa 20:3 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָלַ֛ךְ עַבְדִּ֥י יְשַׁעְיָ֖הוּ עָר֣וֹם וְיָחֵ֑ף שָׁלֹ֤שׁ שָׁנִים֙ א֣וֹת וּמוֹפֵ֔ת עַל־מִצְרַ֖יִם וְעַל־כּֽוּשׁ׃‬ And the Lord said, “Just as my servant Isaiah is walking around naked and barefoot for three years as a sign and a portent concerning Egypt and Ethiopia,
Isa 20:4 ‫כֵּ֣ן יִנְהַ֣ג מֶֽלֶךְ־אַ֠שּׁוּר אֶת־שְׁבִ֨י מִצְרַ֜יִם וְאֶת־גָּל֥וּת כּ֛וּשׁ נְעָרִ֥ים וּזְקֵנִ֖ים עָר֣וֹם וְיָחֵ֑ף וַחֲשׂוּפַ֥י שֵׁ֖ת עֶרְוַ֥ת מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬ so the king of Assyria will lead the captives of Egypt and the deportees of Ethiopia – children and the elderly – naked and barefoot and with exposed buttocks, to Egypt's shame.
Isa 20:5 ‫וְחַתּ֖וּ וָבֹ֑שׁוּ מִכּוּשׁ֙ מַבָּטָ֔ם וּמִן־מִצְרַ֖יִם תִּפְאַרְתָּֽם׃‬ And they will fear and be ashamed of Ethiopia, the object of their expectation, and of Egypt the object of their glorying.
Isa 20:6 ‫וְ֠אָמַר יֹשֵׁ֨ב הָאִ֣י הַזֶּה֮ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַהוּא֒ הִנֵּה־כֹ֣ה מַבָּטֵ֗נוּ אֲשֶׁר־נַ֤סְנוּ שָׁם֙ לְעֶזְרָ֔ה לְהִ֨נָּצֵ֔ל מִפְּנֵ֖י מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֑וּר וְאֵ֖יךְ נִמָּלֵ֥ט אֲנָֽחְנוּ׃ ס‬ And the inhabitant of this coastland will say on that day, ‘Just look at the object of our expectation to whom we fled for help, to be delivered from the king of Assyria! And how will we escape?’ ” coastland: or island.

just look ← behold thus.

to whom ← where.
Isa 21:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א מִדְבַּר־יָ֑ם כְּסוּפ֤וֹת בַּנֶּ֙גֶב֙ לַֽחֲלֹ֔ף מִמִּדְבָּ֣ר בָּ֔א מֵאֶ֖רֶץ נוֹרָאָֽה׃‬ The burden of the Desert of the Sea.

Like the passing of whirlwinds in the south,

It is coming from the desert

– From a fearsome country.

the Desert of the Sea: [CB] refers this to Babylon; compare Isa 21:9.
Isa 21:2 ‫חָז֥וּת קָשָׁ֖ה הֻגַּד־לִ֑י הַבּוֹגֵ֤ד ׀ בּוֹגֵד֙ וְהַשּׁוֹדֵ֣ד ׀ שׁוֹדֵ֔ד עֲלִ֤י עֵילָם֙ צוּרִ֣י מָדַ֔י כָּל־אַנְחָתָ֖ה הִשְׁבַּֽתִּי׃‬

A harsh vision has been shown to me:

The traitor betraying, and the plunderer plundering.

Go up, Elam! Besiege, Media!

I have put a stop to all sighing.

shown ← told, declared.

go up: i.e. go to war. Compare Ex 1:10, Judg 20:18, 2 Sam 23:9.
Isa 21:3 ‫עַל־כֵּ֗ן מָלְא֤וּ מָתְנַי֙ חַלְחָלָ֔ה צִירִ֣ים אֲחָז֔וּנִי כְּצִירֵ֖י יֽוֹלֵדָ֑ה נַעֲוֵ֣יתִי מִשְּׁמֹ֔עַ נִבְהַ֖לְתִּי מֵרְאֽוֹת׃‬

This is why my waist is in pain:

Writhings have seized me,

Like the writhings of a woman giving birth.

I am bent with pain at hearing it;

I am terrified at seeing it.

at hearing ... at seeing: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 21:4 ‫תָּעָ֣ה לְבָבִ֔י פַּלָּצ֖וּת בִּֽעֲתָ֑תְנִי אֵ֚ת נֶ֣שֶׁף חִשְׁקִ֔י שָׂ֥ם לִ֖י לַחֲרָדָֽה׃‬

My heart is distraught.

Something horrible has terrified me;

It has made my pleasant night

My time of trepidation.

is distraught ← has gone astray. AV differs somewhat (panted).
Isa 21:5 ‫עָרֹ֧ךְ הַשֻּׁלְחָ֛ן צָפֹ֥ה הַצָּפִ֖ית אָכ֣וֹל שָׁתֹ֑ה ק֥וּמוּ הַשָּׂרִ֖ים מִשְׁח֥וּ מָגֵֽן׃ פ‬

Prepare the table,

Let the watch keep watch,

Eat and drink,

Arise, you commanders;

Anoint the shield.

keep watch ... eat ... drink: all infinitive absolute.

anoint ← consecrate.
Isa 21:6 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֥ה אָמַ֛ר אֵלַ֖י אֲדֹנָ֑י לֵ֚ךְ הַעֲמֵ֣ד הַֽמְצַפֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִרְאֶ֖ה יַגִּֽיד׃‬ For this is what the Lord* says to me:

“Go and appoint a watchman

Who will report what he sees.”

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

this is whatthus.

a watchman ← the watchman. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
Isa 21:7 ‫וְרָ֣אָה רֶ֗כֶב צֶ֚מֶד פָּֽרָשִׁ֔ים רֶ֥כֶב חֲמ֖וֹר רֶ֣כֶב גָּמָ֑ל וְהִקְשִׁ֥יב קֶ֖שֶׁב רַב־קָֽשֶׁב׃‬

And he saw a chariot fleet

– Horsemen in pairs,

A chariot fleet with donkeys,

A chariot fleet with camels –

And he listened attentively,

Very attentively.

Isa 21:8 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֖א אַרְיֵ֑ה עַל־מִצְפֶּ֣ה ׀ אֲדֹנָ֗י אָנֹכִ֞י עֹמֵ֤ד תָּמִיד֙ יוֹמָ֔ם וְעַל־מִ֨שְׁמַרְתִּ֔י אָנֹכִ֥י נִצָּ֖ב כָּל־הַלֵּילֽוֹת׃‬

And he called out, “A lion.

O Lord*.

I stand continually on the watchtower by day,

And I am stationed at my guard post every night.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.
Isa 21:9 ‫וְהִנֵּה־זֶ֥ה בָא֙ רֶ֣כֶב אִ֔ישׁ צֶ֖מֶד פָּֽרָשִׁ֑ים וַיַּ֣עַן וַיֹּ֗אמֶר נָפְלָ֤ה נָֽפְלָה֙ בָּבֶ֔ל וְכָל־פְּסִילֵ֥י אֱלֹהֶ֖יהָ שִׁבַּ֥ר לָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

And here is what is coming:

A manned chariot fleet and horsemen in pairs.”

And he answered and said,

Babylon has fallen; it has fallen.

And he has torn all the carved images of its gods

Down to the ground.”

Rev 14:8, Rev 18:2.

here isbehold this.

pairs ← a pair, but we take it as collective usage.

torn ... down ← broken.
Isa 21:10 ‫מְדֻשָׁתִ֖י וּבֶן־גָּרְנִ֑י אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁמַ֗עְתִּי מֵאֵ֨ת יְהוָ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הִגַּ֥דְתִּי לָכֶֽם׃ ס‬

O threshed people of mine,

And my product of the threshing floor,

I have reported to you

What I have heard from the Lord of hosts

– The God of Israel.

my product of the threshing floor ← son of my threshing floor.
Isa 21:11 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א דּוּמָ֑ה אֵלַי֙ קֹרֵ֣א מִשֵּׂעִ֔יר שֹׁמֵר֙ מַה־מִלַּ֔יְלָה שֹׁמֵ֖ר מַה־מִלֵּֽיל׃‬ The burden of Idumea.

He is calling out to me from Seir,

“Watchman, what is there to report from the night?

Watchman, what is there to report from the night?”

burden: see Isa 13:1.

Idumea ← Dumah, i.e. Edom.
Isa 21:12 ‫אָמַ֣ר שֹׁמֵ֔ר אָתָ֥ה בֹ֖קֶר וְגַם־לָ֑יְלָה אִם־תִּבְעָי֥וּן בְּעָ֖יוּ שֻׁ֥בוּ אֵתָֽיוּ׃ ס‬

The watchman said,

“The morning is coming,

And also the night.

If you will inquire,

Do inquire.

Return and come.”

return and come: i.e. go home for now and come again to inquire again later. Compare [CB].
Isa 21:13 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א בַּעְרָ֑ב בַּיַּ֤עַר בַּעְרַב֙ תָּלִ֔ינוּ אֹֽרְח֖וֹת דְּדָנִֽים׃‬ The burden in Arabia.

You will lodge in the forest in Arabia,

You Dedanite travelling companies.

burden: see Isa 13:1.
Isa 21:14 ‫לִקְרַ֥את צָמֵ֖א הֵתָ֣יוּ מָ֑יִם יֹשְׁבֵי֙ אֶ֣רֶץ תֵּימָ֔א בְּלַחְמ֖וֹ קִדְּמ֥וּ נֹדֵֽד׃‬

The inhabitants of the land of Tema

Brought water to him who is thirsty;

They met the fugitive

With food for him.

brought ... met: these indicatives could be re-pointed as imperatives.

food for him ← his bread.
Isa 21:15 ‫כִּֽי־מִפְּנֵ֥י חֲרָב֖וֹת נָדָ֑דוּ מִפְּנֵ֣י ׀ חֶ֣רֶב נְטוּשָׁ֗ה וּמִפְּנֵי֙ קֶ֣שֶׁת דְּרוּכָ֔ה וּמִפְּנֵ֖י כֹּ֥בֶד מִלְחָמָֽה׃ ס‬

For they flee from swords,

From the drawn sword

And from the drawn bow,

And from the violence of war.

violence ← heaviness, but, with [AnLx], also violence.
Isa 21:16 ‫כִּי־כֹ֛ה אָמַ֥ר אֲדֹנָ֖י אֵלָ֑י בְּע֤וֹד שָׁנָה֙ כִּשְׁנֵ֣י שָׂכִ֔יר וְכָלָ֖ה כָּל־כְּב֥וֹד קֵדָֽר׃‬ For this is what the Lord* said to me:

“In another year

According to the contractual years of a hired worker,

All the glory of Kedar

Will come to an end.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

this is whatthus.
Isa 21:17 ‫וּשְׁאָ֧ר מִסְפַּר־קֶ֛שֶׁת גִּבּוֹרֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־קֵדָ֖ר יִמְעָ֑טוּ כִּ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל דִּבֵּֽר׃ ס‬

And the number of archers remaining

– The warriors from among the sons of Kedar –

Will become few,

For the Lord God of Israel has spoken.”

the number of archers remaining ← the remainder of the number of the bow.

from among ← of. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 22:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א גֵּ֣יא חִזָּי֑וֹן מַה־לָּ֣ךְ אֵפ֔וֹא כִּֽי־עָלִ֥ית כֻּלָּ֖ךְ לַגַּגּֽוֹת׃‬ The burden of the Valley of Vision.

What is the matter with you, then?

For you have all gone up to the roofs.

burden: see Isa 13:1.

you have all ← all of you (singular) has.
Isa 22:2 ‫תְּשֻׁא֣וֹת ׀ מְלֵאָ֗ה עִ֚יר הֽוֹמִיָּ֔ה קִרְיָ֖ה עַלִּיזָ֑ה חֲלָלַ֙יִךְ֙ לֹ֣א חַלְלֵי־חֶ֔רֶב וְלֹ֖א מֵתֵ֥י מִלְחָמָֽה׃‬

You bustling city,

Full of noise,

Joyful town,

Your casualties are not casualties of the sword,

And are not dead from war.

Isa 22:3 ‫כָּל־קְצִינַ֥יִךְ נָֽדְדוּ־יַ֖חַד מִקֶּ֣שֶׁת אֻסָּ֑רוּ כָּל־נִמְצָאַ֙יִךְ֙ אֻסְּר֣וּ יַחְדָּ֔ו מֵרָח֖וֹק בָּרָֽחוּ׃‬

All your officers have fled together;

They have been brought into bondage by the bow.

All those present have been brought into bondage together;

They have fled far away.

present ← found.
Isa 22:4 ‫עַל־כֵּ֥ן אָמַ֛רְתִּי שְׁע֥וּ מִנִּ֖י אֲמָרֵ֣ר בַּבֶּ֑כִי אַל־תָּאִ֣יצוּ לְנַֽחֲמֵ֔נִי עַל־שֹׁ֖ד בַּת־עַמִּֽי׃‬

This is why I said,

“Look away from me;

I will weep bitterly.

Do not hasten to comfort me

About the devastation of the daughter of my people.”

I will weep bitterly ← I will make bitterness with weeping.
Isa 22:5 ‫כִּ֣י יוֹם֩ מְהוּמָ֨ה וּמְבוּסָ֜ה וּמְבוּכָ֗ה לַֽאדֹנָ֧י יְהוִ֛ה צְבָא֖וֹת בְּגֵ֣יא חִזָּי֑וֹן מְקַרְקַ֥ר קִ֖ר וְשׁ֥וֹעַ אֶל־הָהָֽר׃‬

For it is a day of tumult and treading down and confusion of the Lord

– The Lord of hosts –

In the Valley of Vision,

Of undermining walls,

And crying out to the mountain.

mountain: perhaps standing for mountain range, mountains.
Isa 22:6 ‫וְעֵילָם֙ נָשָׂ֣א אַשְׁפָּ֔ה בְּרֶ֥כֶב אָדָ֖ם פָּֽרָשִׁ֑ים וְקִ֥יר עֵרָ֖ה מָגֵֽן׃‬

And Elam has borne the quiver,

With a manned chariot fleet and horsemen,

And Kir has bared the shield.

Isa 22:7 ‫וַיְהִ֥י מִבְחַר־עֲמָקַ֖יִךְ מָ֣לְאוּ רָ֑כֶב וְהַפָּ֣רָשִׁ֔ים שֹׁ֖ת שָׁ֥תוּ הַשָּֽׁעְרָה׃‬

And it came to pass that your choice valleys were full of chariots,

And the horsemen drew themselves up with vigour at the gate,

drew themselves up with vigour: infinitive absolute.
Isa 22:8 ‫וַיְגַ֕ל אֵ֖ת מָסַ֣ךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה וַתַּבֵּט֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא אֶל־נֶ֖שֶׁק בֵּ֥ית הַיָּֽעַר׃‬

And they removed Judah's covering,

And you saw on that day

The weaponry of the house of the Forest.

they ← he, referring to Elam.

house of the Forest: house of the Forest of Lebanon built at 1 Ki 7:2.
Isa 22:9 ‫וְאֵ֨ת בְּקִיעֵ֧י עִיר־דָּוִ֛ד רְאִיתֶ֖ם כִּי־רָ֑בּוּ וַֽתְּקַבְּצ֔וּ אֶת־מֵ֥י הַבְּרֵכָ֖ה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָֽה׃‬

And you have seen how numerous the breaches in the City of David are,

And you have collected the water of the lower pool.

Isa 22:10 ‫וְאֶת־בָּתֵּ֥י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם סְפַרְתֶּ֑ם וַתִּתְֿצוּ֙ הַבָּ֣תִּ֔ים לְבַצֵּ֖ר הַחוֹמָֽה׃‬

And you have counted the houses in Jerusalem,

And you have pulled down houses

To fortify the wall.

Isa 22:11 ‫וּמִקְוָ֣ה ׀ עֲשִׂיתֶ֗ם בֵּ֚ין הַחֹ֣מֹתַ֔יִם לְמֵ֖י הַבְּרֵכָ֣ה הַיְשָׁנָ֑ה וְלֹ֤א הִבַּטְתֶּם֙ אֶל־עֹשֶׂ֔יהָ וְיֹצְרָ֥הּ מֵֽרָח֖וֹק לֹ֥א רְאִיתֶֽם׃‬

And you made a reservoir between the two walls

For the water of the old pool,

But you have not had respect to its maker

Or had regard for him who formed it long ago.

Isa 22:12 ‫וַיִּקְרָ֗א אֲדֹנָ֧י יְהוִ֛ה צְבָא֖וֹת בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא לִבְכִי֙ וּלְמִסְפֵּ֔ד וּלְקָרְחָ֖ה וְלַחֲגֹ֥ר שָֽׂק׃‬

And on that day,

My Lord the Lord of hosts proclaimed

Weeping and mourning and baldness

And girding up with sackcloth.

Isa 22:13 ‫וְהִנֵּ֣ה ׀ שָׂשׂ֣וֹן וְשִׂמְחָ֗ה הָרֹ֤ג ׀ בָּקָר֙ וְשָׁחֹ֣ט צֹ֔אן אָכֹ֥ל בָּשָׂ֖ר וְשָׁת֣וֹת יָ֑יִן אָכ֣וֹל וְשָׁת֔וֹ כִּ֥י מָחָ֖ר נָמֽוּת׃‬

But what he saw was

Rejoicing and merrymaking,

Killing the ox and slaughtering the sheep,

Eating meat and drinking wine, saying,

Eat and drink,

For tomorrow we die.

1 Cor 15:32.

but what he saw wasand behold.

killing ... slaughtering ... eating ... drinking ... eat ... drink: all infinitive absolute in the role of finite verbs.
Isa 22:14 ‫וְנִגְלָ֥ה בְאָזְנָ֖י יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת אִם־יְ֠כֻפַּר הֶעָוֺ֨ן הַזֶּ֤ה לָכֶם֙ עַד־תְּמֻת֔וּן אָמַ֛ר אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִ֖ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ פ‬

And this was revealed in my ears

By the Lord of hosts:

“This iniquity of yours will certainly not be expiated

Until you die,

Says the Lord,

The Lord of hosts.”

will certainly not be expiated ← if it is expiated. Strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
Isa 22:15 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֛ר אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִ֖ה צְבָא֑וֹת לֶךְ־בֹּא֙ אֶל־הַסֹּכֵ֣ן הַזֶּ֔ה עַל־שֶׁבְנָ֖א אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הַבָּֽיִת׃‬

This is what my Lord the Lord of hosts says:

“Depart and go to this steward,

To Shebna, who is in charge of the house,

this is whatthus.
Isa 22:16 ‫מַה־לְּךָ֥ פֹה֙ וּמִ֣י לְךָ֣ פֹ֔ה כִּֽי־חָצַ֧בְתָּ לְּךָ֛ פֹּ֖ה קָ֑בֶר חֹצְבִ֤י מָרוֹם֙ קִבְר֔וֹ חֹקְקִ֥י בַסֶּ֖לַע מִשְׁכָּ֥ן לֽוֹ׃‬

And say, ‘What business do you have here?

And just who are you here,

That you should have hewn yourself a tomb here,

Like someone hewing his tomb high up,

Carving out an abode for himself in the rock?

just: from a Hebrew ethic dative.

abode ← tabernacle.
Isa 22:17 ‫הִנֵּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ מְטַלְטֶלְךָ֔ טַלְטֵלָ֖ה גָּ֑בֶר וְעֹטְךָ֖ עָטֹֽה׃‬

Look, the Lord is about to hurl you away with a mighty fling,

And to completely envelop you.

completely envelop: infinitive absolute.
Isa 22:18 ‫צָנ֤וֹף יִצְנָפְךָ֙ צְנֵפָ֔ה כַּדּ֕וּר אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ רַחֲבַ֣ת יָדָ֑יִם שָׁ֣מָּה תָמ֗וּת וְשָׁ֙מָּה֙ מַרְכְּב֣וֹת כְּבוֹדֶ֔ךָ קְל֖וֹן בֵּ֥ית אֲדֹנֶֽיךָ׃‬

He will wrap a wrapping right around you

And throw you like a ball into a very wide country,

And there you will die,

And there the chariots representing your glory

Will be to the shame of the house of your master.

wrap ... right around you: infinitive absolute. AV differs (surely violently turn and toss thee).

very wide ← wide of arms.

representing ← of.
Isa 22:19 ‫וַהֲדַפְתִּ֖יךָ מִמַּצָּבֶ֑ךָ וּמִמַּעֲמָֽדְךָ֖ יֶהֶרְסֶֽךָ׃‬

And I will thrust you from your station,

And he will pull you down from your high standing.

Isa 22:20 ‫וְהָיָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וְקָרָ֣אתִי לְעַבְדִּ֔י לְאֶלְיָקִ֖ים בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּֽהוּ׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That I will call for my servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah.

Isa 22:21 ‫וְהִלְבַּשְׁתִּ֣יו כֻּתָּנְתֶּ֗ךָ וְאַבְנֵֽטְךָ֙ אֲחַזְּקֶ֔נּוּ וּמֶֽמְשֶׁלְתְּךָ֖ אֶתֵּ֣ן בְּיָד֑וֹ וְהָיָ֥ה לְאָ֛ב לְיוֹשֵׁ֥ב יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וּלְבֵ֥ית יְהוּדָֽה׃‬

And I will clothe him with your gown,

And I will strengthen him with your girdle,

And I will put your dominion in his hand,

And he will become a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem

And to the house of Judah.

Isa 22:22 ‫וְנָתַתִּ֛י מַפְתֵּ֥חַ בֵּית־דָּוִ֖ד עַל־שִׁכְמ֑וֹ וּפָתַח֙ וְאֵ֣ין סֹגֵ֔ר וְסָגַ֖ר וְאֵ֥ין פֹּתֵֽחַ׃‬

And I will put the key to the house of David on his shoulder,

And he will open and no-one will shut,

And he will shut, and no-one will open.

Rev 3:7.
Isa 22:23 ‫וּתְקַעְתִּ֥יו יָתֵ֖ד בְּמָק֣וֹם נֶאֱמָ֑ן וְהָיָ֛ה לְכִסֵּ֥א כָב֖וֹד לְבֵ֥ית אָבִֽיו׃‬

And I will secure him like a peg in a secure place,

And he will become the occupier of the glorious throne

Of the house of his father.

the glorious throne ← throne of glory, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 22:24 ‫וְתָל֨וּ עָלָ֜יו כֹּ֣ל ׀ כְּב֣וֹד בֵּית־אָבִ֗יו הַצֶּֽאֱצָאִים֙ וְהַצְּפִע֔וֹת כֹּ֖ל כְּלֵ֣י הַקָּטָ֑ן מִכְּלֵי֙ הָֽאַגָּנ֔וֹת וְעַ֖ד כָּל־כְּלֵ֥י הַנְּבָלִֽים׃‬

And they will bestow on him

All the honour of his father's house,

The offspring and the offshoots

– All vessels of small capacity,

From vessels of the bowl kind

To all vessels of the jar kind.’

bestow ← hang.
Isa 22:25 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת תָּמוּשׁ֙ הַיָּתֵ֔ד הַתְּקוּעָ֖ה בְּמָק֣וֹם נֶאֱמָ֑ן וְנִגְדְּעָ֣ה וְנָפְלָ֗ה וְנִכְרַת֙ הַמַּשָּׂ֣א אֲשֶׁר־עָלֶ֔יהָ כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃ ס‬

On that day, says the Lord of hosts,

The peg which was secured in a faithful place

Will be removed, and it will be cut down,

And it will fall,

And the burden on it will be withdrawn,

For the Lord has spoken.”

will be removed: qal for passive of hiphil. Compare Job 15:30.
Isa 23:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א צֹ֑ר הֵילִ֣ילוּ ׀ אֳנִיּ֣וֹת תַּרְשִׁ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־שֻׁדַּ֤ד מִבַּ֙יִת֙ מִבּ֔וֹא מֵאֶ֥רֶץ כִּתִּ֖ים נִגְלָה־לָֽמוֹ׃‬ The burden of Tyre.

Wail, O ships of Tarshish,

For it has been plundered,

Not leaving a house or a way in.

This was revealed to them

From the land of Chittim.

burden: see Isa 13:1.

not leaving ← from.
Isa 23:2 ‫דֹּ֖מּוּ יֹ֣שְׁבֵי אִ֑י סֹחֵ֥ר צִיד֛וֹן עֹבֵ֥ר יָ֖ם מִלְאֽוּךְ׃‬

Be silent, you inhabitants of the coastland,

You whom the merchants of Sidon,

Who cross the sea,

Have stocked up,

coastland: or island.

merchants ← merchant.

Sidon: see Gen 10:15.

stocked up ← filled.
Isa 23:3 ‫וּבְמַ֤יִם רַבִּים֙ זֶ֣רַע שִׁחֹ֔ר קְצִ֥יר יְא֖וֹר תְּבֽוּאָתָ֑הּ וַתְּהִ֖י סְחַ֥ר גּוֹיִֽם׃‬

Bringing over the high seas

Seed from Shihor.

The harvest from the river

Is Tyre's source of income,

So that it became the emporium of the nations.

high seas ← great waters.

Shihor: see Josh 13:3. [CB] interprets as the Nile, as in Jer 2:18.

the river: the word is especially used of the Nile.

Tyre's ← her.
Isa 23:4 ‫בּ֣וֹשִׁי צִיד֔וֹן כִּֽי־אָמַ֣ר יָ֔ם מָע֥וֹז הַיָּ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹֽא־חַ֣לְתִּי וְלֹֽא־יָלַ֗דְתִּי וְלֹ֥א גִדַּ֛לְתִּי בַּחוּרִ֖ים רוֹמַ֥מְתִּי בְתוּלֽוֹת׃‬

Sidon, be ashamed,

For the sea

– The stronghold that the sea is –

Has said, “I have not been in the pains of childbirth,

Nor have I given birth,

Nor have I raised young lads,

Nor have I brought chaste maidens up.”

Sidon: see Gen 10:15.
Isa 23:5 ‫כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־שֵׁ֖מַע לְמִצְרָ֑יִם יָחִ֖ילוּ כְּשֵׁ֥מַע צֹֽר׃‬

As at the report of Egypt,

So shall they writhe

At the report of Tyre.

Isa 23:6 ‫עִבְר֖וּ תַּרְשִׁ֑ישָׁה הֵילִ֖ילוּ יֹ֥שְׁבֵי אִֽי׃‬

Cross over to Tarshish and wail,

You inhabitants of the coastland.

coastland: or island.
Isa 23:7 ‫הֲזֹ֥את לָכֶ֖ם עַלִּיזָ֑ה מִֽימֵי־קֶ֤דֶם קַדְמָתָהּ֙ יֹבִל֣וּהָ רַגְלֶ֔יהָ מֵֽרָח֖וֹק לָגֽוּר׃‬

Was this your joy,

Whose origin dates from ancient times?

Its feet will bring it

Somewhere far away to dwell.

times ← days.

feet: i.e. ships [CB].
Isa 23:8 ‫מִ֚י יָעַ֣ץ זֹ֔את עַל־צֹ֖ר הַמַּֽעֲטִירָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר סֹחֲרֶ֙יה֙ שָׂרִ֔ים כִּנְעָנֶ֖יהָ נִכְבַּדֵּי־אָֽרֶץ׃‬

Who decided this against Tyre

Tyre who confers crowns,

Whose merchants are princes,

Whose traders are the dignitaries of the land?

decided ← counselled.
Isa 23:9 ‫יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת יְעָצָ֑הּ לְחַלֵּל֙ גְּא֣וֹן כָּל־צְבִ֔י לְהָקֵ֖ל כָּל־נִכְבַּדֵּי־אָֽרֶץ׃‬

The Lord of hosts decided it,

To defame the pride in all the splendour;

To bring all the dignitaries of the land into contempt.

decided ← counselled.

defame ← profane.
Isa 23:10 ‫עִבְרִ֥י אַרְצֵ֖ךְ כַּיְאֹ֑ר בַּת־תַּרְשִׁ֕ישׁ אֵ֖ין מֵ֥זַח עֽוֹד׃‬

Cross your country like a river,

O daughter of Tarshish,

There is no longer any girding yourself up.

a river ← the river. Either a reference to the Nile, or an unexpected definite article (in MT pointing); compare Gen 22:9.

girding yourself upgirdle.
Isa 23:11 ‫יָדוֹ֙ נָטָ֣ה עַל־הַיָּ֔ם הִרְגִּ֖יז מַמְלָכ֑וֹת יְהוָה֙ צִוָּ֣ה אֶל־כְּנַ֔עַן לַשְׁמִ֖ד מָעֻזְנֶֽיהָ׃‬

He stretched out his hand over the sea;

He shocked kingdoms.

The Lord has given commandment against Canaan

To destroy its strongholds.

Canaan: or the merchant. [CB] interprets as Tyre.
Isa 23:12 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לֹֽא־תוֹסִ֥יפִי ע֖וֹד לַעְל֑וֹז הַֽמְעֻשָּׁקָ֞ה בְּתוּלַ֣ת בַּת־צִיד֗וֹן *כתיים **כִּתִּים֙ ק֣וּמִי עֲבֹ֔רִי גַּם־שָׁ֖ם לֹא־יָנ֥וּחַֽ לָֽךְ׃‬

And he said,

“You will no longer exult,

You oppressed virgin daughter of Sidon.

Arise and cross over to Chittim,

But you will not be at rest there either.”

Chittim: the ketiv and qeré are different spellings of the same word.

Sidon: see Gen 10:15.
Isa 23:13 ‫הֵ֣ן ׀ אֶ֣רֶץ כַּשְׂדִּ֗ים זֶ֤ה הָעָם֙ לֹ֣א הָיָ֔ה אַשּׁ֖וּר יְסָדָ֣הּ לְצִיִּ֑ים הֵקִ֣ימוּ *בחיניו **בַחוּנָ֗יו עֹרְרוּ֙ אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֔יהָ שָׂמָ֖הּ לְמַפֵּלָֽה׃‬

Look at the land of the Chaldeans:

This people did not exist previously.

Assyria founded it for the inhabitants of the desert.

The attackers erected their watchtowers,

They demolished its palaces,

And he made it ruins.

their watchtowers: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

demolished: AV differs (raised up).
Isa 23:14 ‫הֵילִ֖ילוּ אֳנִיּ֣וֹת תַּרְשִׁ֑ישׁ כִּ֥י שֻׁדַּ֖ד מָעֻזְּכֶֽן׃ ס‬

Wail, you ships of Tarshish,

For your stronghold has been laid waste.

Isa 23:15 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וְנִשְׁכַּ֤חַת צֹר֙ שִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה כִּימֵ֖י מֶ֣לֶךְ אֶחָ֑ד מִקֵּ֞ץ שִׁבְעִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה לְצֹ֔ר כְּשִׁירַ֖ת הַזּוֹנָֽה׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day that Tyre will be forgotten for seventy years, according to the days of one king, then after seventy years Tyre will very much have a prostitute's song to sing. after ← at the end of.

very much: the ke denoting intensity. See Gen 24:28.
Isa 23:16 ‫קְחִ֥י כִנּ֛וֹר סֹ֥בִּי עִ֖יר זוֹנָ֣ה נִשְׁכָּחָ֑ה הֵיטִ֤יבִי נַגֵּן֙ הַרְבִּי־שִׁ֔יר לְמַ֖עַן תִּזָּכֵֽרִי׃‬

Take the harp,

Go around the city,

You forgotten prostitute.

Play music well,

Do much singing,

In order that you may be remembered.

Isa 23:17 ‫וְהָיָ֞ה מִקֵּ֣ץ ׀ שִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֗ה יִפְקֹ֤ד יְהוָה֙ אֶת־צֹ֔ר וְשָׁבָ֖ה לְאֶתְנַנָּ֑ה וְזָֽנְתָ֛ה אֶת־כָּל־מַמְלְכ֥וֹת הָאָ֖רֶץ עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָֽה׃‬ And after seventy years, it will come to pass that the Lord will visit Tyre, and it will return to its earnings from prostitution, and it will engage in prostitution with all the kingdoms of the world over the face of the earth. after ← at the end of.
Isa 23:18 ‫וְהָיָ֨ה סַחְרָ֜הּ וְאֶתְנַנָּ֗הּ קֹ֚דֶשׁ לַֽיהוָ֔ה לֹ֥א יֵֽאָצֵ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יֵֽחָסֵ֑ן כִּ֣י לַיֹּשְׁבִ֞ים לִפְנֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה סַחְרָ֔הּ לֶאֱכֹ֥ל לְשָׂבְעָ֖ה וְלִמְכַסֶּ֥ה עָתִֽיק׃ פ‬ But its profit and its earnings from prostitution will be holy to the Lord, and they will not be treasured up or hoarded away, for its profit will be for those who live before the Lord, so as to eat to satiety, and to have good quality clothing. holy ← holiness.

good quality clothing ← splendid covering.
Isa 24:1 ‫הִנֵּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה בּוֹקֵ֥ק הָאָ֖רֶץ וּבֽוֹלְקָ֑הּ וְעִוָּ֣ה פָנֶ֔יהָ וְהֵפִ֖יץ יֹשְׁבֶֽיהָ׃‬

Behold, the Lord is about to depopulate the land

And empty it,

And he will overturn the face of it

And scatter its inhabitants.

Isa 24:2 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה כָעָם֙ כַּכֹּהֵ֔ן כַּעֶ֙בֶד֙ כַּֽאדֹנָ֔יו כַּשִּׁפְחָ֖ה כַּגְּבִרְתָּ֑הּ כַּקּוֹנֶה֙ כַּמּוֹכֵ֔ר כַּמַּלְוֶה֙ כַּלֹּוֶ֔ה כַּנֹּשֶׁ֕ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר נֹשֶׁ֥א בֽוֹ׃‬

And it will come to pass that

As the people at large are,

So the priest will be;

As the manservant is,

So his master will be;

As the maidservant is,

So her mistress will be;

As the buyer is,

So the seller will be;

As the lender is,

So the borrower will be;

As the creditor is,

So his debtor will be.

as the people ... so the priest: compare Hos 4:9.
Isa 24:3 ‫הִבּ֧וֹק ׀ תִּבּ֛וֹק הָאָ֖רֶץ וְהִבּ֣וֹז ׀ תִּבּ֑וֹז כִּ֣י יְהוָ֔ה דִּבֶּ֖ר אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃‬

The land will certainly be depopulated,

And it will certainly be plundered,

For the Lord has spoken these words.

will certainly be depopulated ... will certainly be plundered: both infinitive absolute.

these words ← this word.
Isa 24:4 ‫אָבְלָ֤ה נָֽבְלָה֙ הָאָ֔רֶץ אֻמְלְלָ֥ה נָבְלָ֖ה תֵּבֵ֑ל אֻמְלָ֖לוּ מְר֥וֹם עַם־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

The land will mourn and fade,

The world will languish and fade;

The haughty among the people of the land will languish.

fade ... fade: perhaps otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Isa 24:5 ‫וְהָאָ֥רֶץ חָנְפָ֖ה תַּ֣חַת יֹשְׁבֶ֑יהָ כִּֽי־עָבְר֤וּ תוֹרֹת֙ חָ֣לְפוּ חֹ֔ק הֵפֵ֖רוּ בְּרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם׃‬

And the land has been defiled by its inhabitants,

For they have transgressed the laws.

They have disregarded the statute;

They have violated the age-abiding covenant,

by ← under, i.e. under (the stewardship of).

disregarded ← passed by. AV differs (changed).
Isa 24:6 ‫עַל־כֵּ֗ן אָלָה֙ אָ֣כְלָה אֶ֔רֶץ וַֽיֶּאְשְׁמ֖וּ יֹ֣שְׁבֵי בָ֑הּ עַל־כֵּ֗ן חָרוּ֙ יֹ֣שְׁבֵי אֶ֔רֶץ וְנִשְׁאַ֥ר אֱנ֖וֹשׁ מִזְעָֽר׃‬

Which is why a curse has devoured the land,

And those who inhabit it bear the guilt.

It is why the inhabitants of the land are fuming,

And very few men remain.

very few men ← men of tininess.
Isa 24:7 ‫אָבַ֥ל תִּיר֖וֹשׁ אֻמְלְלָה־גָ֑פֶן נֶאֶנְח֖וּ כָּל־שִׂמְחֵי־לֵֽב׃‬

The new wine is mourning,

The vine is languishing;

All those of joyful heart

Are now sighing.

Isa 24:8 ‫שָׁבַת֙ מְשׂ֣וֹשׂ תֻּפִּ֔ים חָדַ֖ל שְׁא֣וֹן עַלִּיזִ֑ים שָׁבַ֖ת מְשׂ֥וֹשׂ כִּנּֽוֹר׃‬

The rejoicing of drums has ceased,

The tumult of those exulting has stopped;

The rejoicing of the harp has ceased.

Isa 24:9 ‫בַּשִּׁ֖יר לֹ֣א יִשְׁתּוּ־יָ֑יִן יֵמַ֥ר שֵׁכָ֖ר לְשֹׁתָֽיו׃‬

They shall not drink wine with singing;

The liquor will become bitter

To those who drink it.

Isa 24:10 ‫נִשְׁבְּרָ֖ה קִרְיַת־תֹּ֑הוּ סֻגַּ֥ר כָּל־בַּ֖יִת מִבּֽוֹא׃‬

The town of desolation has been broken up;

Every house is shut up,

Preventing entering.

preventing ← from.
Isa 24:11 ‫צְוָחָ֥ה עַל־הַיַּ֖יִן בַּֽחוּצ֑וֹת עָֽרְבָה֙ כָּל־שִׂמְחָ֔ה גָּלָ֖ה מְשׂ֥וֹשׂ הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

There is a cry for wine in the streets;

All joy has drawn to a close,

And the rejoicing in the land has passed away.

drawn to a close ← become evening / become dark.

has passed away ← has gone into captivity.
Isa 24:12 ‫נִשְׁאַ֥ר בָּעִ֖יר שַׁמָּ֑ה וּשְׁאִיָּ֖ה יֻכַּת־שָֽׁעַר׃‬

What remains in the city is desolation,

And the gate has been pounded to ruins.

Isa 24:13 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֥ה יִהְיֶ֛ה בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָ֖רֶץ בְּת֣וֹךְ הָֽעַמִּ֑ים כְּנֹ֣קֶף זַ֔יִת כְּעוֹלֵלֹ֖ת אִם־כָּלָ֥ה בָצִֽיר׃‬

For so it will be on the earth among the nations,

As when the olive tree has been beaten,

Like the gleanings when the grape harvest has finished.

on the earth among the nations ← in the midst of the earth within the nations.
Isa 24:14 ‫הֵ֛מָּה יִשְׂא֥וּ קוֹלָ֖ם יָרֹ֑נּוּ בִּגְא֣וֹן יְהוָ֔ה צָהֲל֖וּ מִיָּֽם׃‬

They will raise their voices;

They will be jubilant.

They will shout for joy from across the sea

Because of the majesty of the Lord.

voices ← voice.

shout for joy ← neigh; compare Mark 1:43, John 11:38.
Isa 24:15 ‫עַל־כֵּ֥ן בָּאֻרִ֖ים כַּבְּד֣וּ יְהוָ֑ה בְּאִיֵּ֣י הַיָּ֔ם שֵׁ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬

For this reason, glorify the Lord with lights

– The name of the Lord God of Israel –

In the coastlands of the sea.

lights ← Urim, as in Ex 28:30.

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 24:16 ‫מִכְּנַ֨ף הָאָ֜רֶץ זְמִרֹ֤ת שָׁמַ֙עְנוּ֙ צְבִ֣י לַצַּדִּ֔יק וָאֹמַ֛ר רָזִי־לִ֥י רָֽזִי־לִ֖י א֣וֹי לִ֑י בֹּגְדִ֣ים בָּגָ֔דוּ וּבֶ֥גֶד בּוֹגְדִ֖ים בָּגָֽדוּ׃‬

From the extremities of the earth we have heard singing

To the illustriousness of the righteous one,

But I said,

Woe is me, woe is me, alas for me,

Traitors have betrayed me,

And the traitors have committed a betrayal.”

extremities ← wing.

woe is me (2x)woe to me.

committed ← betrayed.
Isa 24:17 ‫פַּ֥חַד וָפַ֖חַת וָפָ֑ח עָלֶ֖יךָ יוֹשֵׁ֥ב הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

Fear, and a pitfall, and a snare

Are looming over you,

You inhabitants of the earth.

|| Jer 48:43.

inhabitants ← inhabitant.
Isa 24:18 ‫וְֽ֠הָיָה הַנָּ֞ס מִקּ֤וֹל הַפַּ֙חַד֙ יִפֹּ֣ל אֶל־הַפַּ֔חַת וְהָֽעוֹלֶה֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַפַּ֔חַת יִלָּכֵ֖ד בַּפָּ֑ח כִּֽי־אֲרֻבּ֤וֹת מִמָּרוֹם֙ נִפְתָּ֔חוּ וַֽיִּרְעֲשׁ֖וּ מ֥וֹסְדֵי אָֽרֶץ׃‬

And it will come to pass

That he who flees at a fearful sound

Will fall into the pit,

And he who comes up out of the pit

Will be caught in the snare,

For the floodgates on high will open,

And the foundations of the earth will shake.

|| Jer 48:44.

out of ← from inside.

will open: we take this and many subsequent verbs as prophetic perfects, i.e. with a future reference.
Isa 24:19 ‫רֹ֥עָה הִֽתְרֹעֲעָ֖ה הָאָ֑רֶץ פּ֤וֹר הִֽתְפּוֹרְרָה֙ אֶ֔רֶץ מ֥וֹט הִֽתְמוֹטְטָ֖ה אָֽרֶץ׃‬

The earth will be utterly broken into pieces,

The earth will be thoroughly torn apart;

The earth will totter perilously.

utterly broken ... thoroughly torn apart ... totter perilously: all infinitive absolute.

totter perilously: or be severely shaken.
Isa 24:20 ‫נ֣וֹעַ תָּנ֤וּעַ אֶ֙רֶץ֙ כַּשִּׁכּ֔וֹר וְהִֽתְנוֹדְדָ֖ה כַּמְּלוּנָ֑ה וְכָבַ֤ד עָלֶ֙יהָ֙ פִּשְׁעָ֔הּ וְנָפְלָ֖ה וְלֹא־תֹסִ֥יף קֽוּם׃ ס‬

The earth will stagger precariously like a drunkard,

And it will sway like a shack,

And its transgression will weigh heavily on it,

And it will fall

And not rise again.

stagger precariously: infinitive absolute.
Isa 24:21 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יִפְקֹ֧ד יְהוָ֛ה עַל־צְבָ֥א הַמָּר֖וֹם בַּמָּר֑וֹם וְעַל־מַלְכֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָ֖ה עַל־הָאֲדָמָֽה׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the Lord will visit the higher powers

In a high place,

And the kings of the earth

On the earth.

higher powers ← power / host / army (on) high.
Isa 24:22 ‫וְאֻסְּפ֨וּ אֲסֵפָ֤ה אַסִּיר֙ עַל־בּ֔וֹר וְסֻגְּר֖וּ עַל־מַסְגֵּ֑ר וּמֵרֹ֥ב יָמִ֖ים יִפָּקֵֽדוּ׃‬

And they will be gathered up,

Like the herding of prisoners into the pit,

And they will be shut up in confinement,

Then after many days they will be visited.

herding ← gathering.

prisoners ← a prisoner.

visited: or punished, but sometimes delivered.
Isa 24:23 ‫וְחָֽפְרָה֙ הַלְּבָנָ֔ה וּבוֹשָׁ֖ה הַֽחַמָּ֑ה כִּֽי־מָלַ֞ךְ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת בְּהַ֤ר צִיּוֹן֙ וּבִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְנֶ֥גֶד זְקֵנָ֖יו כָּבֽוֹד׃ פ‬

And the moon will blush,

And the sun will be at a loss,

When the Lord of hosts reigns on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem,

With glory in the presence of his appointed elders.

Isa 25:1 ‫יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהַי֙ אַתָּ֔ה אֲרֽוֹמִמְךָ֙ אוֹדֶ֣ה שִׁמְךָ֔ כִּ֥י עָשִׂ֖יתָ פֶּ֑לֶא עֵצ֥וֹת מֵֽרָח֖וֹק אֱמ֥וּנָה אֹֽמֶן׃‬

O Lord, you are my God.

I will exalt you;

I will praise your name,

For you have acted wonderfully,

With counsel from the distant past,

In sure faithfulness.

acted wonderfully ← done a wonder, but this kind of expression can be adverbial.

counsel ← counsels.

sure ← faithful.
Isa 25:2 ‫כִּ֣י שַׂ֤מְתָּ מֵעִיר֙ לַגָּ֔ל קִרְיָ֥ה בְצוּרָ֖ה לְמַפֵּלָ֑ה אַרְמ֤וֹן זָרִים֙ מֵעִ֔יר לְעוֹלָ֖ם לֹ֥א יִבָּנֶֽה׃‬

For you turn a city into a heap of rubble,

And a fortified town into ruins,

And a foreign citadel into what is not a city,

Which will never be rebuilt.

foreign citadel ← citadel of foreigners.

not a city ← from a city.

never ← not for an age.

rebuilt ← built.
Isa 25:3 ‫עַל־כֵּ֖ן יְכַבְּד֣וּךָ עַם־עָ֑ז קִרְיַ֛ת גּוֹיִ֥ם עָרִיצִ֖ים יִירָאֽוּךָ׃‬

This is why a fierce people will glorify you,

And a violent Gentile town will fear you.

a violent Gentile town will fear you ← a town of violent nations, they will fear you.
Isa 25:4 ‫כִּֽי־הָיִ֨יתָ מָע֥וֹז לַדָּ֛ל מָע֥וֹז לָאֶבְי֖וֹן בַּצַּר־ל֑וֹ מַחְסֶ֤ה מִזֶּ֙רֶם֙ צֵ֣ל מֵחֹ֔רֶב כִּ֛י ר֥וּחַ עָרִיצִ֖ים כְּזֶ֥רֶם קִֽיר׃‬

For you are a refuge for the weak,

A refuge for the poor when he is in distress,

A shelter from a downpour,

Shade from heat,

For the onslaught of the violent

Is like a downpour against a wall.

onslaught ← spirit; wind; tempest; anger.

against ← of. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 25:5 ‫כְּחֹ֣רֶב בְּצָי֔וֹן שְׁא֥וֹן זָרִ֖ים תַּכְנִ֑יעַ חֹ֚רֶב בְּצֵ֣ל עָ֔ב זְמִ֥יר עָֽרִיצִ֖ים יַעֲנֶֽה׃ פ‬

You will bring down the bustle of foreigners,

Which is like heat on parched land.

As heat is shielded by a cloud,

So the singing of the violent

Will be dispirited.

is shielded by ← in the shade of.

singing: AV differs (branch).
Isa 25:6 ‫וְעָשָׂה֩ יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת לְכָל־הָֽעַמִּים֙ בָּהָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה מִשְׁתֵּ֥ה שְׁמָנִ֖ים מִשְׁתֵּ֣ה שְׁמָרִ֑ים שְׁמָנִים֙ מְמֻ֣חָיִ֔ם שְׁמָרִ֖ים מְזֻקָּקִֽים׃‬

And the Lord of hosts will hold for all nations,

At this mountain,

A rich feast, a feast of settled wine,

Of rich marrowy meat

And of racked wine.

rich feast ← feast of fat (things).
Isa 25:7 ‫וּבִלַּע֙ בָּהָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה פְּנֵֽי־הַלּ֥וֹט ׀ הַלּ֖וֹט עַל־כָּל־הָֽעַמִּ֑ים וְהַמַּסֵּכָ֥ה הַנְּסוּכָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם׃‬

And on this mountain,

He will remove the veil

Which shrouds all the nations,

And the covering

Which is spread over all the Gentiles.

remove ← swallow.

veil ← face of the veil.

shrouds ← veils over.
Isa 25:8 ‫בִּלַּ֤ע הַמָּ֙וֶת֙ לָנֶ֔צַח וּמָחָ֨ה אֲדֹנָ֧י יְהוִ֛ה דִּמְעָ֖ה מֵעַ֣ל כָּל־פָּנִ֑ים וְחֶרְפַּ֣ת עַמּ֗וֹ יָסִיר֙ מֵעַ֣ל כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃ פ‬

He will swallow up death for ever,

And my Lord the Lord

Will wipe away the tears from every face,

And he will remove the reproach on his people

From the whole world,

For the Lord has spoken.

1 Cor 15:54, Rev 7:17, Rev 21:4.

for ever: AV differs (victory), which accords with 1 Cor 15:54, but it appears to be Chaldee rather than Hebrew (see [AnLx]). 1 Cor 15:54 could ↴

tears ← tear. Collective usage.
Isa 25:9 ‫וְאָמַר֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא הִנֵּ֨ה אֱלֹהֵ֥ינוּ זֶ֛ה קִוִּ֥ינוּ ל֖וֹ וְיֽוֹשִׁיעֵ֑נוּ זֶ֤ה יְהוָה֙ קִוִּ֣ינוּ ל֔וֹ נָגִ֥ילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָ֖ה בִּישׁוּעָתֽוֹ׃‬

And on that day, people will say,

“Behold this God of ours;

We waited for him, and he has saved us.

This is the Lord for whom we waited.

Let us rejoice and delight in his salvation.”

↳ be an adaptation of the verse to an Aramaic-speaking culture.

people ← he / one. Impersonal.
Isa 25:10 ‫כִּֽי־תָנ֥וּחַ יַד־יְהוָ֖ה בָּהָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וְנָ֤דוֹשׁ מוֹאָב֙ תַּחְתָּ֔יו כְּהִדּ֥וּשׁ מַתְבֵּ֖ן *במי **בְּמ֥וֹ מַדְמֵנָֽה׃‬

For the hand of the Lord will rest on this mountain,

And Moab will be trodden down under him,

As straw is trodden down

{Q: In} [K: In the waters of] Madmenah.

him: or it.

Madmenah: as [CB]. The town is mentioned in Isa 10:31. AV differs (dunghill), as does [AnLx], treating the word as a common noun.
Isa 25:11 ‫וּפֵרַ֤שׂ יָדָיו֙ בְּקִרְבּ֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר יְפָרֵ֥שׂ הַשֹּׂחֶ֖ה לִשְׂח֑וֹת וְהִשְׁפִּיל֙ גַּֽאֲוָת֔וֹ עִ֖ם אָרְבּ֥וֹת יָדָֽיו׃‬

And he will spread out his arms in their midst,

As a swimmer spreads his arms to swim,

And he will bring their haughtiness down

Together with the proceeds of the fraudulence of their hands.

Isa 25:12 ‫וּמִבְצַ֞ר מִשְׂגַּ֣ב חוֹמֹתֶ֗יךָ הֵשַׁ֥ח הִשְׁפִּ֛יל הִגִּ֥יעַ לָאָ֖רֶץ עַד־עָפָֽר׃ ס‬

And as for the fortification

– The high fort of your walls –

He will bring it down;

He will demolish it

And raze it to the ground as dust.

demolish ← make low.

as dust ← up to dust.
Isa 26:1 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יוּשַׁ֥ר הַשִּׁיר־הַזֶּ֖ה בְּאֶ֣רֶץ יְהוּדָ֑ה עִ֣יר עָז־לָ֔נוּ יְשׁוּעָ֥ה יָשִׁ֖ית חוֹמ֥וֹת וָחֵֽל׃‬ On that day, this song will be sung in the land of Judah:

We have a strong city;

He will provide salvation

Like walls and fortifications.

strong city ← city of strength, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 26:2 ‫פִּתְח֖וּ שְׁעָרִ֑ים וְיָבֹ֥א גוֹי־צַדִּ֖יק שֹׁמֵ֥ר אֱמֻנִֽים׃‬

Open the gates,

And let a righteous nation enter,

One which keeps to what is faithful.

Isa 26:3 ‫יֵ֣צֶר סָמ֔וּךְ תִּצֹּ֖ר שָׁל֣וֹם ׀ שָׁל֑וֹם כִּ֥י בְךָ֖ בָּטֽוּחַ׃‬

You will keep him in deep peace

Whose thoughts are to rely on you,

For it is in you that he trusts.

deep peace ← peace, peace.

thoughts are to rely ← thought (is) rested.

trusts: or (is) secured.
Isa 26:4 ‫בִּטְח֥וּ בַֽיהוָ֖ה עֲדֵי־עַ֑ד כִּ֚י בְּיָ֣הּ יְהוָ֔ה צ֖וּר עוֹלָמִֽים׃‬

Trust in the Lord in all perpetuity,

For the rock of the ages

Is found in the Lord, the Lord.

the Lord: AV differs (JEHOVAH). See Ex 6:3.

all perpetuity ← perpetuities of perpetuity.
Isa 26:5 ‫כִּ֤י הֵשַׁח֙ יֹשְׁבֵ֣י מָר֔וֹם קִרְיָ֖ה נִשְׂגָּבָ֑ה יַשְׁפִּילֶ֤נָּה יַשְׁפִּילָהּ֙ עַד־אֶ֔רֶץ יַגִּיעֶ֖נָּה עַד־עָפָֽר׃‬

For he brings down those who dwell in a high place

In a town at high elevation.

He will raze it,

He will raze it to the ground;

He will bring it to the dust.

Isa 26:6 ‫תִּרְמְסֶ֖נָּה רָ֑גֶל רַגְלֵ֥י עָנִ֖י פַּעֲמֵ֥י דַלִּֽים׃‬

A foot – the feet of the poor –

Will trample on it,

As will the steps of the needy.

Isa 26:7 ‫אֹ֥רַח לַצַּדִּ֖יק מֵֽישָׁרִ֑ים יָשָׁ֕ר מַעְגַּ֥ל צַדִּ֖יק תְּפַלֵּֽס׃‬

The way of the righteous is straight;

You make the path of the righteous

Straight and level.

you make the path of the righteous ... straight and level ← you level straight the path of the righteous. AV differs (thou, most upright, dost weigh the path of the just).
Isa 26:8 ‫אַ֣ף אֹ֧רַח מִשְׁפָּטֶ֛יךָ יְהוָ֖ה קִוִּינ֑וּךָ לְשִׁמְךָ֥ וּֽלְזִכְרְךָ֖ תַּאֲוַת־נָֽפֶשׁ׃‬

Indeed, O Lord, we have waited for you

In the way of your judgments.

The longing of our inner being

Is for your name

And for remembrance of you.

inner being ← soul.

remembrance of you ← your remembrance, an objective genitive.
Isa 26:9 ‫נַפְשִׁ֤י אִוִּיתִ֙יךָ֙ בַּלַּ֔יְלָה אַף־רוּחִ֥י בְקִרְבִּ֖י אֲשַֽׁחֲרֶ֑ךָּ כִּ֞י כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר מִשְׁפָּטֶ֙יךָ֙ לָאָ֔רֶץ צֶ֥דֶק לָמְד֖וּ יֹשְׁבֵ֥י תֵבֵֽל׃‬

My inner being longs for you at night,

My spirit also inside me seeks you at dawn.

For when your judgments are given on the earth,

The inhabitants of the world learn righteousness.

my inner being longs for ← my soul, I long for.

my spirit ... seeks ← my spirit, I seek.
Isa 26:10 ‫יֻחַ֤ן רָשָׁע֙ בַּל־לָמַ֣ד צֶ֔דֶק בְּאֶ֥רֶץ נְכֹח֖וֹת יְעַוֵּ֑ל וּבַל־יִרְאֶ֖ה גֵּא֥וּת יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

Although the wicked man may be shown favour,

He does not learn righteousness.

In an upright land, he acts iniquitously,

And he will not see the majesty of the Lord.

upright land ← land of uprightnesses, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 26:11 ‫יְהוָ֛ה רָ֥מָה יָדְךָ֖ בַּל־יֶחֱזָי֑וּן יֶחֱז֤וּ וְיֵבֹ֙שׁוּ֙ קִנְאַת־עָ֔ם אַף־אֵ֖שׁ צָרֶ֥יךָ תֹאכְלֵֽם׃ ס‬

O Lord, your hand is high;

They do not see it,

But they will see the zeal of the people

And be ashamed.

Indeed, fire will consume your adversaries.

zeal of the people: AV differs, with zeal as envy.

fire will consume your adversaries: we associate the words as MT; AV differs (the fire of thine enemies shall devour them).
Isa 26:12 ‫יְהוָ֕ה תִּשְׁפֹּ֥ת שָׁל֖וֹם לָ֑נוּ כִּ֛י גַּ֥ם כָּֽל־מַעֲשֵׂ֖ינוּ פָּעַ֥לְתָּ לָּֽנוּ׃‬

O Lord, you arrange peace for us,

For you are even the one at work in all our deeds for us.

the one at work ← working.
Isa 26:13 ‫יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ בְּעָל֥וּנוּ אֲדֹנִ֖ים זֽוּלָתֶ֑ךָ לְבַד־בְּךָ֖ נַזְכִּ֥יר שְׁמֶֽךָ׃‬

O Lord our God,

Various masters other than you have had dominion over us,

But yours is the only name that we make mention of.

yours is the only name that we make mention of ← it (is) only at you (that) we make mention of your name.
Isa 26:14 ‫מֵתִים֙ בַּל־יִחְי֔וּ רְפָאִ֖ים בַּל־יָקֻ֑מוּ לָכֵ֤ן פָּקַ֙דְתָּ֙ וַתַּשְׁמִידֵ֔ם וַתְּאַבֵּ֥ד כָּל־זֵ֖כֶר לָֽמוֹ׃‬

They are dead,

They shall not live,

The Rephaim shall not rise,

Which is why you have visited them and destroyed them

And have obliterated all memory of them.

Rephaim: see [CB] App. 25. AV differs (deceased).
Isa 26:15 ‫יָסַ֤פְתָּ לַגּוֹי֙ יְהוָ֔ה יָסַ֥פְתָּ לַגּ֖וֹי נִכְבָּ֑דְתָּ רִחַ֖קְתָּ כָּל־קַצְוֵי־אָֽרֶץ׃‬

You have enlarged the nation, O Lord,

You have increased the nation.

You are glorified;

You have extended all the boundaries of the land.

extended ← made remote.

boundaries of the land: or ends of the earth.
Isa 26:16 ‫יְהוָ֖ה בַּצַּ֣ר פְּקָד֑וּךָ צָק֣וּן לַ֔חַשׁ מוּסָרְךָ֖ לָֽמוֹ׃‬

In distress they appealed to you, O Lord;

They poured out whispering

When they were receiving your discipline.

they were receiving(there was) to them.
Isa 26:17 ‫כְּמ֤וֹ הָרָה֙ תַּקְרִ֣יב לָלֶ֔דֶת תָּחִ֥יל תִּזְעַ֖ק בַּחֲבָלֶ֑יהָ כֵּ֛ן הָיִ֥ינוּ מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ יְהוָֽה׃‬

As a pregnant woman who is about to give birth,

Who writhes and shouts in her birth pangs,

So were we before you, O Lord.

Isa 26:18 ‫הָרִ֣ינוּ חַ֔לְנוּ כְּמ֖וֹ יָלַ֣דְנוּ ר֑וּחַ יְשׁוּעֹת֙ בַּל־נַ֣עֲשֶׂה אֶ֔רֶץ וּבַֽל־יִפְּל֖וּ יֹשְׁבֵ֥י תֵבֵֽל׃‬

We have conceived,

We have been through birth pangs,

But it is as if we have given birth to wind,

Not to salvation which we were to bring to the earth,

Nor did any inhabitants of the earth come out of the womb.

bring ← do.

come ← fall. See [CB].
Isa 26:19 ‫יִֽחְי֣וּ מֵתֶ֔יךָ נְבֵלָתִ֖י יְקוּמ֑וּן הָקִ֨יצוּ וְרַנְּנ֜וּ שֹׁכְנֵ֣י עָפָ֗ר כִּ֣י טַ֤ל אוֹרֹת֙ טַלֶּ֔ךָ וָאָ֖רֶץ רְפָאִ֥ים תַּפִּֽיל׃ ס‬

Your dead, and my dead body,

Will live and rise.

Awake, and sing for joy,

You who lie in the dust,

For your dew is resplendent dew,

But the earth will bring down the Rephaim.

resplendent ← of lights, or herbs, as in 2 Ki 4:39, where the spelling is in scriptio defectiva.

bring down ← cause to fall.

Rephaim: see [CB] App. 25. AV differs (dead).
Isa 26:20 ‫לֵ֤ךְ עַמִּי֙ בֹּ֣א בַחֲדָרֶ֔יךָ וּֽסְגֹ֥ר *דלתיך **דְּלָתְךָ֖ בַּעֲדֶ֑ךָ חֲבִ֥י כִמְעַט־רֶ֖גַע עַד־*יעבור־**יַעֲבָר־זָֽעַם׃‬

Go, my people,

Enter your rooms,

Close {K: your doors} [Q: your door] after you;

Hide for a very little while

Until the indignation has passed.

has passed: the ketiv can be regarded as the scriptio plena spelling of the qeré.

go ... enter: masculine singular.

hide: feminine singular, or a paragogic yod.

very: the ke denoting intensity. Compare [AnLx] כְּ II (c).
Isa 26:21 ‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ יֹצֵ֣א מִמְּקוֹמ֔וֹ לִפְקֹ֛ד עֲוֺ֥ן יֹֽשֵׁב־הָאָ֖רֶץ עָלָ֑יו וְגִלְּתָ֤ה הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ אֶת־דָּמֶ֔יהָ וְלֹֽא־תְכַסֶּ֥ה ע֖וֹד עַל־הֲרוּגֶֽיהָ׃ ס‬

For behold, the Lord is about to come out of his place

To requite the iniquity of the inhabitants of the land.

And the earth will reveal its blood,

And it will no longer cover up

Those killed which it holds.

requite ← visit on him / it.

those killed which it holdsits killed.
Isa 27:1 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֡וּא יִפְקֹ֣ד יְהוָה֩ בְּחַרְב֨וֹ הַקָּשָׁ֜ה וְהַגְּדוֹלָ֣ה וְהַֽחֲזָקָ֗ה עַ֤ל לִוְיָתָן֙ נָחָ֣שׁ בָּרִ֔חַ וְעַל֙ לִוְיָתָ֔ן נָחָ֖שׁ עֲקַלָּת֑וֹן וְהָרַ֥ג אֶת־הַתַּנִּ֖ין אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּיָּֽם׃ ס‬

On that day the Lord will requite

With his firm and large and strong sword

Leviathan the fugitive serpent,

And Leviathan the crooked serpent,

And he will kill the monster in the sea.

fugitive: AV differs (piercing).

monster in the sea: or, [CB], crocodile in the Nile. See Job 40:25 (Job 41:1AV).
Isa 27:2 ‫בַּיּ֖וֹם הַה֑וּא כֶּ֥רֶם חֶ֖מֶד עַנּוּ־לָֽהּ׃‬

On that day,

Sing to her of a delightful vineyard.

delightful: AV differs (of red wine).
Isa 27:3 ‫אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ נֹֽצְרָ֔הּ לִרְגָעִ֖ים אַשְׁקֶ֑נָּה פֶּ֚ן יִפְקֹ֣ד עָלֶ֔יהָ לַ֥יְלָה וָי֖וֹם אֶצֳּרֶֽנָּה׃‬

I am the Lord who guards it;

I water it from time to time.

So that no-one encroaches on it,

I guard it night and day.

from time to time ← at moments.

encroaches on ← visits. AV differs (hurt).
Isa 27:4 ‫חֵמָ֖ה אֵ֣ין לִ֑י מִֽי־יִתְּנֵ֜נִי שָׁמִ֥יר שַׁ֙יִת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה אֶפְשְׂעָ֥ה בָ֖הּ אֲצִיתֶ֥נָּה יָּֽחַד׃‬

I am not furious;

Who would assign me to briars and thorns in war?

I would march against them;

I would set them on fire

In one go.

them (2x)it / her, referring to the briars and thorns collectively.

in one go ← together.
Isa 27:5 ‫א֚וֹ יַחֲזֵ֣ק בְּמָעוּזִּ֔י יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה שָׁל֖וֹם לִ֑י שָׁל֖וֹם יַֽעֲשֶׂה־לִּֽי׃‬

Or who would seize my stronghold?

Let him make peace with me;

Let it be peace that he makes with me.

Isa 27:6 ‫הַבָּאִים֙ יַשְׁרֵ֣שׁ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב יָצִ֥יץ וּפָרַ֖ח יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּמָלְא֥וּ פְנֵי־תֵבֵ֖ל תְּנוּבָֽה׃ ס‬

When they come,

Jacob will strike root,

Israel will flower and flourish,

And the face of the world will be full of fruit.

fruit ← produce, but also fruit, which can be taken in a wide sense.

AV differs at the end ([Israel] will fill the face of the earth), which is discordant in number.
Isa 27:7 ‫הַכְּמַכַּ֥ת מַכֵּ֖הוּ הִכָּ֑הוּ אִם־כְּהֶ֥רֶג הֲרֻגָ֖יו הֹרָֽג׃‬

Has he attacked him

Like the attack of the one attacking him?

Or has he been killed

In a way like the killing of those killed by him?

Isa 27:8 ‫בְּסַּאסְּאָ֖ה בְּשַׁלְחָ֣הּ תְּרִיבֶ֑נָּה הָגָ֛ה בְּרוּח֥וֹ הַקָּשָׁ֖ה בְּי֥וֹם קָדִֽים׃‬

In moderation, when you sent them away,

You disputed with them.

He expelled them by means of his harsh wind,

On the day of the east wind.

them (2x)she ... her, i.e. Israel [CB]. AV differs in several respects.
Isa 27:9 ‫לָכֵ֗ן בְּזֹאת֙ יְכֻפַּ֣ר עֲוֺֽן־יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְזֶ֕ה כָּל־פְּרִ֖י הָסִ֣ר חַטָּאת֑וֹ בְּשׂוּמ֣וֹ ׀ כָּל־אַבְנֵ֣י מִזְבֵּ֗חַ כְּאַבְנֵי־גִר֙ מְנֻפָּצ֔וֹת לֹֽא־יָקֻ֥מוּ אֲשֵׁרִ֖ים וְחַמָּנִֽים׃‬

So by this means,

Jacob's iniquity will be atoned for,

And this is all the fruit of removing his sin,

When he makes all the stones of the altar

Like chalk stones which are dashed to pieces.

The phallic parks and the sun-images

Shall not stand.

Rom 11:27.

of removing: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 27:10 ‫כִּ֣י עִ֤יר בְּצוּרָה֙ בָּדָ֔ד נָוֶ֕ה מְשֻׁלָּ֥ח וְנֶעֱזָ֖ב כַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר שָׁ֣ם יִרְעֶ֥ה עֵ֛גֶל וְשָׁ֥ם יִרְבָּ֖ץ וְכִלָּ֥ה סְעִפֶֽיהָ׃‬

For a fortified city will be forlorn;

A dwelling place will be forsaken

And abandoned like the desert.

There the calf will graze,

And there it will lie down,

And eat from its branches.

its: referring to the city (feminine) in some metaphorical sense.
Isa 27:11 ‫בִּיבֹ֤שׁ קְצִירָהּ֙ תִּשָּׁבַ֔רְנָה נָשִׁ֕ים בָּא֖וֹת מְאִיר֣וֹת אוֹתָ֑הּ כִּ֣י לֹ֤א עַם־בִּינוֹת֙ ה֔וּא עַל־כֵּן֙ לֹֽא־יְרַחֲמֶ֣נּוּ עֹשֵׂ֔הוּ וְיֹצְר֖וֹ לֹ֥א יְחֻנֶּֽנּוּ׃ ס‬

When its harvest is dried up,

They will be broken.

Women will come to set it on fire,

For it is not a people of understanding,

Which is why their maker

Will not show them compassion,

And he who formed them

Will not show them mercy.

they: referring to the stones (fem.) of Isa 27:9 [CB].

it: referring to the city.
Isa 27:12 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יַחְבֹּ֧ט יְהוָ֛ה מִשִּׁבֹּ֥לֶת הַנָּהָ֖ר עַד־נַ֣חַל מִצְרָ֑יִם וְאַתֶּ֧ם תְּלֻקְּט֛וּ לְאַחַ֥ד אֶחָ֖ד בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the Lord will thresh you out,

From the rising of the river

To the Brook of Egypt,

And you will be gleaned up one by one,

You sons of Israel.

from the rising ... to the Brook of Egypt: perhaps signifying from the far north to the far south. On the Brook of Egypt, see Num 34:5.

the river: i.e. the Euphrates [CB].
Isa 27:13 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִתָּקַע֮ בְּשׁוֹפָ֣ר גָּדוֹל֒ וּבָ֗אוּ הָאֹֽבְדִים֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אַשּׁ֔וּר וְהַנִּדָּחִ֖ים בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲו֧וּ לַיהוָ֛ה בְּהַ֥ר הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the great ramshorn will be sounded,

And those who were about to perish in the land of Assyria will come,

As will those driven out in the land of Egypt,

And they will worship the Lord

In the holy mountain in Jerusalem.

holy mountain ← mountain of holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 28:1 ‫ה֗וֹי עֲטֶ֤רֶת גֵּאוּת֙ שִׁכֹּרֵ֣י אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְצִ֥יץ נֹבֵ֖ל צְבִ֣י תִפְאַרְתּ֑וֹ אֲשֶׁ֛ר עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ גֵּֽיא־שְׁמָנִ֖ים הֲל֥וּמֵי יָֽיִן׃‬

Woe to the crown of pride,

To the drunkards of Ephraim,

Whose magnificent splendour

Is a fading flower

Which is in the best fertile valley

You who are impaired by wine.

magnificent splendour ← splendour of magnificence, a Hebraic genitive.

in the best fertile valley ← at the head of the valley of fatnesses.
Isa 28:2 ‫הִנֵּ֨ה חָזָ֤ק וְאַמִּץ֙ לַֽאדֹנָ֔י כְּזֶ֥רֶם בָּרָ֖ד שַׂ֣עַר קָ֑טֶב כְּ֠זֶרֶם מַ֣יִם כַּבִּירִ֥ים שֹׁטְפִ֛ים הִנִּ֥יחַ לָאָ֖רֶץ בְּיָֽד׃‬

Behold, the Lord* has what is strong and powerful,

Such as a deluge of hail

– A destructive storm –

Such as a deluge of torrential water,

Causing flooding,

Which he sends down to earth with his hand.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

destructive storm ← storm of destruction, a Hebraic genitive.

torrential ← mighty.
Isa 28:3 ‫בְּרַגְלַ֖יִם תֵּֽרָמַ֑סְנָה עֲטֶ֥רֶת גֵּא֖וּת שִׁכּוֹרֵ֥י אֶפְרָֽיִם׃‬

The crown of pride,

The drunkards of Ephraim,

Will be trodden under foot.

under foot ← by feet.
Isa 28:4 ‫וְֽהָ֨יְתָ֜ה צִיצַ֤ת נֹבֵל֙ צְבִ֣י תִפְאַרְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־רֹ֖אשׁ גֵּ֣יא שְׁמָנִ֑ים כְּבִכּוּרָהּ֙ בְּטֶ֣רֶם קַ֔יִץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִרְאֶ֤ה הָֽרֹאֶה֙ אוֹתָ֔הּ בְּעוֹדָ֥הּ בְּכַפּ֖וֹ יִבְלָעֶֽנָּה׃ ס‬

And the magnificent splendour,

Which is in the best fertile valley,

Will be a fading flower,

Like its early fruit before the summer,

Which, when the observer sees it,

He swallows down

While it is still in his hand.

magnificent splendour ... in the best fertile valley: see Isa 28:1.
Isa 28:5 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת לַעֲטֶ֣רֶת צְבִ֔י וְלִצְפִירַ֖ת תִּפְאָרָ֑ה לִשְׁאָ֖ר עַמּֽוֹ׃‬

On that day the Lord of hosts

Will be a crown of splendour

And a diadem of magnificence

To the remainder of his people,

Isa 28:6 ‫וּלְר֖וּחַ מִשְׁפָּ֑ט לַיּוֹשֵׁב֙ עַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּ֔ט וְלִ֨גְבוּרָ֔ה מְשִׁיבֵ֥י מִלְחָמָ֖ה שָֽׁעְרָה׃ ס‬

And a spirit of justice to him who sits in judgment,

And a spirit of valour to them

Who repulse the assault on the gate.

repulse the assault on the gate ← repulse the war (directed) towards the gate. AV differs (turn the battle to the gate), which is also possible.
Isa 28:7 ‫וְגַם־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ בַּיַּ֣יִן שָׁג֔וּ וּבַשֵּׁכָ֖ר תָּע֑וּ כֹּהֵ֣ן וְנָבִיא֩ שָׁג֨וּ בַשֵּׁכָ֜ר נִבְלְע֣וּ מִן־הַיַּ֗יִן תָּעוּ֙ מִן־הַשֵּׁכָ֔ר שָׁגוּ֙ בָּֽרֹאֶ֔ה פָּק֖וּ פְּלִילִיָּֽה׃‬

So these too have erred because of wine

And have gone astray because of liquor.

Priest and prophet have erred because of liquor;

They have been swallowed up by the wine.

They have gone astray because of the liquor,

They have erred in the vision;

They have floundered in the administration of justice.

floundered ← been unreliable.

the administration of justice: in a single word, judicature.
Isa 28:8 ‫כִּ֚י כָּל־שֻׁלְחָנ֔וֹת מָלְא֖וּ קִ֣יא צֹאָ֑ה בְּלִ֖י מָקֽוֹם׃ ס‬

For all the tables are full of vomit and excrement

Without a clean space.

Isa 28:9 ‫אֶת־מִי֙ יוֹרֶ֣ה דֵעָ֔ה וְאֶת־מִ֖י יָבִ֣ין שְׁמוּעָ֑ה גְּמוּלֵי֙ מֵֽחָלָ֔ב עַתִּיקֵ֖י מִשָּׁדָֽיִם׃‬

To whom will he impart knowledge?

And to whom will he disclose information?

– Those who have been weaned from milk,

And who have grown out of breastfeeding.

disclose information ← make understand a report.
Isa 28:10 ‫כִּ֣י צַ֤ו לָצָו֙ צַ֣ו לָצָ֔ו קַ֥ו לָקָ֖ו קַ֣ו לָקָ֑ו זְעֵ֥יר שָׁ֖ם זְעֵ֥יר שָֽׁם׃‬

For it is commandment upon commandment,

Commandment upon commandment,

Rule upon rule,

Rule upon rule;

A little here, a little there.

rule upon rule (2x): compare Isa 18:2.
Isa 28:11 ‫כִּ֚י בְּלַעֲגֵ֣י שָׂפָ֔ה וּבְלָשׁ֖וֹן אַחֶ֑רֶת יְדַבֵּ֖ר אֶל־הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּֽה׃‬

For he will speak to this people

In jabbering foreign speech,

And in a different language

1 Cor 14:21.

jabbering foreign speech ← jabberings / derisions of lips, [Ges-HCL] supporting foreign.
Isa 28:12 ‫אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ אָמַ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם זֹ֤את הַמְּנוּחָה֙ הָנִ֣יחוּ לֶֽעָיֵ֔ף וְזֹ֖את הַמַּרְגֵּעָ֑ה וְלֹ֥א אָב֖וּא שְׁמֽוֹעַ׃‬

To this people to whom he said,

“This is the rest;

Give the weary rest”,

And, “This is the tranquillity.”

But they were unwilling to hear.

1 Cor 14:21.
Isa 28:13 ‫וְהָיָ֨ה לָהֶ֜ם דְּבַר־יְהוָ֗ה צַ֣ו לָצָ֞ו צַ֤ו לָצָו֙ קַ֤ו לָקָו֙ קַ֣ו לָקָ֔ו זְעֵ֥יר שָׁ֖ם זְעֵ֣יר שָׁ֑ם לְמַ֨עַן יֵלְכ֜וּ וְכָשְׁל֤וּ אָחוֹר֙ וְנִשְׁבָּ֔רוּ וְנוֹקְשׁ֖וּ וְנִלְכָּֽדוּ׃ פ‬

And the word of the Lord to them was

Commandment upon commandment,

Commandment upon commandment,

Rule upon rule,

Rule upon rule,

A little here, a little there,

So that they might proceed.

But they staggered backwards

And were crippled

And ensnared and caught.

Isa 28:14 ‫לָכֵ֛ן שִׁמְע֥וּ דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אַנְשֵׁ֣י לָצ֑וֹן מֹֽשְׁלֵי֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

So then, hear the word of the Lord,

You scornful men,

You rulers of this people

Who are in Jerusalem.

scornful men ← men of scorn, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 28:15 ‫כִּ֣י אֲמַרְתֶּ֗ם כָּרַ֤תְנֽוּ בְרִית֙ אֶת־מָ֔וֶת וְעִם־שְׁא֖וֹל עָשִׂ֣ינוּ חֹזֶ֑ה *שיט **שׁ֣וֹט שׁוֹטֵ֤ף כִּֽי־*עבר **יַֽעֲבֹר֙ לֹ֣א יְבוֹאֵ֔נוּ כִּ֣י שַׂ֧מְנוּ כָזָ֛ב מַחְסֵ֖נוּ וּבַשֶּׁ֥קֶר נִסְתָּֽרְנוּ׃ ס‬

For you have said,

“We have made a covenant with death,

And we have made a contract with the grave,

That when the overwhelming scourge passes through,

It will not come on us,

For we have made the lie our refuge,

And we have hidden in falsehood.”

scourge: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

passes through: the ketiv and qeré are different conjugated forms of the same word, with a similar meaning.
Isa 28:16 ‫לָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה הִנְנִ֛י יִסַּ֥ד בְּצִיּ֖וֹן אָ֑בֶן אֶ֣בֶן בֹּ֜חַן פִּנַּ֤ת יִקְרַת֙ מוּסָ֣ד מוּסָּ֔ד הַֽמַּאֲמִ֖ין לֹ֥א יָחִֽישׁ׃‬

This is why my Lord the Lord says,

“Behold, I am about to lay as a foundation

A stone in Zion,

A stone for testing,

A cornerstone, precious as a well-founded foundation,

And he who believes in it will not blunder.

Rom 9:33, Rom 10:11, 1 Pet 2:6.

I am about to ← behold me.

cornerstone, precious as a well-founded foundation ← corner of precious of founded foundation.
Isa 28:17 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י מִשְׁפָּט֙ לְקָ֔ו וּצְדָקָ֖ה לְמִשְׁקָ֑לֶת וְיָעָ֤ה בָרָד֙ מַחְסֵ֣ה כָזָ֔ב וְסֵ֥תֶר מַ֖יִם יִשְׁטֹֽפוּ׃‬

And I will establish justice according to a straight line,

And righteousness according to a plummet.

And hail will sweep away the covering of the lie,

And water will flush secrecy out.

line: or commandment, as in Isa 28:10.

sweep away ← shovel away.

flush ← wash away, overflow.
Isa 28:18 ‫וְכֻפַּ֤ר בְּרִֽיתְכֶם֙ אֶת־מָ֔וֶת וְחָזוּתְכֶ֥ם אֶת־שְׁא֖וֹל לֹ֣א תָק֑וּם שׁ֤וֹט שׁוֹטֵף֙ כִּ֣י יַֽעֲבֹ֔ר וִהְיִ֥יתֶם ל֖וֹ לְמִרְמָֽס׃‬

And your covenant with death will be abolished,

And your contract with the grave will not stand.

When the overwhelming scourge passes through,

You will be an object for it to tread down.

abolished: or atoned for.

an object for it to tread down ← for treading down.
Isa 28:19 ‫מִדֵּ֤י עָבְרוֹ֙ יִקַּ֣ח אֶתְכֶ֔ם כִּֽי־בַבֹּ֧קֶר בַּבֹּ֛קֶר יַעֲבֹ֖ר בַּיּ֣וֹם וּבַלָּ֑יְלָה וְהָיָ֥ה רַק־זְוָעָ֖ה הָבִ֥ין שְׁמוּעָֽה׃‬

Every time when it passes through

It will take you,

For morning by morning it will pass through,

By day and by night.

And it will be a shocking thing

Just to contemplate hearing about.

Isa 28:20 ‫כִּֽי־קָצַ֥ר הַמַּצָּ֖ע מֵֽהִשְׂתָּרֵ֑עַ וְהַמַּסֵּכָ֥ה צָ֖רָה כְּהִתְכַּנֵּֽס׃‬

For the bed will be too short

To stretch oneself in,

And the blanket too narrow,

To wrap oneself up in.

Isa 28:21 ‫כִּ֤י כְהַר־פְּרָצִים֙ יָק֣וּם יְהוָ֔ה כְּעֵ֖מֶק בְּגִבְע֣וֹן יִרְגָּ֑ז לַעֲשׂ֤וֹת מַעֲשֵׂ֙הוּ֙ זָ֣ר מַעֲשֵׂ֔הוּ וְלַֽעֲבֹד֙ עֲבֹ֣דָת֔וֹ נָכְרִיָּ֖ה עֲבֹדָתֽוֹ׃‬

For the Lord will arise as at Mount Perazim;

He will be stirred up as in the Valley of Gibeon,

To carry out his business

– His peculiar business –

And to accomplish his work

– His strange work.”

Gibeon: see Josh 9:3.
Isa 28:22 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ אַל־תִּתְלוֹצָ֔צוּ פֶּֽן־יֶחְזְק֖וּ מֽוֹסְרֵיכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־כָלָ֨ה וְנֶחֱרָצָ֜ה שָׁמַ֗עְתִּי מֵאֵ֨ת אֲדֹנָ֧י יְהוִ֛ה צְבָא֖וֹת עַל־כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

So now, don't behave like mockers,

So that your fetters are not tightened,

For I have heard of a conclusion

From the Lord

– The Lord of hosts –

Which has been determined over all the earth.

tightened ← hardened, strengthened, pressing.
Isa 28:23 ‫הַאֲזִ֥ינוּ וְשִׁמְע֖וּ קוֹלִ֑י הַקְשִׁ֥יבוּ וְשִׁמְע֖וּ אִמְרָתִֽי׃‬

Listen and hear my voice;

Attend and hear what I have to say.

what I have to say ← my oration.
Isa 28:24 ‫הֲכֹ֣ל הַיּ֔וֹם יַחֲרֹ֥שׁ הַחֹרֵ֖שׁ לִזְרֹ֑עַ יְפַתַּ֥ח וִֽישַׂדֵּ֖ד אַדְמָתֽוֹ׃‬

Does the ploughman plough all day

In order to sow?

Does he open up and harrow his ground?

Isa 28:25 ‫הֲלוֹא֙ אִם־שִׁוָּ֣ה פָנֶ֔יהָ וְהֵפִ֥יץ קֶ֖צַח וְכַמֹּ֣ן יִזְרֹ֑ק וְשָׂ֨ם חִטָּ֤ה שׂוֹרָה֙ וּשְׂעֹרָ֣ה נִסְמָ֔ן וְכֻסֶּ֖מֶת גְּבֻלָתֽוֹ׃‬

Does he not,

When he has levelled its surface,

Scatter black caraway

And strew cumin?

And put wheat in a row,

And is barley not marked off,

And is spelt not sown

In its allocated area?

area ← border.
Isa 28:26 ‫וְיִסְּר֥וֹ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט אֱלֹהָ֥יו יוֹרֶֽנּוּ׃‬

And there is one who instructs him in justice:

His God teaches him.

Isa 28:27 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֤א בֶֽחָרוּץ֙ י֣וּדַשׁ קֶ֔צַח וְאוֹפַ֣ן עֲגָלָ֔ה עַל־כַּמֹּ֖ן יוּסָּ֑ב כִּ֧י בַמַּטֶּ֛ה יֵחָ֥בֶט קֶ֖צַח וְכַמֹּ֥ן בַּשָּֽׁבֶט׃‬

For black caraway is not threshed with a threshing board,

Nor is a wagon wheel turned on cumin,

For black caraway is beaten with a stick,

And cumin with a rod.

Isa 28:28 ‫לֶ֣חֶם יוּדָ֔ק כִּ֛י לֹ֥א לָנֶ֖צַח אָד֣וֹשׁ יְדוּשֶׁ֑נּוּ וְ֠הָמַם גִּלְגַּ֧ל עֶגְלָת֛וֹ וּפָרָשָׁ֖יו לֹֽא־יְדֻקֶּֽנּוּ׃‬

Is flour ground fine?

For he will not thresh away at it for ever,

Nor will he drive the wheel of his wagon,

Nor will his horsemen grind it fine.

flour ← bread.

thresh away: infinitive absolute.

grind it fine: singular, but discordance is allowable; otherwise, the subject is the ploughman, and the horsemen have to be accommodated.
Isa 28:29 ‫גַּם־זֹ֕את מֵעִ֛ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת יָצָ֑אָה הִפְלִ֣יא עֵצָ֔ה הִגְדִּ֖יל תּוּשִׁיָּֽה׃ ס‬

This too originates

From the Lord of hosts.

He has made a wonderful decision;

He has shown magnificent sound wisdom.

originates ← goes out.

made a wonderful decision ← done counsel wondrously.

shown magnificent sound wisdom ← done sound wisdom greatly.
Isa 29:1 ‫ה֚וֹי אֲרִיאֵ֣ל אֲרִיאֵ֔ל קִרְיַ֖ת חָנָ֣ה דָוִ֑ד סְפ֥וּ שָׁנָ֛ה עַל־שָׁנָ֖ה חַגִּ֥ים יִנְקֹֽפוּ׃‬

Woe to Ariel, to Ariel,

The town where David encamped.

Let the years mount up,

Let the festivals come round,

let the years mount up ← add year to year. AV differs somewhat (let them kill sacrifices).
Isa 29:2 ‫וַהֲצִיק֖וֹתִי לַֽאֲרִיאֵ֑ל וְהָיְתָ֤ה תַֽאֲנִיָּה֙ וַֽאֲנִיָּ֔ה וְהָ֥יְתָה לִּ֖י כַּאֲרִיאֵֽל׃‬

But I will distress Ariel,

And there will be sighing and sorrow,

And it will be to me

A veritable lion of God.

veritable: the ke denoting intensity. Compare [AnLx] כְּ II (c), noting intensity. Compare Gen 24:28, Josh 7:3, Luke 9:28.

lion of God: the word Ariel. [CB] translates a hearth of God, referring to Ezek 43:15.
Isa 29:3 ‫וְחָנִ֥יתִי כַדּ֖וּר עָלָ֑יִךְ וְצַרְתִּ֤י עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ מֻצָּ֔ב וַהֲקִֽימֹתִ֥י עָלַ֖יִךְ מְצֻרֹֽת׃‬

And I will encamp against you in a circle,

And I will besiege you with a garrison,

And I will raise siege works against you.

in a circle ← as a circle.

garrison: AV differs (mount).
Isa 29:4 ‫וְשָׁפַלְתְּ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ תְּדַבֵּ֔רִי וּמֵֽעָפָ֖ר תִּשַּׁ֣ח אִמְרָתֵ֑ךְ וְֽ֠הָיָה כְּא֤וֹב מֵאֶ֙רֶץ֙ קוֹלֵ֔ךְ וּמֵעָפָ֖ר אִמְרָתֵ֥ךְ תְּצַפְצֵֽף׃‬

And you will be low,

And you will speak from the ground,

And being weighed down,

Your speech will be from the dust,

And your voice will be like that of a necromancer,

Coming out of the ground,

And your articulation will be whispering from the dust.

articulation ← speech.
Isa 29:5 ‫וְהָיָ֛ה כְּאָבָ֥ק דַּ֖ק הֲמ֣וֹן זָרָ֑יִךְ וּכְמֹ֤ץ עֹבֵר֙ הֲמ֣וֹן עָֽרִיצִ֔ים וְהָיָ֖ה לְפֶ֥תַע פִּתְאֹֽם׃‬

And there will be a horde of people foreign to you,

Like fine dust,

And a horde of violent men,

Like chaff passing by,

And it will happen all of a sudden.

all of a sudden ← in suddenness suddenly.
Isa 29:6 ‫מֵעִ֨ם יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ תִּפָּקֵ֔ד בְּרַ֥עַם וּבְרַ֖עַשׁ וְק֣וֹל גָּד֑וֹל סוּפָה֙ וּסְעָרָ֔ה וְלַ֖הַב אֵ֥שׁ אוֹכֵלָֽה׃‬

You will be visited by the Lord of hosts

With thunder and with an earthquake and a loud noise,

A whirlwind and a storm,

And a flame of devouring fire,

earthquake ← trembling.
Isa 29:7 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כַּֽחֲלוֹם֙ חֲז֣וֹן לַ֔יְלָה הֲמוֹן֙ כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם הַצֹּבְאִ֖ים עַל־אֲרִיאֵ֑ל וְכָל־צֹבֶ֙יהָ֙ וּמְצֹ֣דָתָ֔הּ וְהַמְּצִיקִ֖ים לָֽהּ׃‬

And a horde from all the nations which are at war with Ariel.

And all those attacking it and its citadel,

And those who distress it

Will be like a bad dream

– A vision in the night.

Isa 29:8 ‫וְהָיָ֡ה כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ יַחֲלֹ֨ם הָרָעֵ֜ב וְהִנֵּ֣ה אוֹכֵ֗ל וְהֵקִיץ֮ וְרֵיקָ֣ה נַפְשׁוֹ֒ וְכַאֲשֶׁ֨ר יַחֲלֹ֤ם הַצָּמֵא֙ וְהִנֵּ֣ה שֹׁתֶ֔ה וְהֵקִיץ֙ וְהִנֵּ֣ה עָיֵ֔ף וְנַפְשׁ֖וֹ שׁוֹקֵקָ֑ה כֵּ֣ן יִֽהְיֶ֗ה הֲמוֹן֙ כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם הַצֹּבְאִ֖ים עַל־הַ֥ר צִיּֽוֹן׃ ס‬

And it will come to pass

That just as when a hungry man dreams that he is eating,

But when he wakes up,

His belly is empty,

And as when a thirsty man dreams that he is drinking,

But when he wakes up,

He finds that he is weary,

And his being craves water,

So the horde of all the nations waging war against Mount Zion will be.

dreams that (2x)dreams and behold.

belly ← soul.

he finds that ← behold.

being ← soul.
Isa 29:9 ‫הִתְמַהְמְה֣וּ וּתְמָ֔הוּ הִשְׁתַּֽעַשְׁע֖וּ וָשֹׁ֑עוּ שָֽׁכְר֣וּ וְלֹא־יַ֔יִן נָע֖וּ וְלֹ֥א שֵׁכָֽר׃‬

Rest and be astonished;

Indulge yourself and be dazzled:

They are drunk, but not with wine;

They stagger, but not with strong liquor.

they are drunk ... they stagger: these words could be re-pointed as (ironic) imperatives.

indulge yourself and be dazzled: AV differs (cry ye out, and cry).
Isa 29:10 ‫כִּֽי־נָסַ֨ךְ עֲלֵיכֶ֤ם יְהוָה֙ ר֣וּחַ תַּרְדֵּמָ֔ה וַיְעַצֵּ֖ם אֶת־עֵֽינֵיכֶ֑ם אֶת־הַנְּבִיאִ֛ים וְאֶת־רָאשֵׁיכֶ֥ם הַחֹזִ֖ים כִּסָּֽה׃‬

For the Lord has poured a spirit of deep sleep over you,

And he has closed your eyes.

He has covered over the prophets,

And your leaders, the seers.

Rom 11:8.
Isa 29:11 ‫וַתְּהִ֨י לָכֶ֜ם חָז֣וּת הַכֹּ֗ל כְּדִבְרֵי֮ הַסֵּ֣פֶר הֶֽחָתוּם֒ אֲשֶֽׁר־יִתְּנ֣וּ אֹת֗וֹ אֶל־יוֹדֵ֥עַ *הספר **סֵ֛פֶר לֵאמֹ֖ר קְרָ֣א נָא־זֶ֑ה וְאָמַר֙ לֹ֣א אוּכַ֔ל כִּ֥י חָת֖וּם הֽוּא׃‬ And the vision of all this will be to you like the words of a sealed book which they give to a literate man, saying, “Please read this”, but he says, “I am not able to, for it is sealed.” a literate mana knower of the book / a book (ketiv / qeré).

a sealed book ← the sealed book. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
Isa 29:12 ‫וְנִתַּ֣ן הַסֵּ֗פֶר עַל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־יָדַ֥ע סֵ֛פֶר לֵאמֹ֖ר קְרָ֣א נָא־זֶ֑ה וְאָמַ֕ר לֹ֥א יָדַ֖עְתִּי סֵֽפֶר׃ ס‬ Or like a book which is given to someone who does not know how to read, while they say, “Do read this”, and he says, “I do not know how to read.” know how to read (2x)know book.
Isa 29:13 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲדֹנָ֗י יַ֚עַן כִּ֤י נִגַּשׁ֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה בְּפִ֤יו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו֙ כִּבְּד֔וּנִי וְלִבּ֖וֹ רִחַ֣ק מִמֶּ֑נִּי וַתְּהִ֤י יִרְאָתָם֙ אֹתִ֔י מִצְוַ֥ת אֲנָשִׁ֖ים מְלֻמָּדָֽה׃‬ And the Lord* said,

“Since this people approaches with their mouth,

And with their lips they honour me,

But they have put their heart far from me,

And their fear of me is a commandment of men

Which has been taught them,

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

Matt 15:8, Matt 15:9, Mark 7:6, Mark 7:7.
Isa 29:14 ‫לָכֵ֗ן הִנְנִ֥י יוֹסִ֛ף לְהַפְלִ֥יא אֶת־הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה הַפְלֵ֣א וָפֶ֑לֶא וְאָֽבְדָה֙ חָכְמַ֣ת חֲכָמָ֔יו וּבִינַ֥ת נְבֹנָ֖יו תִּסְתַּתָּֽר׃ ס‬

Watch out for me doing more wonders with this people

Doing wondrous wonders –

As the wisdom of their wise men comes to nothing,

And the intelligence of their intellectuals

Goes into hiding.”

1 Cor 1:19.

watch out for me ← behold me.

doing wondrous wonders ← acting wondrously and a wonder, with an infinitive absolute.
Isa 29:15 ‫ה֛וֹי הַמַּעֲמִיקִ֥ים מֵֽיהוָ֖ה לַסְתִּ֣ר עֵצָ֑ה וְהָיָ֤ה בְמַחְשָׁךְ֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ מִ֥י רֹאֵ֖נוּ וּמִ֥י יוֹדְעֵֽנוּ׃‬

Woe to those who lay deep designs

Away from the Lord,

So hiding their purpose,

And whose works are in darkness,

And who say, “Who can see us?”

And, “Who knows us?”

purpose ← counsel.
Isa 29:16 ‫הַ֨פְכְּכֶ֔ם אִם־כְּחֹ֥מֶר הַיֹּצֵ֖ר יֵֽחָשֵׁ֑ב כִּֽי־יֹאמַ֨ר מַעֲשֶׂ֤ה לְעֹשֵׂ֙הוּ֙ לֹ֣א עָשָׂ֔נִי וְיֵ֛צֶר אָמַ֥ר לְיוֹצְר֖וֹ לֹ֥א הֵבִֽין׃‬

Such is your perverseness.

Will the potter be considered as clay?

For will the product say of its maker,

“He didn't make me”?

Or will the artefact say of its fashioner,

He doesn't have any understanding”?

Rom 9:20.

AV differs in the first two lines (Surely your turning of things upside down shall be esteemed as the potter's clay).
Isa 29:17 ‫הֲלוֹא־עוֹד֙ מְעַ֣ט מִזְעָ֔ר וְשָׁ֥ב לְבָנ֖וֹן לַכַּרְמֶ֑ל וְהַכַּרְמֶ֖ל לַיַּ֥עַר יֵחָשֵֽׁב׃‬

Is it not in a very little while

That Lebanon will be restored as well-cultivated ground,

And that the well-cultivated ground

Will be considered a forest?

Isa 29:18 ‫וְשָׁמְע֧וּ בַיּוֹם־הַה֛וּא הַחֵרְשִׁ֖ים דִּבְרֵי־סֵ֑פֶר וּמֵאֹ֣פֶל וּמֵחֹ֔שֶׁךְ עֵינֵ֥י עִוְרִ֖ים תִּרְאֶֽינָה׃‬

And on that day,

The deaf will hear the words of the book,

And the eyes of the blind,

Which were in obscurity and darkness,

Will see.

which were in ← from.
Isa 29:19 ‫וְיָסְפ֧וּ עֲנָוִ֛ים בַּֽיהוָ֖ה שִׂמְחָ֑ה וְאֶבְיוֹנֵ֣י אָדָ֔ם בִּקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יָגִֽילוּ׃‬

And the meek will increase their joy in the Lord,

And the poor among men

Will exult in the holy one of Israel.

Isa 29:20 ‫כִּֽי־אָפֵ֥ס עָרִ֖יץ וְכָ֣לָה לֵ֑ץ וְנִכְרְת֖וּ כָּל־שֹׁ֥קְדֵי אָֽוֶן׃‬

For the violent one will come to nothing,

And the mocker will come to an end,

And all those who lie in wait iniquitously

Will be cut off

Isa 29:21 ‫מַחֲטִיאֵ֤י אָדָם֙ בְּדָבָ֔ר וְלַמּוֹכִ֥יחַ בַּשַּׁ֖עַר יְקֹשׁ֑וּן וַיַּטּ֥וּ בַתֹּ֖הוּ צַדִּֽיק׃ ס‬

– Those who make a man sin with a word,

And ensnare one who reproves at the gate,

And lead a righteous man astray with confusion.

confusion: or desolation.
Isa 29:22 ‫לָכֵ֗ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר פָּדָ֖ה אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֑ם לֹֽא־עַתָּ֤ה יֵבוֹשׁ֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְלֹ֥א עַתָּ֖ה פָּנָ֥יו יֶחֱוָֽרוּ׃‬ This is why the Lord, who redeemed Abraham, says this to the house of Jacob:

It is not now that Jacob will be ashamed,

And it is not now that his face will turn pale,

this ← thus.
Isa 29:23 ‫כִּ֣י בִ֠רְאֹתוֹ יְלָדָ֞יו מַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדַ֛י בְּקִרְבּ֖וֹ יַקְדִּ֣ישֽׁוּ שְׁמִ֑י וְהִקְדִּ֙ישׁוּ֙ אֶת־קְד֣וֹשׁ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְאֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יַעֲרִֽיצוּ׃‬

But when he sees his children,

The work of my hands.

In his company,

They will sanctify my name,

And they will sanctify the holy one of Jacob,

And they will fear the God of Israel.

company ← midst.
Isa 29:24 ‫וְיָדְע֥וּ תֹֽעֵי־ר֖וּחַ בִּינָ֑ה וְרוֹגְנִ֖ים יִלְמְדוּ־לֶֽקַח׃‬

And those who were erring in spirit

Will have understanding,

And those who were rebellious

Will learn lessons.”

have understanding ← know understanding.

lessons ← instruction.
Isa 30:1 ‫ה֣וֹי בָּנִ֤ים סֽוֹרְרִים֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה לַעֲשׂ֤וֹת עֵצָה֙ וְלֹ֣א מִנִּ֔י וְלִנְסֹ֥ךְ מַסֵּכָ֖ה וְלֹ֣א רוּחִ֑י לְמַ֛עַן סְפ֥וֹת חַטָּ֖את עַל־חַטָּֽאת׃‬

“Woe to the recalcitrant sons,

Says the Lord,

Who take counsel, but not from me,

And pour out a libation,

But not with my spirit,

So as to add sin upon sin,

Isa 30:2 ‫הַהֹלְכִים֙ לָרֶ֣דֶת מִצְרַ֔יִם וּפִ֖י לֹ֣א שָׁאָ֑לוּ לָעוֹז֙ בְּמָע֣וֹז פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלַחְס֖וֹת בְּצֵ֥ל מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬

Who are setting out to go down to Egypt,

But they did not ask for my oracle,

Having decided to be strong in the stronghold of Pharaoh,

And to put trust in the shadow of Egypt.

oracle ← mouth.
Isa 30:3 ‫וְהָיָ֥ה לָכֶ֛ם מָע֥וֹז פַּרְעֹ֖ה לְבֹ֑שֶׁת וְהֶחָס֥וּת בְּצֵל־מִצְרַ֖יִם לִכְלִמָּֽה׃‬

But Pharaoh's stronghold

Will be something you will be ashamed of,

And your trust in the shadow of Egypt

Will be to your disgrace.

something you will be ashamed of ← shame to you.
Isa 30:4 ‫כִּֽי־הָי֥וּ בְצֹ֖עַן שָׂרָ֑יו וּמַלְאָכָ֖יו חָנֵ֥ס יַגִּֽיעוּ׃‬

For his officers were in Zoan,

And his envoys arrived in Hanes.

Isa 30:5 ‫כֹּ֣ל *הבאיש **הֹבִ֔ישׁ עַל־עַ֖ם לֹא־יוֹעִ֣ילוּ לָ֑מוֹ לֹ֤א לְעֵ֙זֶר֙ וְלֹ֣א לְהוֹעִ֔יל כִּ֥י לְבֹ֖שֶׁת וְגַם־לְחֶרְפָּֽה׃ ס‬

Everyone {Q: became ashamed because of} [K: became odious to] a people

Who did not benefit them.

They were neither a help nor a benefit,

But rather a matter of shame

And ignominy as well.”

In ketiv and qeré, the force of hiphil is intransitive or reflexive, which is occasionally the case.
Isa 30:6 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א בַּהֲמ֣וֹת נֶ֑גֶב בְּאֶרֶץ֩ צָרָ֨ה וְצוּקָ֜ה לָבִ֧יא וָלַ֣יִשׁ מֵהֶ֗ם אֶפְעֶה֙ וְשָׂרָ֣ף מְעוֹפֵ֔ף יִשְׂאוּ֩ עַל־כֶּ֨תֶף עֲיָרִ֜ים חֵֽילֵהֶ֗ם וְעַל־דַּבֶּ֤שֶׁת גְּמַלִּים֙ אֽוֹצְרֹתָ֔ם עַל־עַ֖ם לֹ֥א יוֹעִֽילוּ׃‬ The burden of the animals of the south.

In a distressed and troubled land,

Among them being the great lion and the old lion,

The viper and the fiery flying serpent,

They will transport their wealth on the shoulder of ass-colts,

And their treasure on the humps of camels,

To a people who will not benefit them.

burden: see Isa 13:1.

distressed and troubled land ← land of distress and trouble, a Hebraic genitive.

among ← from.
Isa 30:7 ‫וּמִצְרַ֕יִם הֶ֥בֶל וָרִ֖יק יַעְזֹ֑רוּ לָכֵן֙ קָרָ֣אתִי לָזֹ֔את רַ֥הַב הֵ֖ם שָֽׁבֶת׃‬

And Egypt will help

In a vacuous and empty way,

Which is why I have called it,

Rahab sits still.”

called it ← called this.

Rahab: a name for Egypt, meaning insolence, here used collectively for the people. AV differs (their strength).
Isa 30:8 ‫עַתָּ֗ה בּ֣וֹא כָתְבָ֥הּ עַל־ל֛וּחַ אִתָּ֖ם וְעַל־סֵ֣פֶר חֻקָּ֑הּ וּתְהִי֙ לְי֣וֹם אַחֲר֔וֹן לָעַ֖ד עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃‬

So now, go and write it on a tablet, with them present,

And inscribe it in a book,

So that it is there for the last day,

And in age-abiding perpetuity.

Isa 30:9 ‫כִּ֣י עַ֤ם מְרִי֙ ה֔וּא בָּנִ֖ים כֶּחָשִׁ֑ים בָּנִ֕ים לֹֽא־אָב֥וּ שְׁמ֖וֹעַ תּוֹרַ֥ת יְהוָֽה׃‬

For it is a rebellious people,

Dishonest sons,

Sons who are unwilling

To heed the law of the Lord,

rebellious people ← people of rebellion, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 30:10 ‫אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָמְר֤וּ לָֽרֹאִים֙ לֹ֣א תִרְא֔וּ וְלַ֣חֹזִ֔ים לֹ֥א תֶחֱזוּ־לָ֖נוּ נְכֹח֑וֹת דַּבְּרוּ־לָ֣נוּ חֲלָק֔וֹת חֲז֖וּ מַהֲתַלּֽוֹת׃‬

Who say to the seers,

“Don't see”,

And to those who see visions,

“Don't see righteous visions for us.

Speak flatteries to us,

See delusory visions,

Isa 30:11 ‫ס֚וּרוּ מִנֵּי־דֶ֔רֶךְ הַטּ֖וּ מִנֵּי־אֹ֑רַח הַשְׁבִּ֥יתוּ מִפָּנֵ֖ינוּ אֶת־קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬

Depart from the way,

Turn off from the path;

Remove the holy one of Israel

From our presence.”

remove ← make cease.

our presence ← our faces.
Isa 30:12 ‫לָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יַ֥עַן מָֽאָסְכֶ֖ם בַּדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַֽתִּבְטְחוּ֙ בְּעֹ֣שֶׁק וְנָל֔וֹז וַתִּֽשָּׁעֲנ֖וּ עָלָֽיו׃‬ That is why this is what the holy one of Israel says:

“Since you have rejected these words

And trusted in oppression and deviousness

And relied on it,

this ← thus.

these words ← this word / speech.
Isa 30:13 ‫לָכֵ֗ן יִֽהְיֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ הֶעָוֺ֣ן הַזֶּ֔ה כְּפֶ֣רֶץ נֹפֵ֔ל נִבְעֶ֖ה בְּחוֹמָ֣ה נִשְׂגָּבָ֑ה אֲשֶׁר־פִּתְאֹ֥ם לְפֶ֖תַע יָב֥וֹא שִׁבְרָֽהּ׃‬

This iniquity will be ascribed to you,

Like a breach about to fall,

Bulging out in a high wall,

Whose collapse comes all of a sudden.

all of a sudden: see Isa 29:6.
Isa 30:14 ‫וּ֠שְׁבָרָהּ כְּשֵׁ֨בֶר נֵ֧בֶל יוֹצְרִ֛ים כָּת֖וּת לֹ֣א יַחְמֹ֑ל וְלֹֽא־יִמָּצֵ֤א בִמְכִתָּתוֹ֙ חֶ֔רֶשׂ לַחְתּ֥וֹת אֵשׁ֙ מִיָּק֔וּד וְלַחְשֹׂ֥ף מַ֖יִם מִגֶּֽבֶא׃ פ‬

And he will break it,

Like the breaking of a shattered potter's jar.

He will not show mercy,

And in his act of shattering,

Not a shard will be found

Which will be any use for taking fire from a burning mass,

Or drawing water from a cistern.”

his act of shattering: a subjective genitive. AV differs (the bursting of it), taking the suffix as objective, referring to iniquity in the previous verse, which is also possible.
Isa 30:15 ‫כִּ֣י כֹֽה־אָמַר֩ אֲדֹנָ֨י יְהוִ֜ה קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל בְּשׁוּבָ֤ה וָנַ֙חַת֙ תִּוָּ֣שֵׁע֔וּן בְּהַשְׁקֵט֙ וּבְבִטְחָ֔ה תִּהְיֶ֖ה גְּבֽוּרַתְכֶ֑ם וְלֹ֖א אֲבִיתֶֽם׃‬ For this is what my Lord the Lord, the holy one of Israel, says:

“You will be saved with a return and rest.

Your valour will be with quietness and confidence.

But you were unwilling,

this ← thus.
Isa 30:16 ‫וַתֹּ֨אמְר֥וּ לֹא־כִ֛י עַל־ס֥וּס נָנ֖וּס עַל־כֵּ֣ן תְּנוּס֑וּן וְעַל־קַ֣ל נִרְכָּ֔ב עַל־כֵּ֖ן יִקַּ֥לּוּ רֹדְפֵיכֶֽם׃‬

And you said,

‘No, but rather we will flee on horseback.’

That is why you will flee.

And you said,

‘We will ride on swift horses.’

That is why those who pursue you will be swift.

Isa 30:17 ‫אֶ֣לֶף אֶחָ֗ד מִפְּנֵי֙ גַּעֲרַ֣ת אֶחָ֔ד מִפְּנֵ֛י גַּעֲרַ֥ת חֲמִשָּׁ֖ה תָּנֻ֑סוּ עַ֣ד אִם־נוֹתַרְתֶּ֗ם כַּתֹּ֙רֶן֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הָהָ֔ר וְכַנֵּ֖ס עַל־הַגִּבְעָֽה׃‬

One thousand will flee at the rebuke of one;

At the rebuke of five, you will flee,

Until you remain like a mast on the summit of a mountain,

Or like an ensign on a hill.”

a mountain ... a hill ← the mountain ... the hill. Unexpected definite articles. See Gen 22:9.
Isa 30:18 ‫וְלָכֵ֞ן יְחַכֶּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לַֽחֲנַנְכֶ֔ם וְלָכֵ֥ן יָר֖וּם לְרַֽחֶמְכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־אֱלֹהֵ֤י מִשְׁפָּט֙ יְהוָ֔ה אַשְׁרֵ֖י כָּל־ח֥וֹכֵי לֽוֹ׃ ס‬

And this is why the Lord will wait:

So as to be gracious to you.

And this is why he will arise to have compassion on you:

For the Lord is a God of justice.

Blessed are all those who wait for him.

Isa 30:19 ‫כִּי־עַ֛ם בְּצִיּ֥וֹן יֵשֵׁ֖ב בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם בָּכ֣וֹ לֹֽא־תִבְכֶּ֗ה חָנ֤וֹן יָחְנְךָ֙ לְק֣וֹל זַעֲקֶ֔ךָ כְּשָׁמְעָת֖וֹ עָנָֽךְ׃‬

For the people will dwell in Zion in Jerusalem,

And you will certainly not weep.

He will be very gracious at the sound of your crying out;

When he hears it,

He will answer you.

will certainly not weep ... will be very gracious: both infinitive absolute.
Isa 30:20 ‫וְנָתַ֨ן לָכֶ֧ם אֲדֹנָ֛י לֶ֥חֶם צָ֖ר וּמַ֣יִם לָ֑חַץ וְלֹֽא־יִכָּנֵ֥ף עוֹד֙ מוֹרֶ֔יךָ וְהָי֥וּ עֵינֶ֖יךָ רֹא֥וֹת אֶת־מוֹרֶֽיךָ׃‬

And the Lord* will give you bread of adversity,

And water of oppression,

But your teachers will no longer be kept at a distance,

And your eyes will see your teachers.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.
Isa 30:21 ‫וְאָזְנֶ֙יךָ֙ תִּשְׁמַ֣עְנָה דָבָ֔ר מֵֽאַחֲרֶ֖יךָ לֵאמֹ֑ר זֶ֤ה הַדֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ לְכ֣וּ ב֔וֹ כִּ֥י תַאֲמִ֖ינוּ וְכִ֥י תַשְׂמְאִֽילוּ׃‬

And your ears will hear words behind you,

Saying, “This is the way;

Walk in it”,

Whenever you go off to the right

Or go off to the left.

words ← a word; a discourse.
Isa 30:22 ‫וְטִמֵּאתֶ֗ם אֶת־צִפּוּי֙ פְּסִילֵ֣י כַסְפֶּ֔ךָ וְאֶת־אֲפֻדַּ֖ת מַסֵּכַ֣ת זְהָבֶ֑ךָ תִּזְרֵם֙ כְּמ֣וֹ דָוָ֔ה צֵ֖א תֹּ֥אמַר לֽוֹ׃‬

And you will defile the silver overlay of your idols,

And the costume of your golden cast image.

You will dispose of them like the discharge of a menstruating woman.

Away with you”,

You will say to it.

silver overlay of your idols ← the overlay of the idols of your silver, a Hebraic genitive.

your golden cast image ← the cast image of your gold, a Hebraic genitive.

away with yougo out.
Isa 30:23 ‫וְנָתַן֩ מְטַ֨ר זַרְעֲךָ֜ אֲשֶׁר־תִּזְרַ֣ע אֶת־הָאֲדָמָ֗ה וְלֶ֙חֶם֙ תְּבוּאַ֣ת הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה דָשֵׁ֖ן וְשָׁמֵ֑ן יִרְעֶ֥ה מִקְנֶ֛יךָ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא כַּ֥ר נִרְחָֽב׃‬

And he will give rain for your seed,

Which you sow on the ground,

And as for food

– The produce of the land –

It will be rich and fat.

Your cattle will graze on that day

On broad pasture land.

rain for ← rain of. Wider use of the construct state.

food ← bread, standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
Isa 30:24 ‫וְהָאֲלָפִ֣ים וְהָעֲיָרִ֗ים עֹֽבְדֵי֙ הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה בְּלִ֥יל חָמִ֖יץ יֹאכֵ֑לוּ אֲשֶׁר־זֹרֶ֥ה בָרַ֖חַת וּבַמִּזְרֶֽה׃‬

And the oxen and the donkeys which till the ground

Will eat wholesome fodder,

Which has been winnowed with a winnowing fan

Or a winnowing shovel.

wholesome: AV differs (clean). [AnLx]= salted, seasoned. [BDB]= seasoned with salt.
Isa 30:25 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ עַל־כָּל־הַ֣ר גָּבֹ֗הַ וְעַל֙ כָּל־גִּבְעָ֣ה נִשָּׂאָ֔ה פְּלָגִ֖ים יִבְלֵי־מָ֑יִם בְּיוֹם֙ הֶ֣רֶג רָ֔ב בִּנְפֹ֖ל מִגְדָּלִֽים׃‬

And there will be on every high mountain,

And on every lofty hill,

Streams – brooks of water –

On the day of great slaughter,

When towers fall.

Isa 30:26 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה אֽוֹר־הַלְּבָנָה֙ כְּא֣וֹר הַֽחַמָּ֔ה וְא֤וֹר הַֽחַמָּה֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה שִׁבְעָתַ֔יִם כְּא֖וֹר שִׁבְעַ֣ת הַיָּמִ֑ים בְּי֗וֹם חֲבֹ֤שׁ יְהוָה֙ אֶת־שֶׁ֣בֶר עַמּ֔וֹ וּמַ֥חַץ מַכָּת֖וֹ יִרְפָּֽא׃ ס‬

And the light of the moon

Will be like the light of the sun,

And the light of the sun will be seven times stronger,

Like seven days' light,

On the day when the Lord binds up

The fracture of his people,

And heals

The bruise of their blow.

their: an objective genitive (someone strikes them). Or, possibly, a subjective genitive, his (the Lord's) blow (the Lord strikes).
Isa 30:27 ‫הִנֵּ֤ה שֵׁם־יְהוָה֙ בָּ֣א מִמֶּרְחָ֔ק בֹּעֵ֣ר אַפּ֔וֹ וְכֹ֖בֶד מַשָּׂאָ֑ה שְׂפָתָיו֙ מָ֣לְאוּ זַ֔עַם וּלְשׁוֹנ֖וֹ כְּאֵ֥שׁ אֹכָֽלֶת׃‬

Behold, the name of the Lord is coming from afar;

His anger is burning,

And the burden is heavy.

His lips are full of indignation,

And his tongue is like a consuming fire.

heavy ← heaviness.
Isa 30:28 ‫וְרוּח֞וֹ כְּנַ֤חַל שׁוֹטֵף֙ עַד־צַוָּ֣אר יֶֽחֱצֶ֔ה לַהֲנָפָ֥ה גוֹיִ֖ם בְּנָ֣פַת שָׁ֑וְא וְרֶ֣סֶן מַתְעֶ֔ה עַ֖ל לְחָיֵ֥י עַמִּֽים׃‬

And his breath is like an overflowing stream,

Whose level comes up to the neck,

To sift the nations with a sieve to separate the worthless,

And a bridle in the jaws of the peoples,

Causing them to go astray.

breath: the same word as wind and spirit.

whose level comes ← it divides, i.e. above and below its surface.

sieve to separatesieve of. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 30:29 ‫הַשִּׁיר֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כְּלֵ֖יל הִתְקַדֶּשׁ־חָ֑ג וְשִׂמְחַ֣ת לֵבָ֗ב כַּֽהוֹלֵךְ֙ בֶּֽחָלִ֔יל לָב֥וֹא בְהַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־צ֥וּר יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

You will have a song

As on the night of sanctifying a festival,

And joy in the heart,

As when a person goes with a pipe

To come to the mount of the Lord

– To the rock of Israel.

a song ← the song. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.

pipe: such as a flute (the Modern Hebrew meaning of the word).
Isa 30:30 ‫וְהִשְׁמִ֨יעַ יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־ה֣וֹד קוֹל֗וֹ וְנַ֤חַת זְרוֹעוֹ֙ יַרְאֶ֔ה בְּזַ֣עַף אַ֔ף וְלַ֖הַב אֵ֣שׁ אוֹכֵלָ֑ה נֶ֥פֶץ וָזֶ֖רֶם וְאֶ֥בֶן בָּרָֽד׃‬

And the Lord will have his majestic voice heard,

And he will show how his arm comes down

In raging anger

And in the flame of a consuming fire

In a violent flood and a downpour

And hailstones.

his majestic voice ← the voice of his majesty, a Hebraic genitive.

how his arm comes down ← the letting down of his arm.

a violent flood ← a dashing.
Isa 30:31 ‫כִּֽי־מִקּ֥וֹל יְהוָ֖ה יֵחַ֣ת אַשּׁ֑וּר בַּשֵּׁ֖בֶט יַכֶּֽה׃‬

For at the Lord's voice,

Assyria will slump;

He will strike them with a rod.

slump: qal of נָחַת. Alternatively, as qal of חָתַת, be terrified.
Isa 30:32 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כֹּ֤ל מַֽעֲבַר֙ מַטֵּ֣ה מֽוּסָדָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָנִ֤יחַ יְהוָה֙ עָלָ֔יו בְּתֻפִּ֖ים וּבְכִנֹּר֑וֹת וּבְמִלְחֲמ֥וֹת תְּנוּפָ֖ה נִלְחַם־*בה **בָּֽם׃‬

And every passage of the rod as decreed,

Which the Lord will lay on them,

Will be with drums and with harps,

And he will fight against them

In tumultuous wars.

them: the ketiv is her (collective usage).

rod as decreed ← rod of decree.

tumultuous wars ← wars of tumult, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 30:33 ‫כִּֽי־עָר֤וּךְ מֵֽאֶתְמוּל֙ תָּפְתֶּ֔ה גַּם־*הוא **הִ֛יא לַמֶּ֥לֶךְ הוּכָ֖ן הֶעְמִ֣יק הִרְחִ֑ב מְדֻרָתָ֗הּ אֵ֤שׁ וְעֵצִים֙ הַרְבֵּ֔ה נִשְׁמַ֤ת יְהוָה֙ כְּנַ֣חַל גָּפְרִ֔ית בֹּעֲרָ֖ה בָּֽהּ׃ ס‬

For Topheth was set up in the former time;

It was even prepared for the king.

He has made it deep;

He has made it wide.

It is a pyre of fire and much wood;

The breath of the Lord,

Like a stream of sulphur,

Burns in it.

it was even prepared: the ketiv is discordant in gender (which is permissible). The ketiv has a vav where the qeré has a yod. Interchange of these (similar) letters is a common reason for a qeré reading.

Topheth: AV= Tophet here, but not in 2 Ki 23:10; in the Valley of Hinnom ↴
Isa 31:1 ‫ה֣וֹי הַיֹּרְדִ֤ים מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לְעֶזְרָ֔ה עַל־סוּסִ֖ים יִשָּׁעֵ֑נוּ וַיִּבְטְח֨וּ עַל־רֶ֜כֶב כִּ֣י רָ֗ב וְעַ֤ל פָּֽרָשִׁים֙ כִּֽי־עָצְמ֣וּ מְאֹ֔ד וְלֹ֤א שָׁעוּ֙ עַל־קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֶת־יְהוָ֖ה לֹ֥א דָרָֽשׁוּ׃‬

Woe to those who go down to Egypt for help.

They rely on horses,

And they trust in chariots,

For there are many;

And in horsemen,

For they are very numerous.

But they do not look to the holy one of Israel,

And they do not seek the Lord.

↳ (NT's Gehenna), the place of burning.
Isa 31:2 ‫וְגַם־ה֤וּא חָכָם֙ וַיָּ֣בֵא רָ֔ע וְאֶת־דְּבָרָ֖יו לֹ֣א הֵסִ֑יר וְקָם֙ עַל־בֵּ֣ית מְרֵעִ֔ים וְעַל־עֶזְרַ֖ת פֹּ֥עֲלֵי אָֽוֶן׃‬

However, he is wise,

And he will bring harm,

And he will not revoke his words,

And he will rise against the house of the evildoers,

And against the accomplices of workers of iniquity.

revoke ← lay aside.

accomplices ← help.
Isa 31:3 ‫וּמִצְרַ֤יִם אָדָם֙ וְֽלֹא־אֵ֔ל וְסוּסֵיהֶ֥ם בָּשָׂ֖ר וְלֹא־ר֑וּחַ וַֽיהוָ֞ה יַטֶּ֣ה יָד֗וֹ וְכָשַׁ֤ל עוֹזֵר֙ וְנָפַ֣ל עָזֻ֔ר וְיַחְדָּ֖ו כֻּלָּ֥ם יִכְלָיֽוּן׃ ס‬

For the Egyptians are men and not God,

And their horses are flesh and not spirit,

And the Lord will stretch out his hand,

And he who helps will stumble,

And he who is helped will fall,

And all of them will come to an end together.

Isa 31:4 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֣ה אָֽמַר־יְהוָ֣ה ׀ אֵלַ֡י כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶהְגֶּה֩ הָאַרְיֵ֨ה וְהַכְּפִ֜יר עַל־טַרְפּ֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִקָּרֵ֤א עָלָיו֙ מְלֹ֣א רֹעִ֔ים מִקּוֹלָם֙ לֹ֣א יֵחָ֔ת וּמֵֽהֲמוֹנָ֖ם לֹ֣א יַֽעֲנֶ֑ה כֵּ֗ן יֵרֵד֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת לִצְבֹּ֥א עַל־הַר־צִיּ֖וֹן וְעַל־גִּבְעָתָֽהּ׃‬

For this is what the Lord says to me:

“As when the lion or the young lion

Growls over his prey,

When a large group of shepherds are called out against it,

And it is not terrified by their voices,

And it is not deterred by their sound,

So the Lord of hosts will descend

To fight for Mount Zion

And for its hill.

this is whatthus.

large group ← fulness.

voices ← voice.

deterred ← afflicted / humbled.
Isa 31:5 ‫כְּצִפֳּרִ֣ים עָפ֔וֹת כֵּ֗ן יָגֵ֛ן יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת עַל־יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם גָּנ֥וֹן וְהִצִּ֖יל פָּסֹ֥חַ וְהִמְלִֽיט׃‬

Like birds flying,

So the Lord of hosts will defend Jerusalem.

He will defend and deliver

And act as in the Passover,

And rescue.

defend: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.

and act as in the Passover ← passing over, an infinitive absolute.
Isa 31:6 ‫שׁ֗וּבוּ לַאֲשֶׁ֛ר הֶעְמִ֥יקוּ סָרָ֖ה בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

Return to him,

From whom you have made a deep departure,

You sons of Israel.

Isa 31:7 ‫כִּ֚י בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יִמְאָס֗וּן אִ֚ישׁ אֱלִילֵ֣י כַסְפּ֔וֹ וֶאֱלִילֵ֖י זְהָב֑וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשׂ֥וּ לָכֶ֛ם יְדֵיכֶ֖ם חֵֽטְא׃‬

For on that day

A man will reject his silver idols,

And his golden idols,

Which your sinful hands have made for yourselves.

|| Isa 2:20.

your sinful hands ← your hands + sin. Not the usual Hebraic genitive construction.
Isa 31:8 ‫וְנָפַ֤ל אַשּׁוּר֙ בְּחֶ֣רֶב לֹא־אִ֔ישׁ וְחֶ֥רֶב לֹֽא־אָדָ֖ם תֹּֽאכֲלֶ֑נּוּ וְנָ֥ס לוֹ֙ מִפְּנֵי־חֶ֔רֶב וּבַחוּרָ֖יו לָמַ֥ס יִהְיֽוּ׃‬

And Assyria will fall by the sword,

But not that of a man.

And a sword,

But not that of a human,

Will consume them.

And they will take flight from the sword,

And their young men will become tribute-bearing.

take flight ← flee for himself.

from the sword ← from the face of a sword, but also from the edge of a sword [AnLx]. But the combination from the face of is normally used prepositionally, meaning before / from.
Isa 31:9 ‫וְסַלְעוֹ֙ מִמָּג֣וֹר יַֽעֲב֔וֹר וְחַתּ֥וּ מִנֵּ֖ס שָׂרָ֑יו נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁר־א֥וּר לוֹ֙ בְּצִיּ֔וֹן וְתַנּ֥וּר ל֖וֹ בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ ס‬

And their rock of refuge will vanish for fear,

And their officials will be terrified at the banner”,

Says the Lord,

Who has a fire in Zion

And a furnace in Jerusalem.

their rock of refuge will vanish: AV differs (he shall pass over to his strong hold).
Isa 32:1 ‫הֵ֥ן לְצֶ֖דֶק יִמְלָךְ־מֶ֑לֶךְ וּלְשָׂרִ֖ים לְמִשְׁפָּ֥ט יָשֹֽׂרוּ׃‬

Behold, a king will reign in righteousness,

And men will rule as officials for justice.

Isa 32:2 ‫וְהָיָה־אִ֥ישׁ כְּמַֽחֲבֵא־ר֖וּחַ וְסֵ֣תֶר זָ֑רֶם כְּפַלְגֵי־מַ֣יִם בְּצָי֔וֹן כְּצֵ֥ל סֶֽלַע־כָּבֵ֖ד בְּאֶ֥רֶץ עֲיֵפָֽה׃‬

And a man will be like a shelter from the wind,

And a refuge from a downpour;

Like springs of water in a dry region,

Like the shadow of a massive rock

In a weary land.

shelter ← hiding place.

refuge from ← secret place of. Wider use of the construct state.

massive ← heavy.
Isa 32:3 ‫וְלֹ֥א תִשְׁעֶ֖ינָה עֵינֵ֣י רֹאִ֑ים וְאָזְנֵ֥י שֹׁמְעִ֖ים תִּקְשַֽׁבְנָה׃‬

And the eyes of those who see

Will not look away,

And the ears of those who hear

Will be attentive.

look away: or, in the Syriac sense, be blinded. AV differs (be dim).
Isa 32:4 ‫וּלְבַ֥ב נִמְהָרִ֖ים יָבִ֣ין לָדָ֑עַת וּלְשׁ֣וֹן עִלְּגִ֔ים תְּמַהֵ֖ר לְדַבֵּ֥ר צָחֽוֹת׃‬

And the heart of the hasty

Will understand the importance of having knowledge,

And the tongue of the stammerers

Will be fluent in speaking clearly.

fluent ← quick.

in speaking: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 32:5 ‫לֹֽא־יִקָּרֵ֥א ע֛וֹד לְנָבָ֖ל נָדִ֑יב וּלְכִילַ֕י לֹ֥א יֵֽאָמֵ֖ר שֽׁוֹעַ׃‬

The fool will no longer be called noble,

And the miser will not be said to be generous.

Isa 32:6 ‫כִּ֤י נָבָל֙ נְבָלָ֣ה יְדַבֵּ֔ר וְלִבּ֖וֹ יַעֲשֶׂה־אָ֑וֶן לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת חֹ֗נֶף וּלְדַבֵּ֤ר אֶל־יְהוָה֙ תּוֹעָ֔ה לְהָרִיק֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ רָעֵ֔ב וּמַשְׁקֶ֥ה צָמֵ֖א יַחְסִֽיר׃‬

For the fool will speak folly,

And his heart will occupy itself with vanity

In perpetrating profanity,

In speaking error to the Lord,

In draining the energy of the hungry,

And causing the drink of the thirsty

To be lacking.

in perpetrating ... in speaking ... in draining: gerundial use of the infinitive.

energy ← soul.
Isa 32:7 ‫וְכֵלַ֖י כֵּלָ֣יו רָעִ֑ים ה֚וּא זִמּ֣וֹת יָעָ֔ץ לְחַבֵּ֤ל *ענוים **עֲנִיִּים֙ בְּאִמְרֵי־שֶׁ֔קֶר וּבְדַבֵּ֥ר אֶבְי֖וֹן מִשְׁפָּֽט׃‬

And the methods of the miser are wicked.

He decides on schemings

To take advantage of the {Q: poor} [K: meek]

With deceitful talk,

Whereas when the needy man speaks,

It is for justice.

methods ← instruments.

decides on ← advises.

advantage ← spoil.
Isa 32:8 ‫וְנָדִ֖יב נְדִיב֣וֹת יָעָ֑ץ וְה֖וּא עַל־נְדִיב֥וֹת יָקֽוּם׃ פ‬

And the generous man decides on generosity,

And by generosity he will stand.

decides on ← advises.
Isa 32:9 ‫נָשִׁים֙ שַֽׁאֲנַנּ֔וֹת קֹ֖מְנָה שְׁמַ֣עְנָה קוֹלִ֑י בָּנוֹת֙ בֹּֽטח֔וֹת הַאְזֵ֖נָּה אִמְרָתִֽי׃‬

You women who are at ease,

Arise and hear my voice;

You confident daughters,

Listen to my discourse.

Isa 32:10 ‫יָמִים֙ עַל־שָׁנָ֔ה תִּרְגַּ֖זְנָה בֹּֽטְח֑וֹת כִּ֚י כָּלָ֣ה בָצִ֔יר אֹ֖סֶף בְּלִ֥י יָבֽוֹא׃‬

For many days annually,

You will be agitated,

You confident women,

For the grape harvest will fail

– The ingathering will not come.

Isa 32:11 ‫חִרְדוּ֙ שַֽׁאֲנַנּ֔וֹת רְגָ֖זָה בֹּֽטְח֑וֹת פְּשֹׁ֣טָֽה וְעֹ֔רָה וַחֲג֖וֹרָה עַל־חֲלָצָֽיִם׃‬

Tremble, you women at ease,

Be awestruck, you confident women;

Strip off and be naked,

Then gird up your waist.

Isa 32:12 ‫עַל־שָׁדַ֖יִם סֹֽפְדִ֑ים עַל־שְׂדֵי־חֶ֕מֶד עַל־גֶּ֖פֶן פֹּרִיָּֽה׃‬

Babes lament for the breasts;

Parents for the delightful fields

– For the fruitful vine.

delightful fields ← fields of delight, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 32:13 ‫עַ֚ל אַדְמַ֣ת עַמִּ֔י ק֥וֹץ שָׁמִ֖יר תַּֽעֲלֶ֑ה כִּ֚י עַל־כָּל־בָּתֵּ֣י מָשׂ֔וֹשׂ קִרְיָ֖ה עַלִּיזָֽה׃‬

On the land of my people

The thistle and the briar will come up,

For they will be over all joyous households,

In the delightful town.

joyous households ← houses of joy, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 32:14 ‫כִּֽי־אַרְמ֣וֹן נֻטָּ֔שׁ הֲמ֥וֹן עִ֖יר עֻזָּ֑ב עֹ֣פֶל וָבַ֜חַן הָיָ֨ה בְעַ֤ד מְעָרוֹת֙ עַד־עוֹלָ֔ם מְשׂ֥וֹשׂ פְּרָאִ֖ים מִרְעֵ֥ה עֲדָרִֽים׃‬

For the castle will be abandoned,

The liveliness of the city will disappear;

The raised ground and the watchtower will become dens age-abidingly

– The joy of wild asses,

And pasture for flocks –

disappear ← be deserted.
Isa 32:15 ‫עַד־יֵ֨עָרֶ֥ה עָלֵ֛ינוּ ר֖וּחַ מִמָּר֑וֹם וְהָיָ֤ה מִדְבָּר֙ לַכַּרְמֶ֔ל *וכרמל **וְהַכַּרְמֶ֖ל לַיַּ֥עַר יֵחָשֵֽׁב׃‬

Until a spirit is poured out on us from above,

And the desert becomes a well-cultivated plain,

And {K: the} [Q: the] well-cultivated plain

Is considered a forest.

Isa 32:16 ‫וְשָׁכַ֥ן בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה בַּכַּרְמֶ֥ל תֵּשֵֽׁב׃‬

And justice will prevail

In the desert,

And righteousness will be prevalent

In the well-cultivated plain.

prevail ← dwell.
Isa 32:17 ‫וְהָיָ֛ה מַעֲשֵׂ֥ה הַצְּדָקָ֖ה שָׁל֑וֹם וַֽעֲבֹדַת֙ הַצְּדָקָ֔ה הַשְׁקֵ֥ט וָבֶ֖טַח עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃‬

And the accomplishment of righteousness

Will be peace,

And the work of rectitude

Will be quietness and security age-abidingly.

righteousness ... rectitude ← righteousness ... righteousness. Otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Isa 32:18 ‫וְיָשַׁ֥ב עַמִּ֖י בִּנְוֵ֣ה שָׁל֑וֹם וּֽבְמִשְׁכְּנוֹת֙ מִבְטַחִ֔ים וּבִמְנוּחֹ֖ת שַׁאֲנַנּֽוֹת׃‬

And my people will dwell

In a peaceful abode,

And in secure dwelling places,

And in quiet resting places.

peaceful abode ← abode of peace, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 32:19 ‫וּבָרַ֖ד בְּרֶ֣דֶת הַיָּ֑עַר וּבַשִּׁפְלָ֖ה תִּשְׁפַּ֥ל הָעִֽיר׃‬

And when hail comes down in the forest,

The city will lie low in the lowland.

lie low in the lowland: perhaps standing for lie low as if in the lowland (and not bearing the brunt of the storm).
Isa 32:20 ‫אַשְׁרֵיכֶ֕ם זֹרְעֵ֖י עַל־כָּל־מָ֑יִם מְשַׁלְּחֵ֥י רֶֽגֶל־הַשּׁ֖וֹר וְהַחֲמֽוֹר׃ ס‬

Blessed are you who sow

Wherever there is water,

And who drive the ox and the donkey.

wherever there ison all.

drive ← send the foot of.
Isa 33:1 ‫ה֣וֹי שׁוֹדֵ֗ד וְאַתָּה֙ לֹ֣א שָׁד֔וּד וּבוֹגֵ֖ד וְלֹא־בָ֣גְדוּ ב֑וֹ כַּהֲתִֽמְךָ֤ שׁוֹדֵד֙ תּוּשַּׁ֔ד כַּנְּלֹתְךָ֥ לִבְגֹּ֖ד יִבְגְּדוּ־בָֽךְ׃ ס‬

Woe to the plunderer,

You who were not plundered,

And to the traitor,

Him whom no-one betrayed.

When you stop plundering,

You will be plundered,

When you finish betraying,

You will be betrayed.

The chapter contains some changes of grammatical person. See Lev 1:3, Num 15:9, Ruth 4:4, Song 1:2 etc.

no-one betrayed ← they did not betray.

you will be betrayed ← they will betray you. Avoidance of the passive.
Isa 33:2 ‫יְהוָ֥ה חָנֵּ֖נוּ לְךָ֣ קִוִּ֑ינוּ הֱיֵ֤ה זְרֹעָם֙ לַבְּקָרִ֔ים אַף־יְשׁוּעָתֵ֖נוּ בְּעֵ֥ת צָרָֽה׃‬

O Lord, be gracious to us;

We have put our hope in you.

Be their strong arm in the mornings,

And also our salvation

In a time of adversity.

Isa 33:3 ‫מִקּ֣וֹל הָמ֔וֹן נָדְד֖וּ עַמִּ֑ים מֵר֣וֹמְמֻתֶ֔ךָ נָפְצ֖וּ גּוֹיִֽם׃‬

At the sound of a multitude,

The various peoples will flee;

At your exaltation,

The nations will be scattered.

scattered: or dashed in pieces.
Isa 33:4 ‫וְאֻסַּ֣ף שְׁלַלְכֶ֔ם אֹ֖סֶף הֶֽחָסִ֑יל כְּמַשַּׁ֥ק גֵּבִ֖ים שׁוֹקֵ֥ק בּֽוֹ׃‬

And your plunder will be gathered

Like a swarm of consuming locusts;

They will be greedy for it,

Like the greed of desert locusts.

consuming locusts ← consuming locust.

they will be greedy for it: AV differs (shall he run upon them).
Isa 33:5 ‫נִשְׂגָּ֣ב יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י שֹׁכֵ֖ן מָר֑וֹם מִלֵּ֣א צִיּ֔וֹן מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָֽה׃‬

The Lord is exalted,

For he inhabits the heights;

He will fill Zion

With justice and righteousness.

Isa 33:6 ‫וְהָיָה֙ אֱמוּנַ֣ת עִתֶּ֔יךָ חֹ֥סֶן יְשׁוּעֹ֖ת חָכְמַ֣ת וָדָ֑עַת יִרְאַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה הִ֥יא אוֹצָרֽוֹ׃ ס‬

And the abundance of acts of salvation, wisdom and knowledge

Will be the mainstay of your times,

And fear of the Lord

Will be his treasure.

mainstay ← faithfulness.
Isa 33:7 ‫הֵ֚ן אֶרְאֶלָּ֔ם צָעֲק֖וּ חֻ֑צָה מַלְאֲכֵ֣י שָׁל֔וֹם מַ֖ר יִבְכָּיֽוּן׃‬

Behold, their heroes will cry out in the open;

The messengers of peace will weep bitterly.

Isa 33:8 ‫נָשַׁ֣מּוּ מְסִלּ֔וֹת שָׁבַ֖ת עֹבֵ֣ר אֹ֑רַח הֵפֵ֤ר בְּרִית֙ מָאַ֣ס עָרִ֔ים לֹ֥א חָשַׁ֖ב אֱנֽוֹשׁ׃‬

The highways will be devastated;

The wayfarer will cease to be found.

He will break the covenant,

He will show contempt for the cities;

He will not consider man.

Isa 33:9 ‫אָבַ֤ל אֻמְלְלָה֙ אָ֔רֶץ הֶחְפִּ֥יר לְבָנ֖וֹן קָמַ֑ל הָיָ֤ה הַשָּׁרוֹן֙ כָּֽעֲרָבָ֔ה וְנֹעֵ֥ר בָּשָׁ֖ן וְכַרְמֶֽל׃‬

The earth mourns and is languishing,

And Lebanon is ashamed and is withering.

Sharon has become like an arid tract,

And Bashan and Carmel

Have cast off their foliage.

Sharon ← the Sharon.

their foliage: AV differs somewhat (their fruits).
Isa 33:10 ‫עַתָּ֥ה אָק֖וּם יֹאמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה עַתָּה֙ אֵֽרוֹמָ֔ם עַתָּ֖ה אֶנָּשֵֽׂא׃‬

“Now I will arise”,

The Lord will say,

“Now I will be exalted;

Now I will be extolled.

Isa 33:11 ‫תַּהֲר֥וּ חֲשַׁ֖שׁ תֵּ֣לְדוּ קַ֑שׁ רוּחֲכֶ֕ם אֵ֖שׁ תֹּאכַלְכֶֽם׃‬

You will conceive stubble;

You will give birth to chaff.

Your own fiery breath will consume you.

your own fiery breath ← your breath + fire. The same construction in Isa 31:7.
Isa 33:12 ‫וְהָי֥וּ עַמִּ֖ים מִשְׂרְפ֣וֹת שִׂ֑יד קוֹצִ֥ים כְּסוּחִ֖ים בָּאֵ֥שׁ יִצַּֽתּוּ׃ ס‬

And nations will be like the burning of lime;

They will be set on fire,

Like thorn plants that have been cut down.

they will be set on fire ← they will set (them) on fire. Avoidance of the passive. But [AnLx] also allows be burned.
Isa 33:13 ‫שִׁמְע֥וּ רְחוֹקִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֑יתִי וּדְע֥וּ קְרוֹבִ֖ים גְּבֻרָתִֽי׃‬

Hear, you who are far away,

What I have done,

And know, you who are nearby, my might.”

Isa 33:14 ‫פָּחֲד֤וּ בְצִיּוֹן֙ חַטָּאִ֔ים אָחֲזָ֥ה רְעָדָ֖ה חֲנֵפִ֑ים מִ֣י ׀ יָג֣וּר לָ֗נוּ אֵ֚שׁ אוֹכֵלָ֔ה מִי־יָג֥וּר לָ֖נוּ מוֹקְדֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם׃‬

The sinners in Zion will be afraid;

Trembling will seize the profane.

Who among us can withstand a consuming fire?

Who among us can withstand

Age-abiding burning?

profane: on a translation as hypocrite, see [AnLx] note at end of p.267.

withstand (2x)abide. English and Hebrew have a parallel metaphorical sense of tolerate.
Isa 33:15 ‫הֹלֵ֣ךְ צְדָק֔וֹת וְדֹבֵ֖ר מֵֽישָׁרִ֑ים מֹאֵ֞ס בְּבֶ֣צַע מַעֲשַׁקּ֗וֹת נֹעֵ֤ר כַּפָּיו֙ מִתְּמֹ֣ךְ בַּשֹּׁ֔חַד אֹטֵ֤ם אָזְנוֹ֙ מִשְּׁמֹ֣עַ דָּמִ֔ים וְעֹצֵ֥ם עֵינָ֖יו מֵרְא֥וֹת בְּרָֽע׃‬

As for him who walks righteously

And speaks uprightly,

Rejecting unjust gain

From fraudulent practices,

Dismissing with a wave of his hands

Any offer of a bribe,

Shutting his ear

So as not to hear plots of bloodshed,

And closing his eyes

So as not to see plans for evil,

from ← of. Wider use of the construct state.

dismissing with a wave of ← he shakes.

offer ← acquiring.
Isa 33:16 ‫ה֚וּא מְרוֹמִ֣ים יִשְׁכֹּ֔ן מְצָד֥וֹת סְלָעִ֖ים מִשְׂגַּבּ֑וֹ לַחְמ֣וֹ נִתָּ֔ן מֵימָ֖יו נֶאֱמָנִֽים׃‬

He will dwell high up;

His high fort is a citadel of rock.

His food is provided for;

His water supply is reliable.

a citadel of rock ← citadels of rocks.

food ← bread, standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.

reliable ← faithful.
Isa 33:17 ‫מֶ֥לֶךְ בְּיָפְי֖וֹ תֶּחֱזֶ֣ינָה עֵינֶ֑יךָ תִּרְאֶ֖ינָה אֶ֥רֶץ מַרְחַקִּֽים׃‬

Your eyes will see the king in his magnificence;

They will see a far-stretching land.

magnificence ← beauty.

a far-stretching land ← a land of distances.
Isa 33:18 ‫לִבְּךָ֖ יֶהְגֶּ֣ה אֵימָ֑ה אַיֵּ֤ה סֹפֵר֙ אַיֵּ֣ה שֹׁקֵ֔ל אַיֵּ֖ה סֹפֵ֥ר אֶת־הַמִּגְדָּלִֽים׃‬

Your heart will be taken up with dread.

Where is the scribe?

Where is the weigher?

Where is he who counts the towers?

be taken up with ← meditate.
Isa 33:19 ‫אֶת־עַ֥ם נוֹעָ֖ז לֹ֣א תִרְאֶ֑ה עַ֣ם עִמְקֵ֤י שָׂפָה֙ מִשְּׁמ֔וֹעַ נִלְעַ֥ג לָשׁ֖וֹן אֵ֥ין בִּינָֽה׃‬

You will not see a fierce people,

Nor a people of unintelligible speech,

Jabbering in a tongue

Not understood.

fierce: or obstinate, or barbarous.

unintelligible speech ← depths of lip more than to hear.

jabbering: see Isa 28:11.

not understood ← no understanding.
Isa 33:20 ‫חֲזֵ֣ה צִיּ֔וֹן קִרְיַ֖ת מֽוֹעֲדֵ֑נוּ עֵינֶיךָ֩ תִרְאֶ֨ינָה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם נָוֶ֣ה שַׁאֲנָ֗ן אֹ֤הֶל בַּל־יִצְעָן֙ בַּל־יִסַּ֤ע יְתֵֽדֹתָיו֙ לָנֶ֔צַח וְכָל־חֲבָלָ֖יו בַּל־יִנָּתֵֽקוּ׃‬

Behold Zion,

Town of our festival times.

Your eyes will see Jerusalem,

A dwelling place at ease,

A tent which does not move around,

Whose pegs do not for ever journey,

And none of whose guylines are detached.

none ← all ... not.
Isa 33:21 ‫כִּ֣י אִם־שָׁ֞ם אַדִּ֤יר יְהוָה֙ לָ֔נוּ מְקוֹם־נְהָרִ֥ים יְאֹרִ֖ים רַחֲבֵ֣י יָדָ֑יִם בַּל־תֵּ֤לֶךְ בּוֹ֙ אֳנִי־שַׁ֔יִט וְצִ֥י אַדִּ֖יר לֹ֥א יַעַבְרֶֽנּוּ׃‬

For the mighty Lord will be there,

As our place of rivers

– Watercourses – very wide ones.

No galley will go into it,

And no mighty ship will pass through it.

very wide ← wide of hands.

galley ← ship of oar.
Isa 33:22 ‫כִּ֤י יְהוָה֙ שֹׁפְטֵ֔נוּ יְהוָ֖ה מְחֹקְקֵ֑נוּ יְהוָ֥ה מַלְכֵּ֖נוּ ה֥וּא יוֹשִׁיעֵֽנוּ׃‬

For the Lord is our judge,

The Lord is our legislator,

The Lord is our king;

He will save us.

Isa 33:23 ‫נִטְּשׁ֖וּ חֲבָלָ֑יִךְ בַּל־יְחַזְּק֤וּ כֵן־תָּרְנָם֙ בַּל־פָּ֣רְשׂוּ נֵ֔ס אָ֣ז חֻלַּ֤ק עַֽד־שָׁלָל֙ מַרְבֶּ֔ה פִּסְחִ֖ים בָּ֥זְזוּ בַֽז׃‬

Your rigging has been loosened,

They have not strengthened the base of their mast;

They have not unfurled a sail.

Then the booty of much spoil is divided;

The lame grab the plunder.

the base: from root כנן. AV's well is from root כוּן. So AV differs.

grab the plunder ← plunder the plunder.
Isa 33:24 ‫וּבַל־יֹאמַ֥ר שָׁכֵ֖ן חָלִ֑יתִי הָעָ֛ם הַיֹּשֵׁ֥ב בָּ֖הּ נְשֻׂ֥א עָוֺֽן׃‬

And the inhabitant will not say,

“I am ill.”

The people who live in it

Are forgiven their iniquity.

Isa 34:1 ‫קִרְב֤וּ גוֹיִם֙ לִשְׁמֹ֔עַ וּלְאֻמִּ֖ים הַקְשִׁ֑יבוּ תִּשְׁמַ֤ע הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ וּמְלֹאָ֔הּ תֵּבֵ֖ל וְכָל־צֶאֱצָאֶֽיהָ׃‬

Approach you nations, to hear,

And listen, you peoples.

Let earth and its fulness hear

– The world and all its offspring.

Isa 34:2 ‫כִּ֣י קֶ֤צֶף לַֽיהוָה֙ עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְחֵמָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־צְבָאָ֑ם הֶחֱרִימָ֖ם נְתָנָ֥ם לַטָּֽבַח׃‬

For the Lord is angry with all the nations,

And is wrathful over all their armies.

He will obliterate them;

He will deliver them to slaughter.

is angry with ← (has) anger over.

is wrathful over ← (has) wrath over.
Isa 34:3 ‫וְחַלְלֵיהֶ֣ם יֻשְׁלָ֔כוּ וּפִגְרֵיהֶ֖ם יַעֲלֶ֣ה בָאְשָׁ֑ם וְנָמַ֥סּוּ הָרִ֖ים מִדָּמָֽם׃‬

And their casualties will be dumped,

And from their corpses their stench will come,

And mountains will melt

From their blood.

Isa 34:4 ‫וְנָמַ֙קּוּ֙ כָּל־צְבָ֣א הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְנָגֹ֥לּוּ כַסֵּ֖פֶר הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְכָל־צְבָאָ֣ם יִבּ֔וֹל כִּנְבֹ֤ל עָלֶה֙ מִגֶּ֔פֶן וּכְנֹבֶ֖לֶת מִתְּאֵנָֽה׃‬

And all the array of heaven will dissolve,

And the heavens will be rolled up like a scroll,

And all their array will fall away,

Like the falling off of foliage from a vine,

Or like a fig falling from a fig tree.

Matt 24:29, Mark 13:25, Heb 1:12, Rev 6:13-14.

dissolve ← melt.

scroll ← book.
Isa 34:5 ‫כִּֽי־רִוְּתָ֥ה בַשָּׁמַ֖יִם חַרְבִּ֑י הִנֵּה֙ עַל־אֱד֣וֹם תֵּרֵ֔ד וְעַל־עַ֥ם חֶרְמִ֖י לְמִשְׁפָּֽט׃‬

For my sword will be satiated in the heavens,

And behold, it will descend on Edom,

And on a people I have condemned in judgment.

I have condemned ← of my devotion (to destruction).

in judgment ← to judgment.
Isa 34:6 ‫חֶ֣רֶב לַיהוָ֞ה מָלְאָ֥ה דָם֙ הֻדַּ֣שְׁנָה מֵחֵ֔לֶב מִדַּ֤ם כָּרִים֙ וְעַתּוּדִ֔ים מֵחֵ֖לֶב כִּלְי֣וֹת אֵילִ֑ים כִּ֣י זֶ֤בַח לַֽיהוָה֙ בְּבָצְרָ֔ה וְטֶ֥בַח גָּד֖וֹל בְּאֶ֥רֶץ אֱדֽוֹם׃‬

The Lord's sword is full of blood;

It is besmeared with fat

From the blood of fatted lambs and he-goats

And with the fat from the kidneys of rams,

For the Lord has a sacrifice in Bozrah,

And great slaughter in the land of Edom.

lambs ... he-goats ... rams: the animals, and those in the next verse, could represent the ranks in Edom's population.
Isa 34:7 ‫וְיָרְד֤וּ רְאֵמִים֙ עִמָּ֔ם וּפָרִ֖ים עִם־אַבִּירִ֑ים וְרִוְּתָ֤ה אַרְצָם֙ מִדָּ֔ם וַעֲפָרָ֖ם מֵחֵ֥לֶב יְדֻשָּֽׁן׃‬

And the buffaloes will be brought down with them,

And oxen with strong bulls,

And their land will be saturated with blood,

And their dust will be made greasy with fat.

buffaloes: or rhinoceroses.

will be brought down: hophal, or, as qal, will come down.
Isa 34:8 ‫כִּ֛י י֥וֹם נָקָ֖ם לַֽיהוָ֑ה שְׁנַ֥ת שִׁלּוּמִ֖ים לְרִ֥יב צִיּֽוֹן׃‬

For it is the day of the Lord's vengeance

– The year of retribution –

For the controversy over Zion.

retribution ← retributions.
Isa 34:9 ‫וְנֶהֶפְכ֤וּ נְחָלֶ֙יהָ֙ לְזֶ֔פֶת וַעֲפָרָ֖הּ לְגָפְרִ֑ית וְהָיְתָ֣ה אַרְצָ֔הּ לְזֶ֖פֶת בֹּעֵרָֽה׃‬

And its streams will be turned into pitch,

And its dust into sulphur,

And its land will become burning pitch.

pitch ... pitch: otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Isa 34:10 ‫לַ֤יְלָה וְיוֹמָם֙ לֹ֣א תִכְבֶּ֔ה לְעוֹלָ֖ם יַעֲלֶ֣ה עֲשָׁנָ֑הּ מִדּ֤וֹר לָדוֹר֙ תֶּחֱרָ֔ב לְנֵ֣צַח נְצָחִ֔ים אֵ֥ין עֹבֵ֖ר בָּֽהּ׃‬

Night and day it will not be extinguished;

Its smoke will rise up age-abidingly.

From generation to generation it will be desolate;

In all perpetuity

No-one will pass through it.

Rev 14:11, Rev 19:3.

desolate ← dried up, but [AnLx] gives laid waste.

in all perpetuity ← in perpetuity of perpetuities.
Isa 34:11 ‫וִירֵשׁ֙וּהָ֙ קָאַ֣ת וְקִפּ֔וֹד וְיַנְשׁ֥וֹף וְעֹרֵ֖ב יִשְׁכְּנוּ־בָ֑הּ וְנָטָ֥ה עָלֶ֛יהָ קַֽו־תֹ֖הוּ וְאַבְנֵי־בֹֽהוּ׃‬

And the pelican and the hedgehog will inherit it,

And the owl and the crow will inhabit it,

And it is delineated as desolate,

And it is marked off as forlorn.

Alluded to in Rev 18:2.

it is delineated as desolate ← the line of desolation extends over it.

it is marked off as forlorn ← the (boundary) stones of forlornness.
Isa 34:12 ‫חֹרֶ֥יהָ וְאֵֽין־שָׁ֖ם מְלוּכָ֣ה יִקְרָ֑אוּ וְכָל־שָׂרֶ֖יהָ יִ֥הְיוּ אָֽפֶס׃‬

As for their nobles,

There will be nothing there

Which they can proclaim as a kingdom,

And all its officials

Will be no more.

Isa 34:13 ‫וְעָלְתָ֤ה אַרְמְנֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ סִירִ֔ים קִמּ֥וֹשׂ וָח֖וֹחַ בְּמִבְצָרֶ֑יהָ וְהָיְתָה֙ נְוֵ֣ה תַנִּ֔ים חָצִ֖יר לִבְנ֥וֹת יַעֲנָֽה׃‬

And thorns will come up in its palaces,

And nettles and thistles in its fortifications,

And it will be an abode of jackals,

And pasture for ostriches.

jackals: see Isa 34:14.
Isa 34:14 ‫וּפָגְשׁ֤וּ צִיִּים֙ אֶת־אִיִּ֔ים וְשָׂעִ֖יר עַל־רֵעֵ֣הוּ יִקְרָ֑א אַךְ־שָׁם֙ הִרְגִּ֣יעָה לִּילִ֔ית וּמָצְאָ֥ה לָ֖הּ מָנֽוֹחַ׃‬

And the desert animals will meet the jackals,

And the goat will call to its fellow.

Indeed the screech-owl will settle quietly there

And will find itself a resting place.

jackals: not the same word as in Isa 34:13. Perhaps the two species are the side-striped and black-backed jackal.

goat: or satyr. Compare 2 Chr 11:15.
Isa 34:15 ‫שָׁ֣מָּה קִנְּנָ֤ה קִפּוֹז֙ וַתְּמַלֵּ֔ט וּבָקְעָ֖ה וְדָגְרָ֣ה בְצִלָּ֑הּ אַךְ־שָׁ֛ם נִקְבְּצ֥וּ דַיּ֖וֹת אִשָּׁ֥ה רְעוּתָֽהּ׃‬

The eagle-owl will make its nest there

And lay its eggs and hatch them

And brood over them in its shadow.

Vultures will also gather there

– The female and her mate.

eagle-owl: uncertain. Probably not a snake, because most don't incubate their eggs, but a python does coil around them.
Isa 34:16 ‫דִּרְשׁ֨וּ מֵֽעַל־סֵ֤פֶר יְהוָה֙ וּֽקְרָ֔אוּ אַחַ֤ת מֵהֵ֙נָּה֙ לֹ֣א נֶעְדָּ֔רָה אִשָּׁ֥ה רְעוּתָ֖הּ לֹ֣א פָקָ֑דוּ כִּֽי־פִי֙ ה֣וּא צִוָּ֔ה וְרוּח֖וֹ ה֥וּא קִבְּצָֽן׃‬

Seek in the book of the Lord,

And read.

Not one of these females will be left behind.

No female will lack its mate,

For it is my mouth which has commanded it,

And it is his spirit which will gather them.

in the book ← from upon the book.
Isa 34:17 ‫וְהֽוּא־הִפִּ֤יל לָהֶן֙ גּוֹרָ֔ל וְיָד֛וֹ חִלְּקַ֥תָּה לָהֶ֖ם בַּקָּ֑ו עַד־עוֹלָם֙ יִֽירָשׁ֔וּהָ לְד֥וֹר וָד֖וֹר יִשְׁכְּנוּ־בָֽהּ׃ ס‬

And he has cast their lot,

And his hand has allocated them an area marked off by a measuring line.

They will inherit it age-abidingly;

From generation to generation

They will dwell in it.

Isa 35:1 ‫יְשֻׂשׂ֥וּם מִדְבָּ֖ר וְצִיָּ֑ה וְתָגֵ֧ל עֲרָבָ֛ה וְתִפְרַ֖ח כַּחֲבַצָּֽלֶת׃‬

The desert and the dry place will take delight in them,

And the arid tract will rejoice

And blossom like a lily.

Isa 35:2 ‫פָּרֹ֨חַ תִּפְרַ֜ח וְתָגֵ֗ל אַ֚ף גִּילַ֣ת וְרַנֵּ֔ן כְּב֤וֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן֙ נִתַּן־לָ֔הּ הֲדַ֥ר הַכַּרְמֶ֖ל וְהַשָּׁר֑וֹן הֵ֛מָּה יִרְא֥וּ כְבוֹד־יְהוָ֖ה הֲדַ֥ר אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ׃ ס‬

It will blossom beautifully and rejoice;

It will rejoice and exult all the more.

The glory of Lebanon will be given to it

– The splendour of Carmel and Sharon.

They will see the glory of the Lord

– The splendour of our God.

blossom beautifully: infinitive absolute.

it will rejoice and exult all the more ← how much more rejoicing, and it will exult.

Carmel and Sharon ← the Carmel and the Sharon.
Isa 35:3 ‫חַזְּק֖וּ יָדַ֣יִם רָפ֑וֹת וּבִרְכַּ֥יִם כֹּשְׁל֖וֹת אַמֵּֽצוּ׃‬

Strengthen weak hands,

And embolden faltering knees.

Heb 12:12.

Compare this verse with Job 4:3, Job 4:4.
Isa 35:4 ‫אִמְרוּ֙ לְנִמְהֲרֵי־לֵ֔ב חִזְק֖וּ אַל־תִּירָ֑אוּ הִנֵּ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ נָקָ֣ם יָב֔וֹא גְּמ֣וּל אֱלֹהִ֔ים ה֥וּא יָב֖וֹא וְיֹשַׁעֲכֶֽם׃‬

Say to those of a panic-stricken heart,

“Be strong and do not fear.

Behold, your God will come with vengeance

With God's retribution.

He will come and save you.”

Isa 35:5 ‫אָ֥ז תִּפָּקַ֖חְנָה עֵינֵ֣י עִוְרִ֑ים וְאָזְנֵ֥י חֵרְשִׁ֖ים תִּפָּתַֽחְנָה׃‬

Then the eyes of the blind will be opened,

And opened will be the ears of the deaf.

Matt 15:31, Luke 4:18; Matt 11:5 (allusion).

opened ... opened: different verbs in Hebrew, so not otiose.
Isa 35:6 ‫אָ֣ז יְדַלֵּ֤ג כָּֽאַיָּל֙ פִּסֵּ֔חַ וְתָרֹ֖ן לְשׁ֣וֹן אִלֵּ֑ם כִּֽי־נִבְקְע֤וּ בַמִּדְבָּר֙ מַ֔יִם וּנְחָלִ֖ים בָּעֲרָבָֽה׃‬

Then the lame will leap like the deer,

And the tongue of the mute will shout for joy,

At a time when water will be laid open in the desert,

As will streams in the arid tracts.

Alluded to in Matt 11:5, Matt 15:31.

laid open: with connotations of cracking open.

the arid tracts ← an arid tract.
Isa 35:7 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה הַשָּׁרָב֙ לַאֲגַ֔ם וְצִמָּא֖וֹן לְמַבּ֣וּעֵי מָ֑יִם בִּנְוֵ֤ה תַנִּים֙ רִבְצָ֔הּ חָצִ֖יר לְקָנֶ֥ה וָגֹֽמֶא׃‬

And the parched ground will become a lake,

And the thirsty land springs of water.

In the jackals' den where they lie down

Will be pasture with reeds and papyrus.

parched ground: [AnLx] has mirage, where a desert presents the appearance of a lake.

where they lie down ← its place of lying down. Discordant (which is not uncommon).
Isa 35:8 ‫וְהָיָה־שָׁ֞ם מַסְל֣וּל וָדֶ֗רֶךְ וְדֶ֤רֶךְ הַקֹּ֙דֶשׁ֙ יִקָּ֣רֵא לָ֔הּ לֹֽא־יַעַבְרֶ֥נּוּ טָמֵ֖א וְהוּא־לָ֑מוֹ הֹלֵ֥ךְ דֶּ֛רֶךְ וֶאֱוִילִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִתְעֽוּ׃‬

And there will be a highway and a road there,

And it will be called the holy road.

No-one unclean will pass over it,

And it will be for him who walks in the way,

And the impious will not stray onto it.

holy road ← road of holiness, a Hebraic genitive.

the way: compare Acts 9:2.
Isa 35:9 ‫לֹא־יִהְיֶ֨ה שָׁ֜ם אַרְיֵ֗ה וּפְרִ֤יץ חַיּוֹת֙ בַּֽל־יַעֲלֶ֔נָּה לֹ֥א תִמָּצֵ֖א שָׁ֑ם וְהָלְכ֖וּ גְּאוּלִֽים׃‬

There will not be any lions there,

And rapacious animals will not come up to it,

Nor be found there,

But the redeemed will walk on it.

lions ← a lion.
Isa 35:10 ‫וּפְדוּיֵ֨י יְהוָ֜ה יְשֻׁב֗וּן וּבָ֤אוּ צִיּוֹן֙ בְּרִנָּ֔ה וְשִׂמְחַ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם עַל־רֹאשָׁ֑ם שָׂשׂ֤וֹן וְשִׂמְחָה֙ יַשִּׂ֔יגוּ וְנָ֖סוּ יָג֥וֹן וַאֲנָחָֽה׃ פ‬

And the Lord's redeemed will return

And come to Zion in jubilation,

With age-abiding joy on their heads.

They will obtain happiness and joy,

Whereas sorrow and sighing will flee.

|| Isa 51:11.
Isa 36:1 ‫וַיְהִ֡י בְּאַרְבַּע֩ עֶשְׂרֵ֨ה שָׁנָ֜ה לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ חִזְקִיָּ֗הוּ עָלָ֞ה סַנְחֵרִ֤יב מֶֽלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר֙ עַ֣ל כָּל־עָרֵ֧י יְהוּדָ֛ה הַבְּצֻר֖וֹת וַֽיִּתְפְּשֵֽׂם׃‬ And it came to pass in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah that Sennacherib king of Assyria went up against all the fortified cities of Judah and seized them. || 2 Ki 18:13, 2 Chr 32:1.

Sennacherib: see 2 Ki 18:13.
Isa 36:2 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח מֶֽלֶךְ־אַשּׁ֣וּר ׀ אֶת־רַב־שָׁקֵ֨ה מִלָּכִ֧ישׁ יְרוּשָׁלְַ֛מָה אֶל־הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ בְּחֵ֣יל כָּבֵ֑ד וַֽיַּעֲמֹ֗ד בִּתְעָלַת֙ הַבְּרֵכָ֣ה הָעֶלְיוֹנָ֔ה בִּמְסִלַּ֖ת שְׂדֵ֥ה כוֹבֵֽס׃‬ And the king of Assyria sent the chief butler from Lachish to Jerusalem, to King Hezekiah, with a sizeable army, and they stood at the conduit at the upper pool, which is at the aqueduct to the washer's site. || 2 Ki 18:17, 2 Chr 32:9.

chief butler ... washer's: see 2 Ki 18:17.

sizeable army ← heavy force.

conduit at ← conduit of.

aqueduct ← raised way.

washer's: perhaps fuller's.
Isa 36:3 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֥א אֵלָ֛יו אֶלְיָקִ֥ים בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּ֖הוּ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הַבָּ֑יִת וְשֶׁבְנָא֙ הַסֹּפֵ֔ר וְיוֹאָ֥ח בֶּן־אָסָ֖ף הַמַּזְכִּֽיר׃‬ And Eliakim, Hilkiah's son, who was in charge of the house, came out to him, as did Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph, the state secretary. || 2 Ki 18:18.
Isa 36:4 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ רַב־שָׁקֵ֔ה אִמְרוּ־נָ֖א אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֑הוּ כֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר מָ֧ה הַבִּטָּח֛וֹן הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּטָֽחְתָּ׃‬ And the chief butler said to them, “Kindly say to Hezekiah, ‘This is what the great king, the king of Assyria, says: «What is this object of trust in which you trust? || 2 Ki 18:19.

this is whatthus.
Isa 36:5 ‫אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ אַךְ־דְּבַר־שְׂפָתַ֔יִם עֵצָ֥ה וּגְבוּרָ֖ה לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה עַתָּה֙ עַל־מִ֣י בָטַ֔חְתָּ כִּ֥י מָרַ֖דְתָּ בִּֽי׃‬ I quote you – but it is vain talk – ‹I have counsel and wherewithal for war.› Now in whom have you trusted? For you have rebelled against me. || 2 Ki 18:20, 2 Chr 32:10.

vain talk ← word of the lips.
Isa 36:6 ‫הִנֵּ֣ה בָטַ֡חְתָּ עַל־מִשְׁעֶנֶת֩ הַקָּנֶ֨ה הָרָצ֤וּץ הַזֶּה֙ עַל־מִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִסָּמֵ֥ךְ אִישׁ֙ עָלָ֔יו וּבָ֥א בְכַפּ֖וֹ וּנְקָבָ֑הּ כֵּ֚ן פַּרְעֹ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֔יִם לְכָֽל־הַבֹּטְחִ֖ים עָלָֽיו׃‬ Look, you have put trust in this buckled reed staff – in Egypt – and if a man leans on it, it slips into his hand and pierces it. Such is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all who trust in him. || 2 Ki 18:21.

buckled reed staff: compare Isa 42:3, quoted in Matt 12:20.

slips ← goes.
Isa 36:7 ‫וְכִי־תֹאמַ֣ר אֵלַ֔י אֶל־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ בָּטָ֑חְנוּ הֲלוֹא־ה֗וּא אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵסִ֤יר חִזְקִיָּ֙הוּ֙ אֶת־בָּמֹתָ֣יו וְאֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָ֔יו וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לִֽיהוּדָה֙ וְלִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם לִפְנֵ֛י הַמִּזְבֵּ֥חַ הַזֶּ֖ה תִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוֽוּ׃‬ And if you say to me, ‹We trust in the Lord our God›, is that not he whose raised sites and whose altars Hezekiah removed, when he said to Judah and to Jerusalem, ‹It is before this altar that you will worship›?» ’ || 2 Ki 18:22, 2 Chr 32:12.
Isa 36:8 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ הִתְעָ֣רֶב נָ֔א אֶת־אֲדֹנִ֖י הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֑וּר וְאֶתְּנָ֤ה לְךָ֙ אַלְפַּ֣יִם סוּסִ֔ים אִם־תּוּכַ֕ל לָ֥תֶת לְךָ֖ רֹכְבִ֥ים עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ So now, please, enter into a contract with my lord the king of Assyria, and I will give you two thousand horses if you are able to provide yourself with riders on them. || 2 Ki 18:23.
Isa 36:9 ‫וְאֵ֣יךְ תָּשִׁ֗יב אֵ֠ת פְּנֵ֨י פַחַ֥ת אַחַ֛ד עַבְדֵ֥י אֲדֹנִ֖י הַקְטַנִּ֑ים וַתִּבְטַ֤ח לְךָ֙ עַל־מִצְרַ֔יִם לְרֶ֖כֶב וּלְפָרָשִֽׁים׃‬ And how can you decline the offer of a governor among the least of my lord's servants, and entrust yourself to Egypt for chariots and for horsemen? || 2 Ki 18:24.

decline the offer ← repulse the face.

a governor among ← a governor of one of.
Isa 36:10 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ הֲמִבַּלְעֲדֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה עָלִ֛יתִי עַל־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּ֖את לְהַשְׁחִיתָ֑הּ יְהוָה֙ אָמַ֣ר אֵלַ֔י עֲלֵ֛ה אֶל־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּ֖את וְהַשְׁחִיתָֽהּ׃‬ Now did I come up without the Lord against this land, to bring it to ruin? The Lord said to me, ‘Go up against this land and bring it to ruin.’ ” || 2 Ki 18:25.
Isa 36:11 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶלְיָקִים֩ וְשֶׁבְנָ֨א וְיוֹאָ֜ח אֶל־רַב־שָׁקֵ֗ה דַּבֶּר־נָ֤א אֶל־עֲבָדֶ֙יךָ֙ אֲרָמִ֔ית כִּ֥י שֹׁמְעִ֖ים אֲנָ֑חְנוּ וְאַל־תְּדַבֵּ֤ר אֵלֵ֙ינוּ֙ יְהוּדִ֔ית בְּאָזְנֵ֣י הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַחוֹמָֽה׃‬ Then Eliakim and Shebna and Joah said to the chief butler, “Please speak to your servants in Aramaic, for we understand it, and do not speak to us in Judaean, it being intelligible to the people who are on the wall.” || 2 Ki 18:26, 2 Chr 32:18.

understand ← hear.

intelligible to ← in the ears of.

on the wall: or at the wall.
Isa 36:12 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר רַב־שָׁקֵ֗ה הַאֶ֨ל אֲדֹנֶ֤יךָ וְאֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲדֹנִ֔י לְדַבֵּ֖ר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה הֲלֹ֣א עַל־הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים הַיֹּֽשְׁבִים֙ עַל־הַ֣חוֹמָ֔ה לֶאֱכֹ֣ל אֶת־*חראיהם **צוֹאָתָ֗ם וְלִשְׁתּ֛וֹת אֶת־*שיניהם **מֵימֵ֥י **רַגְלֵיהֶ֖ם עִמָּכֶֽם׃‬ Then the chief butler said, “Is it to your master and to you that my lord has sent me to speak these words? Is it not to the people sitting on the wall, that they will have to eat their excrement and drink their urine with you?” their excrement ... their urine: see 2 Ki 18:27.

|| 2 Ki 18:27.

on the wall: or at the wall.
Isa 36:13 ‫וַֽיַּעֲמֹד֙ רַב־שָׁקֵ֔ה וַיִּקְרָ֥א בְקוֹל־גָּד֖וֹל יְהוּדִ֑ית וַיֹּ֕אמֶר שִׁמְע֗וּ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֛י הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ הַגָּד֖וֹל מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר׃‬ Then the chief butler stood up and called out in a loud voice in Judaean and said, “Hear the words of the great king, the king of Assyria. || 2 Ki 18:28.
Isa 36:14 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אַל־יַשִּׁ֥א לָכֶ֖ם חִזְקִיָּ֑הוּ כִּ֥י לֹֽא־יוּכַ֖ל לְהַצִּ֥יל אֶתְכֶֽם׃‬ This is what the king says: ‘Do not let Hezekiah deceive you, for he will not be able to deliver you. || 2 Ki 18:29, 2 Chr 32:15.

this is whatthus.
Isa 36:15 ‫וְאַל־יַבְטַ֨ח אֶתְכֶ֤ם חִזְקִיָּ֙הוּ֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֣ה לֵאמֹ֔ר הַצֵּ֥ל יַצִּילֵ֖נוּ יְהוָ֑ה לֹ֤א תִנָּתֵן֙ הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֔את בְּיַ֖ד מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר׃‬ And do not let Hezekiah persuade you to trust in the Lord, saying, «The Lord will certainly deliver us, and this city will not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria.» ’ || 2 Ki 18:30, 2 Chr 32:15.

certainly deliver: infinitive absolute.
Isa 36:16 ‫אַֽל־תִּשְׁמְע֖וּ אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֑הוּ ס כִּי֩ כֹ֨ה אָמַ֜ר הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֗וּר עֲשֽׂוּ־אִתִּ֤י בְרָכָה֙ וּצְא֣וּ אֵלַ֔י וְאִכְל֤וּ אִישׁ־גַּפְנוֹ֙ וְאִ֣ישׁ תְּאֵנָת֔וֹ וּשְׁת֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ מֵי־בוֹרֽוֹ׃‬ Do not listen to Hezekiah, for this is what the king of Assyria says: ‘Make things a blessing in partnership with me, and come out to me, then let each man eat from his vine, and each man from his fig tree, and let each man drink water from his cistern, || 2 Ki 18:31.

this is whatthus.

water from ← water of. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 36:17 ‫עַד־בֹּאִ֕י וְלָקַחְתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ כְּאַרְצְכֶ֑ם אֶ֤רֶץ דָּגָן֙ וְתִיר֔וֹשׁ אֶ֥רֶץ לֶ֖חֶם וּכְרָמִֽים׃‬ until I come and take you to a land like your own land – a land of corn and new wine, a land of bread and vineyards. || 2 Ki 18:32.
Isa 36:18 ‫פֶּן־יַסִּ֨ית אֶתְכֶ֤ם חִזְקִיָּ֙הוּ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יְהוָ֖ה יַצִּילֵ֑נוּ הַהִצִּ֜ילוּ אֱלֹהֵ֤י הַגּוֹיִם֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־אַרְצ֔וֹ מִיַּ֖ד מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר׃‬ And don't let Hezekiah entice you, saying, «The Lord will deliver us.» Have the gods of the nations delivered anyone's land from the grip of the king of Assyria? || 2 Ki 18:32, 2 Ki 18:33.

and don't let ← lest.

anyone's land ← a man his land.

grip ← hand.
Isa 36:19 ‫אַיֵּ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י חֲמָת֙ וְאַרְפָּ֔ד אַיֵּ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י סְפַרְוָ֑יִם וְכִֽי־הִצִּ֥ילוּ אֶת־שֹׁמְר֖וֹן מִיָּדִֽי׃‬ Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? Where are the gods of Sepharvaim? And have they, then, delivered Samaria from my grip? || 2 Ki 18:34, 2 Chr 32:14.

grip ← hand.
Isa 36:20 ‫מִ֗י בְּכָל־אֱלֹהֵ֤י הָֽאֲרָצוֹת֙ הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֲשֶׁר־הִצִּ֥ילוּ אֶת־אַרְצָ֖ם מִיָּדִ֑י כִּֽי־יַצִּ֧יל יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם מִיָּדִֽי׃‬ Who are there among all the gods of these countries who have delivered their country from my grip? So will the Lord deliver Jerusalem from my grip?’ ” || 2 Ki 18:35.

grip (2x)hand.
Isa 36:21 ‫וַֽיַּחֲרִ֔ישׁוּ וְלֹֽא־עָנ֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ דָּבָ֑ר כִּֽי־מִצְוַ֨ת הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ הִ֛יא לֵאמֹ֖ר לֹ֥א תַעֲנֻֽהוּ׃‬ And they fell silent, and they did not answer him a word, for the king's commandment was, “Do not answer him.” || 2 Ki 18:36.

was(was) to say, but acting as a direct speech marker.
Isa 36:22 ‫וַיָּבֹ֣א אֶלְיָקִ֣ים בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּ֣הוּ אֲשֶׁר־עַל־הַ֠בַּיִת וְשֶׁבְנָ֨א הַסּוֹפֵ֜ר וְיוֹאָ֨ח בֶּן־אָסָ֧ף הַמַּזְכִּ֛יר אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ קְרוּעֵ֣י בְגָדִ֑ים וַיַּגִּ֣ידוּ ל֔וֹ אֵ֖ת דִּבְרֵ֥י רַב־שָׁקֵֽה׃ ס‬ Then Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was in charge of the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph, the state secretary, went to Hezekiah with their clothes torn, and they told him the chief butler's words. || 2 Ki 18:37.
Isa 37:1 ‫וַיְהִ֗י כִּשְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ חִזְקִיָּ֔הוּ וַיִּקְרַ֖ע אֶת־בְּגָדָ֑יו וַיִּתְכַּ֣ס בַּשָּׂ֔ק וַיָּבֹ֖א בֵּ֥ית יְהוָֽה׃‬ And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it, that he tore his clothes and covered himself in sackcloth, and he went to the house of the Lord. || 2 Ki 19:1.
Isa 37:2 ‫וַ֠יִּשְׁלַח אֶת־אֶלְיָקִ֨ים אֲשֶׁר־עַל־הַבַּ֜יִת וְאֵ֣ת ׀ שֶׁבְנָ֣א הַסּוֹפֵ֗ר וְאֵת֙ זִקְנֵ֣י הַכֹּהֲנִ֔ים מִתְכַּסִּ֖ים בַּשַּׂקִּ֑ים אֶל־יְשַֽׁעְיָ֥הוּ בֶן־אָמ֖וֹץ הַנָּבִֽיא׃‬ And he sent Eliakim, who was in charge of the household, and Shebna the scribe, and the elders of the priests – having covered themselves in sackcloth – to Isaiah, the son of Amoz, the prophet. || 2 Ki 19:2.
Isa 37:3 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר חִזְקִיָּ֔הוּ יוֹם־צָרָ֧ה וְתוֹכֵחָ֛ה וּנְאָצָ֖ה הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֣י בָ֤אוּ בָנִים֙ עַד־מַשְׁבֵּ֔ר וְכֹ֥חַ אַ֖יִן לְלֵדָֽה׃‬ And they said to him, “This is what Hezekiah says: ‘This day is a day of anguish and chastening and indignity, for the sons have arrived at the stage of breaking out of the womb, but there isn't the strength to give birth. || 2 Ki 19:3.

this is whatthus.
Isa 37:4 ‫אוּלַ֡י יִשְׁמַע֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ אֵ֣ת ׀ דִּבְרֵ֣י רַב־שָׁקֵ֗ה אֲשֶׁר֩ שְׁלָח֨וֹ מֶֽלֶךְ־אַשּׁ֤וּר ׀ אֲדֹנָיו֙ לְחָרֵף֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים חַ֔י וְהוֹכִ֙יחַ֙ בַּדְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁמַ֖ע יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְנָשָׂ֣אתָ תְפִלָּ֔ה בְּעַ֥ד הַשְּׁאֵרִ֖ית הַנִּמְצָאָֽה׃‬ Perhaps the Lord your God will have heard the words of the chief butler, whom the king of Assyria, his master, sent to defy the living God, and he will condemn the words which the Lord your God has heard, so you will take up a prayer for the remnant which is found.’ ” you will take up: a pointing issue; see 2 Ki 19:4.

|| 2 Ki 19:4.

defy ← scorn [AnLx], or revile [CB].
Isa 37:5 ‫וַיָּבֹ֗אוּ עַבְדֵ֛י הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ אֶל־יְשַׁעְיָֽהוּ׃‬ And when King Hezekiah's servants came to Isaiah, || 2 Ki 19:5.
Isa 37:6 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ יְשַֽׁעְיָ֔הוּ כֹּ֥ה תֹאמְר֖וּן אֶל־אֲדֹנֵיכֶ֑ם כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה אַל־תִּירָא֙ מִפְּנֵ֤י הַדְּבָרִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁמַ֔עְתָּ אֲשֶׁ֧ר גִּדְּפ֛וּ נַעֲרֵ֥י מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁ֖וּר אוֹתִֽי׃‬ Isaiah said to them, “This is what you will say to your master: ‘This is what the Lord says: «Do not be afraid of the words which you have heard, because the servants of the king of Assyria have vilified me. || 2 Ki 19:6.

this is what (2x)thus.
Isa 37:7 ‫הִנְנִ֨י נוֹתֵ֥ן בּוֹ֙ ר֔וּחַ וְשָׁמַ֥ע שְׁמוּעָ֖ה וְשָׁ֣ב אֶל־אַרְצ֑וֹ וְהִפַּלְתִּ֥יו בַּחֶ֖רֶב בְּאַרְצֽוֹ׃‬ I am about to put in him a certain spirit, and he will hear a rumour, and he will return to his country, and I will bring him down by the sword in his own country.» ’ ” || 2 Ki 19:7.

I am about to ← behold me.
Isa 37:8 ‫וַיָּ֙שָׁב֙ רַב־שָׁקֵ֔ה וַיִּמְצָא֙ אֶת־מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר נִלְחָ֖ם עַל־לִבְנָ֑ה כִּ֣י שָׁמַ֔ע כִּ֥י נָסַ֖ע מִלָּכִֽישׁ׃‬ Then the chief butler returned and found the king of Assyria at war with Libnah, for he had heard that he had moved from Lachish. || 2 Ki 19:8.

he had moved: he = Sennacherib, who had abandoned the siege of Lachish. See [CB].
Isa 37:9 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֗ע עַל־תִּרְהָ֤קָה מֶֽלֶךְ־כּוּשׁ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יָצָ֖א לְהִלָּחֵ֣ם אִתָּ֑ךְ וַיִּשְׁמַע֙ וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח מַלְאָכִ֔ים אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And he heard about Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, when informants said, “He has gone out to wage war with you.” And when he heard about it, he sent messengers to Hezekiah to say, || 2 Ki 19:9.
Isa 37:10 ‫כֹּ֣ה תֹאמְר֗וּן אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֤הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אַל־יַשִּֽׁאֲךָ֣ אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֛ה בּוֹטֵ֥חַ בּ֖וֹ לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹ֤א תִנָּתֵן֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם בְּיַ֖ד מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר׃‬ This is what you will say to Hezekiah king of Judah. Say, ‘Do not let your God in whom you trust deceive you when he says, «Jerusalem will not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria.» || 2 Ki 19:10, 2 Chr 32:17.

this is whatthus.
Isa 37:11 ‫הִנֵּ֣ה ׀ אַתָּ֣ה שָׁמַ֗עְתָּ אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשׂ֜וּ מַלְכֵ֥י אַשּׁ֛וּר לְכָל־הָאֲרָצ֖וֹת לְהַחֲרִימָ֑ם וְאַתָּ֖ה תִּנָּצֵֽל׃‬ Look, you have heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all the countries, in obliterating them. So will you be delivered? || 2 Ki 19:11, 2 Chr 32:17.

in obliterating them: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 37:12 ‫הַהִצִּ֨ילוּ אוֹתָ֜ם אֱלֹהֵ֤י הַגּוֹיִם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִשְׁחִ֣יתוּ אֲבוֹתַ֔י אֶת־גּוֹזָ֖ן וְאֶת־חָרָ֑ן וְרֶ֥צֶף וּבְנֵי־עֶ֖דֶן אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּתְלַשָּֽׂר׃‬ Have the gods of the nations delivered them – nations which my fathers brought to ruin: Gozan and Haran and Rezeph and the sons of Eden who were in Telassar? || 2 Ki 19:12.

Telassar: AV= Telassar here, but Thelasar in 2 Ki 19:12.
Isa 37:13 ‫אַיֵּ֤ה מֶֽלֶךְ־חֲמָת֙ וּמֶ֣לֶךְ אַרְפָּ֔ד וּמֶ֖לֶךְ לָעִ֣יר סְפַרְוָ֑יִם הֵנַ֖ע וְעִוָּֽה׃‬ Where is the king of Hamath or the king of Arpad or the king of the city of Sepharvaim, Hena or Ivvah?’ ” || 2 Ki 19:13.

or (3x): see 2 Ki 19:13.

Ivvah: AV= Ivah, not recognizing the dagesh in the vav.
Isa 37:14 ‫וַיִּקַּ֨ח חִזְקִיָּ֧הוּ אֶת־הַסְּפָרִ֛ים מִיַּ֥ד הַמַּלְאָכִ֖ים וַיִּקְרָאֵ֑הוּ וַיַּ֙עַל֙ בֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּפְרְשֵׂ֥הוּ חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬ And Hezekiah took the communiqué from the hand of the messengers and read it, and he went up to the house of the Lord, and Hezekiah spread it before the Lord. || 2 Ki 19:14.

communiqué ... it ... it ← writings / books ... it ... it. Compare 2 Ki 19:14. We take it as a single document.
Isa 37:15 ‫וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל֙ חִזְקִיָּ֔הוּ אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And Hezekiah prayed to the Lord and said, || 2 Ki 19:15, 2 Chr 32:20.
Isa 37:16 ‫יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יֹשֵׁ֣ב הַכְּרֻבִ֔ים אַתָּה־ה֤וּא הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ לְבַדְּךָ֔ לְכֹ֖ל מַמְלְכ֣וֹת הָאָ֑רֶץ אַתָּ֣ה עָשִׂ֔יתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ “O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, you who dwell between the cherubim, you alone are the God of all the kingdoms of the earth. You made heaven and the earth. || 2 Ki 19:15.
Isa 37:17 ‫הַטֵּ֨ה יְהוָ֤ה ׀ אָזְנְךָ֙ וּֽשְׁמָ֔ע פְּקַ֧ח יְהוָ֛ה עֵינֶ֖ךָ וּרְאֵ֑ה וּשְׁמַ֗ע אֵ֚ת כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֣י סַנְחֵרִ֔יב אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁלַ֔ח לְחָרֵ֖ף אֱלֹהִ֥ים חָֽי׃‬ Incline, O Lord, your ear and hear; open, O Lord, your eyes and see, and hear all the words of Sennacherib who sent a messenger to defy the living God. || 2 Ki 19:16.

eyes: or eye.

defy ← scorn [AnLx], or revile [CB].
Isa 37:18 ‫אָמְנָ֖ם יְהוָ֑ה הֶחֱרִ֜יבוּ מַלְכֵ֥י אַשּׁ֛וּר אֶת־כָּל־הָאֲרָצ֖וֹת וְאֶת־אַרְצָֽם׃‬ Indeed, O Lord, the kings of Assyria have laid all the nations and their land waste, || 2 Ki 19:17.
Isa 37:19 ‫וְנָתֹ֥ן אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֖ם בָּאֵ֑שׁ כִּי֩ לֹ֨א אֱלֹהִ֜ים הֵ֗מָּה כִּ֣י אִם־מַעֲשֵׂ֧ה יְדֵֽי־אָדָ֛ם עֵ֥ץ וָאֶ֖בֶן וַֽיְאַבְּדֽוּם׃‬ and they have put their gods in a fire – although they are not gods, but the product of man's hands, wood and stone – and they have destroyed them. || 2 Ki 19:18, 2 Chr 32:19.

they have put: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.

a fire ← the fire.
Isa 37:20 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ הוֹשִׁיעֵ֖נוּ מִיָד֑וֹ וְיֵֽדְעוּ֙ כָּל־מַמְלְכ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ כִּֽי־אַתָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה לְבַדֶּֽךָ׃‬ So now, O Lord our God, save us from his grip, so that all the kingdoms of the earth will know that you are the Lord, and only you.” || 2 Ki 19:19.

grip ← hand.
Isa 37:21 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַח֙ יְשַֽׁעְיָ֣הוּ בֶן־אָמ֔וֹץ אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ לֵאמֹ֑ר כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר֙ הִתְפַּלַּ֣לְתָּ אֵלַ֔י אֶל־סַנְחֵרִ֖יב מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר׃‬ Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent word to Hezekiah as follows: “This is what the Lord God of Israel says: ‘Because you have prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria’, || 2 Ki 19:20.

as follows ← to say.

this is whatthus.
Isa 37:22 ‫זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה עָלָ֑יו בָּזָ֨ה לְךָ֜ לָעֲגָ֣ה לְךָ֗ בְּתוּלַת֙ בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן אַחֲרֶ֙יךָ֙ רֹ֣אשׁ הֵנִ֔יעָה בַּ֖ת יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ these are the words which the Lord spoke concerning him,

‘The virgin daughter of Zion despises you,

Derides you;

The daughter of Jerusalem

Shakes her head at you.

|| 2 Ki 19:21.

these are the words ... virgin ... at you: see 2 Ki 19:21.
Isa 37:23 ‫אֶת־מִ֤י חֵרַ֙פְתָּ֙ וְגִדַּ֔פְתָּ וְעַל־מִ֖י הֲרִימ֣וֹתָה קּ֑וֹל וַתִּשָּׂ֥א מָר֛וֹם עֵינֶ֖יךָ אֶל־קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

Whom have you defied and vilified,

And against whom have you raised your voice?

Well, you have lifted your eyes haughtily

Against the holy one of Israel.

|| 2 Ki 19:22.

well ... haughtily: see 2 Ki 19:22.
Isa 37:24 ‫בְּיַ֣ד עֲבָדֶיךָ֮ חֵרַ֣פְתָּ ׀ אֲדֹנָי֒ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר בְּרֹ֥ב רִכְבִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י עָלִ֛יתִי מְר֥וֹם הָרִ֖ים יַרְכְּתֵ֣י לְבָנ֑וֹן וְאֶכְרֹ֞ת קוֹמַ֤ת אֲרָזָיו֙ מִבְחַ֣ר בְּרֹשָׁ֔יו וְאָבוֹא֙ מְר֣וֹם קִצּ֔וֹ יַ֖עַר כַּרְמִלּֽוֹ׃‬

Through your servants you have defied the Lord*

And said, «By the numerical weight of my chariot fleet

I have ascended to the heights of mountains

In the remote parts of Lebanon.

And I will cut down the tallest of its cedars

And the choice of its cypresses,

And I will come to its ultimate height

In its Carmel forest.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

|| 2 Ki 19:23.

tallest: see 2 Ki 19:23.

ultimate height ← height of its end.
Isa 37:25 ‫אֲנִ֥י קַ֖רְתִּי וְשָׁתִ֣יתִי מָ֑יִם וְאַחְרִב֙ בְּכַף־פְּעָמַ֔י כֹּ֖ל יְאֹרֵ֥י מָצֽוֹר׃‬

I have dug wells and drunk water,

And by my expeditions

I have caused all the channels to places under siege

To dry up.»

|| 2 Ki 19:24.

expeditions: see 2 Ki 19:24.

to placesof places.
Isa 37:26 ‫הֲלֽוֹא־שָׁמַ֤עְתָּ לְמֵֽרָחוֹק֙ אוֹתָ֣הּ עָשִׂ֔יתִי מִ֥ימֵי קֶ֖דֶם וִיצַרְתִּ֑יהָ עַתָּ֣ה הֲבֵאתִ֔יהָ וּתְהִ֗י לְהַשְׁא֛וֹת גַּלִּ֥ים נִצִּ֖ים עָרִ֥ים בְּצֻרֽוֹת׃‬

Have you not heard from long ago

That I made this?

– That in ancient days I formed it?

I have brought it about now,

And it was so that you should reduce fortified cities

To desolate heaps of stones.

|| 2 Ki 19:25.

this ← it.
Isa 37:27 ‫וְיֹֽשְׁבֵיהֶן֙ קִצְרֵי־יָ֔ד חַ֖תּוּ וָבֹ֑שׁוּ הָי֞וּ עֵ֤שֶׂב שָׂדֶה֙ וִ֣ירַק דֶּ֔שֶׁא חֲצִ֣יר גַּגּ֔וֹת וּשְׁדֵמָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י קָמָֽה׃‬

And their inhabitants were powerless,

They were afraid and were put to shame;

They were wild vegetation and grassy verdure

– Wild grass on rooftops,

And blight on standing corn.

|| 2 Ki 19:26.

powerless ... wild vegetation ... grassy verdure ... on standing corn: see 2 Ki 19:26.
Isa 37:28 ‫וְשִׁבְתְּךָ֛ וְצֵאתְךָ֥ וּבוֹאֲךָ֖ יָדָ֑עְתִּי וְאֵ֖ת הִֽתְרַגֶּזְךָ֥ אֵלָֽי׃‬

Now I have known your way of life,

And your coming and going,

And your rage against me.

|| 2 Ki 19:27.

way of life ... coming and going: see 2 Ki 19:27.
Isa 37:29 ‫יַ֚עַן הִתְרַגֶּזְךָ֣ אֵלַ֔י וְשַׁאֲנַנְךָ֖ עָלָ֣ה בְאָזְנָ֑י וְשַׂמְתִּ֨י חַחִ֜י בְּאַפֶּ֗ךָ וּמִתְגִּי֙ בִּשְׂפָתֶ֔יךָ וַהֲשִׁ֣יבֹתִ֔יךָ בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥אתָ בָּֽהּ׃‬

Because your rage against me and your wantonness

Have come up to my ears,

I will put my hook in your nose,

And my bridle in your lips,

And I will turn you back to the road

By which you came.’

|| 2 Ki 19:28.
Isa 37:30 ‫וְזֶה־לְּךָ֣ הָא֔וֹת אָכ֤וֹל הַשָּׁנָה֙ סָפִ֔יחַ וּבַשָּׁנָ֥ה הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית שָׁחִ֑יס וּבַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗ית זִרְע֧וּ וְקִצְר֛וּ וְנִטְע֥וּ כְרָמִ֖ים *ואכול **וְאִכְל֥וּ פִרְיָֽם׃‬

And this will be a sign to you:

This year you will eat the produce of spilt grain,

And in the second year the produce of self-sown grain,

But in the third year,

Sow and reap and plant vineyards

And eat their fruit.

eat their fruit: the ketiv is an infinitive absolute; the qeré a plural imperative.

|| 2 Ki 19:29.

and this: the addressee changes from Sennacherib to Judah.

you will eat: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.
Isa 37:31 ‫וְיָ֨סְפָ֜ה פְּלֵיטַ֧ת בֵּית־יְהוּדָ֛ה הַנִּשְׁאָרָ֖ה שֹׁ֣רֶשׁ לְמָ֑טָּה וְעָשָׂ֥ה פְרִ֖י לְמָֽעְלָה׃‬

And the remnant of the house of Judah which remains

Will again strike root downward

And yield fruit upward.

|| 2 Ki 19:30.
Isa 37:32 ‫כִּ֤י מִירֽוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ תֵּצֵ֣א שְׁאֵרִ֔ית וּפְלֵיטָ֖ה מֵהַ֣ר צִיּ֑וֹן קִנְאַ֛ת יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־זֹּֽאת׃ ס‬

For the remainder will go out from Jerusalem,

As will the remnant from Mount Zion.

The zeal of the Lord of hosts

Will perform this.’

|| 2 Ki 19:31.
Isa 37:33 ‫לָכֵ֗ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר לֹ֤א יָבוֹא֙ אֶל־הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֔את וְלֹֽא־יוֹרֶ֥ה שָׁ֖ם חֵ֑ץ וְלֹֽא־יְקַדְּמֶ֣נָּה מָגֵ֔ן וְלֹֽא־יִשְׁפֹּ֥ךְ עֳלֶ֖יהָ סֹלְלָֽה׃‬ Therefore this is what the Lord says concerning the king of Assyria:

‘He shall not come to this city,

And he shall not shoot an arrow there,

And he shall not advance on it with a shield,

And he shall not raise an earthwork against it.

|| 2 Ki 19:32.

this is whatthus.

he shall not advance on it with a shield: see 2 Ki 19:32.
Isa 37:34 ‫בַּדֶּ֥רֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֖א בָּ֣הּ יָשׁ֑וּב וְאֶל־הָעִ֥יר הַזֹּ֛את לֹ֥א יָב֖וֹא נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

He will return by the road on which he came,

And he shall not come to this city,

Says the Lord.

|| 2 Ki 19:33.
Isa 37:35 ‫וְגַנּוֹתִ֛י עַל־הָעִ֥יר הַזֹּ֖את לְהֽוֹשִׁיעָ֑הּ לְמַֽעֲנִ֔י וּלְמַ֖עַן דָּוִ֥ד עַבְדִּֽי׃ ס‬

And I will defend this city,

So as to save it,

For my own sake,

And for the sake of David my servant.’ ”

|| 2 Ki 19:34.
Isa 37:36 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֣א ׀ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֗ה וַיַּכֶּה֙ בְּמַחֲנֵ֣ה אַשּׁ֔וּר מֵאָ֛ה וּשְׁמֹנִ֥ים וַחֲמִשָּׁ֖ה אָ֑לֶף וַיַּשְׁכִּ֣ימוּ בַבֹּ֔קֶר וְהִנֵּ֥ה כֻלָּ֖ם פְּגָרִ֥ים מֵתִֽים׃‬ And the angel of the Lord went out and struck down one hundred and eighty-five thousand men in the Assyrians' camp, and when people arose in the morning, they saw that they were all dead – corpses. || 2 Ki 19:35, 2 Chr 32:21.

they saw that ← behold.

dead – corpses: MT pointing conjoins (dead corpses).
Isa 37:37 ‫וַיִּסַּ֣ע וַיֵּ֔לֶךְ וַיָּ֖שָׁב סַנְחֵרִ֣יב מֶֽלֶךְ־אַשּׁ֑וּר וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בְּנִֽינְוֵֽה׃‬ So Sennacherib king of Assyria moved off and departed, and he returned and stayed in Nineveh. || 2 Ki 19:36, 2 Chr 32:21.
Isa 37:38 ‫וַיְהִי֩ ה֨וּא מִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֜ה בֵּ֣ית ׀ נִסְרֹ֣ךְ אֱלֹהָ֗יו וְֽאַדְרַמֶּ֨לֶךְ וְשַׂרְאֶ֤צֶר בָּנָיו֙ הִכֻּ֣הוּ בַחֶ֔רֶב וְהֵ֥מָּה נִמְלְט֖וּ אֶ֣רֶץ אֲרָרָ֑ט וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ אֵֽסַר־חַדֹּ֥ן בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו׃ ס‬ And it came to pass, while he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sarezer his sons struck him down with the sword, and they escaped to the land of Ararat. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his place. || 2 Ki 19:37.

Sarezer ... Esarhaddon: see 2 Ki 19:37.
Isa 38:1 ‫בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם חָלָ֥ה חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ לָמ֑וּת וַיָּב֣וֹא אֵ֠לָיו יְשַׁעְיָ֨הוּ בֶן־אָמ֜וֹץ הַנָּבִ֗יא וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ צַ֣ו לְבֵיתֶ֔ךָ כִּ֛י מֵ֥ת אַתָּ֖ה וְלֹ֥א תִֽחְיֶֽה׃‬ In those days Hezekiah became mortally ill, and Isaiah the son of Amoz, the prophet, came to him and said to him, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Give your last orders to your household, for you are going to die, and you will not live.’ ” || 2 Ki 20:1, 2 Chr 32:24.

mortally ← to die.

this is whatthus.
Isa 38:2 ‫וַיַּסֵּ֧ב חִזְקִיָּ֛הוּ פָּנָ֖יו אֶל־הַקִּ֑יר וַיִּתְפַּלֵּ֖ל אֶל־יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then Hezekiah turned his face to the wall and prayed to the Lord, || 2 Ki 20:2, 2 Chr 32:24.
Isa 38:3 ‫וַיֹּאמַ֗ר אָנָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ זְכָר־נָ֞א אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֧ר הִתְהַלַּ֣כְתִּי לְפָנֶ֗יךָ בֶּֽאֱמֶת֙ וּבְלֵ֣ב שָׁלֵ֔ם וְהַטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֶ֖יךָ עָשִׂ֑יתִי וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ בְּכִ֥י גָדֽוֹל׃ ס‬ and he said, “I implore you, O Lord, do remember how I have walked before you in truth, and with a sincere heart, and how I have done what is right in your sight.” And Hezekiah wept with great weeping. || 2 Ki 20:3.

remember how ... sincere ... right: see 2 Ki 20:3.
Isa 38:4 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶֽל־יְשַׁעְיָ֖הוּ לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord came to Isaiah as follows: || 2 Ki 20:4.

came ← became.

as follows ← to say.
Isa 38:5 ‫הָל֞וֹךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֗הוּ כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵי֙ דָּוִ֣ד אָבִ֔יךָ שָׁמַ֙עְתִּי֙ אֶת־תְּפִלָּתֶ֔ךָ רָאִ֖יתִי אֶת־דִּמְעָתֶ֑ךָ הִנְנִי֙ יוֹסִ֣ף עַל־יָמֶ֔יךָ חֲמֵ֥שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה שָׁנָֽה׃‬ Go and say to Hezekiah, ‘This is what the Lord God of David your father says: «I have heard your prayer; I have seen your tears. I am about to add fifteen years to your days. || 2 Ki 20:5, 2 Ki 20:6.

go: infinitive absolute in the role of an imperative.

this is whatthus.

tears ← tear.

I am about to ← behold me.
Isa 38:6 ‫וּמִכַּ֤ף מֶֽלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר֙ אַצִּ֣ילְךָ֔ וְאֵ֖ת הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֑את וְגַנּוֹתִ֖י עַל־הָעִ֥יר הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ I will deliver you and this city from the grip of the king of Assyria, and I will defend this city. || 2 Ki 20:6.

grip ← palm.
Isa 38:7 ‫וְזֶה־לְּךָ֥ הָא֖וֹת מֵאֵ֣ת יְהוָ֑ה אֲשֶׁר֙ יַעֲשֶׂ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֵּֽר׃‬ And this is your sign from the Lord, for the Lord will perform this pronouncement which he spoke: || 2 Ki 20:9, 2 Chr 32:24.
Isa 38:8 ‫הִנְנִ֣י מֵשִׁ֣יב אֶת־צֵ֣ל הַֽמַּעֲל֡וֹת אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָרְדָה֩ בְמַעֲל֨וֹת אָחָ֥ז בַּשֶּׁ֛מֶשׁ אֲחֹרַנִּ֖ית עֶ֣שֶׂר מַעֲל֑וֹת וַתָּ֤שָׁב הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ עֶ֣שֶׂר מַעֲל֔וֹת בַּֽמַּעֲל֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָרָֽדָה׃ ס‬ I am about to make the shadow of the sundial go back, the shadow which was cast by Ahaz's sundial in the sun – ten degrees backwards.» ’ ” And the sun went back ten degrees on the sundial by which it was cast. || 2 Ki 20:10, 2 Ki 20:11.

I am about to ← behold me.

sundial (3x)degrees.

was cast (2x)went down.
Isa 38:9 ‫מִכְתָּ֖ב לְחִזְקִיָּ֣הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה בַּחֲלֹת֕וֹ וַיְחִ֖י מֵחָלְיֽוֹ׃‬ The writing of Hezekiah king of Judah when he was ill and recovered from his sickness: recovered ← lived.
Isa 38:10 ‫אֲנִ֣י אָמַ֗רְתִּי בִּדְמִ֥י יָמַ֛י אֵלֵ֖כָה בְּשַׁעֲרֵ֣י שְׁא֑וֹל פֻּקַּ֖דְתִּי יֶ֥תֶר שְׁנוֹתָֽי׃‬ I said,

“In the quiet period of my life,

I was to go to the gates of the grave;

I was to be left without the rest of my years.”

quiet period of my life ← quiet period of my days, or prime of my life, [ST] דְּמִי. AV differs (in the cutting off of my days).
Isa 38:11 ‫אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ לֹא־אֶרְאֶ֣ה יָ֔הּ יָ֖הּ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ הַחַיִּ֑ים לֹא־אַבִּ֥יט אָדָ֛ם ע֖וֹד עִם־י֥וֹשְׁבֵי חָֽדֶל׃‬

I said, “I shall not see the Lord,

The Lord in the land of the living.

I shall no longer see a man

Among the inhabitants of the transitory world.

among ← with, i.e. me being with.

the transitory world: or (place of) cessation. AV differs; see [AnLx] חֶדֶל.
Isa 38:12 ‫דּוֹרִ֗י נִסַּ֧ע וְנִגְלָ֛ה מִנִּ֖י כְּאֹ֣הֶל רֹעִ֑י קִפַּ֨דְתִּי כָאֹרֵ֤ג חַיַּי֙ מִדַּלָּ֣ה יְבַצְּעֵ֔נִי מִיּ֥וֹם עַד־לַ֖יְלָה תַּשְׁלִימֵֽנִי׃‬

My span of life has been torn away,

And it has been carried away from me

Like a shepherd's tent.

I have severed off my life;

Like a weaver cutting yarn,

He will cut me off.

From day to night

You were to bring me to an end.

span of life ← generation.

yarn ← from yarn. AV differs (with pining sickness).
Isa 38:13 ‫שִׁוִּ֤יתִי עַד־בֹּ֙קֶר֙ כָּֽאֲרִ֔י כֵּ֥ן יְשַׁבֵּ֖ר כָּל־עַצְמוֹתָ֑י מִיּ֥וֹם עַד־לַ֖יְלָה תַּשְׁלִימֵֽנִי׃‬

I waited expectantly until the morning.

As a lion tears apart,

So he would break all my bones,

And from day to night I waited

For you to make an end of me.

waited expectantly ← smoothed (my soul) [BDB].
Isa 38:14 ‫כְּס֤וּס עָגוּר֙ כֵּ֣ן אֲצַפְצֵ֔ף אֶהְגֶּ֖ה כַּיּוֹנָ֑ה דַּלּ֤וּ עֵינַי֙ לַמָּר֔וֹם אֲדֹנָ֖י עָֽשְׁקָה־לִּ֥י עָרְבֵֽנִי׃‬

Like a swallow or a crane,

So I chirped;

I cooed like a dove.

My eyes are weak with looking upward.

O Lord*, I am oppressed;

Become my security.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

upward ← height.
Isa 38:15 ‫מָֽה־אֲדַבֵּ֥ר וְאָֽמַר־לִ֖י וְה֣וּא עָשָׂ֑ה אֶדַּדֶּ֥ה כָל־שְׁנוֹתַ֖י עַל־מַ֥ר נַפְשִֽׁי׃‬

What shall I say,

In that he has spoken to me,

And he has acted?

I will proceed softly for all my years

On account of inward grief.

on account of inward grief ← on / at bitterness of my soul.
Isa 38:16 ‫אֲדֹנָ֖י עֲלֵיהֶ֣ם יִֽחְי֑וּ וּלְכָל־בָּהֶן֙ חַיֵּ֣י רוּחִ֔י וְתַחֲלִימֵ֖נִי וְהַחֲיֵֽנִי׃‬

O Lord*, by these things men live,

And in all of them is my spiritual life,

And you are restoring me to health

And reviving me.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

my spiritual life ← the life of my spirit, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 38:17 ‫הִנֵּ֥ה לְשָׁל֖וֹם מַר־לִ֣י מָ֑ר וְאַתָּ֞ה חָשַׁ֤קְתָּ נַפְשִׁי֙ מִשַּׁ֣חַת בְּלִ֔י כִּ֥י הִשְׁלַ֛כְתָּ אַחֲרֵ֥י גֵוְךָ֖ כָּל־חֲטָאָֽי׃‬

But it was for peace

That I had great bitterness,

But you were pleased to deliver my being

From the pit of destruction,

For you have cast all my sins behind your back.

but it wasbehold.

peace: perhaps here meaning retribution.

being ← soul.

destruction ← inexistence.
Isa 38:18 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֥א שְׁא֛וֹל תּוֹדֶ֖ךָּ מָ֣וֶת יְהַלְלֶ֑ךָּ לֹֽא־יְשַׂבְּר֥וּ יֽוֹרְדֵי־ב֖וֹר אֶל־אֲמִתֶּֽךָ׃‬

For the grave does not praise you,

Nor does death laud you.

Those who go down to the pit

Do not await your truth.

Isa 38:19 ‫חַ֥י חַ֛י ה֥וּא יוֹדֶ֖ךָ כָּמ֣וֹנִי הַיּ֑וֹם אָ֣ב לְבָנִ֔ים יוֹדִ֖יעַ אֶל־אֲמִתֶּֽךָ׃‬

It is the living, the living who praise you,

As I do today.

A father will make your truth known

To his sons.

Isa 38:20 ‫יְהוָ֖ה לְהוֹשִׁיעֵ֑נִי וּנְגִנוֹתַ֧י נְנַגֵּ֛ן כָּל־יְמֵ֥י חַיֵּ֖ינוּ עַל־בֵּ֥ית יְהוָֽה׃‬

The Lord was there to save me,

And we will play my music on string instruments,

All the days of our life,

At the house of the Lord.”

Isa 38:21 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְשַׁעְיָ֔הוּ יִשְׂא֖וּ דְּבֶ֣לֶת תְּאֵנִ֑ים וְיִמְרְח֥וּ עַֽל־הַשְּׁחִ֖ין וְיֶֽחִי׃‬ And Isaiah said, “Let them take a cake of pressed figs and rub it on the inflammation, and he will recover.” || 2 Ki 20:7.

recover ← live. See Isa 38:9.
Isa 38:22 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר חִזְקִיָּ֖הוּ מָ֣ה א֑וֹת כִּ֥י אֶעֱלֶ֖ה בֵּ֥ית יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ Then Hezekiah said, “What is the sign that I shall go up to the house of the Lord?” || 2 Ki 20:8.
Isa 39:1 ‫בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֡וא שָׁלַ֡ח מְרֹדַ֣ךְ בַּ֠לְאֲדָן בֶּֽן־בַּלְאֲדָ֧ן מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֛ל סְפָרִ֥ים וּמִנְחָ֖ה אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֑הוּ וַיִּשְׁמַ֕ע כִּ֥י חָלָ֖ה וַֽיֶּחֱזָֽק׃‬ At that time Merodach-Baladan the son of Baladan, the king of Babylon, sent letters and a gift to Hezekiah, having heard that he had become ill and had recovered. || 2 Ki 20:12. 2 Chr 32:25 - 2 Chr 32:31 also describes the same period, but with insufficient commonality to be considered parallel on a verse by verse basis. See [RBG].

had recovered: the word is similar to the name Hezekiah. A play on words, or the reason for king's name.
Isa 39:2 ‫וַיִּשְׂמַ֣ח עֲלֵיהֶם֮ חִזְקִיָּהוּ֒ וַיַּרְאֵ֣ם אֶת־בֵּ֣ית *נכתה **נְכֹת֡וֹ אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף֩ וְאֶת־הַזָּהָ֨ב וְאֶת־הַבְּשָׂמִ֜ים וְאֵ֣ת ׀ הַשֶּׁ֣מֶן הַטּ֗וֹב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־בֵּ֣ית כֵּלָ֔יו וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִמְצָ֖א בְּאֹֽצְרֹתָ֑יו לֹֽא־הָיָ֣ה דָבָ֗ר אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹֽא־הֶרְאָ֧ם חִזְקִיָּ֛הוּ בְּבֵית֖וֹ וּבְכָל־מֶמְשַׁלְתּֽוֹ׃‬ And Hezekiah was pleased with them, and he showed them {K: the} [Q: his] spice house, the silver and the gold, and the fragrances, and the good quality oil, and all his armoury, and everything that was present in his treasuries. There was nothing which Hezekiah did not show them in his house and in all his realm. || 2 Ki 20:13.

spice: AV differs (precious things).

present ← found.

realm ← rule.
Isa 39:3 ‫וַיָּבֹא֙ יְשַׁעְיָ֣הוּ הַנָּבִ֔יא אֶל־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ חִזְקִיָּ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו מָ֥ה אָמְר֣וּ ׀ הָאֲנָשִׁ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה וּמֵאַ֙יִן֙ יָבֹ֣אוּ אֵלֶ֔יךָ וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ חִזְקִיָּ֔הוּ מֵאֶ֧רֶץ רְחוֹקָ֛ה בָּ֥אוּ אֵלַ֖י מִבָּבֶֽל׃‬ Then Isaiah the prophet came to King Hezekiah and said to him, “What did these men say, and where have they come to you from?” And Hezekiah said, “They have come to me from a distant land, from Babylon.” || 2 Ki 20:14.
Isa 39:4 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מָ֥ה רָא֖וּ בְּבֵיתֶ֑ךָ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חִזְקִיָּ֗הוּ אֵ֣ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֤ר בְּבֵיתִי֙ רָא֔וּ לֹֽא־הָיָ֥ה דָבָ֛ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־הִרְאִיתִ֖ים בְּאוֹצְרֹתָֽי׃‬ And he said, “What did they see in your house?” And Hezekiah said, “They saw everything in my house. There is nothing which I didn't show them in my treasuries.” || 2 Ki 20:15.
Isa 39:5 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְשַׁעְיָ֖הוּ אֶל־חִזְקִיָּ֑הוּ שְׁמַ֖ע דְּבַר־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ Then Isaiah said to Hezekiah, “Hear the word of the Lord of hosts. || 2 Ki 20:16.
Isa 39:6 ‫הִנֵּה֮ יָמִ֣ים בָּאִים֒ וְנִשָּׂ֣א ׀ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּבֵיתֶ֗ךָ וַאֲשֶׁ֨ר אָצְר֧וּ אֲבֹתֶ֛יךָ עַד־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה בָּבֶ֑ל לֹֽא־יִוָּתֵ֥ר דָּבָ֖ר אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬ ‘Behold, the days are coming when everything in your house, and which your fathers have treasured up, up to this day, will be carried away to Babylon. Nothing will remain, says the Lord. || 2 Ki 20:17.
Isa 39:7 ‫וּמִבָּנֶ֜יךָ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יֵצְא֧וּ מִמְּךָ֛ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תּוֹלִ֖יד יִקָּ֑חוּ וְהָיוּ֙ סָרִיסִ֔ים בְּהֵיכַ֖ל מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶֽל׃‬ And they will take away some of your sons who will descend from you, whom you will beget, and they will be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.’ ” || 2 Ki 20:18.

descend from you ← come out of you.
Isa 39:8 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר חִזְקִיָּ֙הוּ֙ אֶֽל־יְשַׁעְיָ֔הוּ ט֥וֹב דְּבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבַּ֑רְתָּ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר כִּ֥י יִהְיֶ֛ה שָׁל֥וֹם וֶאֱמֶ֖ת בְּיָמָֽי׃ פ‬ Then Hezekiah said to Isaiah, “The word of the Lord, which you have spoken, is right.” And he said, “For there will be peace and truth in my days.” || 2 Ki 20:19.

right ← good.
Isa 40:1 ‫נַחֲמ֥וּ נַחֲמ֖וּ עַמִּ֑י יֹאמַ֖ר אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃‬

Take comfort, take comfort, my people”,

Says your God.

take comfort (2x): pointed as piel, the verb is active, so perhaps an instruction to others to comfort the Lord's people. The pointing also matches qal, but [AnLx], [BDB] do not admit qal for this root. The word could be re-pointed ↴
Isa 40:2 ‫דַּבְּר֞וּ עַל־לֵ֤ב יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ וְקִרְא֣וּ אֵלֶ֔יהָ כִּ֤י מָֽלְאָה֙ צְבָאָ֔הּ כִּ֥י נִרְצָ֖ה עֲוֺנָ֑הּ כִּ֤י לָקְחָה֙ מִיַּ֣ד יְהוָ֔ה כִּפְלַ֖יִם בְּכָל־חַטֹּאתֶֽיהָ׃ ס‬

“Speak kindly to Jerusalem,

And proclaim to her

That her warfare has been concluded,

That her iniquity has been propitiated;

That she has received double at the hand of the Lord

For all her sins.”

↳ as pual, be comforted, but [Ges-HG] §46 does not admit a pual imperative for any verb.

kindly ← at the heart.

concluded ← fulfilled.
Isa 40:3 ‫ק֣וֹל קוֹרֵ֔א בַּמִּדְבָּ֕ר פַּנּ֖וּ דֶּ֣רֶךְ יְהוָ֑ה יַשְּׁרוּ֙ בָּעֲרָבָ֔ה מְסִלָּ֖ה לֵאלֹהֵֽינוּ׃‬

A voice calling in the desert,

“Clear the way of the Lord;

Make a straight highway in the arid land

For our God.

Matt 3:3, Mark 1:2, Mark 1:3, Luke 3:4, John 1:23.

in the desert: MT probably associates this phrase with clear the way, the zaqef qaton being a stronger disjunctive than the zaqef gadol, [Ges-HG], though both are strong. Such adverbial ↴
Isa 40:4 ‫כָּל־גֶּיא֙ יִנָּשֵׂ֔א וְכָל־הַ֥ר וְגִבְעָ֖ה יִשְׁפָּ֑לוּ וְהָיָ֤ה הֶֽעָקֹב֙ לְמִישׁ֔וֹר וְהָרְכָסִ֖ים לְבִקְעָֽה׃‬

Every valley will be raised,

And every mountain and hill will be lowered,

And what is steep will become level,

And the rugged places a low plain.

↳ phrases usually follow the main verb, as with in the arid land. There is little difference in meaning, because the desert is metaphorical for lack of godliness in society.

Luke 3:5.

steep: or crooked.
Isa 40:5 ‫וְנִגְלָ֖ה כְּב֣וֹד יְהוָ֑ה וְרָא֤וּ כָל־בָּשָׂר֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו כִּ֛י פִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃ ס‬

And the glory of the Lord will be revealed,

And all flesh will see it together,

For the mouth of the Lord has spoken.”

Luke 3:6.
Isa 40:6 ‫ק֚וֹל אֹמֵ֣ר קְרָ֔א וְאָמַ֖ר מָ֣ה אֶקְרָ֑א כָּל־הַבָּשָׂ֣ר חָצִ֔יר וְכָל־חַסְדּ֖וֹ כְּצִ֥יץ הַשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬

A voice said,

“Make a proclamation.”

And he said,

“What shall I proclaim?”

“All flesh is grass,

And all its grace

Is like a wild flower.

1 Pet 1:24.

wild ← of the field.
Isa 40:7 ‫יָבֵ֤שׁ חָצִיר֙ נָ֣בֵֽל צִ֔יץ כִּ֛י ר֥וּחַ יְהוָ֖ה נָ֣שְׁבָה בּ֑וֹ אָכֵ֥ן חָצִ֖יר הָעָֽם׃‬

The grass dries up,

And the flower fades,

For the spirit of the Lord blows on it.


The people are grass.

1 Pet 1:24.
Isa 40:8 ‫יָבֵ֥שׁ חָצִ֖יר נָ֣בֵֽל צִ֑יץ וּדְבַר־אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יָק֥וּם לְעוֹלָֽם׃ ס‬

The grass dries up,

And the flower fades,

But the word of our God

Will stand age-abidingly.”

1 Pet 1:24, 1 Pet 1:25.

but: adversative use of the vav.
Isa 40:9 ‫עַ֣ל הַר־גָּבֹ֤הַ עֲלִי־לָךְ֙ מְבַשֶּׂ֣רֶת צִיּ֔וֹן הָרִ֤ימִי בַכֹּ֙חַ֙ קוֹלֵ֔ךְ מְבַשֶּׂ֖רֶת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הָרִ֙ימִי֙ אַל־תִּירָ֔אִי אִמְרִי֙ לְעָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה הִנֵּ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃‬

Get up onto a high mountain,

Zion, which announces good news.

Raise your voice strongly,

Jerusalem, which announces good news.

Raise it; do not fear.

Say to the cities of Judah,

“Behold your God.”

get up ← go up for yourself.

announces: or, if the reader prefers, announce (second person).
Isa 40:10 ‫הִנֵּ֨ה אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ בְּחָזָ֣ק יָב֔וֹא וּזְרֹע֖וֹ מֹ֣שְׁלָה ל֑וֹ הִנֵּ֤ה שְׂכָרוֹ֙ אִתּ֔וֹ וּפְעֻלָּת֖וֹ לְפָנָֽיו׃‬

Behold, my Lord the Lord

Will come with strength,

And his arm will rule for him.

Behold, his reward is with him,

And his recompense is before him.

recompense: or work.
Isa 40:11 ‫כְּרֹעֶה֙ עֶדְר֣וֹ יִרְעֶ֔ה בִּזְרֹעוֹ֙ יְקַבֵּ֣ץ טְלָאִ֔ים וּבְחֵיק֖וֹ יִשָּׂ֑א עָל֖וֹת יְנַהֵֽל׃ ס‬

He will tend his flock like a shepherd

And gather lambs in his arm,

And he will carry them in his bosom

And lead dairy cattle along.

Isa 40:12 ‫מִֽי־מָדַ֨ד בְּשָׁעֳל֜וֹ מַ֗יִם וְשָׁמַ֙יִם֙ בַּזֶּ֣רֶת תִּכֵּ֔ן וְכָ֥ל בַּשָּׁלִ֖שׁ עֲפַ֣ר הָאָ֑רֶץ וְשָׁקַ֤ל בַּפֶּ֙לֶס֙ הָרִ֔ים וּגְבָע֖וֹת בְּמֹאזְנָֽיִם׃‬

Who has measured the waters in the palm of his hand

Or sized up the heavens by the span?

Or calculated the volume of the dust of the earth

With a third-ephah container

Or weighed in a balance the mountains,

And the hills in scales?

span: see Ex 28:16.

ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.
Isa 40:13 ‫מִֽי־תִכֵּ֥ן אֶת־ר֖וּחַ יְהוָ֑ה וְאִ֥ישׁ עֲצָת֖וֹ יוֹדִיעֶֽנּוּ׃‬

Who has assessed the spirit of the Lord,

And what man has imparted knowledge to him

With his counsel?

Rom 11:34, 1 Cor 2:16.
Isa 40:14 ‫אֶת־מִ֤י נוֹעָץ֙ וַיְבִינֵ֔הוּ וַֽיְלַמְּדֵ֖הוּ בְּאֹ֣רַח מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וַיְלַמְּדֵ֣הוּ דַ֔עַת וְדֶ֥רֶךְ תְּבוּנ֖וֹת יוֹדִיעֶֽנּוּ׃‬

With whom does he confer who can instruct him

And teach him in the way of justice,

And teach him knowledge

And indicate to him the way of understanding?

Isa 40:15 ‫הֵ֤ן גּוֹיִם֙ כְּמַ֣ר מִדְּלִ֔י וּכְשַׁ֥חַק מֹאזְנַ֖יִם נֶחְשָׁ֑בוּ הֵ֥ן אִיִּ֖ים כַּדַּ֥ק יִטּֽוֹל׃‬

Look, the nations are like a drop from a bucket,

And they are counted as dust in the balance.

Look, he can lift up the coastlands

Like fine powder.

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 40:16 ‫וּלְבָנ֕וֹן אֵ֥ין דֵּ֖י בָּעֵ֑ר וְחַיָּת֔וֹ אֵ֥ין דֵּ֖י עוֹלָֽה׃ ס‬

Even Lebanon isn't enough to burn,

And its animals aren't enough as a burnt offering.

Lebanon: famous for its trees, whose wood is needed for burnt offerings.
Isa 40:17 ‫כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם כְּאַ֣יִן נֶגְדּ֑וֹ מֵאֶ֥פֶס וָתֹ֖הוּ נֶחְשְׁבוּ־לֽוֹ׃‬

All the nations are like nothing before him;

They are considered less than nothing and desolation by him.

Isa 40:18 ‫וְאֶל־מִ֖י תְּדַמְּי֣וּן אֵ֑ל וּמַה־דְּמ֖וּת תַּ֥עַרְכוּ לֽוֹ׃‬

So to whom will you liken God,

And with what comparison

Will you draw a parallel with him?

Isa 40:19 ‫הַפֶּ֙סֶל֙ נָסַ֣ךְ חָרָ֔שׁ וְצֹרֵ֖ף בַּזָּהָ֣ב יְרַקְּעֶ֑נּוּ וּרְתֻק֥וֹת כֶּ֖סֶף צוֹרֵֽף׃‬

The artisan casts an idol,

And refines gold and overlays it,

And refines silver for chains.

an idol ← the idol. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.

overlays it: or beats it thin.
Isa 40:20 ‫הַֽמְסֻכָּ֣ן תְּרוּמָ֔ה עֵ֥ץ לֹֽא־יִרְקַ֖ב יִבְחָ֑ר חָרָ֤שׁ חָכָם֙ יְבַקֶּשׁ־ל֔וֹ לְהָכִ֥ין פֶּ֖סֶל לֹ֥א יִמּֽוֹט׃‬

As for the heave-offering of the impoverished,

He selects some wood which will not rot,

And finds himself a skilled artisan

To prepare an idol

Which will not be shaken.

skilled ← wise.
Isa 40:21 ‫הֲל֤וֹא תֵֽדְעוּ֙ הֲל֣וֹא תִשְׁמָ֔עוּ הֲל֛וֹא הֻגַּ֥ד מֵרֹ֖אשׁ לָכֶ֑ם הֲלוֹא֙ הֲבִ֣ינֹתֶ֔ם מוֹסְד֖וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

Have you not known,

Have you not heard,

Has it not been told you from the beginning?

Have you not understood

The foundations of the earth?

the foundations: AV differs (from the foundations).
Isa 40:22 ‫הַיֹּשֵׁב֙ עַל־ח֣וּג הָאָ֔רֶץ וְיֹשְׁבֶ֖יהָ כַּחֲגָבִ֑ים הַנּוֹטֶ֤ה כַדֹּק֙ שָׁמַ֔יִם וַיִּמְתָּחֵ֥ם כָּאֹ֖הֶל לָשָֽׁבֶת׃‬

It is he who sits above the earth's sphere,

Whose inhabitants are like grasshoppers;

It is he who stretches out the heavens like fine cloth,

And spans them like a tent to dwell in,

Isa 40:23 ‫הַנּוֹתֵ֥ן רוֹזְנִ֖ים לְאָ֑יִן שֹׁ֥פְטֵי אֶ֖רֶץ כַּתֹּ֥הוּ עָשָֽׂה׃‬

Who reduces princes to nothing,

And makes the judges of the world desolate.

reduces ← gives, puts, sets.
Isa 40:24 ‫אַ֣ף בַּל־נִטָּ֗עוּ אַ֚ף בַּל־זֹרָ֔עוּ אַ֛ף בַּל־שֹׁרֵ֥שׁ בָּאָ֖רֶץ גִּזְעָ֑ם וְגַם־נָשַׁ֤ף בָּהֶם֙ וַיִּבָ֔שׁוּ וּסְעָרָ֖ה כַּקַּ֥שׁ תִּשָּׂאֵֽם׃ ס‬

They certainly won't be planted,

They simply won't be sown;

Their main stem just will not strike root.

Also a wind will blow on them

And they will dry up,

And a storm will carry them away

Like chaff.

Isa 40:25 ‫וְאֶל־מִ֥י תְדַמְּי֖וּנִי וְאֶשְׁוֶ֑ה יֹאמַ֖ר קָדֽוֹשׁ׃‬

“So to whom will you liken me,

So that I will be comparable?”

Says the holy one.

Isa 40:26 ‫שְׂאוּ־מָר֨וֹם עֵינֵיכֶ֤ם וּרְאוּ֙ מִי־בָרָ֣א אֵ֔לֶּה הַמּוֹצִ֥יא בְמִסְפָּ֖ר צְבָאָ֑ם לְכֻלָּם֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יִקְרָ֔א מֵרֹ֤ב אוֹנִים֙ וְאַמִּ֣יץ כֹּ֔חַ אִ֖ישׁ לֹ֥א נֶעְדָּֽר׃ ס‬

“Raise your eyes and look.

Who created these things?

He who produced the array of them by number

– He calls them all by name –

By great strength and mighty power;

Not one is missing.

Isa 40:27 ‫לָ֤מָּה תֹאמַר֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וּתְדַבֵּ֖ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל נִסְתְּרָ֤ה דַרְכִּי֙ מֵֽיְהוָ֔ה וּמֵאֱלֹהַ֖י מִשְׁפָּטִ֥י יַעֲבֽוֹר׃‬

Jacob, why do you say,

And Israel, why do you declare,

‘My way is hidden from the Lord,

And my just deserts

Will be overlooked by my God?’

and my just deserts ... will be overlooked by my God ← my justice will be passed over from my God.
Isa 40:28 ‫הֲל֨וֹא יָדַ֜עְתָּ אִם־לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֗עְתָּ אֱלֹהֵ֨י עוֹלָ֤ם ׀ יְהוָה֙ בּוֹרֵא֙ קְצ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ לֹ֥א יִיעַ֖ף וְלֹ֣א יִיגָ֑ע אֵ֥ין חֵ֖קֶר לִתְבוּנָתֽוֹ׃‬

Have you not known,

Or have you not heard,

That the age-abiding God

– The Lord,

The creator of the ends of the earth –

Does not become exhausted

And does not become weary,

And that there is no fathoming

Of his understanding?

fathoming ← examining.
Isa 40:29 ‫נֹתֵ֥ן לַיָּעֵ֖ף כֹּ֑חַ וּלְאֵ֥ין אוֹנִ֖ים עָצְמָ֥ה יַרְבֶּֽה׃‬

He gives the exhausted strength,

And he increases the vigour

Of those who have no energy.

Isa 40:30 ‫וְיִֽעֲפ֥וּ נְעָרִ֖ים וְיִגָ֑עוּ וּבַחוּרִ֖ים כָּשׁ֥וֹל יִכָּשֵֽׁלוּ׃‬

But youths will become exhausted and weary,

And young men will surely stumble.

surely stumble: infinitive absolute.
Isa 40:31 ‫וְקוֹיֵ֤ יְהוָה֙ יַחֲלִ֣יפוּ כֹ֔חַ יַעֲל֥וּ אֵ֖בֶר כַּנְּשָׁרִ֑ים יָר֙וּצוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א יִיגָ֔עוּ יֵלְכ֖וּ וְלֹ֥א יִיעָֽפוּ׃ פ‬

But those who confide in the Lord

Will revive in strength;

They will soar in flight like eagles.

They will run

And not grow weary,

They will proceed

And not become exhausted.

confide in ← confide of.

flight ← wing feather.
Isa 41:1 ‫הַחֲרִ֤ישׁוּ אֵלַי֙ אִיִּ֔ים וּלְאֻמִּ֖ים יַחֲלִ֣יפוּ כֹ֑חַ יִגְּשׁוּ֙ אָ֣ז יְדַבֵּ֔רוּ יַחְדָּ֖ו לַמִּשְׁפָּ֥ט נִקְרָֽבָה׃‬

Be silent towards me, you coastlands,

And may the nations revive their strength.

Let them approach at that time,

And let them speak;

Let us draw near together

For judgment.

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 41:2 ‫מִ֤י הֵעִיר֙ מִמִּזְרָ֔ח צֶ֖דֶק יִקְרָאֵ֣הוּ לְרַגְל֑וֹ יִתֵּ֨ן לְפָנָ֤יו גּוֹיִם֙ וּמְלָכִ֣ים יַ֔רְדְּ יִתֵּ֤ן כֶּֽעָפָר֙ חַרְבּ֔וֹ כְּקַ֥שׁ נִדָּ֖ף קַשְׁתּֽוֹ׃‬

Whom did he raise up from the east?

He called him to righteousness in his footsteps;

He set nations before him,

And he had him subdue kings.

He made them like dust with his sword

– Like chaff driven about with his bow.

Isa 41:3 ‫יִרְדְּפֵ֖ם יַעֲב֣וֹר שָׁל֑וֹם אֹ֥רַח בְּרַגְלָ֖יו לֹ֥א יָבֽוֹא׃‬

He pursued them;

He came through in safety

Along a way which he had not taken on foot.

Isa 41:4 ‫מִֽי־פָעַ֣ל וְעָשָׂ֔ה קֹרֵ֥א הַדֹּר֖וֹת מֵרֹ֑אשׁ אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ רִאשׁ֔וֹן וְאֶת־אַחֲרֹנִ֖ים אֲנִי־הֽוּא׃‬

Who has performed it and accomplished it,

Calling generations from the beginning?

I, the Lord,

The first and with the last;

I am he.

Rev 1:8, Rev 1:17, Rev 2:8, Rev 21:6, Rev 22:13; also Rev 1:11 in TR, but not RP or P1904.
Isa 41:5 ‫רָא֤וּ אִיִּים֙ וְיִירָ֔אוּ קְצ֥וֹת הָאָ֖רֶץ יֶחֱרָ֑דוּ קָרְב֖וּ וַיֶּאֱתָיֽוּן׃‬

The coastlands have seen it,

And they feared.

The ends of the earth trembled;

They approached and came.

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 41:6 ‫אִ֥ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֖הוּ יַעְזֹ֑רוּ וּלְאָחִ֖יו יֹאמַ֥ר חֲזָֽק׃‬

They helped each other,

And each said to his brother,

Take courage.’

take courage ← strengthen.
Isa 41:7 ‫וַיְחַזֵּ֤ק חָרָשׁ֙ אֶת־צֹרֵ֔ף מַחֲלִ֥יק פַּטִּ֖ישׁ אֶת־ה֣וֹלֶם פָּ֑עַם אֹמֵ֤ר לַדֶּ֙בֶק֙ ט֣וֹב ה֔וּא וַיְחַזְּקֵ֥הוּ בְמַסְמְרִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִמּֽוֹט׃ ס‬

And the artisan encouraged the refiner,

And he who hammers thin encouraged him who strikes on the anvil,

As he said, ‘It is right for soldering.’

And he fastened it with rivets

Which would not come loose.

encouraged ← strengthened.

come loose ← totter.
Isa 41:8 ‫וְאַתָּה֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עַבְדִּ֔י יַעֲקֹ֖ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּחַרְתִּ֑יךָ זֶ֖רַע אַבְרָהָ֥ם אֹהֲבִֽי׃‬

But you, Israel, are my servant,

And Jacob, you whom I chose,

Are the seed of my friend Abraham,

Matt 12:18, James 2:23.

you: from the verbal suffix.
Isa 41:9 ‫אֲשֶׁ֤ר הֶחֱזַקְתִּ֙יךָ֙ מִקְצ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ וּמֵאֲצִילֶ֖יהָ קְרָאתִ֑יךָ וָאֹ֤מַר לְךָ֙ עַבְדִּי־אַ֔תָּה בְּחַרְתִּ֖יךָ וְלֹ֥א מְאַסְתִּֽיךָ׃‬

And I took you from the ends of the earth,

And I called you from its remote parts.

And I said to you,

‘You are my servant;

I have chosen you,

And I have not rejected you.

remote parts: AV differs (chief men).
Isa 41:10 ‫אַל־תִּירָא֙ כִּ֣י עִמְּךָ־אָ֔נִי אַל־תִּשְׁתָּ֖ע כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ אִמַּצְתִּ֙יךָ֙ אַף־עֲזַרְתִּ֔יךָ אַף־תְּמַכְתִּ֖יךָ בִּימִ֥ין צִדְקִֽי׃‬

Do not fear, for I am with you.

Do not be dismayed, for I am your God.

I will strengthen you,

And I will help you,

And I will support you

With my righteous right hand.’

my righteous right handthe right hand of my righteousness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 41:11 ‫הֵ֤ן יֵבֹ֙שׁוּ֙ וְיִכָּ֣לְמ֔וּ כֹּ֖ל הַנֶּחֱרִ֣ים בָּ֑ךְ יִֽהְי֥וּ כְאַ֛יִן וְיֹאבְד֖וּ אַנְשֵׁ֥י רִיבֶֽךָ׃‬

Behold, they will be put to shame,

And they will be disgraced.

All who were furious with you will be as nothing,

And the men who contended with you will perish.

the men who contended with you ← the men of your contention, an objective genitive.
Isa 41:12 ‫תְּבַקְשֵׁם֙ וְלֹ֣א תִמְצָאֵ֔ם אַנְשֵׁ֖י מַצֻּתֶ֑ךָ יִהְי֥וּ כְאַ֛יִן וּכְאֶ֖פֶס אַנְשֵׁ֥י מִלְחַמְתֶּֽךָ׃‬

You will seek them,

But you will not find them.

The men who strove with you

Will be as nothing,

And the men who fought you

Will be as a void.

the men who strove with you ← of your strife, an objective genitive.
Isa 41:13 ‫כִּ֗י אֲנִ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מַחֲזִ֣יק יְמִינֶ֑ךָ הָאֹמֵ֥ר לְךָ֛ אַל־תִּירָ֖א אֲנִ֥י עֲזַרְתִּֽיךָ׃ ס‬

For I am the Lord your God,

Who will hold your right hand,

Who says to you,

‘Do not fear;

I will help you.’

Isa 41:14 ‫אַל־תִּֽירְאִי֙ תּוֹלַ֣עַת יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב מְתֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲנִ֤י עֲזַרְתִּיךְ֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וְגֹאֲלֵ֖ךְ קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

‘Do not fear, Jacob,

Worm that you are

You men of Israel –

I will help you’,

Says the Lord your redeemer

– The holy one of Israel.

your redeemer ← and your redeemer.
Isa 41:15 ‫הִנֵּ֣ה שַׂמְתִּ֗יךְ לְמוֹרַג֙ חָר֣וּץ חָדָ֔שׁ בַּ֖עַל פִּֽיפִיּ֑וֹת תָּד֤וּשׁ הָרִים֙ וְתָדֹ֔ק וּגְבָע֖וֹת כַּמֹּ֥ץ תָּשִֽׂים׃‬

Behold, I have made you into a threshing board,

Sharp and new,

With many cutting edges.

You will thresh mountains

And grind them small,

And you will make hills like chaff.

Isa 41:16 ‫תִּזְרֵם֙ וְר֣וּחַ תִּשָּׂאֵ֔ם וּסְעָרָ֖ה תָּפִ֣יץ אוֹתָ֑ם וְאַתָּה֙ תָּגִ֣יל בַּֽיהוָ֔ה בִּקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תִּתְהַלָּֽל׃ פ‬

You will winnow them,

And the wind will carry them away,

And a storm will scatter them.

And you will rejoice in the Lord;

You will boast in the holy one of Israel.

Isa 41:17 ‫הָעֲנִיִּ֨ים וְהָאֶבְיוֹנִ֜ים מְבַקְשִׁ֥ים מַ֙יִם֙ וָאַ֔יִן לְשׁוֹנָ֖ם בַּצָּמָ֣א נָשָׁ֑תָּה אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ אֶעֱנֵ֔ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹ֥א אֶעֶזְבֵֽם׃‬

The poor and the needy seek water,

But there isn't any.

Their tongue has dried up from thirst.

I, the Lord, will answer them;

The God of Israel will not desert them.

Isa 41:18 ‫אֶפְתַּ֤ח עַל־שְׁפָיִים֙ נְהָר֔וֹת וּבְת֥וֹךְ בְּקָע֖וֹת מַעְיָנ֑וֹת אָשִׂ֤ים מִדְבָּר֙ לַאֲגַם־מַ֔יִם וְאֶ֥רֶץ צִיָּ֖ה לְמוֹצָ֥אֵי מָֽיִם׃‬

I will open up rivers on high ground,

And springs in the middle of valleys.

I will make the desert a pool of water,

And arid land a fountain of water.

water ... water: otiose, but see Gen 12:5. English style might have used dew in the second case.

a fountain ← exitings, fountains.
Isa 41:19 ‫אֶתֵּ֤ן בַּמִּדְבָּר֙ אֶ֣רֶז שִׁטָּ֔ה וַהֲדַ֖ס וְעֵ֣ץ שָׁ֑מֶן אָשִׂ֣ים בָּעֲרָבָ֗ה בְּר֛וֹשׁ תִּדְהָ֥ר וּתְאַשּׁ֖וּר יַחְדָּֽו׃‬

I will put in the desert

Cedar and acacia,

And myrtle and oil-yielding trees.

I will place in the arid regions

Cypress, elm and box trees together,

regions ← tract.
Isa 41:20 ‫לְמַ֧עַן יִרְא֣וּ וְיֵדְע֗וּ וְיָשִׂ֤ימוּ וְיַשְׂכִּ֙ילוּ֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו כִּ֥י יַד־יְהוָ֖ה עָ֣שְׂתָה זֹּ֑את וּקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּרָאָֽהּ׃ פ‬

In order that they may see,

And know, and take note,

And act wisely together,

For the hand of the Lord has done this,

And the holy one of Israel has brought it about.

brought it about ← created it.
Isa 41:21 ‫קָרְב֥וּ רִֽיבְכֶ֖ם יֹאמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה הַגִּ֙ישׁוּ֙ עֲצֻמ֣וֹתֵיכֶ֔ם יֹאמַ֖ר מֶ֥לֶךְ יַעֲקֹֽב׃‬

Advance your arguments,

Says the Lord;

Bring forward your strong reasoning,

Says the king of Jacob.

arguments ← contention.
Isa 41:22 ‫יַגִּ֙ישׁוּ֙ וְיַגִּ֣ידוּ לָ֔נוּ אֵ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּקְרֶ֑ינָה הָרִאשֹׁנ֣וֹת ׀ מָ֣ה הֵ֗נָּה הַגִּ֜ידוּ וְנָשִׂ֤ימָה לִבֵּ֙נוּ֙ וְנֵדְעָ֣ה אַחֲרִיתָ֔ן א֥וֹ הַבָּא֖וֹת הַשְׁמִיעֻֽנוּ׃‬

Let them produce it

And tell us what things are going to take place,

And what the first things were.

Tell us, and we will pay attention,

So that we may know their end result,

Or make known to us

Things to come.

pay attention ← set our heart.
Isa 41:23 ‫הַגִּ֙ידוּ֙ הָאֹתִיּ֣וֹת לְאָח֔וֹר וְנֵ֣דְעָ֔ה כִּ֥י אֱלֹהִ֖ים אַתֶּ֑ם אַף־תֵּיטִ֣יבוּ וְתָרֵ֔עוּ וְנִשְׁתָּ֖עָה *ונרא **וְנִרְאֶ֥ה יַחְדָּֽו׃‬

Tell us the things

Which are going to happen in the future,

So that we may know,

For you are gods,

And also do good or do evil,

So we can be overawed

And {K: fear} [Q: see it] together.

John 10:34.

in the future ← afterwards.

you are gods: ironic here. But see Ps 82:6.
Isa 41:24 ‫הֵן־אַתֶּ֣ם מֵאַ֔יִן וּפָעָלְכֶ֖ם מֵאָ֑פַע תּוֹעֵבָ֖ה יִבְחַ֥ר בָּכֶֽם׃‬

Look, you are less than nothing,

And your practices are less than vacuous.

And he who chooses you

Is an abomination.

vacuous: breath, vanity.
Isa 41:25 ‫הַעִיר֤וֹתִי מִצָּפוֹן֙ וַיַּ֔את מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁ֖מֶשׁ יִקְרָ֣א בִשְׁמִ֑י וְיָבֹ֤א סְגָנִים֙ כְּמוֹ־חֹ֔מֶר וּכְמ֥וֹ יוֹצֵ֖ר יִרְמָס־טִֽיט׃‬

I have raised one up from the north,

And he shall come.

From the rising of the sun,

He will proclaim my name,

And he will cut through administrators like loam,

And as a potter treads clay.

proclaim my name ← call on my name, but see [AnLx].

cut throughenter, so pass through.
Isa 41:26 ‫מִֽי־הִגִּ֤יד מֵרֹאשׁ֙ וְנֵדָ֔עָה וּמִלְּפָנִ֖ים וְנֹאמַ֣ר צַדִּ֑יק אַ֣ף אֵין־מַגִּ֗יד אַ֚ף אֵ֣ין מַשְׁמִ֔יעַ אַ֥ף אֵין־שֹׁמֵ֖עַ אִמְרֵיכֶֽם׃‬

Who has told it in advance,

So that we may know?

And beforehand,

So that we may say,

Quite right’?”

There just isn't anyone who tells it,

There just isn't anyone who proclaims it;

How much less is there

Anyone hearing your proclamations!

Isa 41:27 ‫רִאשׁ֥וֹן לְצִיּ֖וֹן הִנֵּ֣ה הִנָּ֑ם וְלִירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם מְבַשֵּׂ֥ר אֶתֵּֽן׃‬

First, I will say to Zion,

‘Look, here they are’,

Then I will give to Jerusalem

Someone who brings good news.

first, I will say to Zion: AV differs (the first shall say to Zion).
Isa 41:28 ‫וְאֵ֙רֶא֙ וְאֵ֣ין אִ֔ישׁ וּמֵאֵ֖לֶּה וְאֵ֣ין יוֹעֵ֑ץ וְאֶשְׁאָלֵ֖ם וְיָשִׁ֥יבוּ דָבָֽר׃‬

And I looked,

But there was no-one,

And I sought among them,

But there was no counsellor.

Nor when I questioned them

Were there any who could answer.

Isa 41:29 ‫הֵ֣ן כֻּלָּ֔ם אָ֥וֶן אֶ֖פֶס מַעֲשֵׂיהֶ֑ם ר֥וּחַ וָתֹ֖הוּ נִסְכֵּיהֶֽם׃ פ‬

Behold, they are all vanity,

Their works are without substance;

Their cast images

Are wind and wreckage.

cast images: or libations.
Isa 42:1 ‫הֵ֤ן עַבְדִּי֙ אֶתְמָךְ־בּ֔וֹ בְּחִירִ֖י רָצְתָ֣ה נַפְשִׁ֑י נָתַ֤תִּי רוּחִי֙ עָלָ֔יו מִשְׁפָּ֖ט לַגּוֹיִ֥ם יוֹצִֽיא׃‬

Behold my servant whom I will sustain

– My chosen one in whom my being delights.

I have cast my spirit over him;

He will bring justice

To the Gentiles.

Matt 12:18.

being ← soul.

bring ← bring out.
Isa 42:2 ‫לֹ֥א יִצְעַ֖ק וְלֹ֣א יִשָּׂ֑א וְלֹֽא־יַשְׁמִ֥יעַ בַּח֖וּץ קוֹלֽוֹ׃‬

He will not shout, and he will not act high-handedly,

Nor make his voice heard in the street.

Matt 12:19.

high-handedly ← be lifted.

nor make ... heard: i.e. not clamorously.
Isa 42:3 ‫קָנֶ֤ה רָצוּץ֙ לֹ֣א יִשְׁבּ֔וֹר וּפִשְׁתָּ֥ה כֵהָ֖ה לֹ֣א יְכַבֶּ֑נָּה לֶאֱמֶ֖ת יוֹצִ֥יא מִשְׁפָּֽט׃‬

He will not break a buckled reed,

And he will not extinguish a smouldering wick.

He will bring justice

In accordance with truth.

Matt 12:20.

smouldering wick ← dim flax.

bring ← bring out.
Isa 42:4 ‫לֹ֤א יִכְהֶה֙ וְלֹ֣א יָר֔וּץ עַד־יָשִׂ֥ים בָּאָ֖רֶץ מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וּלְתוֹרָת֖וֹ אִיִּ֥ים יְיַחֵֽילוּ׃ פ‬

He will not grow faint,

And he will not buckle

Before he has set up justice on the earth,

And the coastlands will await his law.”

buckle: [AnLx] accepts יָרוּץ for יָרוֹץ, from stem רצץ. AV differs somewhat (be discouraged).

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 42:5 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר הָאֵ֣ל ׀ יְהוָ֗ה בּוֹרֵ֤א הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְנ֣וֹטֵיהֶ֔ם רֹקַ֥ע הָאָ֖רֶץ וְצֶאֱצָאֶ֑יהָ נֹתֵ֤ן נְשָׁמָה֙ לָעָ֣ם עָלֶ֔יהָ וְר֖וּחַ לַהֹלְכִ֥ים בָּֽהּ׃‬

This is what God, the Lord

Who created the heavens and stretched them out,

Who pitched the earth and what it brings forth,

Who gives breath to the people upon it,

And spirit to those who walk on it – says:

this is whatthus.

stretched: plural by attraction, or impersonal.

what it brings forth ← its offspring.
Isa 42:6 ‫אֲנִ֧י יְהוָ֛ה קְרָאתִ֥יךָֽ בְצֶ֖דֶק וְאַחְזֵ֣ק בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ וְאֶצָּרְךָ֗ וְאֶתֶּנְךָ֛ לִבְרִ֥ית עָ֖ם לְא֥וֹר גּוֹיִֽם׃‬

“I, the Lord, have called you in righteousness,

And I will hold your hand,

And I will guard you,

And I will make you into a covenant people

A light of the Gentiles –

Luke 2:32.

a covenant people ← a covenant of people. A reverse Hebraic genitive; compare Isa 49:8, Dan 11:20.
Isa 42:7 ‫לִפְקֹ֖חַ עֵינַ֣יִם עִוְר֑וֹת לְהוֹצִ֤יא מִמַּסְגֵּר֙ אַסִּ֔יר מִבֵּ֥ית כֶּ֖לֶא יֹ֥שְׁבֵי חֹֽשֶׁךְ׃‬

To open blind eyes,

To take prisoners out of confinement

And those who dwell in darkness out of their prison.

prisoners ← a prisoner.
Isa 42:8 ‫אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה ה֣וּא שְׁמִ֑י וּכְבוֹדִי֙ לְאַחֵ֣ר לֹֽא־אֶתֵּ֔ן וּתְהִלָּתִ֖י לַפְּסִילִֽים׃‬

I am the Lord;

That is my name,

And I will not give my honour to another,

Nor my praiseworthiness to idols.

the Lord: as AV here, but compare Ex 6:3.
Isa 42:9 ‫הָרִֽאשֹׁנ֖וֹת הִנֵּה־בָ֑אוּ וַֽחֲדָשׁוֹת֙ אֲנִ֣י מַגִּ֔יד בְּטֶ֥רֶם תִּצְמַ֖חְנָה אַשְׁמִ֥יע אֶתְכֶֽם׃ פ‬

As for the former things,

You see that they have come about,

And as for the new things,

I declare them.

Before they arise,

I will proclaim them to you.

you see ← behold.
Isa 42:10 ‫שִׁ֤ירוּ לַֽיהוָה֙ שִׁ֣יר חָדָ֔שׁ תְּהִלָּת֖וֹ מִקְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ יוֹרְדֵ֤י הַיָּם֙ וּמְלֹא֔וֹ אִיִּ֖ים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶֽם׃‬

Sing a new song to the Lord

– His praiseworthiness from the end of the earth –

You who go down to the sea and its fulness,

You coastlands

And you who live in them.

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 42:11 ‫יִשְׂא֤וּ מִדְבָּר֙ וְעָרָ֔יו חֲצֵרִ֖ים תֵּשֵׁ֣ב קֵדָ֑ר יָרֹ֙נּוּ֙ יֹ֣שְׁבֵי סֶ֔לַע מֵרֹ֥אשׁ הָרִ֖ים יִצְוָֽחוּ׃‬

Let the desert and its cities raise their voices,

And the courtyards which Kedar inhabits.

Let the inhabitants of the rock be jubilant,

Let them shout from the peak of the mountains,

Isa 42:12 ‫יָשִׂ֥ימוּ לַֽיהוָ֖ה כָּב֑וֹד וּתְהִלָּת֖וֹ בָּאִיִּ֥ים יַגִּֽידוּ׃‬

Let them give glory to the Lord,

And let them proclaim his praiseworthiness

In the coastlands.

give ← place.

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 42:13 ‫יְהוָה֙ כַּגִּבּ֣וֹר יֵצֵ֔א כְּאִ֥ישׁ מִלְחָמ֖וֹת יָעִ֣יר קִנְאָ֑ה יָרִ֙יעַ֙ אַף־יַצְרִ֔יחַ עַל־אֹיְבָ֖יו יִתְגַּבָּֽר׃ ס‬

The Lord will come out as a warrior,

He will arouse zeal as a man of war;

He will cry out and shout

And overcome his enemies.

Isa 42:14 ‫הֶחֱשֵׁ֙יתִי֙ מֵֽעוֹלָ֔ם אַחֲרִ֖ישׁ אֶתְאַפָּ֑ק כַּיּוֹלֵדָ֣ה אֶפְעֶ֔ה אֶשֹּׁ֥ם וְאֶשְׁאַ֖ף יָֽחַד׃‬

I have been silent for a long time;

I have been quiet and restrained myself.

But I will scream like a woman giving birth;

I will puff and pant at the same time.

for a long time ← from an age.

puff: AV differs (destroy), from root שׁמם. We take the root as נשׁם (to breathe, pant).

at the same time ← together.
Isa 42:15 ‫אַחֲרִ֤יב הָרִים֙ וּגְבָע֔וֹת וְכָל־עֶשְׂבָּ֖ם אוֹבִ֑ישׁ וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י נְהָרוֹת֙ לָֽאִיִּ֔ים וַאֲגַמִּ֖ים אוֹבִֽישׁ׃‬

I will lay mountains and hills waste,

And I will dry up all their herbaceous vegetation.

I will make rivers into coastlands,

And I will dry up lakes.

coastlands: or islands. So some form of dry land.
Isa 42:16 ‫וְהוֹלַכְתִּ֣י עִוְרִ֗ים בְּדֶ֙רֶךְ֙ לֹ֣א יָדָ֔עוּ בִּנְתִיב֥וֹת לֹֽא־יָדְע֖וּ אַדְרִיכֵ֑ם אָשִׂים֩ מַחְשָׁ֨ךְ לִפְנֵיהֶ֜ם לָא֗וֹר וּמַֽעֲקַשִּׁים֙ לְמִישׁ֔וֹר אֵ֚לֶּה הַדְּבָרִ֔ים עֲשִׂיתִ֖ם וְלֹ֥א עֲזַבְתִּֽים׃‬

And I will enable the blind to walk along a way they haven't known,

And I will enable them to tread paths they have not been familiar with.

I will make the darkness in front of them light

And the impracticable ways level.

These are the words;

I will carry them out

And not renounce them.

known ... been familiar with ← known ... known. Otiose, but see Gen 12:5.

impracticable ... level ← perverse ... a plain.
Isa 42:17 ‫נָסֹ֤גוּ אָחוֹר֙ יֵבֹ֣שׁוּ בֹ֔שֶׁת הַבֹּטְחִ֖ים בַּפָּ֑סֶל הָאֹמְרִ֥ים לְמַסֵּכָ֖ה אַתֶּ֥ם אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ׃ ס‬

As for those who trust in an idol,

Who say to cast imagery,

‘You are our gods’,

They have drawn back;

They will be put to great shame.

be put to great shame ← will be ashamed (with) a shame.
Isa 42:18 ‫הַחֵרְשִׁ֖ים שְׁמָ֑עוּ וְהַעִוְרִ֖ים הַבִּ֥יטוּ לִרְאֽוֹת׃‬

You deaf ones, hear!

You blind ones,

Look up so as to see!

Isa 42:19 ‫מִ֤י עִוֵּר֙ כִּ֣י אִם־עַבְדִּ֔י וְחֵרֵ֖שׁ כְּמַלְאָכִ֣י אֶשְׁלָ֑ח מִ֤י עִוֵּר֙ כִּמְשֻׁלָּ֔ם וְעִוֵּ֖ר כְּעֶ֥בֶד יְהוָֽה׃‬

Who is blind, but my servant?

Or deaf, like my messenger whom I sent?

Who is blind like the one who has been preserved?

Or blind, like the servant of the Lord?

preserved: AV differs somewhat (perfect). [CB]= an intimate friend or trusted one, referring this to Israel.
Isa 42:20 ‫*ראית **רָא֥וֹת רַבּ֖וֹת וְלֹ֣א תִשְׁמֹ֑ר פָּק֥וֹחַ אָזְנַ֖יִם וְלֹ֥א יִשְׁמָֽע׃‬

For you have seen many things,

But you do not take note of them;

You have pricked up the ears

But no-one takes heed.”

you have seen: the ketiv is a finite verb; the qeré an ↴

take note of: or guard.

you have pricked up: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.
Isa 42:21 ‫יְהוָ֥ה חָפֵ֖ץ לְמַ֣עַן צִדְק֑וֹ יַגְדִּ֥יל תּוֹרָ֖ה וְיַאְדִּֽיר׃‬

The Lord takes delight for the sake of his own righteousness;

He magnifies the law

And gives it honour.

↳ infinitive, perhaps irregularly to be taken as an infinitive absolute, in the role of a finite verb.
Isa 42:22 ‫וְהוּא֮ עַם־בָּז֣וּז וְשָׁסוּי֒ הָפֵ֤חַ בַּֽחוּרִים֙ כֻּלָּ֔ם וּבְבָתֵּ֥י כְלָאִ֖ים הָחְבָּ֑אוּ הָי֤וּ לָבַז֙ וְאֵ֣ין מַצִּ֔יל מְשִׁסָּ֖ה וְאֵין־אֹמֵ֥ר הָשַֽׁב׃‬

But it is a people plundered and preyed on,

By those ensnaring them all in pits,

While they hide in confinement.

They have been a target of plunder,

With no-one delivering them

– A prey, with no-one saying,

“Give it back.”

by those ensnaring: gerundial use of the infinitive.

confinement ← prison.
Isa 42:23 ‫מִ֥י בָכֶ֖ם יַאֲזִ֣ין זֹ֑את יַקְשִׁ֥ב וְיִשְׁמַ֖ע לְאָחֽוֹר׃‬

Who among you will attend to this?

Who will listen and heed it afterwards?

Isa 42:24 ‫מִֽי־נָתַ֨ן *למשוסה **לִמְשִׁסָּ֧ה יַעֲקֹ֛ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל לְבֹזְזִ֖ים הֲל֣וֹא יְהוָ֑ה ז֚וּ חָטָ֣אנוּ ל֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־אָב֤וּ בִדְרָכָיו֙ הָל֔וֹךְ וְלֹ֥א שָׁמְע֖וּ בְּתוֹרָתֽוֹ׃‬

Who made Jacob a target of spoil

And delivered Israel to the plunderers?

Was it not the Lord,

Against whom we have sinned?

For they did not want to walk in his ways,

And they did not heed his law.

target of spoil: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

to walk: infinitive absolute in the role of an infinitive construct.
Isa 42:25 ‫וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֤ךְ עָלָיו֙ חֵמָ֣ה אַפּ֔וֹ וֶעֱז֖וּז מִלְחָמָ֑ה וַתְּלַהֲטֵ֤הוּ מִסָּבִיב֙ וְלֹ֣א יָדָ֔ע וַתִּבְעַר־בּ֖וֹ וְלֹא־יָשִׂ֥ים עַל־לֵֽב׃ פ‬

And he poured out fury – his wrath – over him,

And the force of war,

And it set him on fire round about,

But he did not discern anything,

And it burned him,

But he did not lay it to heart.

Isa 43:1 ‫וְעַתָּ֞ה כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ בֹּרַאֲךָ֣ יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְיֹצֶרְךָ֖ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אַל־תִּירָא֙ כִּ֣י גְאַלְתִּ֔יךָ קָרָ֥אתִי בְשִׁמְךָ֖ לִי־אָֽתָּה׃‬

And now, this is what the Lord,

Your creator, O Jacob,

And your fashioner, O Israel,


“Do not fear, for I have redeemed you.

I have called you by your name;

You are mine.

this is whatthus.
Isa 43:2 ‫כִּֽי־תַעֲבֹ֤ר בַּמַּ֙יִם֙ אִתְּךָ־אָ֔נִי וּבַנְּהָר֖וֹת לֹ֣א יִשְׁטְפ֑וּךָ כִּֽי־תֵלֵ֤ךְ בְּמוֹ־אֵשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תִכָּוֶ֔ה וְלֶהָבָ֖ה לֹ֥א תִבְעַר־בָּֽךְ׃‬

When you cross over water,

I will be with you,

And when you traverse rivers,

They will not overwhelm you.

When you go through fire,

You will not be scorched,

And not a flame will burn you.

Isa 43:3 ‫כִּ֗י אֲנִי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מוֹשִׁיעֶ֑ךָ נָתַ֤תִּי כָפְרְךָ֙ מִצְרַ֔יִם כּ֥וּשׁ וּסְבָ֖א תַּחְתֶּֽיךָ׃‬

For I am the Lord your God,

The holy one of Israel,

Your saviour.

I have given Egypt as a ransom for you,

And Ethiopia and Seba on behalf of you,

Isa 43:4 ‫מֵאֲשֶׁ֨ר יָקַ֧רְתָּ בְעֵינַ֛י נִכְבַּ֖דְתָּ וַאֲנִ֣י אֲהַבְתִּ֑יךָ וְאֶתֵּ֤ן אָדָם֙ תַּחְתֶּ֔יךָ וּלְאֻמִּ֖ים תַּ֥חַת נַפְשֶֽׁךָ׃‬

Because you are precious in my eyes;

You are honoured, and I love you,

And I will give a man for you,

And nations for your existence.

existence ← soul.
Isa 43:5 ‫אַל־תִּירָ֖א כִּ֣י אִתְּךָ־אָ֑נִי מִמִּזְרָח֙ אָבִ֣יא זַרְעֶ֔ךָ וּמִֽמַּעֲרָ֖ב אֲקַבְּצֶֽךָּ׃‬

Do not fear, for I am with you.

I will bring your seed from the east,

And I will gather you from the west.

Isa 43:6 ‫אֹמַ֤ר לַצָּפוֹן֙ תֵּ֔נִי וּלְתֵימָ֖ן אַל־תִּכְלָ֑אִי הָבִ֤יאִי בָנַי֙ מֵרָח֔וֹק וּבְנוֹתַ֖י מִקְצֵ֥ה הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

I will say to the north,

‘Give them up’,

And to the south,

‘Do not shut them in.’

Bring my sons from afar,

And my daughters from the end of the earth.

Isa 43:7 ‫כֹּ֚ל הַנִּקְרָ֣א בִשְׁמִ֔י וְלִכְבוֹדִ֖י בְּרָאתִ֑יו יְצַרְתִּ֖יו אַף־עֲשִׂיתִֽיו׃‬

I created everyone who is called by my name,

And it is for my glory.

I fashioned him;

Indeed, I made him.

Isa 43:8 ‫הוֹצִ֥יא עַם־עִוֵּ֖ר וְעֵינַ֣יִם יֵ֑שׁ וְחֵרְשִׁ֖ים וְאָזְנַ֥יִם לָֽמוֹ׃‬

Bring out the blind people

Who nevertheless have eyes,

And the deaf,

Who nevertheless have ears.

Isa 43:9 ‫כָּֽל־הַגּוֹיִ֞ם נִקְבְּצ֣וּ יַחְדָּ֗ו וְיֵאָֽסְפוּ֙ לְאֻמִּ֔ים מִ֤י בָהֶם֙ יַגִּ֣יד זֹ֔את וְרִֽאשֹׁנ֖וֹת יַשְׁמִיעֻ֑נוּ יִתְּנ֤וּ עֵֽדֵיהֶם֙ וְיִצְדָּ֔קוּ וְיִשְׁמְע֖וּ וְיֹאמְר֥וּ אֱמֶֽת׃‬

All the Gentiles will be gathered together,

And the nations will be assembled.

Who among them can recount this,

And proclaim to us the former things?

Let them produce their witnesses,

And be justified.

Or let them hear, and let them say,

It is the truth.’

witnesses: or testimonies.
Isa 43:10 ‫אַתֶּ֤ם עֵדַי֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וְעַבְדִּ֖י אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּחָ֑רְתִּי לְמַ֣עַן תֵּ֠דְעוּ וְתַאֲמִ֨ינוּ לִ֤י וְתָבִ֙ינוּ֙ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י ה֔וּא לְפָנַי֙ לֹא־נ֣וֹצַר אֵ֔ל וְאַחֲרַ֖י לֹ֥א יִהְיֶֽה׃ ס‬

You are my witnesses,

Says the Lord,

And my servant whom I have chosen,

So that you may know and believe me,

And understand that I am he.

Before me no God was fashioned

Nor will there be after me.

Isa 43:11 ‫אָנֹכִ֥י אָנֹכִ֖י יְהוָ֑ה וְאֵ֥ין מִבַּלְעָדַ֖י מוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃‬

I, I am the Lord,

And there is no saviour besides me.

Isa 43:12 ‫אָנֹכִ֞י הִגַּ֤דְתִּי וְהוֹשַׁ֙עְתִּי֙ וְהִשְׁמַ֔עְתִּי וְאֵ֥ין בָּכֶ֖ם זָ֑ר וְאַתֶּ֥ם עֵדַ֛י נְאֻם־יְהוָ֖ה וַֽאֲנִי־אֵֽל׃‬

I have declared it,

And I have saved,

And I have proclaimed it,

While among you there is nothing extraneous,

And you are my witnesses,

Says the Lord,

And I am God.

nothing extraneous ← nothing / no-one strange.
Isa 43:13 ‫גַּם־מִיּוֹם֙ אֲנִ֣י ה֔וּא וְאֵ֥ין מִיָּדִ֖י מַצִּ֑יל אֶפְעַ֖ל וּמִ֥י יְשִׁיבֶֽנָּה׃ ס‬

Indeed, since the existence of a day,

I am he,

And there is no-one who delivers from my hand.

I act,

And who can avert it?”

Isa 43:14 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה גֹּאַלְכֶ֖ם קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לְמַעַנְכֶ֞ם שִׁלַּ֣חְתִּי בָבֶ֗לָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּ֤י בָֽרִיחִים֙ כֻּלָּ֔ם וְכַשְׂדִּ֖ים בָּאֳנִיּ֥וֹת רִנָּתָֽם׃‬

This is what the Lord, your redeemer,

The holy one of Israel, says:

“For your sake I have sent a force to Babylon,

And I have brought down all the fugitives,

And the Chaldeans are in outcry in their ships.

this is whatthus.

fugitives: AV differs (nobles).

the Chaldeans are in outcry in their ships ← Chaldeans in ships (is) their outcry.
Isa 43:15 ‫אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה קְדֽוֹשְׁכֶ֑ם בּוֹרֵ֥א יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מַלְכְּכֶֽם׃ ס‬

I am the Lord your holy one,

The creator of Israel,

Your king.”

Isa 43:16 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה הַנּוֹתֵ֥ן בַּיָּ֖ם דָּ֑רֶךְ וּבְמַ֥יִם עַזִּ֖ים נְתִיבָֽה׃‬

This is what the Lord

– Who makes a passage in the sea,

And a route in raging water,

this is whatthus.

makes a passage ← gives a way.

route ← path.
Isa 43:17 ‫הַמּוֹצִ֥יא רֶֽכֶב־וָס֖וּס חַ֣יִל וְעִזּ֑וּז יַחְדָּ֤ו יִשְׁכְּבוּ֙ בַּל־יָק֔וּמוּ דָּעֲכ֖וּ כַּפִּשְׁתָּ֥ה כָבֽוּ׃‬

Who brings out chariot and horse,

An army and a force – says:

“They will lie down together,

They will not get up,

They will be extinguished;

They will be snuffed out like a wick.

Isa 43:18 ‫אַֽל־תִּזְכְּר֖וּ רִֽאשֹׁנ֑וֹת וְקַדְמֹנִיּ֖וֹת אַל־תִּתְבֹּנָֽנוּ׃‬

Do not remember the former things,

And do not consider ancient matters.

Isa 43:19 ‫הִנְנִ֨י עֹשֶׂ֤ה חֲדָשָׁה֙ עַתָּ֣ה תִצְמָ֔ח הֲל֖וֹא תֵֽדָע֑וּהָ אַ֣ף אָשִׂ֤ים בַּמִּדְבָּר֙ דֶּ֔רֶךְ בִּֽישִׁמ֖וֹן נְהָרֽוֹת׃‬

I am about to make something new

– It will spring up now.

Do you not know it?

Indeed, I will build a road in the desert

And establish rivers in the wasteland.

Rev 21:5.

I am about to ← behold me.

build ← lay.
Isa 43:20 ‫תְּכַבְּדֵ֙נִי֙ חַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה תַּנִּ֖ים וּבְנ֣וֹת יַֽעֲנָ֑ה כִּֽי־נָתַ֨תִּי בַמִּדְבָּ֜ר מַ֗יִם נְהָרוֹת֙ בִּֽישִׁימֹ֔ן לְהַשְׁק֖וֹת עַמִּ֥י בְחִירִֽי׃‬

The wildlife will glorify me

– The jackals and the ostriches –

Because I will have given them water in the desert

And rivers in the wasteland,

To give drink to my chosen people

Isa 43:21 ‫עַם־זוּ֙ יָצַ֣רְתִּי לִ֔י תְּהִלָּתִ֖י יְסַפֵּֽרוּ׃ ס‬

– A people whom I fashioned for myself,

Who will relate my praiseworthiness.

Isa 43:22 ‫וְלֹא־אֹתִ֥י קָרָ֖אתָ יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב כִּֽי־יָגַ֥עְתָּ בִּ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

And it is not that you called me, O Jacob,

For you have grown weary of me,

O Israel.

Isa 43:23 ‫לֹֽא־הֵבֵ֤יאתָ לִּי֙ שֵׂ֣ה עֹלֹתֶ֔יךָ וּזְבָחֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א כִבַּדְתָּ֑נִי לֹ֤א הֶעֱבַדְתִּ֙יךָ֙ בְּמִנְחָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א הוֹגַעְתִּ֖יךָ בִּלְבוֹנָֽה׃‬

You have not brought me the sheep

For your burnt offerings,

And you have not honoured me with your sacrifices.

I have not overburdened you with the meal-offering,

And I have not wearied you with incense.

sheep: or flock animal, small cattle, because it can include goats.

overburdened ← made labour.
Isa 43:24 ‫לֹא־קָנִ֨יתָ לִּ֤י בַכֶּ֙סֶף֙ קָנֶ֔ה וְחֵ֥לֶב זְבָחֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א הִרְוִיתָ֑נִי אַ֗ךְ הֶעֱבַדְתַּ֙נִי֙ בְּחַטֹּאותֶ֔יךָ הוֹגַעְתַּ֖נִי בַּעֲוֺנֹתֶֽיךָ׃ ס‬

You have not bought me sweet cane with money,

And you have not satiated me with the fat of your sacrifices,

But you have overburdened me with your sins

And wearied me with your iniquities.

overburdened: see Isa 43:23.
Isa 43:25 ‫אָנֹכִ֨י אָנֹכִ֥י ה֛וּא מֹחֶ֥ה פְשָׁעֶ֖יךָ לְמַעֲנִ֑י וְחַטֹּאתֶ֖יךָ לֹ֥א אֶזְכֹּֽר׃‬

I, I am he

Who wipes out your trespasses

For my own sake,

And I will not remember your sins.

Isa 43:26 ‫הַזְכִּירֵ֕נִי נִשָּׁפְטָ֖ה יָ֑חַד סַפֵּ֥ר אַתָּ֖ה לְמַ֥עַן תִּצְדָּֽק׃‬

Bring me to remembrance;

Let us appeal to law together.

Put your case

So that you may be justified.

appeal to law ← be judged.

put your casetell / recount.
Isa 43:27 ‫אָבִ֥יךָ הָרִאשׁ֖וֹן חָטָ֑א וּמְלִיצֶ֖יךָ פָּ֥שְׁעוּ בִֽי׃‬

Your first father sinned,

And your mediators have transgressed against me.

mediators: or intercessors.
Isa 43:28 ‫וַאֲחַלֵּ֖ל שָׂ֣רֵי קֹ֑דֶשׁ וְאֶתְּנָ֤ה לַחֵ֙רֶם֙ יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְגִדּוּפִֽים׃ ס‬

So I have profaned the holy officiators,

And I have consigned Jacob to condemnation,

And Israel to reproaches.

holy officiators ← officiators of holiness, a Hebraic genitive.

condemnation ← devotion (to destruction). Compare Isa 34:5.
Isa 44:1 ‫וְעַתָּ֥ה שְׁמַ֖ע יַעֲקֹ֣ב עַבְדִּ֑י וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בָּחַ֥רְתִּי בֽוֹ׃‬

But now, hear, O Jacob my servant,

And Israel, whom I have chosen.

Isa 44:2 ‫כֹּה־אָמַ֨ר יְהוָ֥ה עֹשֶׂ֛ךָ וְיֹצֶרְךָ֥ מִבֶּ֖טֶן יַעְזְרֶ֑ךָּ אַל־תִּירָא֙ עַבְדִּ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וִישֻׁר֖וּן בָּחַ֥רְתִּי בֽוֹ׃‬

This is what the Lord

– Your maker and your fashioner from the womb,

Who will help you – says:

Do not fear, Jacob, my servant,

And Jeshurun

Whom I have chosen.

this is whatthus.

Jeshurun: AV= Jesurun here, but elsewhere Jeshurun. See Deut 32:15.
Isa 44:3 ‫כִּ֤י אֶצָּק־מַ֙יִם֙ עַל־צָמֵ֔א וְנֹזְלִ֖ים עַל־יַבָּשָׁ֑ה אֶצֹּ֤ק רוּחִי֙ עַל־זַרְעֶ֔ךָ וּבִרְכָתִ֖י עַל־צֶאֱצָאֶֽיךָ׃‬

For I will pour water on him who is thirsty,

And precipitation on dry land.

I will pour my spirit on your seed,

And my blessing on your descendants,

Isa 44:4 ‫וְצָמְח֖וּ בְּבֵ֣ין חָצִ֑יר כַּעֲרָבִ֖ים עַל־יִבְלֵי־מָֽיִם׃‬

And they will sprout up among the vegetation

Like willows by streams of water.

Isa 44:5 ‫זֶ֤ה יֹאמַר֙ לַֽיהוָ֣ה אָ֔נִי וְזֶ֖ה יִקְרָ֣א בְשֵֽׁם־יַעֲקֹ֑ב וְזֶ֗ה יִכְתֹּ֤ב יָדוֹ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וּבְשֵׁ֥ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יְכַנֶּֽה׃ פ‬

One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord’,

And another will call out in the name of Jacob,

While another will write by hand,

‘Of the Lord’,

And he will designate himself

By the name Israel.”

by hand ← his hand.
Isa 44:6 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֨ר יְהוָ֧ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וְגֹאֲל֖וֹ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת אֲנִ֤י רִאשׁוֹן֙ וַאֲנִ֣י אַחֲר֔וֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַ֖י אֵ֥ין אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬

This is what the Lord

– The king of Israel,

And his kinsman redeemer,

The Lord of hosts – says:

“I am the first

And I am the last,

And besides me there is no God.

Rev 1:8, Rev 1:17, Rev 2:8, Rev 21:6, Rev 22:13; also Rev 1:11 in TR, but not RP or P1904.

this is whatthus.
Isa 44:7 ‫וּמִֽי־כָמ֣וֹנִי יִקְרָ֗א וְיַגִּידֶ֤הָ וְיַעְרְכֶ֙הָ֙ לִ֔י מִשּׂוּמִ֖י עַם־עוֹלָ֑ם וְאֹתִיּ֛וֹת וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּבֹ֖אנָה יַגִּ֥ידוּ לָֽמוֹ׃‬

And who, being like me,

Has been able to proclaim and describe it,

And arrange it for me,

Since I appointed an age-abiding people?

And let them describe to them

The things to come

And those which will arrive.

Isa 44:8 ‫אַֽל־תִּפְחֲדוּ֙ וְאַל־תִּרְה֔וּ הֲלֹ֥א מֵאָ֛ז הִשְׁמַעְתִּ֥יךָ וְהִגַּ֖דְתִּי וְאַתֶּ֣ם עֵדָ֑י הֲיֵ֤שׁ אֱל֙וֹהַּ֙ מִבַּלְעָדַ֔י וְאֵ֥ין צ֖וּר בַּל־יָדָֽעְתִּי׃‬

Do not fear and do not be afraid.

Have I not informed you previously

And described it,

While you are my witnesses?

Is there a God besides me?

Indeed there is no rock;

I do not know of any.

previously ← from then.

rock: frequently used metaphorically of God (Deut 32 throughout, 1 Sam 2:2, Hab 1:12 etc.).
Isa 44:9 ‫יֹֽצְרֵי־פֶ֤סֶל כֻּלָּם֙ תֹּ֔הוּ וַחֲמוּדֵיהֶ֖ם בַּל־יוֹעִ֑ילוּ וְעֵדֵיהֶ֣ם הֵׄ֗מָּׄהׄ בַּל־יִרְא֛וּ וּבַל־יֵדְע֖וּ לְמַ֥עַן יֵבֹֽשׁוּ׃‬

As for the fashioners of an idol,

They are all a cause of ruin,

And their sought-after objects

Are of no benefit.

And they are their own witnesses

– They do not see, and they do not know.

So they will be ashamed.

sought-after objectsdesired (objects).

so: the Hebrew word usually introduces purpose, but here apparently consequence. Compare Hos 8:4.
Isa 44:10 ‫מִֽי־יָצַ֥ר אֵ֖ל וּפֶ֣סֶל נָסָ֑ךְ לְבִלְתִּ֖י הוֹעִֽיל׃‬

Who is it who forms a god

Or casts an idol

– Which is to no avail?

Isa 44:11 ‫הֵ֤ן כָּל־חֲבֵרָיו֙ יֵבֹ֔שׁוּ וְחָרָשִׁ֥ים הֵ֖מָּה מֵֽאָדָ֑ם יִֽתְקַבְּצ֤וּ כֻלָּם֙ יַֽעֲמֹ֔דוּ יִפְחֲד֖וּ יֵבֹ֥שׁוּ יָֽחַד׃‬

You will see that all his colleagues will be put to shame

– Those who are artisans from among men.

Let them all assemble,

Let them take a stand,

But they will fear

And all be put to shame together.

you will see that ← behold.

be put to shame: qal for passive of hiphil.
Isa 44:12 ‫חָרַ֤שׁ בַּרְזֶל֙ מַֽעֲצָ֔ד וּפָעַל֙ בַּפֶּחָ֔ם וּבַמַּקָּב֖וֹת יִצְּרֵ֑הוּ וַיִּפְעָלֵ֙הוּ֙ בִּזְר֣וֹעַ כֹּח֔וֹ גַּם־רָעֵב֙ וְאֵ֣ין כֹּ֔חַ לֹא־שָׁ֥תָה מַ֖יִם וַיִּיעָֽף׃‬

The blacksmith with a chisel,

As he works at burning coal,

Fashions it with a hammer,

And works at it with his strong arm,

Even if he is hungry

And has no strength

And has not drunk water

And has become weary.

blacksmith ← artisan of iron.

chisel: [AnLx], [BDB], [Ges-HCL] have axe, but (household) idols are made using a hammer and chisel, not an axe.

his strong arm ← the arm of his strength, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 44:13 ‫חָרַ֣שׁ עֵצִים֮ נָ֣טָה קָו֒ יְתָאֲרֵ֣הוּ בַשֶּׂ֔רֶד יַעֲשֵׂ֙הוּ֙ בַּמַּקְצֻע֔וֹת וּבַמְּחוּגָ֖ה יְתָאֳרֵ֑הוּ וַֽיַּעֲשֵׂ֙הוּ֙ כְּתַבְנִ֣ית אִ֔ישׁ כְּתִפְאֶ֥רֶת אָדָ֖ם לָשֶׁ֥בֶת בָּֽיִת׃‬

The woodcarver applies a straight edge,

And delineates it with a stylus,

And processes the wood with a plane,

And marks it out with a pair of compasses,

And makes it in the shape of a man,

In the elegance of a human,

To stand in a house.

woodcarver ← artisan of wood.

stand ← dwell / sit.
Isa 44:14 ‫לִכְרָת־ל֣וֹ אֲרָזִ֔ים וַיִּקַּ֤ח תִּרְזָה֙ וְאַלּ֔וֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־ל֖וֹ בַּעֲצֵי־יָ֑עַר נָטַ֥ע אֹ֖רֶן וְגֶ֥שֶׁם יְגַדֵּֽל׃‬

He chops down some cedars for himself

And takes some holm-oak and oak

And encourages himself with the trees of the forest,

And he plants mountain ash,

And the rain makes them grow.

encourages ← strengthens.
Isa 44:15 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה לְאָדָם֙ לְבָעֵ֔ר וַיִּקַּ֤ח מֵהֶם֙ וַיָּ֔חָם אַף־יַשִּׂ֖יק וְאָ֣פָה לָ֑חֶם אַף־יִפְעַל־אֵל֙ וַיִּשְׁתָּ֔חוּ עָשָׂ֥הוּ פֶ֖סֶל וַיִּסְגָּד־לָֽמוֹ׃‬

And the wood becomes something for a man to burn,

And he takes some of the logs and warms himself,

And he also fires up an oven and bakes bread,

Yet he also fashions a god

And worships it;

He makes it into an idol

And prostrates himself to it.

the woodit.

the logsthem.

to it: a good example of לָמוֹ standing for לוֹ. See [Ges-HG] §103f.
Isa 44:16 ‫חֶצְיוֹ֙ שָׂרַ֣ף בְּמוֹ־אֵ֔שׁ עַל־חֶצְיוֹ֙ בָּשָׂ֣ר יֹאכֵ֔ל יִצְלֶ֥ה צָלִ֖י וְיִשְׂבָּ֑ע אַף־יָחֹם֙ וְיֹאמַ֣ר הֶאָ֔ח חַמּוֹתִ֖י רָאִ֥יתִי אֽוּר׃‬

He burns half of it in a fire,

He eats meat cooked on half of it,

And roasts a joint,

And has his fill,

And also warms himself and says,

‘Ah, I have become warm;

I have provided myself with a fire.’

half of it: i.e. the chippings as he chisels an idol.

joint ← roasting.

has his fill ← is satiated.

provided myself withseen.
Isa 44:17 ‫וּשְׁאֵ֣רִית֔וֹ לְאֵ֥ל עָשָׂ֖ה לְפִסְל֑וֹ *יסגוד־**יִסְגָּד־ל֤וֹ וְיִשְׁתַּ֙חוּ֙ וְיִתְפַּלֵּ֣ל אֵלָ֔יו וְיֹאמַר֙ הַצִּילֵ֔נִי כִּ֥י אֵלִ֖י אָֽתָּה׃‬

Then he turns the rest of it into a god

– Into his idol –

And prostrates himself to it

And worships it

And prays to it and says,

‘Save me,

For you are my god.’

prostrates himself: the ketiv can be regarded as the scriptio plena spelling of the qeré.

turns ← makes.
Isa 44:18 ‫לֹ֥א יָדְע֖וּ וְלֹ֣א יָבִ֑ינוּ כִּ֣י טַ֤ח מֵֽרְאוֹת֙ עֵֽינֵיהֶ֔ם מֵהַשְׂכִּ֖יל לִבֹּתָֽם׃‬

They do not know,

And they do not understand,

For he has covered over their eyes

So that they do not see,

And their hearts

So that they do not perceive.

covered ← plastered.
Isa 44:19 ‫וְלֹא־יָשִׁ֣יב אֶל־לִבּ֗וֹ וְלֹ֨א דַ֥עַת וְלֹֽא־תְבוּנָה֮ לֵאמֹר֒ חֶצְי֞וֹ שָׂרַ֣פְתִּי בְמוֹ־אֵ֗שׁ וְ֠אַף אָפִ֤יתִי עַל־גֶּחָלָיו֙ לֶ֔חֶם אֶצְלֶ֥ה בָשָׂ֖ר וְאֹכֵ֑ל וְיִתְרוֹ֙ לְתוֹעֵבָ֣ה אֶעֱשֶׂ֔ה לְב֥וּל עֵ֖ץ אֶסְגּֽוֹד׃‬

And no-one lays it to heart,

And there is no knowledge and no understanding,

Whereby they would say,

‘I have burned part in a fire,

And I have also used some for baking bread on its hot embers;

I have roasted meat and eaten it,

So shall I make the rest an abomination,

And prostrate myself to a wooden product?’

heart ← his heart.
Isa 44:20 ‫רֹעֶ֣ה אֵ֔פֶר לֵ֥ב הוּתַ֖ל הִטָּ֑הוּ וְלֹֽא־יַצִּ֤יל אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ֙ וְלֹ֣א יֹאמַ֔ר הֲל֥וֹא שֶׁ֖קֶר בִּימִינִֽי׃ ס‬

He feeds on ash;

A deluded heart has misguided him,

And he cannot save his life,

And he cannot say,

Isn't there something false

In my right hand?’

life ← soul.
Isa 44:21 ‫זְכָר־אֵ֣לֶּה יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כִּ֣י עַבְדִּי־אָ֑תָּה יְצַרְתִּ֤יךָ עֶֽבֶד־לִי֙ אַ֔תָּה יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹ֥א תִנָּשֵֽׁנִי׃‬

Remember these things, O Jacob,

And Israel, that you are my servant.

I fashioned you;

You are my servant.

Israel, you will not be forgotten by me.

Isa 44:22 ‫מָחִ֤יתִי כָעָב֙ פְּשָׁעֶ֔יךָ וְכֶעָנָ֖ן חַטֹּאותֶ֑יךָ שׁוּבָ֥ה אֵלַ֖י כִּ֥י גְאַלְתִּֽיךָ׃‬

I have wiped out your transgressions

Like a thick cloud,

And your sins

Like a raincloud.

Come back to me,

For I have redeemed you.

Isa 44:23 ‫רָנּ֨וּ שָׁמַ֜יִם כִּֽי־עָשָׂ֣ה יְהוָ֗ה הָרִ֙יעוּ֙ תַּחְתִּיּ֣וֹת אָ֔רֶץ פִּצְח֤וּ הָרִים֙ רִנָּ֔ה יַ֖עַר וְכָל־עֵ֣ץ בּ֑וֹ כִּֽי־גָאַ֤ל יְהוָה֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וּבְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יִתְפָּאָֽר׃ פ‬

Be jubilant, O heavens,

For the Lord has taken action.

Shout out, you lower parts of the earth;

Break out into jubilation, you mountains,

You forest and all the trees within,

For the Lord has redeemed Jacob,

And glorifies himself in Israel.

within ← in it. A change of grammatical person from the second person imperatives; compare Num 15:9.
Isa 44:24 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ גֹּאֲלֶ֔ךָ וְיֹצֶרְךָ֖ מִבָּ֑טֶן אָנֹכִ֤י יְהוָה֙ עֹ֣שֶׂה כֹּ֔ל נֹטֶ֤ה שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ לְבַדִּ֔י רֹקַ֥ע הָאָ֖רֶץ *מי *אתי **מֵאִתִּֽי׃‬

This is what the Lord

– Your redeemer and your fashioner from the womb –


I am the Lord,

Who is the maker of everything,

Who stretches out the heavens on my own,

Who pitched the earth {K: – who did so with me? –} [Q: by myself,]

this is whatthus.
Isa 44:25 ‫מֵפֵר֙ אֹת֣וֹת בַּדִּ֔ים וְקֹסְמִ֖ים יְהוֹלֵ֑ל מֵשִׁ֧יב חֲכָמִ֛ים אָח֖וֹר וְדַעְתָּ֥ם יְשַׂכֵּֽל׃‬

Who obstructs false signs,

And who puts magicians to shame,

Who refutes the wise,

And who shows the fallacy of their knowledge,

false signs ← signs of falsities, a Hebraic genitive.

refutes ← drives back.
Isa 44:26 ‫מֵקִים֙ דְּבַ֣ר עַבְדּ֔וֹ וַעֲצַ֥ת מַלְאָכָ֖יו יַשְׁלִ֑ים הָאֹמֵ֨ר לִירוּשָׁלִַ֜ם תּוּשָׁ֗ב וּלְעָרֵ֤י יְהוּדָה֙ תִּבָּנֶ֔ינָה וְחָרְבוֹתֶ֖יהָ אֲקוֹמֵֽם׃‬

Who brings to pass the word of his servant

And fulfils the counsel committed to his messengers,

Who says to Jerusalem,

‘You will be inhabited’,

And to the cities of Judah,

‘You will be rebuilt’,

For I will restore her desolate places,

brings to pass ← raises.

fulfils ← completes.

counsel committed to: a subjective genitive (the Lord gives counsel). AV differs (counsel of), suggesting that the Lord takes counsel.

rebuilt ← built.
Isa 44:27 ‫הָאֹמֵ֥ר לַצּוּלָ֖ה חֳרָ֑בִי וְנַהֲרֹתַ֖יִךְ אוֹבִֽישׁ׃‬

I who say to the deep,

‘Become dry’,

And I dry your rivers up,

Isa 44:28 ‫הָאֹמֵ֤ר לְכ֙וֹרֶשׁ֙ רֹעִ֔י וְכָל־חֶפְצִ֖י יַשְׁלִ֑ם וְלֵאמֹ֤ר לִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ תִּבָּנֶ֔ה וְהֵיכָ֖ל תִּוָּסֵֽד׃ ס‬

I who say to Cyrus,

‘My shepherd.’

And he will fulfil all my desire

And say to Jerusalem,

‘You will be rebuilt’,

And to the temple,

‘You will be founded.’

rebuilt ← built.
Isa 45:1 ‫כֹּה־אָמַ֣ר יְהוָה֮ לִמְשִׁיחוֹ֮ לְכ֣וֹרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱזַ֣קְתִּי בִֽימִינ֗וֹ לְרַד־לְפָנָיו֙ גּוֹיִ֔ם וּמָתְנֵ֥י מְלָכִ֖ים אֲפַתֵּ֑חַ לִפְתֹּ֤חַ לְפָנָיו֙ דְּלָתַ֔יִם וּשְׁעָרִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִסָּגֵֽרוּ׃‬

This is what the Lord says to his anointed one,

To Cyrus whose right hand I have taken hold of,

To subdue nations before him,

As I slacken the loins of kings,

And to open double doors in front of him,

And to see to it that gates will not be closed:

this is whatthus.

anointed one: the same word as messiah, applicable to kings in general, as well as the Messiah.

slacken: the opposite of gird.
Isa 45:2 ‫אֲנִי֙ לְפָנֶ֣יךָ אֵלֵ֔ךְ וַהֲדוּרִ֖ים *אושר **אֲיַשֵּׁ֑ר דַּלְת֤וֹת נְחוּשָׁה֙ אֲשַׁבֵּ֔ר וּבְרִיחֵ֥י בַרְזֶ֖ל אֲגַדֵּֽעַ׃‬

‘I will walk before you,

And I will straighten twisting places;

I will shatter copper doors,

And I will break iron bolts in pieces.

I will straighten: the ketiv (אוֹשִׁר, hiphil, scriptio defectiva) is a variant of the qeré (piel), with the same meaning.
Isa 45:3 ‫וְנָתַתִּ֤י לְךָ֙ אוֹצְר֣וֹת חֹ֔שֶׁךְ וּמַטְמֻנֵ֖י מִסְתָּרִ֑ים לְמַ֣עַן תֵּדַ֗ע כִּֽי־אֲנִ֧י יְהוָ֛ה הַקּוֹרֵ֥א בְשִׁמְךָ֖ אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

And I will give you dark treasures,

And valuables hidden in secret places,

In order that you may know that I am the Lord

Who is calling you by your name,

And that I am the God of Israel.

dark treasures ← treasures of darkness, a Hebraic genitive.

valuables hidden in ← hidden valuables of.
Isa 45:4 ‫לְמַ֙עַן֙ עַבְדִּ֣י יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּחִירִ֑י וָאֶקְרָ֤א לְךָ֙ בִּשְׁמֶ֔ךָ אֲכַנְּךָ֖ וְלֹ֥א יְדַעְתָּֽנִי׃‬

It is for the sake of my servant Jacob,

And Israel my chosen one,

That I have called you by your name.

I have given you a title,

But you have not known me.

Isa 45:5 ‫אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ וְאֵ֣ין ע֔וֹד זוּלָתִ֖י אֵ֣ין אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֲאַזֶּרְךָ֖ וְלֹ֥א יְדַעְתָּֽנִי׃‬

I am the Lord,

And there is no other;

There is no God apart from me.

I gird you up,

But you haven't known me.

Mark 12:32.
Isa 45:6 ‫לְמַ֣עַן יֵדְע֗וּ מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ וּמִמַּ֣עֲרָבָ֔הּ כִּי־אֶ֖פֶס בִּלְעָדָ֑י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה וְאֵ֥ין עֽוֹד׃‬

This is so that they may know,

From the rising of the sun to the west,

That there is no-one apart from me.

I am the Lord,

And there is no other.

to the west ← from its (the sun's) west.
Isa 45:7 ‫יוֹצֵ֥ר אוֹר֙ וּבוֹרֵ֣א חֹ֔שֶׁךְ עֹשֶׂ֥ה שָׁל֖וֹם וּב֣וֹרֵא רָ֑ע אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה עֹשֶׂ֥ה כָל־אֵֽלֶּה׃ ס‬

I form light and create darkness,

I make peace and create harm;

I am the Lord

Who does all these things.

Isa 45:8 ‫הַרְעִ֤יפוּ שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ מִמַּ֔עַל וּשְׁחָקִ֖ים יִזְּלוּ־צֶ֑דֶק תִּפְתַּח־אֶ֣רֶץ וְיִפְרוּ־יֶ֗שַׁע וּצְדָקָ֤ה תַצְמִ֙יחַ֙ יַ֔חַד אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה בְּרָאתִֽיו׃ ס‬

Distil dew, O heavens above,

And let the skies drip down righteousness.

Let the earth open,

And let them be fruitful with salvation,

And let righteousness spring up together with them.

I am the Lord;

I created it.

dew: standing for instruction; compare Deut 32:2.
Isa 45:9 ‫ה֗וֹי רָ֚ב אֶת־יֹ֣צְר֔וֹ חֶ֖רֶשׂ אֶת־חַרְשֵׂ֣י אֲדָמָ֑ה הֲיֹאמַ֨ר חֹ֤מֶר לְיֹֽצְרוֹ֙ מַֽה־תַּעֲשֶׂ֔ה וּפָעָלְךָ֖ אֵין־יָדַ֥יִם לֽוֹ׃ ס‬

Woe to him who quarrels with the one who fashioned him,

In the way a potsherd quarrels with the potsherds of the ground.

Shall the clay say to its fashioner,

«What are you making?»?

Or shall your work say,

«He has no hands»?

potsherds of the ground: re-pointed, this could read artificers of clay, but it is not the usual word for clay (the usual word being in the next clause).

Rom 9:20.
Isa 45:10 ‫ה֛וֹי אֹמֵ֥ר לְאָ֖ב מַה־תּוֹלִ֑יד וּלְאִשָּׁ֖ה מַה־תְּחִילִֽין׃ ס‬

Woe to him who says to his father,

«What have you begotten?»

Or to a woman,

«What have you given birth to?» ’ ”

Isa 45:11 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְיֹצְר֑וֹ הָאֹתִיּ֣וֹת שְׁאָל֔וּנִי עַל־בָּנַ֛י וְעַל־פֹּ֥עַל יָדַ֖י תְּצַוֻּֽנִי׃‬

This is what the Lord,

The holy one of Israel,

And their maker, says:

“Ask me about things to come;

Command me concerning my sons,

And about the work of my hands.

this is whatthus.
Isa 45:12 ‫אָֽנֹכִי֙ עָשִׂ֣יתִי אֶ֔רֶץ וְאָדָ֖ם עָלֶ֣יהָ בָרָ֑אתִי אֲנִ֗י יָדַי֙ נָט֣וּ שָׁמַ֔יִם וְכָל־צְבָאָ֖ם צִוֵּֽיתִי׃‬

I made the earth,

And I created man on it;

It was my hands which stretched out the heavens,

And it was me who set out all their array.

me: or, if the reader prefers, I.

set out ← commanded.
Isa 45:13 ‫אָנֹכִי֙ הַעִירֹתִ֣הֽוּ בְצֶ֔דֶק וְכָל־דְּרָכָ֖יו אֲיַשֵּׁ֑ר הֽוּא־יִבְנֶ֤ה עִירִי֙ וְגָלוּתִ֣י יְשַׁלֵּ֔חַ לֹ֤א בִמְחִיר֙ וְלֹ֣א בְשֹׁ֔חַד אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ פ‬

I have raised him up in righteousness,

And I will direct all his ways.

He will rebuild my city

And let my captives go,

Without them paying a price or bribe,

Says the Lord of hosts.”

him: i.e. Cyrus, as in [CB].

rebuild ← build.
Isa 45:14 ‫כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה יְגִ֨יעַ מִצְרַ֥יִם וּֽסְחַר־כּוּשׁ֮ וּסְבָאִים֮ אַנְשֵׁ֣י מִדָּה֒ עָלַ֤יִךְ יַעֲבֹ֙רוּ֙ וְלָ֣ךְ יִֽהְי֔וּ אַחֲרַ֣יִךְ יֵלֵ֔כוּ בַּזִּקִּ֖ים יַעֲבֹ֑רוּ וְאֵלַ֤יִךְ יִֽשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ֙ אֵלַ֣יִךְ יִתְפַּלָּ֔לוּ אַ֣ךְ בָּ֥ךְ אֵ֛ל וְאֵ֥ין ע֖וֹד אֶ֥פֶס אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“The hard-earned wealth of Egypt

And the merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabaeans

– Men of tall stature –

Will cross over to you and will be yours.

They will walk behind you

And cross over in fetters,

And they will prostrate themselves to you

And implore you, and say,

God is definitely among you,

And there is no-one other than God.’ ”

this is whatthus.

hard-earned wealth: the Hebrew word combines the concepts of toil and wealth.
Isa 45:15 ‫אָכֵ֕ן אַתָּ֖ה אֵ֣ל מִסְתַּתֵּ֑ר אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃‬

Truly, you are a God who hides himself,

O God of Israel,

The saviour.

Isa 45:16 ‫בּ֥וֹשׁוּ וְגַֽם־נִכְלְמ֖וּ כֻּלָּ֑ם יַחְדָּו֙ הָלְכ֣וּ בַכְּלִמָּ֔ה חָרָשֵׁ֖י צִירִֽים׃‬

The fashioners of images will all be put to shame;

They will walk in ignominy together.

be put to shame: qal for passive of hiphil.
Isa 45:17 ‫יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ נוֹשַׁ֣ע בַּיהוָ֔ה תְּשׁוּעַ֖ת עוֹלָמִ֑ים לֹא־תֵבֹ֥שׁוּ וְלֹא־תִכָּלְמ֖וּ עַד־ע֥וֹלְמֵי עַֽד׃ פ‬

But Israel will be saved by the Lord,

With an age-abiding salvation.

You will not be ashamed,

Nor will you suffer ignominy

Throughout the ages of all time.

Isa 45:18 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֣ה אָֽמַר־יְ֠הוָה בּוֹרֵ֨א הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם ה֣וּא הָאֱלֹהִ֗ים יֹצֵ֨ר הָאָ֤רֶץ וְעֹשָׂהּ֙ ה֣וּא כֽוֹנְנָ֔הּ לֹא־תֹ֥הוּ בְרָאָ֖הּ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת יְצָרָ֑הּ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה וְאֵ֥ין עֽוֹד׃‬

For this is what the Lord says,

The creator of the heavens,

Who is God,

The fashioner of the earth

And the maker of it,

Who prepared it

– He did not create it desolate;

He formed it to be inhabited – :

“I am the Lord,

And there is no other.

this is whatthus.
Isa 45:19 ‫לֹ֧א בַסֵּ֣תֶר דִּבַּ֗רְתִּי בִּמְקוֹם֙ אֶ֣רֶץ חֹ֔שֶׁךְ לֹ֥א אָמַ֛רְתִּי לְזֶ֥רַע יַעֲקֹ֖ב תֹּ֣הוּ בַקְּשׁ֑וּנִי אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ דֹּבֵ֣ר צֶ֔דֶק מַגִּ֖יד מֵישָׁרִֽים׃‬

I have not spoken in secret,

In a dark place of the earth;

I have not said to the seed of Jacob,

‘Seek me in a desolate place.’

I, the Lord, speak righteousness,

Stating things which are sound.

Isa 45:20 ‫הִקָּבְצ֥וּ וָבֹ֛אוּ הִֽתְנַגְּשׁ֥וּ יַחְדָּ֖ו פְּלִיטֵ֣י הַגּוֹיִ֑ם לֹ֣א יָדְע֗וּ הַנֹּֽשְׂאִים֙ אֶת־עֵ֣ץ פִּסְלָ֔ם וּמִתְפַּלְלִ֔ים אֶל־אֵ֖ל לֹ֥א יוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃‬

Gather and come, approach together,

You Gentile escapees.

Those who set up their wooden idols

Do not know,

And they pray to a god

Who cannot save.

their wooden idols ← the wood of their idols.
Isa 45:21 ‫הַגִּ֣ידוּ וְהַגִּ֔ישׁוּ אַ֥ף יִֽוָּעֲצ֖וּ יַחְדָּ֑ו מִ֣י הִשְׁמִיעַ֩ זֹ֨את מִקֶּ֜דֶם מֵאָ֣ז הִגִּידָ֗הּ הֲל֨וֹא אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ וְאֵֽין־ע֤וֹד אֱלֹהִים֙ מִבַּלְעָדַ֔י אֵֽל־צַדִּ֣יק וּמוֹשִׁ֔יעַ אַ֖יִן זוּלָתִֽי׃‬

Report and bring them near;

Let them even consult together.

Who has announced this in advance

– Reported it ever since ancient times?

Is it not I, the Lord?

And there is no other God apart from me,

A just God and a saviour.

There is none besides me.

in advance ← formerly.
Isa 45:22 ‫פְּנוּ־אֵלַ֥י וְהִוָּשְׁע֖וּ כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָ֑רֶץ כִּ֥י אֲנִי־אֵ֖ל וְאֵ֥ין עֽוֹד׃‬

Turn to me and be saved,

All you ends of the earth,

For I am God,

And there is no other.

Isa 45:23 ‫בִּ֣י נִשְׁבַּ֔עְתִּי יָצָ֨א מִפִּ֧י צְדָקָ֛ה דָּבָ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יָשׁ֑וּב כִּי־לִי֙ תִּכְרַ֣ע כָּל־בֶּ֔רֶךְ תִּשָּׁבַ֖ע כָּל־לָשֽׁוֹן׃‬

I have sworn by myself

– The utterance has gone out of my mouth righteously

And will not be revoked –

For every knee will bow to me,

And every tongue will swear.

Rom 14:11, Phil 2:10, Phil 2:11.

utterance ← word.

be revoked ← return.
Isa 45:24 ‫אַ֧ךְ בַּיהוָ֛ה לִ֥י אָמַ֖ר צְדָק֣וֹת וָעֹ֑ז עָדָיו֙ יָב֣וֹא וְיֵבֹ֔שׁוּ כֹּ֖ל הַנֶּחֱרִ֥ים בּֽוֹ׃‬

A person will say,

‘Surely in the Lord

I have righteous things and strength.’

To him he will come,

But all who are angry with him

Will be put to shame.

put to shame ← ashamed, qal for passive of hiphil.
Isa 45:25 ‫בַּיהוָ֛ה יִצְדְּק֥וּ וְיִֽתְהַלְל֖וּ כָּל־זֶ֥רַע יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

It is by the action of the Lord

That all the seed of Israel

Will be justified and will glory.

Isa 46:1 ‫כָּרַ֥ע בֵּל֙ קֹרֵ֣ס נְב֔וֹ הָיוּ֙ עֲצַבֵּיהֶ֔ם לַחַיָּ֖ה וְלַבְּהֵמָ֑ה נְשֻׂאֹתֵיכֶ֣ם עֲמוּס֔וֹת מַשָּׂ֖א לַעֲיֵפָֽה׃‬

Bel has collapsed, Nebo is buckling;

They were their idols,

Modelled on wild animals and cattle,

Things you carried as burdens

– A wearisome load.

modelled on ← according to. AV differs (were upon).

things you carried ← your (things) carried.

wearisome load ← a load to wearying.
Isa 46:2 ‫קָרְס֤וּ כָֽרְעוּ֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו לֹ֥א יָכְל֖וּ מַלֵּ֣ט מַשָּׂ֑א וְנַפְשָׁ֖ם בַּשְּׁבִ֥י הָלָֽכָה׃ ס‬

They have buckled and collapsed together;

They could not save the carried load,

And they themselves have gone into captivity.

themselves ← their soul.
Isa 46:3 ‫שִׁמְע֤וּ אֵלַי֙ בֵּ֣ית יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְכָל־שְׁאֵרִ֖ית בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל הַֽעֲמֻסִים֙ מִנִּי־בֶ֔טֶן הַנְּשֻׂאִ֖ים מִנִּי־רָֽחַם׃‬

Hear me, house of Jacob,

And all the remainder of the house of Israel,

Who have been sustained from the time of the belly,

Who have been nurtured since the womb.

sustained ← lifted, borne, carried.

nurtured ← borne, carried.
Isa 46:4 ‫וְעַד־זִקְנָה֙ אֲנִ֣י ה֔וּא וְעַד־שֵיבָ֖ה אֲנִ֣י אֶסְבֹּ֑ל אֲנִ֤י עָשִׂ֙יתִי֙ וַאֲנִ֣י אֶשָּׂ֔א וַאֲנִ֥י אֶסְבֹּ֖ל וַאֲמַלֵּֽט׃ ס‬

Up to your old age,

I am he,

And I will support you up to advanced years.

I act and I nurture,

And I support and deliver.

support (2x)bear, carry.

advanced years ← grey hair.

nurture ← bear, carry.
Isa 46:5 ‫לְמִ֥י תְדַמְי֖וּנִי וְתַשְׁו֑וּ וְתַמְשִׁל֖וּנִי וְנִדְמֶֽה׃‬

To whom will you compare me

And make me equal?

Or liken me,

So that we may be similar?

Isa 46:6 ‫הַזָּלִ֤ים זָהָב֙ מִכִּ֔יס וְכֶ֖סֶף בַּקָּנֶ֣ה יִשְׁקֹ֑לוּ יִשְׂכְּר֤וּ צוֹרֵף֙ וְיַעֲשֵׂ֣הוּ אֵ֔ל יִסְגְּד֖וּ אַף־יִֽשְׁתַּחֲוּֽוּ׃‬

They shake out gold from a bag

And weigh silver by the beam of a balance.

They hire a metalworker,

And he makes it into a god.

Then they prostrate themselves,

And indeed they worship.

Isa 46:7 ‫יִ֠שָּׂאֻהוּ עַל־כָּתֵ֨ף יִסְבְּלֻ֜הוּ וְיַנִּיחֻ֤הוּ תַחְתָּיו֙ וְיַֽעֲמֹ֔ד מִמְּקוֹמ֖וֹ לֹ֣א יָמִ֑ישׁ אַף־יִצְעַ֤ק אֵלָיו֙ וְלֹ֣א יַעֲנֶ֔ה מִצָּרָת֖וֹ לֹ֥א יוֹשִׁיעֶֽנּוּ׃ ס‬

They lift it up;

They carry it on the shoulder

And put it down in its place,

And it stands there.

It does not move away from its place.

Moreover, if one cries out to it,

It does not answer.

It cannot save a person from his distress.

in its place ← under itself.

a personhim.
Isa 46:8 ‫זִכְרוּ־זֹ֖את וְהִתְאֹשָׁ֑שׁוּ הָשִׁ֥יבוּ פוֹשְׁעִ֖ים עַל־לֵֽב׃‬

Remember this

And show yourselves men;

Lay this, you transgressors,

To heart again.

Isa 46:9 ‫זִכְר֥וּ רִאשֹׁנ֖וֹת מֵעוֹלָ֑ם כִּ֣י אָנֹכִ֥י אֵל֙ וְאֵ֣ין ע֔וֹד אֱלֹהִ֖ים וְאֶ֥פֶס כָּמֽוֹנִי׃‬

Remember the former things of old,

For I am God,

And there is no other.

I am God,

And there is no-one like me,

of old ← from an age.
Isa 46:10 ‫מַגִּ֤יד מֵֽרֵאשִׁית֙ אַחֲרִ֔ית וּמִקֶּ֖דֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־נַעֲשׂ֑וּ אֹמֵר֙ עֲצָתִ֣י תָק֔וּם וְכָל־חֶפְצִ֖י אֶעֱשֶֽׂה׃‬

Who tells from the start the final state,

And from old time things which have not been done,

Who says,

‘My counsel will stand firm,

And I will carry out all of my will.’

Isa 46:11 ‫קֹרֵ֤א מִמִּזְרָח֙ עַ֔יִט מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מֶרְחָ֖ק אִ֣ישׁ *עצתו **עֲצָתִ֑י אַף־דִּבַּ֙רְתִּי֙ אַף־אֲבִיאֶ֔נָּה יָצַ֖רְתִּי אַף־אֶעֱשֶֽׂנָּה׃ ס‬

I call a bird of prey from the east

– The man on whom {Q: I have decided} [K: he has decided] –

From a distant country.

I have spoken,

And I will bring it to pass;

I have designed it,

And I will also carry it out.

The qeré / ketiv issue is a vav / yod issue. More literally, of my counsel / of his counsel respectively.
Isa 46:12 ‫שִׁמְע֥וּ אֵלַ֖י אַבִּ֣ירֵי לֵ֑ב הָרְחוֹקִ֖ים מִצְּדָקָֽה׃‬

Listen to me,

You stout-hearted men,

Who are far from righteousness.

Isa 46:13 ‫קֵרַ֤בְתִּי צִדְקָתִי֙ לֹ֣א תִרְחָ֔ק וּתְשׁוּעָתִ֖י לֹ֣א תְאַחֵ֑ר וְנָתַתִּ֤י בְצִיּוֹן֙ תְּשׁוּעָ֔ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תִּפְאַרְתִּֽי׃ ס‬

I have brought my righteousness near;

It is not far away,

And my salvation will not be long coming.

And I have appointed salvation in Zion for Israel my splendour.

Isa 47:1 ‫רְדִ֣י ׀ וּשְׁבִ֣י עַל־עָפָ֗ר בְּתוּלַת֙ בַּת־בָּבֶ֔ל שְׁבִי־לָאָ֥רֶץ אֵין־כִּסֵּ֖א בַּת־כַּשְׂדִּ֑ים כִּ֣י לֹ֤א תוֹסִ֙יפִי֙ יִקְרְאוּ־לָ֔ךְ רַכָּ֖ה וַעֲנֻגָּֽה׃‬

Come down and sit on the dust,

You virgin daughter of Babylon;

Sit on the ground where there is no chair,

You daughter of the Chaldeans,

For you will no longer have them calling you

Tender and delicate.

Isa 47:2 ‫קְחִ֥י רֵחַ֖יִם וְטַ֣חֲנִי קָ֑מַח גַּלִּ֨י צַמָּתֵ֧ךְ חֶשְׂפִּי־שֹׁ֛בֶל גַּלִּי־שׁ֖וֹק עִבְרִ֥י נְהָרֽוֹת׃‬

Take the millstones and grind flour,

Uncover your veil,

Lift the train of your robe,

Uncover the calf of your leg;

Cross the rivers.

lift ← uncover; strip.

train: AV differs (locks).
Isa 47:3 ‫תִּגָּל֙ עֶרְוָתֵ֔ךְ גַּ֥ם תֵּרָאֶ֖ה חֶרְפָּתֵ֑ךְ נָקָ֣ם אֶקָּ֔ח וְלֹ֥א אֶפְגַּ֖ע אָדָֽם׃ ס‬

Let your nakedness be revealed;

Let also your ignominy be seen.

I will take revenge;

I will not regard a man with favour.

Isa 47:4 ‫גֹּאֲלֵ֕נוּ יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמ֑וֹ קְד֖וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

As for our redeemer,

His name is the Lord of hosts

– The holy one of Israel.

Isa 47:5 ‫שְׁבִ֥י דוּמָ֛ם וּבֹ֥אִי בַחֹ֖שֶׁךְ בַּת־כַּשְׂדִּ֑ים כִּ֣י לֹ֤א תוֹסִ֙יפִי֙ יִקְרְאוּ־לָ֔ךְ גְּבֶ֖רֶת מַמְלָכֽוֹת׃‬

Sit in silence and go into darkness,

You daughter of the Chaldeans,

For you will no longer have them calling you

The Lady of Kingdoms.

Isa 47:6 ‫קָצַ֣פְתִּי עַל־עַמִּ֗י חִלַּ֙לְתִּי֙ נַחֲלָתִ֔י וָאֶתְּנֵ֖ם בְּיָדֵ֑ךְ לֹא־שַׂ֤מְתְּ לָהֶם֙ רַחֲמִ֔ים עַל־זָקֵ֕ן הִכְבַּ֥דְתְּ עֻלֵּ֖ךְ מְאֹֽד׃‬

I have been angry with my people;

I have profaned my inheritance

And delivered them into your hand.

You did not show them mercy;

You made your yoke on an old man

Very heavy.

show ← set.
Isa 47:7 ‫וַתֹּ֣אמְרִ֔י לְעוֹלָ֖ם אֶהְיֶ֣ה גְבָ֑רֶת עַ֣ד לֹא־שַׂ֥מְתְּ אֵ֙לֶּה֙ עַל־לִבֵּ֔ךְ לֹ֥א זָכַ֖רְתְּ אַחֲרִיתָֽהּ׃ ס‬

And you have said,

‘I will be the lady age-abidingly.’

But during all this time you have not laid these things to heart,

Nor have you called her final state to mind.

heart ← your heart.
Isa 47:8 ‫וְעַתָּ֞ה שִׁמְעִי־זֹ֤את עֲדִינָה֙ הַיּוֹשֶׁ֣בֶת לָבֶ֔טַח הָאֹֽמְרָה֙ בִּלְבָ֔בָהּ אֲנִ֖י וְאַפְסִ֣י ע֑וֹד לֹ֤א אֵשֵׁב֙ אַלְמָנָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א אֵדַ֖ע שְׁכֽוֹל׃‬

And now, hear this, you delicate one,

Who sits in security,

Who says in her heart,

‘I am the one,

And there is no-one besides me.

I shall not sit as a widow,

And I shall not know bereavement of children.’

Rev 18:7.

sits ... says ... her: taking who as third person, despite the second person hear, because of the third person her. Discordance is permissible in Hebrew.

Compare the verse with Zeph 2:15.
Isa 47:9 ‫וְתָבֹאנָה֩ לָּ֨ךְ שְׁתֵּי־אֵ֥לֶּה רֶ֛גַע בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָ֖ד שְׁכ֣וֹל וְאַלְמֹ֑ן כְּתֻמָּם֙ בָּ֣אוּ עָלַ֔יִךְ בְּרֹ֣ב כְּשָׁפַ֔יִךְ בְּעָצְמַ֥ת חֲבָרַ֖יִךְ מְאֹֽד׃‬

But these two things will come over you,

In a moment, on one day,

Bereavement of children, and widowhood.

In their entirety they will come over you,

For the abundance of your sorceries,

For the great profusion of your incantations.

profusion ← strength.
Isa 47:10 ‫וַתִּבְטְחִ֣י בְרָעָתֵ֗ךְ אָמַרְתְּ֙ אֵ֣ין רֹאָ֔נִי חָכְמָתֵ֥ךְ וְדַעְתֵּ֖ךְ הִ֣יא שׁוֹבְבָ֑תֶךְ וַתֹּאמְרִ֣י בְלִבֵּ֔ךְ אֲנִ֖י וְאַפְסִ֥י עֽוֹד׃‬

And you trusted in your wickedness;

You said, ‘There is no-one who can see me.’

It is your wisdom and your knowledge which have turned you away,

And you say in your heart,

‘I am the one,

And there is no-one besides me.’

Isa 47:11 ‫וּבָ֧א עָלַ֣יִךְ רָעָ֗ה לֹ֤א תֵדְעִי֙ שַׁחְרָ֔הּ וְתִפֹּ֤ל עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ הֹוָ֔ה לֹ֥א תוּכְלִ֖י כַּפְּרָ֑הּ וְתָבֹ֨א עָלַ֧יִךְ פִּתְאֹ֛ם שׁוֹאָ֖ה לֹ֥א תֵדָֽעִי׃‬

And evil will come over you,

And you will not know its origin,

And calamity will befall you,

Which you will not be able to avert,

And destruction will come over you suddenly,

When you are unaware.

origin ← dawn.

avert ← expiate.
Isa 47:12 ‫עִמְדִי־נָ֤א בַחֲבָרַ֙יִךְ֙ וּבְרֹ֣ב כְּשָׁפַ֔יִךְ בַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָגַ֖עַתְּ מִנְּעוּרָ֑יִךְ אוּלַ֛י תּוּכְלִ֥י הוֹעִ֖יל אוּלַ֥י תַּעֲרֽוֹצִי׃‬

Stand firm in your incantations, then,

And in the profusion of your sorceries,

With which you have exhausted yourself from your youth.

Maybe you can benefit;

Maybe you will instil fear.

The verse is ironic.
Isa 47:13 ‫נִלְאֵ֖ית בְּרֹ֣ב עֲצָתָ֑יִךְ יַעַמְדוּ־נָ֨א וְיוֹשִׁיעֻ֜ךְ *הברו **הֹבְרֵ֣י שָׁמַ֗יִם הַֽחֹזִים֙ בַּכּ֣וֹכָבִ֔ים מֽוֹדִיעִם֙ לֶחֳדָשִׁ֔ים מֵאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָבֹ֖אוּ עָלָֽיִךְ׃‬

You weary yourself with the large number of your consultations.

So let the astrologers who foresee by the stars

And make things known by new moons

Stand up and save you

From what will come over you.

astrologers ← dividers of heaven. The ketiv / qeré issue is a vav / yod issue, but the meanings are essentially the same.

consultations ← counsels.
Isa 47:14 ‫הִנֵּ֨ה הָי֤וּ כְקַשׁ֙ אֵ֣שׁ שְׂרָפָ֔תַם לֹֽא־יַצִּ֥ילוּ אֶת־נַפְשָׁ֖ם מִיַּ֣ד לֶֽהָבָ֑ה אֵין־גַּחֶ֣לֶת לַחְמָ֔ם א֖וּר לָשֶׁ֥בֶת נֶגְדּֽוֹ׃‬

Look, they are like stubble;

Fire will burn them up.

They cannot save themselves

From the reach of the flame.

It will not be burning coals to warm oneself,

Or a fire to sit around.

to warm: pointed as their bread, suggesting not (as) embers (for baking) of their bread, but [AnLx], [BDB] take the form as a variant qal infinitive of חָמַם, to warm.

themselves ← their souls.

reach ← hand.

around ← opposite it.

The last sentence in the verse is the figure of speech understatement.
Isa 47:15 ‫כֵּ֥ן הָיוּ־לָ֖ךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָגָ֑עַתְּ סֹחֲרַ֣יִךְ מִנְּעוּרַ֗יִךְ אִ֤ישׁ לְעֶבְרוֹ֙ תָּע֔וּ אֵ֖ין מוֹשִׁיעֵֽךְ׃ ס‬

This is what will become

Of what you have wearied yourself with.

Those merchants of yours from your youth

Have each gone astray in his own direction.

You do not have a saviour.

this is whatthus.
Isa 48:1 ‫שִׁמְעוּ־זֹ֣את בֵּֽית־יַעֲקֹ֗ב הַנִּקְרָאִים֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִמֵּ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה יָצָ֑אוּ הַֽנִּשְׁבָּעִ֣ים ׀ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֗ה וּבֵאלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יַזְכִּ֔ירוּ לֹ֥א בֶאֱמֶ֖ת וְלֹ֥א בִצְדָקָֽה׃‬

Hear this, house of Jacob,

Who are called by the name of Israel,

And who came out of the waters of Judah,

Who swear by the name of the Lord,

And who make mention of the God of Israel,

But not in truth

And not in righteousness.

Isa 48:2 ‫כִּֽי־מֵעִ֤יר הַקֹּ֙דֶשׁ֙ נִקְרָ֔אוּ וְעַל־אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נִסְמָ֑כוּ יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ׃ ס‬

For they are called a people from the holy city,

Who trust in the God of Israel

– The Lord of hosts is his name.

holy city ← city of holiness.

trust in ← lean on.
Isa 48:3 ‫הָרִֽאשֹׁנוֹת֙ מֵאָ֣ז הִגַּ֔דְתִּי וּמִפִּ֥י יָצְא֖וּ וְאַשְׁמִיעֵ֑ם פִּתְאֹ֥ם עָשִׂ֖יתִי וַתָּבֹֽאנָה׃‬

I have foretold the first things,

And they proceeded from my mouth,

And I proclaimed them.

Then suddenly I perform them,

And they come to pass,

foretold ← told from then.
Isa 48:4 ‫מִדַּעְתִּ֕י כִּ֥י קָשֶׁ֖ה אָ֑תָּה וְגִ֤יד בַּרְזֶל֙ עָרְפֶּ֔ךָ וּמִצְחֲךָ֖ נְחוּשָֽׁה׃‬

Because I know that you are stubborn,

And that your neck has an iron sinew,

And that you have a brazen forehead.

I know ← from my knowledge.

iron sinew ← sinew of iron, a Hebraic genitive.

you have a brazen forehead ← your forehead (is) copper.
Isa 48:5 ‫וָאַגִּ֤יד לְךָ֙ מֵאָ֔ז בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּב֖וֹא הִשְׁמַעְתִּ֑יךָ פֶּן־תֹּאמַר֙ עָצְבִּ֣י עָשָׂ֔ם וּפִסְלִ֥י וְנִסְכִּ֖י צִוָּֽם׃‬

And I have told you beforehand

– Before it came about,

I proclaimed it to you –

So that you cannot say,

‘My idol performed those things’,

Or, ‘My carved image and my cast figure commanded them.’

Isa 48:6 ‫שָׁמַ֤עְתָּֽ חֲזֵה֙ כֻּלָּ֔הּ וְאַתֶּ֖ם הֲל֣וֹא תַגִּ֑ידוּ הִשְׁמַעְתִּ֤יךָ חֲדָשׁוֹת֙ מֵעַ֔תָּה וּנְצֻר֖וֹת וְלֹ֥א יְדַעְתָּֽם׃‬

You have heard, ‘Look at all this.’

And will you not announce it?

I have proclaimed to you new things, recently,

And secret things

Which you have not known.

you ... you ... you ... you: singular ... plural ... singular ... plural.

recently ← from now.
Isa 48:7 ‫עַתָּ֤ה נִבְרְאוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א מֵאָ֔ז וְלִפְנֵי־י֖וֹם וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַעְתָּ֑ם פֶּן־תֹּאמַ֖ר הִנֵּ֥ה יְדַעְתִּֽין׃‬

They are being created now

– And not in the past,

Before the day,

Before you had heard –

So that you cannot say,

‘Look, I knew these things.’

in the past ← from then.

before you had heard ← and you had not heard.

I knew these things: with an Aramaic suffix.
Isa 48:8 ‫גַּ֣ם לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֗עְתָּ גַּ֚ם לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתָּ גַּ֕ם מֵאָ֖ז לֹא־פִתְּחָ֣ה אָזְנֶ֑ךָ כִּ֤י יָדַ֙עְתִּי֙ בָּג֣וֹד תִּבְגּ֔וֹד וּפֹשֵׁ֥עַ מִבֶּ֖טֶן קֹ֥רָא לָֽךְ׃‬

You neither heard it nor knew it,

Nor has your ear been open since then,

For I knew that you would take to dealing treacherously.

So you have been called

A transgressor from the womb.

dealing treacherously: an infinitive absolute.
Isa 48:9 ‫לְמַ֤עַן שְׁמִי֙ אַאֲרִ֣יךְ אַפִּ֔י וּתְהִלָּתִ֖י אֶחֱטָם־לָ֑ךְ לְבִלְתִּ֖י הַכְרִיתֶֽךָ׃‬

For the sake of my name I will defer my anger,

And for my praiseworthiness I will restrain myself from you,

So as not to cut you off.

defer: the word also means prolong.

restrain ← muzzle.
Isa 48:10 ‫הִנֵּ֥ה צְרַפְתִּ֖יךָ וְלֹ֣א בְכָ֑סֶף בְּחַרְתִּ֖יךָ בְּכ֥וּר עֹֽנִי׃‬

Behold, I have refined you,

But not for money;

I have chosen you

In the furnace of affliction.

chosen you: or tested, assayed.
Isa 48:11 ‫לְמַעֲנִ֧י לְמַעֲנִ֛י אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה כִּ֣י אֵ֣יךְ יֵחָ֑ל וּכְבוֹדִ֖י לְאַחֵ֥ר לֹֽא־אֶתֵּֽן׃ ס‬

It is for my sake, it is for my sake,

That I will act,

For how could that be profaned?

And I shall not give my glory to another.

Isa 48:12 ‫שְׁמַ֤ע אֵלַי֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מְקֹרָאִ֑י אֲנִי־הוּא֙ אֲנִ֣י רִאשׁ֔וֹן אַ֖ף אֲנִ֥י אַחֲרֽוֹן׃‬

Hear me, Jacob,

And Israel, my called out people:

I am he.

I am the first;

I am also the last.

Rev 22:13.
Isa 48:13 ‫אַף־יָדִי֙ יָ֣סְדָה אֶ֔רֶץ וִֽימִינִ֖י טִפְּחָ֣ה שָׁמָ֑יִם קֹרֵ֥א אֲנִ֛י אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם יַעַמְד֥וּ יַחְדָּֽו׃‬

Indeed, my hand founded the earth,

And my right hand spread the heavens out.

I call out to them,

And they take up position together.

take up position ← stand.
Isa 48:14 ‫הִקָּבְצ֤וּ כֻלְּכֶם֙ וּֽשֲׁמָ֔עוּ מִ֥י בָהֶ֖ם הִגִּ֣יד אֶת־אֵ֑לֶּה יְהוָ֣ה אֲהֵב֔וֹ יַעֲשֶׂ֤ה חֶפְצוֹ֙ בְּבָבֶ֔ל וּזְרֹע֖וֹ כַּשְׂדִּֽים׃‬

Gather together, all of you, and hear.

Who among them has told of these things?

The Lord loved him;

He will do his will in Babylon,

With his arm among the Chaldeans.

he will do his will: i.e., we suggest, Cyrus will do the Lord's will. Cyrus was a messiah (Isa 45:1), a precursor to Christ.
Isa 48:15 ‫אֲנִ֥י אֲנִ֛י דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אַף־קְרָאתִ֑יו הֲבִיאֹתִ֖יו וְהִצְלִ֥יחַ דַּרְכּֽוֹ׃‬

I, I have spoken,

And I have called him too;

I have brought him onto the scene,

And he will make his way prosperous.

Isa 48:16 ‫קִרְב֧וּ אֵלַ֣י שִׁמְעוּ־זֹ֗את לֹ֤א מֵרֹאשׁ֙ בַּסֵּ֣תֶר דִּבַּ֔רְתִּי מֵעֵ֥ת הֱיוֹתָ֖הּ שָׁ֣ם אָ֑נִי וְעַתָּ֗ה אֲדֹנָ֧י יְהוִ֛ה שְׁלָחַ֖נִי וְרוּחֽוֹ׃ פ‬

Come close to me and hear this:

From the start I have not spoken in secret.

From the start of time

There I have been.”

And now my Lord the Lord has sent me,

With his spirit.

AV differs in punctuation (I have not spoken in secret from the beginning).

from the start of time ← from time, its being.

with ← and.
Isa 48:17 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה גֹּאַלְךָ֖ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲנִ֨י יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ מְלַמֶּדְךָ֣ לְהוֹעִ֔יל מַדְרִֽיכֲךָ֖ בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ תֵּלֵֽךְ׃‬

This is what the Lord, your redeemer,

The holy one of Israel, says:

“I am the Lord your God,

Your teacher in how to be benefited,

Your guide in the way you should go.

this is whatthus.
Isa 48:18 ‫ל֥וּא הִקְשַׁ֖בְתָּ לְמִצְוֺתָ֑י וַיְהִ֤י כַנָּהָר֙ שְׁלוֹמֶ֔ךָ וְצִדְקָתְךָ֖ כְּגַלֵּ֥י הַיָּֽם׃‬

If only you had heeded my commandments!

Then your peace would have been like a river,

And your righteousness like the waves of the sea.

Isa 48:19 ‫וַיְהִ֤י כַחוֹל֙ זַרְעֶ֔ךָ וְצֶאֱצָאֵ֥י מֵעֶ֖יךָ כִּמְעֹתָ֑יו לֹֽא־יִכָּרֵ֧ת וְֽלֹא־יִשָּׁמֵ֛ד שְׁמ֖וֹ מִלְּפָנָֽי׃‬

And your seed would have been like sand,

And the offspring of your loins like fine gravel.

Their name will not be cut off,

And they will not be destroyed before me.

would have been: i.e. would already have been; the promise of Gen 13:16 is unconditional, but its timing is open-ended.

fine gravel ← its fine gravel.

their name ← its name, referring to offspring.
Isa 48:20 ‫צְא֣וּ מִבָּבֶל֮ בִּרְח֣וּ מִכַּשְׂדִּים֒ בְּק֣וֹל רִנָּ֗ה הַגִּ֤ידוּ הַשְׁמִ֙יעוּ֙ זֹ֔את הוֹצִיא֖וּהָ עַד־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ אִמְר֕וּ גָּאַ֥ל יְהוָ֖ה עַבְדּ֥וֹ יַעֲקֹֽב׃‬

Go out of Babylon;

Flee from the Chaldeans with a jubilant voice.

Announce this, proclaim this,

Utter it as far as the end of the earth.

Say, ‘The Lord has redeemed his servant Jacob.’

Rev 18:4.

jubilant voice ← voice of jubilation, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 48:21 ‫וְלֹ֣א צָמְא֗וּ בָּחֳרָבוֹת֙ הֽוֹלִיכָ֔ם מַ֥יִם מִצּ֖וּר הִזִּ֣יל לָ֑מוֹ וַיִּ֨בְקַע־צ֔וּר וַיָּזֻ֖בוּ מָֽיִם׃‬

They did not thirst

When he led them in desolate places;

He made water gush from a rock for them

When he split the rock

And the water flowed.

when: from the initial vav.
Isa 48:22 ‫אֵ֣ין שָׁל֔וֹם אָמַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה לָרְשָׁעִֽים׃ ס‬

There is no peace,

Says the Lord,

For the wicked.”

Isa 49:1 ‫שִׁמְע֤וּ אִיִּים֙ אֵלַ֔י וְהַקְשִׁ֥יבוּ לְאֻמִּ֖ים מֵרָח֑וֹק יְהוָה֙ מִבֶּ֣טֶן קְרָאָ֔נִי מִמְּעֵ֥י אִמִּ֖י הִזְכִּ֥יר שְׁמִֽי׃‬

“Hear me, you coastlands,

And listen, you distant peoples.

The Lord has called me from the womb;

From my mother's belly

He had made mention of my name.

coastlands: or islands.

belly ← bowels, but also belly, womb (and, more figuratively, mind).
Isa 49:2 ‫וַיָּ֤שֶׂם פִּי֙ כְּחֶ֣רֶב חַדָּ֔ה בְּצֵ֥ל יָד֖וֹ הֶחְבִּיאָ֑נִי וַיְשִׂימֵ֙נִי֙ לְחֵ֣ץ בָּר֔וּר בְּאַשְׁפָּת֖וֹ הִסְתִּירָֽנִי׃‬

And he has made my mouth like a sharp sword;

He has hidden me in the shadow of his hand,

He has made me as a perfected arrow,

And he has hidden me in his quiver.

Rev 1:16, Rev 2:16, Rev 19:15.
Isa 49:3 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לִ֖י עַבְדִּי־אָ֑תָּה יִשְׂרָאֵ֕ל אֲשֶׁר־בְּךָ֖ אֶתְפָּאָֽר׃‬

And he said to me,

‘You are my servant

– Israel, in whom I will be glorified.’

Isa 49:4 ‫וַאֲנִ֤י אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ לְרִ֣יק יָגַ֔עְתִּי לְתֹ֥הוּ וְהֶ֖בֶל כֹּחִ֣י כִלֵּ֑יתִי אָכֵן֙ מִשְׁפָּטִ֣י אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה וּפְעֻלָּתִ֖י אֶת־אֱלֹהָֽי׃‬

But I said,

‘I have toiled in vain,

I have expended my energy on a wasteful thing,

And a futile matter,

Yet my vindication is with the Lord,

And my recompense

Is with my God.’ ”

wasteful: or desolate.

vindication ← justice, but see [BDB] № 1f, which includes execution of judgment in favour.
Isa 49:5 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה יֹצְרִ֤י מִבֶּ֙טֶן֙ לְעֶ֣בֶד ל֔וֹ לְשׁוֹבֵ֤ב יַֽעֲקֹב֙ אֵלָ֔יו וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל *לא **ל֣וֹ יֵאָסֵ֑ף וְאֶכָּבֵד֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וֵאלֹהַ֖י הָיָ֥ה עֻזִּֽי׃‬

And now, says the Lord,

Who formed me from the womb

To be his servant,

To bring Jacob back to him,

{Q: So that Israel shall be gathered to him} [K: Though Israel shall not be gathered],

I will be glorified in the eyes of the Lord,

And my God will be my strength.

On the ketiv, see Ex 21:8. AV differs, taking the ketiv here.
Isa 49:6 ‫וַיֹּ֗אמֶר נָקֵ֨ל מִֽהְיוֹתְךָ֥ לִי֙ עֶ֔בֶד לְהָקִים֙ אֶת־שִׁבְטֵ֣י יַעֲקֹ֔ב *ונצירי **וּנְצוּרֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְהָשִׁ֑יב וּנְתַתִּ֙יךָ֙ לְא֣וֹר גּוֹיִ֔ם לִֽהְי֥וֹת יְשׁוּעָתִ֖י עַד־קְצֵ֥ה הָאָֽרֶץ׃ ס‬

And he said,

“Is it a trivial matter to be my servant,

To establish the tribes of Jacob,

And to restore those preserved of Israel?

And I will make you a light of the Gentiles

To be my salvation

As far as the end of the earth.

preserved: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

Luke 2:32, Acts 13:47.
Isa 49:7 ‫כֹּ֣ה אָֽמַר־יְהוָה֩ גֹּאֵ֨ל יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל קְדוֹשׁ֗וֹ לִבְזֹה־נֶ֜פֶשׁ לִמְתָ֤עֵֽב גּוֹי֙ לְעֶ֣בֶד מֹשְׁלִ֔ים מְלָכִים֙ יִרְא֣וּ וָקָ֔מוּ שָׂרִ֖ים וְיִֽשְׁתַּחֲוּ֑וּ לְמַ֤עַן יְהוָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נֶאֱמָ֔ן קְדֹ֥שׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וַיִּבְחָרֶֽךָּ׃‬

This is what the Lord,

Israel's redeemer,

Their holy one, says:

“Kings will see and arise,

And princes,

And these will prostrate themselves

To him who was considered despicable,

To a nation regarded as an abomination,

To one subservient to rulers,

This being for the sake of the Lord,

Who is faithful

– The holy one of Israel –

Who has chosen you.”

AV differs considerably in word association, with to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nation abhorreth, to a servant of rulers outside direct speech.

this is whatthus.

despicable ← despised of soul.

to a nation regarded as an abomination ← to abhorring of a nation.
Isa 49:8 ‫כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה בְּעֵ֤ת רָצוֹן֙ עֲנִיתִ֔יךָ וּבְי֥וֹם יְשׁוּעָ֖ה עֲזַרְתִּ֑יךָ וְאֶצָּרְךָ֗ וְאֶתֶּנְךָ֙ לִבְרִ֣ית עָ֔ם לְהָקִ֣ים אֶ֔רֶץ לְהַנְחִ֖יל נְחָל֥וֹת שֹׁמֵמֽוֹת׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“At an acceptable time, I answered you,

And on the day of salvation, I helped you,

And I will preserve you and make you a covenant people,

To establish the earth,

By giving desolate places an inheritance,

2 Cor 6:2.

this is whatthus.

a covenant people ← a covenant of people. A reverse Hebraic genitive; compare Isa 42:6, Dan 11:20.

by giving ← by legating. Gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 49:9 ‫לֵאמֹ֤ר לַֽאֲסוּרִים֙ צֵ֔אוּ לַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּחֹ֖שֶׁךְ הִגָּל֑וּ עַל־דְּרָכִ֣ים יִרְע֔וּ וּבְכָל־שְׁפָיִ֖ים מַרְעִיתָֽם׃‬

As you say to prisoners,

‘Come out’;

To those in darkness,

Come into the open.’

They will feed along the ways,

And their pasture will be in all high places.

come into the open ← be revealed.
Isa 49:10 ‫לֹ֤א יִרְעָ֙בוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א יִצְמָ֔אוּ וְלֹא־יַכֵּ֥ם שָׁרָ֖ב וָשָׁ֑מֶשׁ כִּי־מְרַחֲמָ֣ם יְנַהֲגֵ֔ם וְעַל־מַבּ֥וּעֵי מַ֖יִם יְנַהֲלֵֽם׃‬

They will not hunger, and they will not thirst,

And neither a dry heat wave nor the sun will harm them,

For as he has mercy on them,

He will guide them,

And he will lead them to springs of water.

Rev 7:16, Rev 7:17.

harm ← strike.
Isa 49:11 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֥י כָל־הָרַ֖י לַדָּ֑רֶךְ וּמְסִלֹּתַ֖י יְרֻמֽוּן׃‬

And I will turn all my mountains into a road,

And my highways will be raised up.

a road ← the road. Perhaps a reference to the way; compare Isa 35:8, Acts 9:2.

will be raised up: qal for passive of hiphil. Compare 1 Sam 2:1.
Isa 49:12 ‫הִנֵּה־אֵ֕לֶּה מֵרָח֖וֹק יָבֹ֑אוּ וְהִֽנֵּה־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ מִצָּפ֣וֹן וּמִיָּ֔ם וְאֵ֖לֶּה מֵאֶ֥רֶץ סִינִֽים׃‬

Behold, these things will come from far away,

And you will see some coming from the north,

And from the west,

And some from the land of China.”

you will see ← behold.

China: supported by [Ges-HCL] (amongst other possibilities).
Isa 49:13 ‫רָנּ֤וּ שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְגִ֣ילִי אָ֔רֶץ *יפצחו **וּפִצְח֥וּ הָרִ֖ים רִנָּ֑ה כִּֽי־נִחַ֤ם יְהוָה֙ עַמּ֔וֹ וַעֲנִיָּ֖ו יְרַחֵֽם׃ ס‬

Be jubilant, O heavens,

And rejoice, O earth.

{Q: And break out into jubilation, O mountains,} [K: Let the mountains break out into jubilation,]

For the Lord has comforted his people,

And has mercy on his needy.

Rev 12:12.
Isa 49:14 ‫וַתֹּ֥אמֶר צִיּ֖וֹן עֲזָבַ֣נִי יְהוָ֑ה וַאדֹנָ֖י שְׁכֵחָֽנִי׃‬

Yet Zion said,

“The Lord has deserted me,

And the Lord* has forgotten me.”

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32. Otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Isa 49:15 ‫הֲתִשְׁכַּ֤ח אִשָּׁה֙ עוּלָ֔הּ מֵרַחֵ֖ם בֶּן־בִּטְנָ֑הּ גַּם־אֵ֣לֶּה תִשְׁכַּ֔חְנָה וְאָנֹכִ֖י לֹ֥א אֶשְׁכָּחֵֽךְ׃‬

Can a woman forget her breastfeeding child,

So as not to have compassion on her son from her own womb?

Even if these women were to forget,

Yet I will not forget you.

The Lord is speaking here.
Isa 49:16 ‫הֵ֥ן עַל־כַּפַּ֖יִם חַקֹּתִ֑יךְ חוֹמֹתַ֥יִךְ נֶגְדִּ֖י תָּמִֽיד׃‬

Behold, I have engraved you on the palms of my hands;

Your walls are always before me.

Isa 49:17 ‫מִֽהֲר֖וּ בָּנָ֑יִךְ מְהָֽרְסַ֥יִךְ וּמַחֲרִבַ֖יִךְ מִמֵּ֥ךְ יֵצֵֽאוּ׃‬

Your sons have been hasty,

But those who demolished you and laid you waste

Will depart from you.

Isa 49:18 ‫שְׂאִֽי־סָבִ֤יב עֵינַ֙יִךְ֙ וּרְאִ֔י כֻּלָּ֖ם נִקְבְּצ֣וּ בָֽאוּ־לָ֑ךְ חַי־אָ֣נִי נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה כִּ֤י כֻלָּם֙ כָּעֲדִ֣י תִלְבָּ֔שִׁי וּֽתְקַשְּׁרִ֖ים כַּכַּלָּֽה׃‬

Lift up your eyes round about, and see:

All of them have gathered and come to you.

As I live, says the Lord,

You will surely clothe yourself with them all like an ornament,

And bind them onto yourself,

Adorning yourself like a bride.

Isa 49:19 ‫כִּ֤י חָרְבֹתַ֙יִךְ֙ וְשֹׁ֣מְמֹתַ֔יִךְ וְאֶ֖רֶץ הֲרִֽסֻתֵ֑יךְ כִּ֤י עַתָּה֙ תֵּצְרִ֣י מִיּוֹשֵׁ֔ב וְרָחֲק֖וּ מְבַלְּעָֽיִךְ׃‬

For your wastelands and your desolate places,

And your devastated land

Are such that now you are too hard pressed for anyone to inhabit you,

But those who are swallowing you up

Will be removed.

you are too hard pressed: AV differs ([the land] ... shall even now be too narrow), reading the verb as third person.
Isa 49:20 ‫ע֚וֹד יֹאמְר֣וּ בְאָזְנַ֔יִךְ בְּנֵ֖י שִׁכֻּלָ֑יִךְ צַר־לִ֥י הַמָּק֖וֹם גְּשָׁה־לִּ֥י וְאֵשֵֽׁבָה׃‬

Your sons who have been bereaved of children

Will yet have a word to say in your ear,

‘The place is too hostile to me.’

Come near to me,

So that I can live there.’

ear ← ears.

hostile ← strait.

come near to: [BDB] interprets as move away from. We take it as an entreaty to the Lord, that Zion may be made pleasant.
Isa 49:21 ‫וְאָמַ֣רְתְּ בִּלְבָבֵ֗ךְ מִ֤י יָֽלַד־לִי֙ אֶת־אֵ֔לֶּה וַאֲנִ֥י שְׁכוּלָ֖ה וְגַלְמוּדָ֑ה גֹּלָ֣ה ׀ וְסוּרָ֗ה וְאֵ֙לֶּה֙ מִ֣י גִדֵּ֔ל הֵ֤ן אֲנִי֙ נִשְׁאַ֣רְתִּי לְבַדִּ֔י אֵ֖לֶּה אֵיפֹ֥ה הֵֽם׃ פ‬

Then you will say in your heart,

‘Who bore me these,

As I have been bereaved and am barren,

Captive and deported?

So who brought these up?

Look, I have remained on my own.

As for these,

Where are they from?’ ”

Isa 49:22 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה הִנֵּ֨ה אֶשָּׂ֤א אֶל־גּוֹיִם֙ יָדִ֔י וְאֶל־עַמִּ֖ים אָרִ֣ים נִסִּ֑י וְהֵבִ֤יאוּ בָנַ֙יִךְ֙ בְּחֹ֔צֶן וּבְנֹתַ֖יִךְ עַל־כָּתֵ֥ף תִּנָּשֶֽׂאנָה׃‬

This is what my Lord the Lord says:

“Behold I will raise my hand to the Gentiles,

And I will raise my banner to the nations,

And they will bring your sons in their bosom,

And your daughters will be carried on their shoulders.

this is whatthus.

raise my hand to: i.e. call.

shoulders ← shoulder.
Isa 49:23 ‫וְהָי֨וּ מְלָכִ֜ים אֹֽמְנַ֗יִךְ וְשָׂרֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙ מֵינִ֣יקֹתַ֔יִךְ אַפַּ֗יִם אֶ֚רֶץ יִשְׁתַּ֣חֲווּ לָ֔ךְ וַעֲפַ֥ר רַגְלַ֖יִךְ יְלַחֵ֑כוּ וְיָדַ֙עַתְּ֙ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יֵבֹ֖שׁוּ קוָֹֽי׃ ס‬

And kings will be your foster fathers,

And their princesses will be your nurses.

They will prostrate themselves to you with the face to the ground,

And they will lick the dust of your feet,

And you will know that I am the Lord,

And that those who await me

Will not be put to shame.”

be put to shame: see Isa 44:11.
Isa 49:24 ‫הֲיֻקַּ֥ח מִגִּבּ֖וֹר מַלְק֑וֹחַ וְאִם־שְׁבִ֥י צַדִּ֖יק יִמָּלֵֽט׃‬

Can spoil be taken from a warrior?

Or can a righteous captive be delivered?

righteous: a Qumran scroll reads (captive of a) עָרִיץ, fierce one, tyrant, aligning this verse with the next; the Vulgate reads powerful, the Syriac giant, LXX unrighteously.
Isa 49:25 ‫כִּי־כֹ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה גַּם־שְׁבִ֤י גִבּוֹר֙ יֻקָּ֔ח וּמַלְק֥וֹחַ עָרִ֖יץ יִמָּלֵ֑ט וְאֶת־יְרִיבֵךְ֙ אָנֹכִ֣י אָרִ֔יב וְאֶת־בָּנַ֖יִךְ אָנֹכִ֥י אוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃‬

But this is what the Lord says:

“Even the warrior's captive will be taken back,

And the spoil of the fierce will be recovered.

And I will contend with him who contends with you,

And I will save your sons.

this is whatthus.
Isa 49:26 ‫וְהַאֲכַלְתִּ֤י אֶת־מוֹנַ֙יִךְ֙ אֶת־בְּשָׂרָ֔ם וְכֶעָסִ֖יס דָּמָ֣ם יִשְׁכָּר֑וּן וְיָדְע֣וּ כָל־בָּשָׂ֗ר כִּ֣י אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ מֽוֹשִׁיעֵ֔ךְ וְגֹאֲלֵ֖ךְ אֲבִ֥יר יַעֲקֹֽב׃ ס‬

And I will feed those who dispossess you with their own flesh,

And they will become drunk with their own blood,

As with new wine,

And all flesh will know

That I am the Lord,

Your saviour and your redeemer

– The mighty one of Jacob.”

Isa 50:1 ‫כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה אֵ֣י זֶ֠ה סֵ֣פֶר כְּרִית֤וּת אִמְּכֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שִׁלַּחְתִּ֔יהָ א֚וֹ מִ֣י מִנּוֹשַׁ֔י אֲשֶׁר־מָכַ֥רְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֖ם ל֑וֹ הֵ֤ן בַּעֲוֺנֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ נִמְכַּרְתֶּ֔ם וּבְפִשְׁעֵיכֶ֖ם שֻׁלְּחָ֥ה אִמְּכֶֽם׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“Where is the bill of divorce of your mother,

Whom I have sent away?

Or who of my creditors is it to whom I have sold you?

Look, it is for your iniquities that you were sold,

And for your transgressions

That your mother was sent away.

this is whatthus.
Isa 50:2 ‫מַדּ֨וּעַ בָּ֜אתִי וְאֵ֣ין אִ֗ישׁ קָרָֽאתִי֮ וְאֵ֣ין עוֹנֶה֒ הֲקָצ֨וֹר קָצְרָ֤ה יָדִי֙ מִפְּד֔וּת וְאִם־אֵֽין־בִּ֥י כֹ֖חַ לְהַצִּ֑יל הֵ֣ן בְּגַעֲרָתִ֞י אַחֲרִ֣יב יָ֗ם אָשִׂ֤ים נְהָרוֹת֙ מִדְבָּ֔ר תִּבְאַ֤שׁ דְּגָתָם֙ מֵאֵ֣ין מַ֔יִם וְתָמֹ֖ת בַּצָּמָֽא׃‬

Why is it that when I came,

There was not a single man?

That when I called,

There was no-one who answered?

Am I really incapable of redeeming?

Or do I not have the power to save?

Look, at my rebuke I dry up the sea;

I make rivers a desert,

And their fish stink for lack of water

And die of thirst.

am I really incapable ← is my hand really too short, with an infinitive absolute.
Isa 50:3 ‫אַלְבִּ֥ישׁ שָׁמַ֖יִם קַדְר֑וּת וְשַׂ֖ק אָשִׂ֥ים כְּסוּתָֽם׃ ס‬

I can clothe the heavens in obscurity

And make sackcloth their covering.”

Isa 50:4 ‫אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהֹוִ֗ה נָ֤תַן לִי֙ לְשׁ֣וֹן לִמּוּדִ֔ים לָדַ֛עַת לָע֥וּת אֶת־יָעֵ֖ף דָּבָ֑ר יָעִ֣יר ׀ בַּבֹּ֣קֶר בַּבֹּ֗קֶר יָעִ֥יר לִי֙ אֹ֔זֶן לִשְׁמֹ֖עַ כַּלִּמּוּדִֽים׃‬

“My Lord the Lord has given me a learned tongue,

To know how to help the weary with a word.

He awakens me from morning to morning;

He awakens my ear

To hear like the learned.

This verse and to the end of the chapter is spoken by the Messiah.

learned tongue ← tongue of taught (things), a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 50:5 ‫אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ פָּתַֽח־לִ֣י אֹ֔זֶן וְאָנֹכִ֖י לֹ֣א מָרִ֑יתִי אָח֖וֹר לֹ֥א נְסוּגֹֽתִי׃‬

My Lord the Lord has opened my ear,

And I have not rebelled;

I have not slid back.

Isa 50:6 ‫גֵּוִי֙ נָתַ֣תִּי לְמַכִּ֔ים וּלְחָיַ֖י לְמֹֽרְטִ֑ים פָּנַי֙ לֹ֣א הִסְתַּ֔רְתִּי מִכְּלִמּ֖וֹת וָרֹֽק׃‬

I have given my back to those who beat it,

And my cheeks to those who pluck the beard;

I have not hidden my face from ignominious treatment

And spittle.

ignominious treatment ← ignominies.
Isa 50:7 ‫וַאדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ יַֽעֲזָר־לִ֔י עַל־כֵּ֖ן לֹ֣א נִכְלָ֑מְתִּי עַל־כֵּ֞ן שַׂ֤מְתִּי פָנַי֙ כַּֽחַלָּמִ֔ישׁ וָאֵדַ֖ע כִּי־לֹ֥א אֵבֽוֹשׁ׃‬

And my Lord the Lord will help me,

Which is why I will not be held in contempt,

And why I have been resolute like flint,

And I know that I shall not be ashamed.

I have been resolute ← set my face. Compare Luke 9:51.
Isa 50:8 ‫קָרוֹב֙ מַצְדִּיקִ֔י מִֽי־יָרִ֥יב אִתִּ֖י נַ֣עַמְדָה יָּ֑חַד מִֽי־בַ֥עַל מִשְׁפָּטִ֖י יִגַּ֥שׁ אֵלָֽי׃‬

My justifier is near;

Who will contend with me?

Let us stand together.

Who is my prosecutor?

Let him approach me.

prosecutor ← owner of my legal case, i.e. of the case against me.
Isa 50:9 ‫הֵ֣ן אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ יַֽעֲזָר־לִ֔י מִי־ה֖וּא יַרְשִׁיעֵ֑נִי הֵ֤ן כֻּלָּם֙ כַּבֶּ֣גֶד יִבְל֔וּ עָ֖שׁ יֹאכְלֵֽם׃‬

Behold, my Lord the Lord will help me.

Who is it who can condemn me?

You will see that they will all become worn out like a garment;

A moth will consume them.

you will see that ← behold.
Isa 50:10 ‫מִ֤י בָכֶם֙ יְרֵ֣א יְהוָ֔ה שֹׁמֵ֖עַ בְּק֣וֹל עַבְדּ֑וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ הָלַ֣ךְ חֲשֵׁכִ֗ים וְאֵ֥ין נֹ֙גַהּ֙ ל֔וֹ יִבְטַח֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה וְיִשָּׁעֵ֖ן בֵּאלֹהָֽיו׃‬

Who among you fears the Lord,

In obeying his servant,

Who walks in darkness and has no light?

Let him trust in the name of the Lord

And rely on his God.

fears ← is a fearer of.

obeying ← hearing the voice of.

light ← shining.

rely ← lean.
Isa 50:11 ‫הֵ֧ן כֻּלְּכֶ֛ם קֹ֥דְחֵי אֵ֖שׁ מְאַזְּרֵ֣י זִיק֑וֹת לְכ֣וּ ׀ בְּא֣וּר אֶשְׁכֶ֗ם וּבְזִיקוֹת֙ בִּֽעַרְתֶּ֔ם מִיָּדִי֙ הָיְתָה־זֹּ֣את לָכֶ֔ם לְמַעֲצֵבָ֖ה תִּשְׁכָּבֽוּן׃ פ‬

Behold, all of you who kindle a fire,

Who arm yourselves with fiery darts,

Go into the glow of your fire,

And into the fiery darts you have ignited.

This came from my hand to you;

You will lie down in sorrow.”

arm ← gird.
Isa 51:1 ‫שִׁמְע֥וּ אֵלַ֛י רֹ֥דְפֵי צֶ֖דֶק מְבַקְשֵׁ֣י יְהוָ֑ה הַבִּ֙יטוּ֙ אֶל־צ֣וּר חֻצַּבְתֶּ֔ם וְאֶל־מַקֶּ֥בֶת בּ֖וֹר נֻקַּרְתֶּֽם׃‬

“Listen to me,

You who pursue justice,

You who seek the Lord.

Look at the rock from which you have been hewn,

And at the hollow of the pit

From which you have been quarried.

rock ... hollow: explained in the next verse.

hollow: or shaft, as of a mine.
Isa 51:2 ‫הַבִּ֙יטוּ֙ אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֣ם אֲבִיכֶ֔ם וְאֶל־שָׂרָ֖ה תְּחוֹלֶלְכֶ֑ם כִּי־אֶחָ֣ד קְרָאתִ֔יו וַאֲבָרְכֵ֖הוּ וְאַרְבֵּֽהוּ׃ ס‬

Look at Abraham your father,

And Sarah who gave birth to you,

For I called him as the only one,

And I will bless him and multiply him.

multiply him: i.e. multiply his descendants.
Isa 51:3 ‫כִּֽי־נִחַ֨ם יְהוָ֜ה צִיּ֗וֹן נִחַם֙ כָּל־חָרְבֹתֶ֔יהָ וַיָּ֤שֶׂם מִדְבָּרָהּ֙ כְּעֵ֔דֶן וְעַרְבָתָ֖הּ כְּגַן־יְהוָ֑ה שָׂשׂ֤וֹן וְשִׂמְחָה֙ יִמָּ֣צֵא בָ֔הּ תּוֹדָ֖ה וְק֥וֹל זִמְרָֽה׃ ס‬

For the Lord will comfort Zion;

He will comfort all her desolate places,

And he will make her desert like Eden,

And her arid tract like the Lord's garden.

Rejoicing and happiness will be found in her,

And thanksgiving and the sound of singing.

for the Lord will comfort Zion: compare Isa 14:1, Zech 1:17.
Isa 51:4 ‫הַקְשִׁ֤יבוּ אֵלַי֙ עַמִּ֔י וּלְאוּמִּ֖י אֵלַ֣י הַאֲזִ֑ינוּ כִּ֤י תוֹרָה֙ מֵאִתִּ֣י תֵצֵ֔א וּמִשְׁפָּטִ֔י לְא֥וֹר עַמִּ֖ים אַרְגִּֽיעַ׃‬

Listen to me, my people,

And hear me, my nation,

For the law will go out from me,

And I will make my judicature rest

As a light for the nations.

Isa 51:5 ‫קָר֤וֹב צִדְקִי֙ יָצָ֣א יִשְׁעִ֔י וּזְרֹעַ֖י עַמִּ֣ים יִשְׁפֹּ֑טוּ אֵלַי֙ אִיִּ֣ים יְקַוּ֔וּ וְאֶל־זְרֹעִ֖י יְיַחֵלֽוּן׃‬

My justice is near,

My salvation has gone out,

And my arms will judge nations.

The coastlands will put their hope in me,

And confide in my arm.

and my arms (etc.): the letters could be regrouped and re-pointed as וּזְרֹעִי ... יִשְׁפֹּט וְאֵלַי to read And my arm will judge ... And the coastland will put ....

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 51:6 ‫שְׂאוּ֩ לַשָּׁמַ֨יִם עֵֽינֵיכֶ֜ם וְֽהַבִּ֧יטוּ אֶל־הָאָ֣רֶץ מִתַּ֗חַת כִּֽי־שָׁמַ֜יִם כֶּעָשָׁ֤ן נִמְלָ֙חוּ֙ וְהָאָ֙רֶץ֙ כַּבֶּ֣גֶד תִּבְלֶ֔ה וְיֹשְׁבֶ֖יהָ כְּמוֹ־כֵ֣ן יְמוּת֑וּן וִישֽׁוּעָתִי֙ לְעוֹלָ֣ם תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה וְצִדְקָתִ֖י לֹ֥א תֵחָֽת׃ ס‬

Lift up your eyes to the heavens,

And look at the earth below,

For the heavens will pass away like smoke,

And the earth will wear out like a garment,

And its inhabitants will die in a similar way,

But my salvation will be age-abiding,

And my justice will not be thwarted.

a garment ← the garment, but the consonantal text would also support a garment. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.

in a similar way: as AV, [CB], [MT] (by virtue of the maqqef). [BDB] differs in its main option (as a gnat), root כנן.
Isa 51:7 ‫שִׁמְע֤וּ אֵלַי֙ יֹ֣דְעֵי צֶ֔דֶק עַ֖ם תּוֹרָתִ֣י בְלִבָּ֑ם אַל־תִּֽירְאוּ֙ חֶרְפַּ֣ת אֱנ֔וֹשׁ וּמִגִּדֻּפֹתָ֖ם אַל־תֵּחָֽתּוּ׃‬

Listen to me, you who know righteousness

You who are a people with my law in your heart –

Do not fear the reproach of man,

And do not be dismayed at their vilifications.

your heart ← their heart.
Isa 51:8 ‫כִּ֤י כַבֶּ֙גֶד֙ יֹאכְלֵ֣ם עָ֔שׁ וְכַצֶּ֖מֶר יֹאכְלֵ֣ם סָ֑ס וְצִדְקָתִי֙ לְעוֹלָ֣ם תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה וִישׁוּעָתִ֖י לְד֥וֹר דּוֹרִֽים׃ ס‬

For the moth will consume them like a garment,

And the larva will consume them like wool,

But my justice will be age-abiding,

As will my salvation

From generation to generation.

generation to generation ← generation of generations.
Isa 51:9 ‫עוּרִ֨י עוּרִ֤י לִבְשִׁי־עֹז֙ זְר֣וֹעַ יְהוָ֔ה ע֚וּרִי כִּ֣ימֵי קֶ֔דֶם דֹּר֖וֹת עוֹלָמִ֑ים הֲל֥וֹא אַתְּ־הִ֛יא הַמַּחְצֶ֥בֶת רַ֖הַב מְחוֹלֶ֥לֶת תַּנִּֽין׃‬

Wake up, wake up,

Put on strength,

O arm of the Lord.

Wake up as in former days,

In generations of past ages.

Was it not you who cut Rahab in pieces

Who wounded the land of crocodile?

Rahab ... crocodile: names for Egypt, where crocodiles were worshipped.
Isa 51:10 ‫הֲל֤וֹא אַתְּ־הִיא֙ הַמַּחֲרֶ֣בֶת יָ֔ם מֵ֖י תְּה֣וֹם רַבָּ֑ה הַשָּׂ֙מָה֙ מַֽעֲמַקֵּי־יָ֔ם דֶּ֖רֶךְ לַעֲבֹ֥ר גְּאוּלִֽים׃‬

Was it not you who dried up the sea

– The water of the mighty deep –

Who made the depths of the sea

A way for those ransomed to cross over?

Isa 51:11 ‫וּפְדוּיֵ֨י יְהוָ֜ה יְשׁוּב֗וּן וּבָ֤אוּ צִיּוֹן֙ בְּרִנָּ֔ה וְשִׂמְחַ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם עַל־רֹאשָׁ֑ם שָׂשׂ֤וֹן וְשִׂמְחָה֙ יַשִּׂיג֔וּן נָ֖סוּ יָג֥וֹן וַאֲנָחָֽה׃ ס‬

And the Lord's redeemed will return

And come to Zion in jubilation,

With age-abiding joy on their heads.

They will obtain happiness and joy,

Whereas sorrow and sighing will flee.

|| Isa 35:10.

heads ← head.

they will obtain happiness and joy: possibly intransitive here, happiness and joy will arrive, paralleling will flee.
Isa 51:12 ‫אָנֹכִ֧י אָנֹכִ֛י ה֖וּא מְנַחֶמְכֶ֑ם מִֽי־אַ֤תְּ וַתִּֽירְאִי֙ מֵאֱנ֣וֹשׁ יָמ֔וּת וּמִבֶּן־אָדָ֖ם חָצִ֥יר יִנָּתֵֽן׃‬

I, I myself am the one who comforts you.

Who are you to be afraid of mortal man,

Or of a son of Adam

Who will be laid under the grass?

mortal man ← man he will die.
Isa 51:13 ‫וַתִּשְׁכַּ֞ח יְהוָ֣ה עֹשֶׂ֗ךָ נוֹטֶ֣ה שָׁמַיִם֮ וְיֹסֵ֣ד אָרֶץ֒ וַתְּפַחֵ֨ד תָּמִ֜יד כָּל־הַיּ֗וֹם מִפְּנֵי֙ חֲמַ֣ת הַמֵּצִ֔יק כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר כּוֹנֵ֖ן לְהַשְׁחִ֑ית וְאַיֵּ֖ה חֲמַ֥ת הַמֵּצִֽיק׃‬

But you are forgetting the Lord your maker,

Who stretched out the heavens,

And who laid the foundations of the earth,

And you have been afraid continually,

All day long,

Of the fury of the oppressor,

Of one as he prepares to bring ruination.

But where is the fury of the oppressor?

Isa 51:14 ‫מִהַ֥ר צֹעֶ֖ה לְהִפָּתֵ֑חַ וְלֹא־יָמ֣וּת לַשַּׁ֔חַת וְלֹ֥א יֶחְסַ֖ר לַחְמֽוֹ׃‬

The exile hastens to be released

And not to die in the pit,

And not to have lack of food.

released ← loosed.

and not to have lack of food ← and his bread shall not be lacking. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
Isa 51:15 ‫וְאָֽנֹכִי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ רֹגַ֣ע הַיָּ֔ם וַיֶּהֱמ֖וּ גַּלָּ֑יו יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ׃‬

But I am the Lord your God,

Who stirs up the sea

So that its waves roar

– The Lord of hosts is his name.

Isa 51:16 ‫וָאָשִׂ֤ים דְּבָרַי֙ בְּפִ֔יךָ וּבְצֵ֥ל יָדִ֖י כִּסִּיתִ֑יךָ לִנְטֹ֤עַ שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְלִיסֹ֣ד אָ֔רֶץ וְלֵאמֹ֥ר לְצִיּ֖וֹן עַמִּי־אָֽתָּה׃ ס‬

And I will put my words in your mouth;

I will cover you with the shadow of my hand

So as to plant the heavens

And to found the earth,

And to say to Zion,

‘You are my people.’

Isa 51:17 ‫הִתְעוֹרְרִ֣י הִֽתְעוֹרְרִ֗י ק֚וּמִי יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁתִ֛ית מִיַּ֥ד יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־כּ֣וֹס חֲמָת֑וֹ אֶת־קֻבַּ֜עַת כּ֧וֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָ֛ה שָׁתִ֖ית מָצִֽית׃‬

Rouse yourself, rouse yourself, arise, Jerusalem,

You who have drunk from the hand of the Lord

The cup of his fury.

You have drunk;

You have wrung out the goblet

– The cup of reeling.

Isa 51:18 ‫אֵין־מְנַהֵ֣ל לָ֔הּ מִכָּל־בָּנִ֖ים יָלָ֑דָה וְאֵ֤ין מַחֲזִיק֙ בְּיָדָ֔הּ מִכָּל־בָּנִ֖ים גִּדֵּֽלָה׃‬

There is no-one from all the sons she has borne

Leading her,

And there is no-one out of all the sons she has brought up

Holding her hand.

Isa 51:19 ‫שְׁתַּ֤יִם הֵ֙נָּה֙ קֹֽרְאֹתַ֔יִךְ מִ֖י יָנ֣וּד לָ֑ךְ הַשֹּׁ֧ד וְהַשֶּׁ֛בֶר וְהָרָעָ֥ב וְהַחֶ֖רֶב מִ֥י אֲנַחֲמֵֽךְ׃‬

There are two things which call out to you:

Who will console you?

Regarding the devastation, the ruination, the hunger and the sword,

Who says, ‘I will comfort you’?

things which call out to you ← your callers. We take the root as Iקָרָא, not, as [AnLx], AV קָרָה / IIקָרָא, befall, but it is also possible. So AV differs.

who: AV differs (by whom).
Isa 51:20 ‫בָּנַ֜יִךְ עֻלְּפ֥וּ שָׁכְב֛וּ בְּרֹ֥אשׁ כָּל־חוּצ֖וֹת כְּת֣וֹא מִכְמָ֑ר הַֽמְלֵאִ֥ים חֲמַת־יְהוָ֖ה גַּעֲרַ֥ת אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃‬

Your sons have fainted;

They lie at the head of all the streets,

Like an oryx in a trap.

They are full of the Lord's fury

– A rebuke from your God.

rebuke from ← rebuke of, a subjective genitive (God rebukes).
Isa 51:21 ‫לָכֵ֛ן שִׁמְעִי־נָ֥א זֹ֖את עֲנִיָּ֑ה וּשְׁכֻרַ֖ת וְלֹ֥א מִיָּֽיִן׃ ס‬

So then, do hear this,

You afflicted one

– Drunk,

But not from wine.”

Isa 51:22 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר אֲדֹנַ֣יִךְ יְהוָ֗ה וֵאלֹהַ֙יִךְ֙ יָרִ֣יב עַמּ֔וֹ הִנֵּ֥ה לָקַ֛חְתִּי מִיָּדֵ֖ךְ אֶת־כּ֣וֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָ֑ה אֶת־קֻבַּ֙עַת֙ כּ֣וֹס חֲמָתִ֔י לֹא־תוֹסִ֥יפִי לִשְׁתּוֹתָ֖הּ עֽוֹד׃‬

This is what your Lord the Lord and your God,

Who will contend for his people, says:

“Look, I have taken from your hand the cup of reeling,

The goblet – the cup of my fury.

You will not drink it any more.

this is whatthus.
Isa 51:23 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֙יהָ֙ בְּיַד־מוֹגַ֔יִךְ אֲשֶׁר־אָמְר֥וּ לְנַפְשֵׁ֖ךְ שְׁחִ֣י וְנַעֲבֹ֑רָה וַתָּשִׂ֤ימִי כָאָ֙רֶץ֙ גֵּוֵ֔ךְ וְכַח֖וּץ לַעֹבְרִֽים׃ ס‬

And I will put it in the hand

Of those who afflict you,

Who have said to you personally,

‘Bow down so that we may pass.’

And you positioned your back like the ground,

And like the street for passers-by to walk on.”

you personally ← your soul.
Isa 52:1 ‫עוּרִ֥י עוּרִ֛י לִבְשִׁ֥י עֻזֵּ֖ךְ צִיּ֑וֹן לִבְשִׁ֣י ׀ בִּגְדֵ֣י תִפְאַרְתֵּ֗ךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ עִ֣יר הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ כִּ֣י לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֛יף יָבֹא־בָ֥ךְ ע֖וֹד עָרֵ֥ל וְטָמֵֽא׃‬

Wake up, wake up,

Put on your strength, O Zion;

Put on your splendid clothes, O Jerusalem,

You holy city,

For the uncircumcised and the unclean

Will no longer come into you.

your splendid clothes ... holy city ← the clothes of your splendour ... city of holiness, Hebraic genitives.
Isa 52:2 ‫הִתְנַעֲרִ֧י מֵעָפָ֛ר ק֥וּמִי שְּׁבִ֖י יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם *התפתחו **הִֽתְפַּתְּחִי֙ מוֹסְרֵ֣י צַוָּארֵ֔ךְ שְׁבִיָּ֖ה בַּת־צִיּֽוֹן׃ ס‬

Shake the dust off yourself,

Arise and sit, O Jerusalem;

{Q: Loose yourself from the bonds around your neck} [K: The bonds around your neck have become loose],

O captive daughter of Zion.

shake the dust off yourself ← shake yourself from the dust.

bonds around ← bonds of. Wider use of the construct state.
Isa 52:3 ‫כִּֽי־כֹה֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה חִנָּ֖ם נִמְכַּרְתֶּ֑ם וְלֹ֥א בְכֶ֖סֶף תִּגָּאֵֽלוּ׃‬

For this is what the Lord says:

“You were sold for nothing,

And you will be redeemed

Without money.”

this is whatthus.
Isa 52:4 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה מִצְרַ֛יִם יָֽרַד־עַמִּ֥י בָרִֽאשֹׁנָ֖ה לָג֣וּר שָׁ֑ם וְאַשּׁ֖וּר בְּאֶ֥פֶס עֲשָׁקֽוֹ׃‬

For this is what my Lord the Lord says:

In time past,

My people went down to Egypt

To live there,

And Assyria oppressed them for no reason,

this is whatthus.

in time past ← in the first (time).

for no reasonfor nothingness.
Isa 52:5 ‫וְעַתָּ֤ה *מי־*לי־**מַה־**לִּי־פֹה֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה כִּֽי־לֻקַּ֥ח עַמִּ֖י חִנָּ֑ם *משלו **מֹשְׁלָ֤יו יְהֵילִ֙ילוּ֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וְתָמִ֥יד כָּל־הַיּ֖וֹם שְׁמִ֥י מִנֹּאָֽץ׃‬

And now {K: who} [Q: what] do I have here?

Says the Lord,

For my people were taken undeservedly.

Those ruling them make them howl,

Says the Lord,

And my name is continuously despised

All day long.

those ruling them: the ketiv has a singular object suffix, as a collective reference to my people.

Rom 2:24.
Isa 52:6 ‫לָכֵ֛ן יֵדַ֥ע עַמִּ֖י שְׁמִ֑י לָכֵן֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כִּֽי־אֲנִי־ה֥וּא הַֽמְדַבֵּ֖ר הִנֵּֽנִי׃‬

This is why my people will know my name;

This is why they will know on that day

That I am he who speaks and says,

Here I am.’ ”

here I ambehold me.
Isa 52:7 ‫מַה־נָּאו֨וּ עַל־הֶהָרִ֜ים רַגְלֵ֣י מְבַשֵּׂ֗ר מַשְׁמִ֧יעַ שָׁל֛וֹם מְבַשֵּׂ֥ר ט֖וֹב מַשְׁמִ֣יעַ יְשׁוּעָ֑ה אֹמֵ֥ר לְצִיּ֖וֹן מָלַ֥ךְ אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃‬

How becoming on the mountains

Are the feet of him who brings good news,

Who proclaims peace,

Who brings good news of well-being,

Who proclaims salvation,

Who says to Zion,

“Your God reigns.”

Rom 10:15. Compare also Nah 2:1 (Nah 1:15AV).
Isa 52:8 ‫ק֥וֹל צֹפַ֛יִךְ נָ֥שְׂאוּ ק֖וֹל יַחְדָּ֣ו יְרַנֵּ֑נוּ כִּ֣י עַ֤יִן בְּעַ֙יִן֙ יִרְא֔וּ בְּשׁ֥וּב יְהוָ֖ה צִיּֽוֹן׃‬

There is the voice of your watchmen.

They raise their voice;

They are jubilant together,

For they will see face to face

When the Lord returns to Zion.

face to face ← eye to eye, but not in the modern English sense of agreeing with each other.

returns: AV differs (shall bring again), reading as if hiphil.
Isa 52:9 ‫פִּצְח֤וּ רַנְּנוּ֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו חָרְב֖וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם כִּֽי־נִחַ֤ם יְהוָה֙ עַמּ֔וֹ גָּאַ֖ל יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

Break out into singing,

Be jubilant together,

You desolate areas of Jerusalem,

For the Lord has comforted his people;

He has redeemed Jerusalem.

Isa 52:10 ‫חָשַׂ֤ף יְהוָה֙ אֶת־זְר֣וֹעַ קָדְשׁ֔וֹ לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְרָאוּ֙ כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָ֔רֶץ אֵ֖ת יְשׁוּעַ֥ת אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ׃ ס‬

The Lord has made his holy arm bare

In the sight of all the nations,

And all the ends of the earth will see

The salvation of our God.

his holy arm ← the arm of his holiness, a Hebraic genitive.

all the ends of the earth (etc.): compare Ps 98:3.
Isa 52:11 ‫ס֤וּרוּ ס֙וּרוּ֙ צְא֣וּ מִשָּׁ֔ם טָמֵ֖א אַל־תִּגָּ֑עוּ צְא֣וּ מִתּוֹכָ֔הּ הִבָּ֕רוּ נֹשְׂאֵ֖י כְּלֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬

Depart, depart,

Get out of there;

Do not touch any unclean thing.

Go away from her,

Be purified,

You who carry the Lord's equipment.

2 Cor 6:17, Rev 18:4.

go away from her ← go out from her midst.
Isa 52:12 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֤א בְחִפָּזוֹן֙ תֵּצֵ֔אוּ וּבִמְנוּסָ֖ה לֹ֣א תֵלֵכ֑וּן כִּֽי־הֹלֵ֤ךְ לִפְנֵיכֶם֙ יְהוָ֔ה וּמְאַסִּפְכֶ֖ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬

For you will not go out in haste,

And you will not go in flight,

For the Lord will go before you,

And the God of Israel will gather you up at the rear.

gather you up at the rear: the verb has connotations of at the rear.
Isa 52:13 ‫הִנֵּ֥ה יַשְׂכִּ֖יל עַבְדִּ֑י יָר֧וּם וְנִשָּׂ֛א וְגָבַ֖הּ מְאֹֽד׃‬

Behold, my servant will act prudently;

He will be exalted

And extolled,

And he will be very high.

Isa 52:14 ‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר שָׁמְמ֤וּ עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ רַבִּ֔ים כֵּן־מִשְׁחַ֥ת מֵאִ֖ישׁ מַרְאֵ֑הוּ וְתֹאֲר֖וֹ מִבְּנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃‬

Just as many were astonished at you

– Such was the disfigurement of his appearance,

More than that of any man,

And of his looks,

More than that of any of the sons of Adam –

looks ← form.
Isa 52:15 ‫כֵּ֤ן יַזֶּה֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים עָלָ֛יו יִקְפְּצ֥וּ מְלָכִ֖ים פִּיהֶ֑ם כִּ֠י אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־סֻפַּ֤ר לָהֶם֙ רָא֔וּ וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־שָׁמְע֖וּ הִתְבּוֹנָֽנוּ׃‬

So he will sprinkle many nations;

Kings will shut their mouths at him,

For they will see what was never told them,

And they will contemplate

What they had never heard before.

Rom 15:21.

sprinkle: the word is common in Leviticus for sprinkling blood for atonement.

never (2x)not.
Isa 53:1 ‫מִ֥י הֶאֱמִ֖ין לִשְׁמֻעָתֵ֑נוּ וּזְר֥וֹעַ יְהוָ֖ה עַל־מִ֥י נִגְלָֽתָה׃‬

Who has believed our account,

And to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?

John 12:38, Rom 10:16.

account ← thing heard.
Isa 53:2 ‫וַיַּ֨עַל כַּיּוֹנֵ֜ק לְפָנָ֗יו וְכַשֹּׁ֙רֶשׁ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ צִיָּ֔ה לֹא־תֹ֥אַר ל֖וֹ וְלֹ֣א הָדָ֑ר וְנִרְאֵ֥הוּ וְלֹֽא־מַרְאֶ֖ה וְנֶחְמְדֵֽהוּ׃‬

For he grew up before him like a shoot,

And like a root from arid ground.

He had no handsome form or splendour,

And when we saw him,

It was not a sight

That we should desire him.

shoot ← sucker, as in the botanical sense, but in Hebrew also from the same root as to suck.

arid ground ← land of aridity, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 53:3 ‫נִבְזֶה֙ וַחֲדַ֣ל אִישִׁ֔ים אִ֥ישׁ מַכְאֹב֖וֹת וִיד֣וּעַ חֹ֑לִי וּכְמַסְתֵּ֤ר פָּנִים֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ נִבְזֶ֖ה וְלֹ֥א חֲשַׁבְנֻֽהוּ׃‬

He was despised and repudiated by men

– A man of sorrows and acquainted with affliction –

While we were like a person hiding his face from him.

He was despised,

And we did not esteem him.

affliction ← illness.

from him: the same form as from us, compare [YLT], but the context militates for from him.
Isa 53:4 ‫אָכֵ֤ן חֳלָיֵ֙נוּ֙ ה֣וּא נָשָׂ֔א וּמַכְאֹבֵ֖ינוּ סְבָלָ֑ם וַאֲנַ֣חְנוּ חֲשַׁבְנֻ֔הוּ נָג֛וּעַ מֻכֵּ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים וּמְעֻנֶּֽה׃‬

Surely he has borne our ailments

And taken the weight of our sorrows,

But we considered him stricken

– Struck by God and afflicted.

Matt 8:17. Alluded to in 1 Pet 2:24.

sorrows: or pains.
Isa 53:5 ‫וְהוּא֙ מְחֹלָ֣ל מִפְּשָׁעֵ֔נוּ מְדֻכָּ֖א מֵעֲוֺנֹתֵ֑ינוּ מוּסַ֤ר שְׁלוֹמֵ֙נוּ֙ עָלָ֔יו וּבַחֲבֻרָת֖וֹ נִרְפָּא־לָֽנוּ׃‬

He was wounded for our transgressions;

He was bruised for our iniquities.

The punishment for our peace was on him,

And by his weals

Our healing came.

1 Pet 2:24.

wounded: or pierced, but not the same word as in Zech 12:10.

our healing came ← it was healed for us.
Isa 53:6 ‫כֻּלָּ֙נוּ֙ כַּצֹּ֣אן תָּעִ֔ינוּ אִ֥ישׁ לְדַרְכּ֖וֹ פָּנִ֑ינוּ וַֽיהוָה֙ הִפְגִּ֣יעַ בּ֔וֹ אֵ֖ת עֲוֺ֥ן כֻּלָּֽנוּ׃‬

We like sheep have all gone astray;

We have each turned our own way.

But the Lord has laid on him

The iniquity of us all.

1 Pet 2:25.

our own way ← his (own) way.
Isa 53:7 ‫נִגַּ֨שׂ וְה֣וּא נַעֲנֶה֮ וְלֹ֣א יִפְתַּח־פִּיו֒ כַּשֶּׂה֙ לַטֶּ֣בַח יוּבָ֔ל וּכְרָחֵ֕ל לִפְנֵ֥י גֹזְזֶ֖יהָ נֶאֱלָ֑מָה וְלֹ֥א יִפְתַּ֖ח פִּֽיו׃‬

He was oppressed, and he was afflicted,

But he did not open his mouth.

He was led like a lamb to the slaughter,

And as a ewe before its shearers is silent

He did not open his mouth.

Acts 8:32. Alluded to in 1 Pet 2:23.
Isa 53:8 ‫מֵעֹ֤צֶר וּמִמִּשְׁפָּט֙ לֻקָּ֔ח וְאֶת־דּוֹר֖וֹ מִ֣י יְשׂוֹחֵ֑חַ כִּ֤י נִגְזַר֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֔ים מִפֶּ֥שַׁע עַמִּ֖י נֶ֥גַע לָֽמוֹ׃‬

He was taken under compulsion and by sentencing,

And who can describe what his posterity is?

For he was cut off from the land of the living;

For the transgression of my people

He was struck down.

Acts 8:33.

under compulsion ← from retention.

posterity ← generation.

he was struck down ← a strike on him.
Isa 53:9 ‫וַיִּתֵּ֤ן אֶת־רְשָׁעִים֙ קִבְר֔וֹ וְאֶת־עָשִׁ֖יר בְּמֹתָ֑יו עַ֚ל לֹא־חָמָ֣ס עָשָׂ֔ה וְלֹ֥א מִרְמָ֖ה בְּפִֽיו׃‬

And his grave was appointed with the wicked,

But with a rich man in his death,

Because he did no violence,

And there was no deceit in his mouth.

1 Pet 2:22.

his grave was appointed ← one / he appointed his grave. Avoidance of the passive. But possibly he (the Lord, or even the servant) appointed his grave.
Isa 53:10 ‫וַיהוָ֞ה חָפֵ֤ץ דַּכְּאוֹ֙ הֶֽחֱלִ֔י אִם־תָּשִׂ֤ים אָשָׁם֙ נַפְשׁ֔וֹ יִרְאֶ֥ה זֶ֖רַע יַאֲרִ֣יךְ יָמִ֑ים וְחֵ֥פֶץ יְהוָ֖ה בְּיָד֥וֹ יִצְלָֽח׃‬

Yet the Lord was pleased to bruise him,

And to ravage him.

When his life makes a guilt-offering,

He will see his seed,

He will prolong his days,

And the pleasure of the Lord

Will prosper in his hand.

ravage ← make sick.

life ← soul.

when his life makes a guilt-offering: or, ≈ AV, when you make his life a guilt-offering. But there are no other sentences with “you” as the subject in this chapter. So AV differs.
Isa 53:11 ‫מֵעֲמַ֤ל נַפְשׁוֹ֙ יִרְאֶ֣ה יִשְׂבָּ֔ע בְּדַעְתּ֗וֹ יַצְדִּ֥יק צַדִּ֛יק עַבְדִּ֖י לָֽרַבִּ֑ים וַעֲוֺנֹתָ֖ם ה֥וּא יִסְבֹּֽל׃‬

He will see the result of his inward toil;

He will be satisfied.

My righteous servant will justify many by his knowledge,

And he will bear their iniquities.

his inward toil ← the toil of his soul.

my righteous servant: a rare, but similar, construction in Isa 33:21, Ps 11:7.
Isa 53:12 ‫לָכֵ֞ן אֲחַלֶּק־ל֣וֹ בָרַבִּ֗ים וְאֶת־עֲצוּמִים֮ יְחַלֵּ֣ק שָׁלָל֒ תַּ֗חַת אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶעֱרָ֤ה לַמָּ֙וֶת֙ נַפְשׁ֔וֹ וְאֶת־פֹּשְׁעִ֖ים נִמְנָ֑ה וְהוּא֙ חֵטְא־רַבִּ֣ים נָשָׂ֔א וְלַפֹּשְׁעִ֖ים יַפְגִּֽיעַ׃ ס‬

That is why I will apportion him among the great,

And he will share spoil with the mighty,

Because he poured out his being to death,

And he was counted with the transgressors,

And he bore the sin of many,

And he pleaded for the transgressors.

Mark 15:28, Luke 22:37.

being ← soul.

transgressors ... transgressors: otiose, but see Gen 12:5.

pleaded: or will plead, but we take it as contemporaneous with the preceding verb.
Isa 54:1 ‫רָנִּ֥י עֲקָרָ֖ה לֹ֣א יָלָ֑דָה פִּצְחִ֨י רִנָּ֤ה וְצַהֲלִי֙ לֹא־חָ֔לָה כִּֽי־רַבִּ֧ים בְּֽנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָ֛ה מִבְּנֵ֥י בְעוּלָ֖ה אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬

“Be jubilant, you who are barren

And have not given birth.

Break out into jubilation,

And shout for joy,

You who have not been through labour,

For the sons of her who was desolate will be more

Than the sons of her who is married,

Says the Lord.

Gal 4:27.

shout for joy ← neigh. Compare Isa 10:30.
Isa 54:2 ‫הַרְחִ֣יבִי ׀ מְק֣וֹם אָהֳלֵ֗ךְ וִירִיע֧וֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַ֛יִךְ יַטּ֖וּ אַל־תַּחְשֹׂ֑כִי הַאֲרִ֙יכִי֙ מֵֽיתָרַ֔יִךְ וִיתֵדֹתַ֖יִךְ חַזֵּֽקִי׃‬

Make a wide open space in your tent,

And let the curtains of your abodes be stretched.

Do not hold back;

Lengthen your guylines

And strengthen your pegs.

The verbal forms are feminine singular, so referring to, e.g. Jerusalem.

let the curtains ... be stretched ← let them stretch the curtains. Avoidance of the passive.
Isa 54:3 ‫כִּי־יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹ֖אול תִּפְרֹ֑צִי וְזַרְעֵךְ֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם יִירָ֔שׁ וְעָרִ֥ים נְשַׁמּ֖וֹת יוֹשִֽׁיבוּ׃‬

For you will spread out to the right and to the left,

And your seed will dispossess nations,

And they will make desolate places habitable.

dispossess: or inherit.
Isa 54:4 ‫אַל־תִּֽירְאִי֙ כִּי־לֹ֣א תֵב֔וֹשִׁי וְאַל־תִּכָּלְמִ֖י כִּ֣י לֹ֣א תַחְפִּ֑ירִי כִּ֣י בֹ֤שֶׁת עֲלוּמַ֙יִךְ֙ תִּשְׁכָּ֔חִי וְחֶרְפַּ֥ת אַלְמְנוּתַ֖יִךְ לֹ֥א תִזְכְּרִי־עֽוֹד׃‬

Do not fear, for you will not be ashamed,

And you will not suffer ignominy,

For you will not come into disrepute,

And you will forget the shame of your youth,

And you will no longer remember

The reproach of your widowhood.

Isa 54:5 ‫כִּ֤י בֹעֲלַ֙יִךְ֙ עֹשַׂ֔יִךְ יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמ֑וֹ וְגֹֽאֲלֵךְ֙ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֱלֹהֵ֥י כָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ יִקָּרֵֽא׃‬

For your husband is your maker

– The Lord of hosts is his name –

And your redeemer is the holy one of Israel.

He will be called

The God of all the earth.

Isa 54:6 ‫כִּֽי־כְאִשָּׁ֧ה עֲזוּבָ֛ה וַעֲצ֥וּבַת ר֖וּחַ קְרָאָ֣ךְ יְהוָ֑ה וְאֵ֧שֶׁת נְעוּרִ֛ים כִּ֥י תִמָּאֵ֖ס אָמַ֥ר אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃‬

For the Lord has called you

As a woman who has been deserted,

And who is grieved in spirit,

And as a youthful wife

– For you were rejected,

Says your God.

grieved in ← grieved of.

youthful wife ← wife of youth, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 54:7 ‫בְּרֶ֥גַע קָטֹ֖ן עֲזַבְתִּ֑יךְ וּבְרַחֲמִ֥ים גְּדֹלִ֖ים אֲקַבְּצֵֽךְ׃‬

For a short while I left you,

But I will gather you

With great tender affection.

Isa 54:8 ‫בְּשֶׁ֣צֶף קֶ֗צֶף הִסְתַּ֨רְתִּי פָנַ֥י רֶ֙גַע֙ מִמֵּ֔ךְ וּבְחֶ֥סֶד עוֹלָ֖ם רִֽחַמְתִּ֑יךְ אָמַ֥ר גֹּאֲלֵ֖ךְ יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

In a surge of wrath

I hid my face from you for a while,

But I will have compassion on you

With age-abiding kindness,

Says your redeemer,

The Lord.

Isa 54:9 ‫כִּי־מֵ֥י נֹ֙חַ֙ זֹ֣את לִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְׁבַּ֗עְתִּי מֵעֲבֹ֥ר מֵי־נֹ֛חַ ע֖וֹד עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ כֵּ֥ן נִשְׁבַּ֛עְתִּי מִקְּצֹ֥ף עָלַ֖יִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּֽךְ׃‬

For this is like Noah's waters to me,

About which I swore

That Noah's waters would no longer pass over the earth.

Likewise, I have sworn

Not to be angry with you

Nor to rebuke you.

not to be angry with you (etc.): i.e. when the time for this comes.
Isa 54:10 ‫כִּ֤י הֶֽהָרִים֙ יָמ֔וּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָע֖וֹת תְּמוּטֶ֑נָה וְחַסְדִּ֞י מֵאִתֵּ֣ךְ לֹֽא־יָמ֗וּשׁ וּבְרִ֤ית שְׁלוֹמִי֙ לֹ֣א תָמ֔וּט אָמַ֥ר מְרַחֲמֵ֖ךְ יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

For the mountains will retreat,

And the hills will totter,

But my kindness will not retreat from you,

And my covenant of peace will not totter,

Says the Lord,

Who has mercy on you.

but: adversative use of the vav.
Isa 54:11 ‫עֲנִיָּ֥ה סֹעֲרָ֖ה לֹ֣א נֻחָ֑מָה הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֜י מַרְבִּ֤יץ בַּפּוּךְ֙ אֲבָנַ֔יִךְ וִיסַדְתִּ֖יךְ בַּסַּפִּירִֽים׃‬

Poor, tossed about,

And not comforted as you are,

I am about to set your stones,

In dark surround,

And I will give you foundations of sapphires.

I am about to ← behold me.

in dark surround ← in antimony, or in eye shadow, but here probably a dark mineral.
Isa 54:12 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י כַּֽדְכֹד֙ שִׁמְשֹׁתַ֔יִךְ וּשְׁעָרַ֖יִךְ לְאַבְנֵ֣י אֶקְדָּ֑ח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵ֖ךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵֽפֶץ׃‬

And I will make your windows of rubies,

And your gates of garnet,

And all your border

Of attractive gemstones.

attractive gemstones ← stones of delight, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 54:13 ‫וְכָל־בָּנַ֖יִךְ לִמּוּדֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וְרַ֖ב שְׁל֥וֹם בָּנָֽיִךְ׃‬

And all your sons will be the Lord's disciples,

And the peace of your sons

Will be great.

John 6:45.

disciples: perhaps, having learnt, scholars.
Isa 54:14 ‫בִּצְדָקָ֖ה תִּכּוֹנָ֑נִי רַחֲקִ֤י מֵעֹ֙שֶׁק֙ כִּֽי־לֹ֣א תִירָ֔אִי וּמִ֨מְּחִתָּ֔ה כִּ֥י לֹֽא־תִקְרַ֖ב אֵלָֽיִךְ׃‬

You will be established in righteousness;

You will certainly be far from oppression,

For you will not fear,

And you will be far from terror,

For it will not come near you.

you will certainly be far from oppression: an imperative, expressing distinct assurance; see [Ges-HG] §110c.
Isa 54:15 ‫הֵ֣ן גּ֥וֹר יָג֛וּר אֶ֖פֶס מֵֽאוֹתִ֑י מִי־גָ֥ר אִתָּ֖ךְ עָלַ֥יִךְ יִפּֽוֹל׃‬

Behold, no-one at all will dwell with you

Unless it is authorized by my sign;

He who has dwelt with you

Would attack you.

no-one at all will dwell: infinitive absolute.

The AV differs, but it is also plausible. The verse is difficult because of the ambiguity of גּוּר (dwell or gather or attack), and other words.
Isa 54:16 ‫*הן **הִנֵּ֤ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ בָּרָ֣אתִי חָרָ֔שׁ נֹפֵ֙חַ֙ בְּאֵ֣שׁ פֶּחָ֔ם וּמוֹצִ֥יא כְלִ֖י לְמַעֲשֵׂ֑הוּ וְאָנֹכִ֛י בָּרָ֥אתִי מַשְׁחִ֖ית לְחַבֵּֽל׃‬

Behold, I created the craftsman,

Who puffs on the coal fire

And produces an instrument for his work.

And I created the ruiner

To lay waste.

behold: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

coal fire ← fire of coals.

an instrument: or an object, or a weapon.

for his work: or by his work.
Isa 54:17 ‫כָּל־כְּלִ֞י יוּצַ֤ר עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ לֹ֣א יִצְלָ֔ח וְכָל־לָשׁ֛וֹן תָּֽקוּם־אִתָּ֥ךְ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט תַּרְשִׁ֑יעִי זֹ֡את נַחֲלַת֩ עַבְדֵ֨י יְהוָ֧ה וְצִדְקָתָ֛ם מֵאִתִּ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

No weapon produced against you will be successful,

And you will condemn every tongue which confronts you in law.

This is the inheritance of the Lord's servants,

Whose righteousness comes from me”,

Says the Lord.

confronts ← rises.

law ← judgment, justice.
Isa 55:1 ‫ה֤וֹי כָּל־צָמֵא֙ לְכ֣וּ לַמַּ֔יִם וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽין־ל֖וֹ כָּ֑סֶף לְכ֤וּ שִׁבְרוּ֙ וֶֽאֱכֹ֔לוּ וּלְכ֣וּ שִׁבְר֗וּ בְּלוֹא־כֶ֛סֶף וּבְל֥וֹא מְחִ֖יר יַ֥יִן וְחָלָֽב׃‬

“Hey, everyone who is thirsty,

Come to the water,

Including him who has no money.

Come and buy something, and eat,

And come and buy wine and milk,

Without money and without a price.

Rev 21:6, Rev 22:17; John 7:38 (allusion).

buy (2x)broker.
Isa 55:2 ‫לָ֤מָּה תִשְׁקְלוּ־כֶ֙סֶף֙ בְּֽלוֹא־לֶ֔חֶם וִיגִיעֲכֶ֖ם בְּל֣וֹא לְשָׂבְעָ֑ה שִׁמְע֨וּ שָׁמ֤וֹעַ אֵלַי֙ וְאִכְלוּ־ט֔וֹב וְתִתְעַנַּ֥ג בַּדֶּ֖שֶׁן נַפְשְׁכֶֽם׃‬

Why do you weigh out money

For what is not bread,

And your hard-earned wealth

For what does not satisfy?

Listen carefully to me,

And eat what is good,

And let your being delight itself

In fatness.

listen carefully: infinitive absolute.

being ← soul.
Isa 55:3 ‫הַטּ֤וּ אָזְנְכֶם֙ וּלְכ֣וּ אֵלַ֔י שִׁמְע֖וּ וּתְחִ֣י נַפְשְׁכֶ֑ם וְאֶכְרְתָ֤ה לָכֶם֙ בְּרִ֣ית עוֹלָ֔ם חַֽסְדֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד הַנֶּאֱמָנִֽים׃‬

Incline your ears and come to me.

Listen, and let yourself live,

And I will make an age-abiding covenant for you

The faithful kindnesses of David.

Acts 13:34.

ears ← ear. Singular in Hebrew because one ear per person to be inclined. Compare Ezek 33:26.

yourself ← your soul.

make ← cut.
Isa 55:4 ‫הֵ֛ן עֵ֥ד לְאוּמִּ֖ים נְתַתִּ֑יו נָגִ֥יד וּמְצַוֵּ֖ה לְאֻמִּֽים׃‬

Behold, I have made him

A witness to the nations

– A leader and a commander

For the nations.

nations ... nations: otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Isa 55:5 ‫הֵ֣ן גּ֤וֹי לֹֽא־תֵדַע֙ תִּקְרָ֔א וְג֥וֹי לֹֽא־יְדָע֖וּךָ אֵלֶ֣יךָ יָר֑וּצוּ לְמַ֙עַן֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְלִקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כִּ֥י פֵאֲרָֽךְ׃ ס‬

Behold, you will call on a nation

Which you did not know,

And a nation which did not know you

Will run to you

For the sake of the Lord your God,

And for the holy one of Israel,

For he has adorned you.

Isa 55:6 ‫דִּרְשׁ֥וּ יְהוָ֖ה בְּהִמָּצְא֑וֹ קְרָאֻ֖הוּ בִּֽהְיוֹת֥וֹ קָרֽוֹב׃‬

Seek the Lord

While he is to be found;

Call upon him

While he is near.

Isa 55:7 ‫יַעֲזֹ֤ב רָשָׁע֙ דַּרְכּ֔וֹ וְאִ֥ישׁ אָ֖וֶן מַחְשְׁבֹתָ֑יו וְיָשֹׁ֤ב אֶל־יְהוָה֙ וִֽירַחֲמֵ֔הוּ וְאֶל־אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ כִּֽי־יַרְבֶּ֥ה לִסְלֽוֹחַ׃‬

Let the wicked abandon his way,

And the iniquitous man his designs,

And let him return to the Lord,

Who will show him mercy,

And to our God,

For he is very forward to forgive.

iniquitous man ← man of iniquity, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 55:8 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֤א מַחְשְׁבוֹתַי֙ מַחְשְׁב֣וֹתֵיכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א דַרְכֵיכֶ֖ם דְּרָכָ֑י נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָֽה׃‬

For my thoughts are not your thoughts,

And your ways are not my ways,

Says the Lord.

Isa 55:9 ‫כִּֽי־גָבְה֥וּ שָׁמַ֖יִם מֵאָ֑רֶץ כֵּ֣ן גָּבְה֤וּ דְרָכַי֙ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶ֔ם וּמַחְשְׁבֹתַ֖י מִמַּחְשְׁבֹתֵיכֶֽם׃‬

For as the heavens are higher than the earth,

So my ways are higher than your ways,

And my thoughts than your thoughts.

Isa 55:10 ‫כִּ֡י כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵרֵד֩ הַגֶּ֨שֶׁם וְהַשֶּׁ֜לֶג מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם וְשָׁ֙מָּה֙ לֹ֣א יָשׁ֔וּב כִּ֚י אִם־הִרְוָ֣ה אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהוֹלִידָ֖הּ וְהִצְמִיחָ֑הּ וְנָ֤תַן זֶ֙רַע֙ לַזֹּרֵ֔עַ וְלֶ֖חֶם לָאֹכֵֽל׃‬

For as the rain and the snow fall from the heavens

And do not return there,

But saturate the land

And cause it to be fertile,

And give growth and yield seed for the sower,

And bread for him who eats,

2 Cor 9:10.

to be fertile ← to beget, but also, to make beget.
Isa 55:11 ‫כֵּ֣ן יִֽהְיֶ֤ה דְבָרִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵצֵ֣א מִפִּ֔י לֹֽא־יָשׁ֥וּב אֵלַ֖י רֵיקָ֑ם כִּ֤י אִם־עָשָׂה֙ אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָפַ֔צְתִּי וְהִצְלִ֖יחַ אֲשֶׁ֥ר שְׁלַחְתִּֽיו׃‬

So my word which proceeds from my mouth is;

It will not return to me in vain,

But rather it will do what I have willed,

And it will be successful

Where I have sent it.

in vain ← emptily.
Isa 55:12 ‫כִּֽי־בְשִׂמְחָ֣ה תֵצֵ֔אוּ וּבְשָׁל֖וֹם תּֽוּבָל֑וּן הֶהָרִ֣ים וְהַגְּבָע֗וֹת יִפְצְח֤וּ לִפְנֵיכֶם֙ רִנָּ֔ה וְכָל־עֲצֵ֥י הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה יִמְחֲאוּ־כָֽף׃‬

For you will go out with joy,

And you will be led in peace;

The mountains and the hills will break out in jubilation before you,

And all the trees of the countryside

Will clap their hands.

Isa 55:13 ‫תַּ֤חַת הַֽנַּעֲצוּץ֙ יַעֲלֶ֣ה בְר֔וֹשׁ *תחת **וְתַ֥חַת הַסִּרְפַּ֖ד יַעֲלֶ֣ה הֲדַ֑ס וְהָיָ֤ה לַֽיהוָה֙ לְשֵׁ֔ם לְא֥וֹת עוֹלָ֖ם לֹ֥א יִכָּרֵֽת׃ ס‬

Instead of the thorn bush,

The cypress will come {K: up;} [Q: up,]

{K: Instead} [Q: And instead] of the briar

The myrtle will come up,

And it will be for the Lord's fame,

As an age-abiding sign

Which will not be cut off.”

fame ← name.
Isa 56:1 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה שִׁמְר֥וּ מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וַעֲשׂ֣וּ צְדָקָ֑ה כִּֽי־קְרוֹבָ֤ה יְשֽׁוּעָתִי֙ לָב֔וֹא וְצִדְקָתִ֖י לְהִגָּלֽוֹת׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“Maintain justice and act righteously,

For my salvation is drawing near,

As is my righteousness

Which is to be revealed.

this is whatthus.

act righteously ← do righteousness.

is drawing near ← (is) close to come.
Isa 56:2 ‫אַשְׁרֵ֤י אֱנוֹשׁ֙ יַעֲשֶׂה־זֹּ֔את וּבֶן־אָדָ֖ם יַחֲזִ֣יק בָּ֑הּ שֹׁמֵ֤ר שַׁבָּת֙ מֵֽחַלְּל֔וֹ וְשֹׁמֵ֥ר יָד֖וֹ מֵעֲשׂ֥וֹת כָּל־רָֽע׃ ס‬

Blessed is the man who does this,

And the son of Adam who holds on to it,

Who keeps the Sabbath so as not to profane it

And keeps his hand away

From committing any evil.

any ← every.
Isa 56:3 ‫וְאַל־יֹאמַ֣ר בֶּן־הַנֵּכָ֗ר הַנִּלְוָ֤ה אֶל־יְהוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַבְדֵּ֧ל יַבְדִּילַ֛נִי יְהוָ֖ה מֵעַ֣ל עַמּ֑וֹ וְאַל־יֹאמַר֙ הַסָּרִ֔יס הֵ֥ן אֲנִ֖י עֵ֥ץ יָבֵֽשׁ׃ ס‬

And do not let the foreigner

Who is joined to the Lord say,

‘The Lord will surely separate me from his people’,

And do not let the eunuch say,

‘Look, I am dry wood.’ ”

foreigner ← son of foreignness.

say ← say saying.

surely separate: infinitive absolute.
Isa 56:4 ‫כִּי־כֹ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה לַסָּֽרִיסִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁמְרוּ֙ אֶת־שַׁבְּתוֹתַ֔י וּבָֽחֲר֖וּ בַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר חָפָ֑צְתִּי וּמַחֲזִיקִ֖ים בִּבְרִיתִֽי׃‬

For this is what the Lord says

To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths,

And choose what I delight in,

And keep my covenant:

this is whatthus.
Isa 56:5 ‫וְנָתַתִּ֨י לָהֶ֜ם בְּבֵיתִ֤י וּבְחֽוֹמֹתַי֙ יָ֣ד וָשֵׁ֔ם ט֖וֹב מִבָּנִ֣ים וּמִבָּנ֑וֹת שֵׁ֤ם עוֹלָם֙ אֶתֶּן־ל֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א יִכָּרֵֽת׃ ס‬

“Now I will give them

A memorial and a name

In my house and within my walls,

Better than sons and daughters.

I will give him an age-abiding name

Which will not be cut off.

a memorial and a name: from which Yad Vashem, the name of the memorial to the victims of the holocaust, comes. The word for memorial also means hand, power, care etc.

give him: AV differs (give them), but we follow the Hebrew.
Isa 56:6 ‫וּבְנֵ֣י הַנֵּכָ֗ר הַנִּלְוִ֤ים עַל־יְהוָה֙ לְשָׁ֣רְת֔וֹ וּֽלְאַהֲבָה֙ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה לִהְי֥וֹת ל֖וֹ לַעֲבָדִ֑ים כָּל־שֹׁמֵ֤ר שַׁבָּת֙ מֵֽחַלְּל֔וֹ וּמַחֲזִיקִ֖ים בִּבְרִיתִֽי׃‬

And I will allow the foreigners

Who are joined to the Lord

In serving him

And in loving the name of the Lord

To be his servants

– Everyone who keeps the Sabbath

By not profaning it,

And all who keep my covenant.

I will allow: supplied from I will give in Isa 56:5, the verb נָתַן covering both meanings.

in serving ... in loving ... by not profaning: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 56:7 ‫וַהֲבִיאוֹתִ֞ים אֶל־הַ֣ר קָדְשִׁ֗י וְשִׂמַּחְתִּים֙ בְּבֵ֣ית תְּפִלָּתִ֔י עוֹלֹתֵיהֶ֧ם וְזִבְחֵיהֶ֛ם לְרָצ֖וֹן עַֽל־מִזְבְּחִ֑י כִּ֣י בֵיתִ֔י בֵּית־תְּפִלָּ֥ה יִקָּרֵ֖א לְכָל־הָעַמִּֽים׃‬

And I will bring them to my holy mountain,

And I will make them joyful in my house of prayer.

Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices

Will be a delight on my altar,

And my house will be called

A house of prayer for all the nations.”

Matt 21:13, Mark 11:17, Luke 19:46.

my holy mountain ← the mountain of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 56:8 ‫נְאֻם֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה מְקַבֵּ֖ץ נִדְחֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל ע֛וֹד אֲקַבֵּ֥ץ עָלָ֖יו לְנִקְבָּצָֽיו׃‬

My Lord the Lord,

Who gathers those who were driven out of Israel, says,

“I will yet gather them there,

With those of his company

Who have been gathered.

there ← to him / it, referring to Israel as a nation.
Isa 56:9 ‫כֹּ֖ל חַיְת֣וֹ שָׂדָ֑י אֵתָ֕יוּ לֶאֱכֹ֥ל כָּל־חַיְת֖וֹ בַּיָּֽעַר׃ ס‬

All you wild animals,

Come to eat

– All you wild animals of the forest.

Isa 56:10 ‫*צפו **צֹפָ֞יו עִוְרִ֤ים כֻּלָּם֙ לֹ֣א יָדָ֔עוּ כֻּלָּם֙ כְּלָבִ֣ים אִלְּמִ֔ים לֹ֥א יוּכְל֖וּ לִנְבֹּ֑חַ הֹזִים֙ שֹֽׁכְבִ֔ים אֹהֲבֵ֖י לָנֽוּם׃‬

His watchmen are all blind;

They do not know anything.

They are all mute dogs;

They are not able to bark.

They are dreamers, lying down,

Who love to slumber.

his watchmen: the ketiv reads his watchman, but it has a plural adjective.
Isa 56:11 ‫וְהַכְּלָבִ֣ים עַזֵּי־נֶ֗פֶשׁ לֹ֤א יָֽדְעוּ֙ שָׂבְעָ֔ה וְהֵ֣מָּה רֹעִ֔ים לֹ֥א יָדְע֖וּ הָבִ֑ין כֻּלָּם֙ לְדַרְכָּ֣ם פָּנ֔וּ אִ֥ישׁ לְבִצְע֖וֹ מִקָּצֵֽהוּ׃‬

But the dogs have a ferocious appetite

– They do not know satiety –

And they are shepherds who do not know how to discern.

They have all turned their own way

– Each one to his own gain

From his own retreat.

appetite ← soul, but also appetite.

retreat ← end.
Isa 56:12 ‫אֵתָ֥יוּ אֶקְחָה־יַ֖יִן וְנִסְבְּאָ֣ה שֵׁכָ֑ר וְהָיָ֤ה כָזֶה֙ י֣וֹם מָחָ֔ר גָּד֖וֹל יֶ֥תֶר מְאֹֽד׃‬

‘Come on’, they say,

‘For I will get wine,

And let us imbibe liquor,

And tomorrow will be like this,

Great and most excellent.’

most excellent ← much excellence.
Isa 57:1 ‫הַצַּדִּ֣יק אָבָ֔ד וְאֵ֥ין אִ֖ישׁ שָׂ֣ם עַל־לֵ֑ב וְאַנְשֵׁי־חֶ֤סֶד נֶֽאֱסָפִים֙ בְּאֵ֣ין מֵבִ֔ין כִּֽי־מִפְּנֵ֥י הָרָעָ֖ה נֶאֱסַ֥ף הַצַּדִּֽיק׃‬

The righteous man is no more,

And there is no man who lays it to heart,

And kind men have been taken away,

With no-one understanding

That it is because of evil

That the righteous man has been taken away.

is no more ← has perished.

kind men ← men of kindness, a Hebraic genitive.

taken away (2x)gathered in.
Isa 57:2 ‫יָב֣וֹא שָׁל֔וֹם יָנ֖וּחוּ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָ֑ם הֹלֵ֖ךְ נְכֹחֽוֹ׃‬

He will enter into peace;

They will rest on their couches,

Each who walks in his uprightness.

he will enter into peace: or peace will come.

his uprightness ← his (i.e. God's) straightforwardness.
Isa 57:3 ‫וְאַתֶּ֥ם קִרְבוּ־הֵ֖נָּה בְּנֵ֣י עֹנְנָ֑ה זֶ֥רַע מְנָאֵ֖ף וַתִּזְנֶֽה׃‬

But as for you, draw near here,

You sons of the diviner by clouds,

And seed of the adulterer and the prostitute.

but: adversative use of the vav.

diviner: feminine.

and the prostitute ← and she committed whoredom.
Isa 57:4 ‫עַל־מִי֙ תִּתְעַנָּ֔גוּ עַל־מִ֛י תַּרְחִ֥יבוּ פֶ֖ה תַּאֲרִ֣יכוּ לָשׁ֑וֹן הֲלֽוֹא־אַתֶּ֥ם יִלְדֵי־פֶ֖שַׁע זֶ֥רַע שָֽׁקֶר׃‬

Against whom do you make sport for yourselves?

Whom do you smirk at?

Whom do you poke the tongue at?

Are you not transgressive children

A false seed?

smirk ← widen the mouth.

poke ← lengthen.

transgressive children ← children of transgression. The usual expression is sons of transgression, but see Isa 2:6.

a false seed ← a seed of falsity / lying, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 57:5 ‫הַנֵּֽחָמִים֙ בָּֽאֵלִ֔ים תַּ֖חַת כָּל־עֵ֣ץ רַעֲנָ֑ן שֹׁחֲטֵ֤י הַיְלָדִים֙ בַּנְּחָלִ֔ים תַּ֖חַת סְעִפֵ֥י הַסְּלָעִֽים׃‬

You who are inflamed by idols

Under every luxuriant tree,

Slaughtering children at the streams

Under the fissures in the rocks?

Isa 57:6 ‫בְּחַלְּקֵי־נַ֣חַל חֶלְקֵ֔ךְ הֵ֥ם הֵ֖ם גּוֹרָלֵ֑ךְ גַּם־לָהֶ֞ם שָׁפַ֥כְתְּ נֶ֙סֶךְ֙ הֶעֱלִ֣ית מִנְחָ֔ה הַ֥עַל אֵ֖לֶּה אֶנָּחֵֽם׃‬

Your lot is in the bare reaches of a stream;

They are what your fate is.

To them also you poured out a libation

And raised an offering.

Should I be comforted by these?

Isa 57:7 ‫עַ֤ל הַר־גָּבֹ֙הַּ֙ וְנִשָּׂ֔א שַׂ֖מְתְּ מִשְׁכָּבֵ֑ךְ גַּם־שָׁ֥ם עָלִ֖ית לִזְבֹּ֥חַ זָֽבַח׃‬

You have made your bed

On a high and lofty mountain;

There too you went up

To offer sacrifice.

made your bed ← placed your couch.

offer ← sacrifice.
Isa 57:8 ‫וְאַחַ֤ר הַדֶּ֙לֶת֙ וְהַמְּזוּזָ֔ה שַׂ֖מְתְּ זִכְרוֹנֵ֑ךְ כִּ֣י מֵאִתִּ֞י גִּלִּ֣ית וַֽתַּעֲלִ֗י הִרְחַ֤בְתְּ מִשְׁכָּבֵךְ֙ וַתִּכְרָת־לָ֣ךְ מֵהֶ֔ם אָהַ֥בְתְּ מִשְׁכָּבָ֖ם יָ֥ד חָזִֽית׃‬

And you have left your memorial

Behind the door and doorpost,

For you have uncovered yourself

To someone other than me,

And you have gone up,

And you have made your bed widely available,

And you have made yourself a covenant

With some of them.

You have loved their bed;

You have seen their male member.

gone up: or offered.

you have made ← she has cut, the verb being associated with covenants. On the translation as second person (you), see [Ges-HG] §47k.

male member ← hand, and various other meanings. See [BDB] p.390, № 4g for phallus. AV differs (it).
Isa 57:9 ‫וַתָּשֻׁ֤רִי לַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ בַּשֶּׁ֔מֶן וַתַּרְבִּ֖י רִקֻּחָ֑יִךְ וַתְּשַׁלְּחִ֤י צִרַ֙יִךְ֙ עַד־מֵ֣רָחֹ֔ק וַתַּשְׁפִּ֖ילִי עַד־שְׁאֽוֹל׃‬

And you went to the king with oil,

And you took many fragrances,

And you sent your ambassadors far and wide,

And you brought people down to the grave.

took many fragrances ← increased your fragrances.

far and wide ← up to from far.

people: AV differs (thyself).
Isa 57:10 ‫בְּרֹ֤ב דַּרְכֵּךְ֙ יָגַ֔עַתְּ לֹ֥א אָמַ֖רְתְּ נוֹאָ֑שׁ חַיַּ֤ת יָדֵךְ֙ מָצָ֔את עַל־כֵּ֖ן לֹ֥א חָלִֽית׃‬

You exhaust yourself with your grand way.

You have not said,

It is desperate.’

You have found vitality in your reach,

Which is why you have not flagged.

your grand way ← the grandness of your way. A reverse Hebraic genitive; compare Dan 11:20.

vitality ← life.

reach ← hand.
Isa 57:11 ‫וְאֶת־מִ֞י דָּאַ֤גְתְּ וַתִּֽירְאִי֙ כִּ֣י תְכַזֵּ֔בִי וְאוֹתִי֙ לֹ֣א זָכַ֔רְתְּ לֹא־שַׂ֖מְתְּ עַל־לִבֵּ֑ךְ הֲלֹ֨א אֲנִ֤י מַחְשֶׁה֙ וּמֵ֣עֹלָ֔ם וְאוֹתִ֖י לֹ֥א תִירָֽאִי׃‬

And about whom have you been anxious,

And whom do you fear?

For you are dealing dishonestly,

And you have not remembered me;

You have not laid it to your heart.

Have I not been silent ever since age-old time,

While you have not been fearing me?

while: temporal use of the vav.
Isa 57:12 ‫אֲנִ֥י אַגִּ֖יד צִדְקָתֵ֑ךְ וְאֶֽת־מַעֲשַׂ֖יִךְ וְלֹ֥א יוֹעִילֽוּךְ׃‬

I can tell of your righteousness

And your works,

But they will not profit you.

Isa 57:13 ‫בְּזַֽעֲקֵךְ֙ יַצִּילֻ֣ךְ קִבּוּצַ֔יִךְ וְאֶת־כֻּלָּ֥ם יִשָּׂא־ר֖וּחַ יִקַּח־הָ֑בֶל וְהַחוֹסֶ֥ה בִי֙ יִנְחַל־אֶ֔רֶץ וְיִירַ֖שׁ הַר־קָדְשִֽׁי׃‬

When you cry out,

Let your troops deliver you,

But the wind will carry them all away

– A puff of breath will take them away.

But he who trusts in me

Will inherit the land

And will come into possession

Of my holy mountain.

my holy mountain ← the mountain of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 57:14 ‫וְאָמַ֥ר סֹֽלּוּ־סֹ֖לּוּ פַּנּוּ־דָ֑רֶךְ הָרִ֥ימוּ מִכְשׁ֖וֹל מִדֶּ֥רֶךְ עַמִּֽי׃ ס‬

And he will say,

‘Raise an embankment, raise an embankment,

Clear a way;

Remove any obstacle

From my people's road.’

Isa 57:15 ‫כִּי֩ כֹ֨ה אָמַ֜ר רָ֣ם וְנִשָּׂ֗א שֹׁכֵ֥ן עַד֙ וְקָד֣וֹשׁ שְׁמ֔וֹ מָר֥וֹם וְקָד֖וֹשׁ אֶשְׁכּ֑וֹן וְאֶת־דַּכָּא֙ וּשְׁפַל־ר֔וּחַ לְהַחֲיוֹת֙ ר֣וּחַ שְׁפָלִ֔ים וּֽלְהַחֲי֖וֹת לֵ֥ב נִדְכָּאִֽים׃‬

For this is what the one

Who is high and exalted,

Who lives permanently,

And whose name is holy,


I will dwell on high,

And holily,

And with the contrite and humble in spirit,

To revive the spirit of the lowly,

And to revitalize the heart

Of those ground down.

this is whatthus.

holily ← (as a) holy (one).

humble in spirit ← humble of spirit. Wider use of the construct state.

revive ... revitalize ← revive ... revive. Otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Isa 57:16 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֤א לְעוֹלָם֙ אָרִ֔יב וְלֹ֥א לָנֶ֖צַח אֶקְּצ֑וֹף כִּי־ר֙וּחַ֙ מִלְּפָנַ֣י יַֽעֲט֔וֹף וּנְשָׁמ֖וֹת אֲנִ֥י עָשִֽׂיתִי׃‬

For I will not contend age-abidingly,

And I will not be angry in perpetuity,

For a spirit could succumb before me,

As would living beings

Which I have made.

Isa 57:17 ‫בַּעֲוֺ֥ן בִּצְע֛וֹ קָצַ֥פְתִּי וְאַכֵּ֖הוּ הַסְתֵּ֣ר וְאֶקְצֹ֑ף וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ שׁוֹבָ֖ב בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ לִבּֽוֹ׃‬

I was angry at the iniquity of his unjust gain,

And I struck him.

I hide myself and I show anger,

But he walks rebelliously

In the way of his heart.

I hide myself: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.

rebelliously ← (as a) rebellious (one).
Isa 57:18 ‫דְּרָכָ֥יו רָאִ֖יתִי וְאֶרְפָּאֵ֑הוּ וְאַנְחֵ֕הוּ וַאֲשַׁלֵּ֧ם נִֽחֻמִ֛ים ל֖וֹ וְלַאֲבֵלָֽיו׃‬

I have seen his ways

But I will heal him and lead him,

And I will restore comfort to him

And to those of his company who mourn.

comfort ← comforts.
Isa 57:19 ‫בּוֹרֵ֖א *נוב **נִ֣יב שְׂפָתָ֑יִם שָׁל֨וֹם ׀ שָׁל֜וֹם לָרָח֧וֹק וְלַקָּר֛וֹב אָמַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה וּרְפָאתִֽיו׃‬

I create the fruit of the lips:

Peace, peace to him who is far off

And to him who is near,

Says the Lord,

And I will heal him.

the fruit: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

Eph 2:17.
Isa 57:20 ‫וְהָרְשָׁעִ֖ים כַּיָּ֣ם נִגְרָ֑שׁ כִּ֤י הַשְׁקֵט֙ לֹ֣א יוּכָ֔ל וַיִּגְרְשׁ֥וּ מֵימָ֖יו רֶ֥פֶשׁ וָטִֽיט׃‬

But the wicked are like a raging sea,

For it cannot be calm,

And its waters cast up mud and mire.

Isa 57:21 ‫אֵ֣ין שָׁל֔וֹם אָמַ֥ר אֱלֹהַ֖י לָרְשָׁעִֽים׃ ס‬

There is no peace”,

Says my God,

“For the wicked.”

Isa 58:1 ‫קְרָ֤א בְגָרוֹן֙ אַל־תַּחְשֹׂ֔ךְ כַּשּׁוֹפָ֖ר הָרֵ֣ם קוֹלֶ֑ךָ וְהַגֵּ֤ד לְעַמִּי֙ פִּשְׁעָ֔ם וּלְבֵ֥ית יַעֲקֹ֖ב חַטֹּאתָֽם׃‬

“Call out at the top of your voice,

Do not hold back,

Raise your voice like the ramshorn,

And tell my people their transgression,

And the house of Jacob their sins,

at the top of your voice ← in the throat.
Isa 58:2 ‫וְאוֹתִ֗י י֥וֹם יוֹם֙ יִדְרֹשׁ֔וּן וְדַ֥עַת דְּרָכַ֖י יֶחְפָּצ֑וּן כְּג֞וֹי אֲשֶׁר־צְדָקָ֣ה עָשָׂ֗ה וּמִשְׁפַּ֤ט אֱלֹהָיו֙ לֹ֣א עָזָ֔ב יִשְׁאָל֙וּנִי֙ מִשְׁפְּטֵי־צֶ֔דֶק קִרְבַ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים יֶחְפָּצֽוּן׃‬

So that they seek me daily,

And delight in knowledge of my ways,

Like a nation which acts righteously,

And does not forsake the justice of their God,

So that they ask for righteous judgments,

And delight in drawing near to God.

so that: purposive use of the vav.

acts righteously ← does righteousness.

their God ← its (the nation's) God.

righteous judgments ← judgments of righteousness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 58:3 ‫לָ֤מָּה צַּ֙מְנוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א רָאִ֔יתָ עִנִּ֥ינוּ נַפְשֵׁ֖נוּ וְלֹ֣א תֵדָ֑ע הֵ֣ן בְּי֤וֹם צֹֽמְכֶם֙ תִּמְצְאוּ־חֵ֔פֶץ וְכָל־עַצְּבֵיכֶ֖ם תִּנְגֹּֽשׂוּ׃‬

‘Why have we fasted,

But you have not seen it?

We have afflicted ourselves,

But you have not been aware of it.’

It is because on the day when you fast,

You take pleasure,

And you act as an oppressor

In all the labour you impose.

ourselves ← our souls.

it is because ← behold.

take pleasure ← find pleasure.

the labour you imposeyour labours, here causative.
Isa 58:4 ‫הֵ֣ן לְרִ֤יב וּמַצָּה֙ תָּצ֔וּמוּ וּלְהַכּ֖וֹת בְּאֶגְרֹ֣ף רֶ֑שַׁע לֹא־תָצ֣וּמוּ כַיּ֔וֹם לְהַשְׁמִ֥יעַ בַּמָּר֖וֹם קוֹלְכֶֽם׃‬

It is because you fast in contention and quarrel,

And with striking with a wicked fist.

You cannot fast as you do today

In order to make your voice heard on high.

it is because ← behold.

with striking: gerundial use of the infinitive.

wicked fist ← fist of wickedness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 58:5 ‫הֲכָזֶ֗ה יִֽהְיֶה֙ צ֣וֹם אֶבְחָרֵ֔הוּ י֛וֹם עַנּ֥וֹת אָדָ֖ם נַפְשׁ֑וֹ הֲלָכֹ֨ף כְּאַגְמֹ֜ן רֹאשׁ֗וֹ וְשַׂ֤ק וָאֵ֙פֶר֙ יַצִּ֔יעַ הֲלָזֶה֙ תִּקְרָא־צ֔וֹם וְי֥וֹם רָצ֖וֹן לַיהוָֽה׃‬

Do I approve of a fast like this?

A day when a man afflicts himself?

Is it to bend the head down like a bulrush,

And to spread sackcloth and ashes?

Is it for that that you call a fast

And a day of delight for the Lord?

approve of ← choose.

himself ← his soul.
Isa 58:6 ‫הֲל֣וֹא זֶה֮ צ֣וֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ֒ פַּתֵּ֙חַ֙ חַרְצֻבּ֣וֹת רֶ֔שַׁע הַתֵּ֖ר אֲגֻדּ֣וֹת מוֹטָ֑ה וְשַׁלַּ֤ח רְצוּצִים֙ חָפְשִׁ֔ים וְכָל־מוֹטָ֖ה תְּנַתֵּֽקוּ׃‬

Is not this the fast that I approve of:

To loosen tight bonds of wickedness,

To unfasten the straps of the yoke,

And to send the oppressed away free,

And that you detach every yoke?

Alluded to in Luke 4:18.

I approve of ← I will choose it.

oppressed ← crushed, buckled.
Isa 58:7 ‫הֲל֨וֹא פָרֹ֤ס לָֽרָעֵב֙ לַחְמֶ֔ךָ וַעֲנִיִּ֥ים מְרוּדִ֖ים תָּ֣בִיא בָ֑יִת כִּֽי־תִרְאֶ֤ה עָרֹם֙ וְכִסִּית֔וֹ וּמִבְּשָׂרְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תִתְעַלָּֽם׃‬

Is it not to distribute your bread to the hungry,

And that you bring poor wanderers to a house?

– That when you see someone naked,

You clothe him,

And you do not ignore

Those of your own family?

clothe ← cover.

ignore ← hide yourself from, figuratively ignore, as in Modern Hebrew.

family ← flesh.
Isa 58:8 ‫אָ֣ז יִבָּקַ֤ע כַּשַּׁ֙חַר֙ אוֹרֶ֔ךָ וַאֲרֻכָתְךָ֖ מְהֵרָ֣ה תִצְמָ֑ח וְהָלַ֤ךְ לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ צִדְקֶ֔ךָ כְּב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה יַאַסְפֶֽךָ׃‬

Then your light will break through like the dawn,

And your revitalization will spring up speedily,

And your righteousness will go before you,

And the glory of the Lord,

Will gather you up.

break through ← be broken through.
Isa 58:9 ‫אָ֤ז תִּקְרָא֙ וַיהוָ֣ה יַעֲנֶ֔ה תְּשַׁוַּ֖ע וְיֹאמַ֣ר הִנֵּ֑נִי אִם־תָּסִ֤יר מִתּֽוֹכְךָ֙ מוֹטָ֔ה שְׁלַ֥ח אֶצְבַּ֖ע וְדַבֶּר־אָֽוֶן׃‬

Then you will call out,

And the Lord will answer;

You will cry out,

And he will say,

Here I am.’

If you remove the yoke from your company

Pointing the finger

And speaking vanity –

here I ambehold me.

company ← midst.

pointing ← sending, casting.
Isa 58:10 ‫וְתָפֵ֤ק לָֽרָעֵב֙ נַפְשֶׁ֔ךָ וְנֶ֥פֶשׁ נַעֲנָ֖ה תַּשְׂבִּ֑יעַ וְזָרַ֤ח בַּחֹ֙שֶׁךְ֙ אוֹרֶ֔ךָ וַאֲפֵלָתְךָ֖ כַּֽצָּהֳרָֽיִם׃‬

And stir yourself for the hungry,

And satisfy an afflicted person,

Then your light will arise in the dark,

And what was your gloom

Will become like midday light.

yourself ← your soul.

person ← soul.
Isa 58:11 ‫וְנָחֲךָ֣ יְהוָה֮ תָּמִיד֒ וְהִשְׂבִּ֤יעַ בְּצַחְצָחוֹת֙ נַפְשֶׁ֔ךָ וְעַצְמֹתֶ֖יךָ יַחֲלִ֑יץ וְהָיִ֙יתָ֙ כְּגַ֣ן רָוֶ֔ה וּכְמוֹצָ֣א מַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־יְכַזְּב֖וּ מֵימָֽיו׃‬

And the Lord will always lead you,

And he will satisfy your appetite in dry places,

And make your joints pliant,

And you will become like a well-watered garden,

And like a fount of water

Whose water does not fail.

John 7:38 (allusion).

appetite ← soul.

joints pliant: or bones strong.

fail ← deceive.
Isa 58:12 ‫וּבָנ֤וּ מִמְּךָ֙ חָרְב֣וֹת עוֹלָ֔ם מוֹסְדֵ֥י דוֹר־וָד֖וֹר תְּקוֹמֵ֑ם וְקֹרָ֤א לְךָ֙ גֹּדֵ֣ר פֶּ֔רֶץ מְשֹׁבֵ֥ב נְתִיב֖וֹת לָשָֽׁבֶת׃‬

And those to issue from you

Will rebuild the age-old desolate places;

You will re-establish the foundations of generation upon generation,

And you will be called

The Sealer of the Breach

– The Restorer of Paths to Inhabit.

rebuild ← build.

re-establish ← establish.

sealer ← fencer / wall builder.
Isa 58:13 ‫אִם־תָּשִׁ֤יב מִשַּׁבָּת֙ רַגְלֶ֔ךָ עֲשׂ֥וֹת חֲפָצֶ֖יךָ בְּי֣וֹם קָדְשִׁ֑י וְקָרָ֨אתָ לַשַּׁבָּ֜ת עֹ֗נֶג לִקְד֤וֹשׁ יְהוָה֙ מְכֻבָּ֔ד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ֙ מֵעֲשׂ֣וֹת דְּרָכֶ֔יךָ מִמְּצ֥וֹא חֶפְצְךָ֖ וְדַבֵּ֥ר דָּבָֽר׃‬

If you restrain yourself from trampling on the Sabbath,

From indulging your desires on my holy day,

And you call the Sabbath, Delight,

The Holy Occasion of the Lord,

And Honourable,

And you honour it

By not indulging your own ways,

By not finding your own entertainment

Or speaking your own words,

restrain yourself from trampling on ← turn your foot from.

indulging (2x)doing.

my holy day ← the day of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.

it: masculine, agreeing with holy day, or Sabbath which can be masculine. Or, him.

by not indulging ... by not finding: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Isa 58:14 ‫אָ֗ז תִּתְעַנַּג֙ עַל־יְהוָ֔ה וְהִרְכַּבְתִּ֖יךָ עַל־בָּ֣מֳותֵי אָ֑רֶץ וְהַאֲכַלְתִּ֗יךָ נַחֲלַת֙ יַעֲקֹ֣ב אָבִ֔יךָ כִּ֛י פִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃ ס‬

Then you will be delighted with the Lord,

And I will make you ride on the high places of the land,

And I will feed you

With the inheritance of Jacob your father,

For the mouth of the Lord has spoken.”

Isa 59:1 ‫הֵ֛ן לֹֽא־קָצְרָ֥ה יַד־יְהוָ֖ה מֵֽהוֹשִׁ֑יעַ וְלֹא־כָבְדָ֥ה אָזְנ֖וֹ מִשְּׁמֽוֹעַ׃‬

Behold, the arm of the Lord

Is not too short to save,

Nor is his ear

Too dull to hear.

Isa 59:2 ‫כִּ֤י אִם־עֲוֺנֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ הָי֣וּ מַבְדִּלִ֔ים בֵּינֵכֶ֕ם לְבֵ֖ין אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם וְחַטֹּֽאותֵיכֶ֗ם הִסְתִּ֧ירוּ פָנִ֛ים מִכֶּ֖ם מִשְּׁמֽוֹעַ׃‬

For your iniquities were separating you

From your God,

And your sins made him hide his face from you

So as not to hear.

made him hide ← hid, but with an extra causative layer here.
Isa 59:3 ‫כִּ֤י כַפֵּיכֶם֙ נְגֹאֲל֣וּ בַדָּ֔ם וְאֶצְבְּעוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם בֶּֽעָוֺ֑ן שִׂפְתֽוֹתֵיכֶם֙ דִּבְּרוּ־שֶׁ֔קֶר לְשׁוֹנְכֶ֖ם עַוְלָ֥ה תֶהְגֶּֽה׃‬

For your hands are stained with blood,

And your fingers with iniquity.

Your lips have spoken lies,

And your tongue has uttered injustice.

hands ← palms.
Isa 59:4 ‫אֵין־קֹרֵ֣א בְצֶ֔דֶק וְאֵ֥ין נִשְׁפָּ֖ט בֶּאֱמוּנָ֑ה בָּט֤וֹחַ עַל־תֹּ֙הוּ֙ וְדַבֶּר־שָׁ֔וְא הָר֥וֹ עָמָ֖ל וְהוֹלֵ֥יד אָֽוֶן׃‬

There is no-one giving verdicts in righteousness,

And no-one is judged faithfully,

As they trust in a vain thing,

And speak lies,

Engendering sorrow

And conceiving iniquity.

The verse contains 4 infinitives absolute in the role of a finite verb.

giving verdicts in righteousness ← calling in justice.

lies ← falsity.

engendering ... conceiving ← conceiving ... engendering. Compare Job 15:35.
Isa 59:5 ‫בֵּיצֵ֤י צִפְעוֹנִי֙ בִּקֵּ֔עוּ וְקוּרֵ֥י עַכָּבִ֖ישׁ יֶאֱרֹ֑גוּ הָאֹכֵ֤ל מִבֵּֽיצֵיהֶם֙ יָמ֔וּת וְהַזּוּרֶ֖ה תִּבָּקַ֥ע אֶפְעֶֽה׃‬

They hatch the eggs of a viper,

And weave a spider's web.

He who eats their eggs will die,

And if one is cracked open,

A viper emerges.

web ← threads, but of the kind a web is made from.

cracked ← squeezed.

emerges ← is hatched.
Isa 59:6 ‫קֽוּרֵיהֶם֙ לֹא־יִהְי֣וּ לְבֶ֔גֶד וְלֹ֥א יִתְכַּסּ֖וּ בְּמַֽעֲשֵׂיהֶ֑ם מַֽעֲשֵׂיהֶם֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂי־אָ֔וֶן וּפֹ֥עַל חָמָ֖ס בְּכַפֵּיהֶֽם׃‬

Their webs will not become a garment,

And they will not cover themselves with their deeds.

Their deeds are vain deeds,

And a violent act is on their hands.

webs: see Isa 59:5.

vain deeds ... violent act ← deeds of vanity ... act of violence, Hebraic genitives.
Isa 59:7 ‫רַגְלֵיהֶם֙ לָרַ֣ע יָרֻ֔צוּ וִֽימַהֲר֔וּ לִשְׁפֹּ֖ךְ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֑י מַחְשְׁבֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙ מַחְשְׁב֣וֹת אָ֔וֶן שֹׁ֥ד וָשֶׁ֖בֶר בִּמְסִלּוֹתָֽם׃‬

Their feet run to evil,

And they are quick to shed innocent blood.

Their thoughts are vain thoughts;

Oppression and wreckage

Are in their ways.

Rom 3:15, Rom 3:16.

vain thoughts ← thoughts of vanity.
Isa 59:8 ‫דֶּ֤רֶךְ שָׁלוֹם֙ לֹ֣א יָדָ֔עוּ וְאֵ֥ין מִשְׁפָּ֖ט בְּמַעְגְּלוֹתָ֑ם נְתִיבֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙ עִקְּשׁ֣וּ לָהֶ֔ם כֹּ֚ל דֹּרֵ֣ךְ בָּ֔הּ לֹ֥א יָדַ֖ע שָׁלֽוֹם׃‬

They have not known the way of peace,

And there is no justice in their paths.

They have made a perverse course for themselves;

No-one who follows it

Will know peace.

Rom 3:17.

course ← trodden path.

follows ← treads in.
Isa 59:9 ‫עַל־כֵּ֗ן רָחַ֤ק מִשְׁפָּט֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְלֹ֥א תַשִּׂיגֵ֖נוּ צְדָקָ֑ה נְקַוֶּ֤ה לָאוֹר֙ וְהִנֵּה־חֹ֔שֶׁךְ לִנְגֹה֖וֹת בָּאֲפֵל֥וֹת נְהַלֵּֽךְ׃‬

That is why justice is far from us,

And righteousness has not reached us.

We await light,

But what we get is darkness.

We await shining brightness,

But walk in obscurity.

what we get isbehold.
Isa 59:10 ‫נְגַֽשְׁשָׁ֤ה כַֽעִוְרִים֙ קִ֔יר וּכְאֵ֥ין עֵינַ֖יִם נְגַשֵּׁ֑שָׁה כָּשַׁ֤לְנוּ בַֽצָּהֳרַ֙יִם֙ כַּנֶּ֔שֶׁף בָּאַשְׁמַנִּ֖ים כַּמֵּתִֽים׃‬

We feel for a wall like the blind,

And we grope like one without eyes.

We have stumbled at midday as if it were darkness,


But like the dead.

feel ... grope ← feel ... feel. Otiose, but see Gen 12:5. Compare Job 5:14.

well-nourished ← in the fatnesses. AV differs (desolate places).
Isa 59:11 ‫נֶהֱמֶ֤ה כַדֻּבִּים֙ כֻּלָּ֔נוּ וְכַיּוֹנִ֖ים הָגֹ֣ה נֶהְגֶּ֑ה נְקַוֶּ֤ה לַמִּשְׁפָּט֙ וָאַ֔יִן לִֽישׁוּעָ֖ה רָחֲקָ֥ה מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃‬

We all growl like bears,

And we coo and coo like doves;

We await justice,

But there is none;

We await salvation

But it is far from us.

coo and coo: infinitive absolute.
Isa 59:12 ‫כִּֽי־רַבּ֤וּ פְשָׁעֵ֙ינוּ֙ נֶגְדֶּ֔ךָ וְחַטֹּאותֵ֖ינוּ עָ֣נְתָה בָּ֑נוּ כִּֽי־פְשָׁעֵ֣ינוּ אִתָּ֔נוּ וַעֲוֺנֹתֵ֖ינוּ יְדַֽעֲנֽוּם׃‬

For our transgressions against you are many,

And our sins testify against us,

For our transgressions are with us,

And we know our iniquities,

we know ← we know them.
Isa 59:13 ‫פָּשֹׁ֤עַ וְכַחֵשׁ֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה וְנָס֖וֹג מֵאַחַ֣ר אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ דַּבֶּר־עֹ֣שֶׁק וְסָרָ֔ה הֹר֧וֹ וְהֹג֛וֹ מִלֵּ֖ב דִּבְרֵי־שָֽׁקֶר׃‬

In transgressing and acting deceitfully with the Lord,

And in sliding away from our God;

In speaking extortion and apostasy,

And in conceiving and devising false words

From the heart.

in transgressing and acting deceitfully ... in sliding away from ... in speaking ... in conceiving and devising: all infinitive absolute.

in sliding away from ← in receding from after.

false words ← words of falsehood, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 59:14 ‫וְהֻסַּ֤ג אָחוֹר֙ מִשְׁפָּ֔ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה מֵרָח֣וֹק תַּעֲמֹ֑ד כִּֽי־כָשְׁלָ֤ה בָֽרְחוֹב֙ אֱמֶ֔ת וּנְכֹחָ֖ה לֹא־תוּכַ֥ל לָבֽוֹא׃‬

And justice has been driven back,

And righteousness stands at a distance,

For truth has stumbled in the street,

And straightforwardness is unable to come.

Isa 59:15 ‫וַתְּהִ֤י הָֽאֱמֶת֙ נֶעְדֶּ֔רֶת וְסָ֥ר מֵרָ֖ע מִשְׁתּוֹלֵ֑ל וַיַּ֧רְא יְהוָ֛ה וַיֵּ֥רַע בְּעֵינָ֖יו כִּֽי־אֵ֥ין מִשְׁפָּֽט׃‬

And truth has become lacking,

And he who departs from evil becomes a prey,

And the Lord has seen it,

And it is evil in his eyes,

For there is no justice.

Isa 59:16 ‫וַיַּרְא֙ כִּֽי־אֵ֣ין אִ֔ישׁ וַיִּשְׁתּוֹמֵ֖ם כִּ֣י אֵ֣ין מַפְגִּ֑יעַ וַתּ֤וֹשַֽׁע לוֹ֙ זְרֹע֔וֹ וְצִדְקָת֖וֹ הִ֥יא סְמָכָֽתְהוּ׃‬

And he has seen that there is no man,

And he is astonished that there is no-one pleading the case.

But his arm has brought about salvation for him,

And it is his righteousness which has supported him.

Isa 59:17 ‫וַיִּלְבַּ֤שׁ צְדָקָה֙ כַּשִּׁרְיָ֔ן וְכ֥וֹבַע יְשׁוּעָ֖ה בְּרֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיִּלְבַּ֞שׁ בִּגְדֵ֤י נָקָם֙ תִּלְבֹּ֔שֶׁת וַיַּ֥עַט כַּמְעִ֖יל קִנְאָֽה׃‬

For he wore righteousness as armour,

And he had a helmet of salvation on his head,

And he wore garments of vengeance as his clothing,

And he wrapped himself in zeal as a coat.

Eph 6:17.
Isa 59:18 ‫כְּעַ֤ל גְּמֻלוֹת֙ כְּעַ֣ל יְשַׁלֵּ֔ם חֵמָ֣ה לְצָרָ֔יו גְּמ֖וּל לְאֹֽיְבָ֑יו לָאִיִּ֖ים גְּמ֥וּל יְשַׁלֵּֽם׃‬

As it is with retribution,

So he will repay fury to his adversaries

– Retribution to his enemies.

He will repay retribution to the coastlands.

retribution ← retributions. AV differs somewhat (their deeds).

coastlands: or islands.
Isa 59:19 ‫וְיִֽירְא֤וּ מִֽמַּעֲרָב֙ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה וּמִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁ֖מֶשׁ אֶת־כְּבוֹד֑וֹ כִּֽי־יָב֤וֹא כַנָּהָר֙ צָ֔ר ר֥וּחַ יְהוָ֖ה נֹ֥סְסָה בֽוֹ׃‬

And they will fear the name of the Lord in the west,

And his glory in the east.

When the adversary comes like a river,

The spirit of the Lord will put him to flight.

east ← rising of the sun.

put him to flight: polel of נוּס. AV differs (lift up a standard, from root נָסַס).
Isa 59:20 ‫וּבָ֤א לְצִיּוֹן֙ גּוֹאֵ֔ל וּלְשָׁבֵ֥י פֶ֖שַׁע בְּיַֽעֲקֹ֑ב נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָֽה׃‬

“And the redeemer will come to Zion,

And to those among Jacob

Who are to turn away from transgression”,

Says the Lord.

Rom 11:26.
Isa 59:21 ‫וַאֲנִ֗י זֹ֣את בְּרִיתִ֤י אוֹתָם֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה רוּחִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָלֶ֔יךָ וּדְבָרַ֖י אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֣מְתִּי בְּפִ֑יךָ לֹֽא־יָמ֡וּשׁוּ מִפִּיךָ֩ וּמִפִּ֨י זַרְעֲךָ֜ וּמִפִּ֨י זֶ֤רַע זַרְעֲךָ֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה מֵעַתָּ֖ה וְעַד־עוֹלָֽם׃ ס‬

“And as for me,

This is my covenant with them,

Says the Lord:

My spirit which is upon you,

And my words which I have put in your mouth

Will not depart from your mouth,

Or from the mouth of your seed,

Or from the mouth of your seed's seed,

Says the Lord,

From now and age-abidingly.”

Rom 11:27.
Isa 60:1 ‫ק֥וּמִי א֖וֹרִי כִּ֣י בָ֣א אוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּכְב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה עָלַ֥יִךְ זָרָֽח׃‬

“Arise, shine,

For your light has come,

And the glory of the Lord has risen over you.

Alluded to in Eph 5:14.
Isa 60:2 ‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה הַחֹ֙שֶׁךְ֙ יְכַסֶּה־אֶ֔רֶץ וַעֲרָפֶ֖ל לְאֻמִּ֑ים וְעָלַ֙יִךְ֙ יִזְרַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה וּכְבוֹד֖וֹ עָלַ֥יִךְ יֵרָאֶֽה׃‬

For behold,

Darkness will cover the earth,

And thick clouds the various peoples,

But over you the Lord will rise,

And his glory will be seen upon you.

Alluded to in Eph 5:14.

darkness ← the darkness. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.

but: adversative use of the vav.
Isa 60:3 ‫וְהָלְכ֥וּ גוֹיִ֖ם לְאוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּמְלָכִ֖ים לְנֹ֥גַהּ זַרְחֵֽךְ׃‬

And Gentiles will go to your light,

And kings to your bright rising.

Rev 21:24.

your bright rising ← the brightness of your rising. A reverse Hebraic genitive; compare Dan 11:20.
Isa 60:4 ‫שְׂאִֽי־סָבִ֤יב עֵינַ֙יִךְ֙ וּרְאִ֔י כֻּלָּ֖ם נִקְבְּצ֣וּ בָֽאוּ־לָ֑ךְ בָּנַ֙יִךְ֙ מֵרָח֣וֹק יָבֹ֔אוּ וּבְנֹתַ֖יִךְ עַל־צַ֥ד תֵּאָמַֽנָה׃‬

Lift up your eyes round about and see:

They have all gathered

And have come to you.

Your sons will come from afar,

And your daughters will be carried alongside.

gathered: or been gathered.

alongside ← on a side.
Isa 60:5 ‫אָ֤ז תִּרְאִי֙ וְנָהַ֔רְתְּ וּפָחַ֥ד וְרָחַ֖ב לְבָבֵ֑ךְ כִּֽי־יֵהָפֵ֤ךְ עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ הֲמ֣וֹן יָ֔ם חֵ֥יל גּוֹיִ֖ם יָבֹ֥אוּ לָֽךְ׃‬

Then you will see and be bright,

And your heart will be moved and open wide,

For the mass of seafarers will turn to you,

And a host of Gentiles will come to you.

be bright: or flow, as in Isa 2:2 (flock).

be moved: or fear, but also of agitation with wonder and joy, [AnLx].
Isa 60:6 ‫שִֽׁפְעַ֨ת גְּמַלִּ֜ים תְּכַסֵּ֗ךְ בִּכְרֵ֤י מִדְיָן֙ וְעֵיפָ֔ה כֻּלָּ֖ם מִשְּׁבָ֣א יָבֹ֑אוּ זָהָ֤ב וּלְבוֹנָה֙ יִשָּׂ֔אוּ וּתְהִלֹּ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה יְבַשֵּֽׂרוּ׃‬

A great herd of camels will cover you

– Young camels from Midian and Ephah.

All of those from Sheba will come;

They will bear gold and frankincense,

And they will proclaim praises of the Lord.

great herd ← abundance.
Isa 60:7 ‫כָּל־צֹ֤אן קֵדָר֙ יִקָּ֣בְצוּ לָ֔ךְ אֵילֵ֥י נְבָי֖וֹת יְשָׁרְת֑וּנֶךְ יַעֲל֤וּ עַל־רָצוֹן֙ מִזְבְּחִ֔י וּבֵ֥ית תִּפְאַרְתִּ֖י אֲפָאֵֽר׃‬

All the small cattle of Kedar will be gathered to you;

The rams of Nebaioth will serve you.

They will go up in acceptance onto my altar,

And I will adorn my magnificent house.

Nebaioth: see Gen 25:13.

my magnificent house ← the house of my magnificence, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 60:8 ‫מִי־אֵ֖לֶּה כָּעָ֣ב תְּעוּפֶ֑ינָה וְכַיּוֹנִ֖ים אֶל־אֲרֻבֹּתֵיהֶֽם׃‬

Who are these who fly like a cloud,

And are like doves flying to their dovecotes?

these who fly: feminine; [CB] interprets as sailing ships.
Isa 60:9 ‫כִּֽי־לִ֣י ׀ אִיִּ֣ים יְקַוּ֗וּ וָאֳנִיּ֤וֹת תַּרְשִׁישׁ֙ בָּרִ֣אשֹׁנָ֔ה לְהָבִ֤יא בָנַ֙יִךְ֙ מֵֽרָח֔וֹק כַּסְפָּ֥ם וּזְהָבָ֖ם אִתָּ֑ם לְשֵׁם֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהַ֔יִךְ וְלִקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כִּ֥י פֵאֲרָֽךְ׃‬

For it is me whom the coastlands await,

With the ships of Tarshish in the forefront,

To bring your sons from far away,

And their silver and their gold with them,

For the name of the Lord your God,

And for the holy one of Israel,

For he will glorify you.

me: or, if the reader prefers, I.

coastlands: or islands.

name ← fame.
Isa 60:10 ‫וּבָנ֤וּ בְנֵֽי־נֵכָר֙ חֹמֹתַ֔יִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶ֖ם יְשָׁרְת֑וּנֶךְ כִּ֤י בְקִצְפִּי֙ הִכִּיתִ֔יךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִ֖י רִֽחַמְתִּֽיךְ׃‬

And foreigners will build your walls,

And their kings will serve you,

For I struck you in my anger,

But I will have mercy on you in my goodwill.

but: adversative use of the vav.
Isa 60:11 ‫וּפִתְּח֨וּ שְׁעָרַ֧יִךְ תָּמִ֛יד יוֹמָ֥ם וָלַ֖יְלָה לֹ֣א יִסָּגֵ֑רוּ לְהָבִ֤יא אֵלַ֙יִךְ֙ חֵ֣יל גּוֹיִ֔ם וּמַלְכֵיהֶ֖ם נְהוּגִֽים׃‬

And your gates will always be open;

They will not be closed by day or night,

So as to allow a host of Gentiles to be brought to you,

With their kings being led.

Rev 21:25.

your gates will always be open ... a host of Gentiles to be brought ← they always open your gates ... to bring a host of Gentiles. Avoidance of the passive.
Isa 60:12 ‫כִּֽי־הַגּ֧וֹי וְהַמַּמְלָכָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־יַעַבְד֖וּךְ יֹאבֵ֑דוּ וְהַגּוֹיִ֖ם חָרֹ֥ב יֶחֱרָֽבוּ׃‬

For the nation and the kingdom which will not serve you will perish,

And such nations will be utterly wasted.

will be utterly wasted: infinitive absolute.
Isa 60:13 ‫כְּב֤וֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן֙ אֵלַ֣יִךְ יָב֔וֹא בְּר֛וֹשׁ תִּדְהָ֥ר וּתְאַשּׁ֖וּר יַחְדָּ֑ו לְפָאֵר֙ מְק֣וֹם מִקְדָּשִׁ֔י וּמְק֥וֹם רַגְלַ֖י אֲכַבֵּֽד׃‬

The glory of Lebanon will come to you

– The cypress, the elm and the box tree together –

To adorn the place of my sanctuary,

And I will glorify the place of my feet.

place of my feet: i.e. the temple [CB].
Isa 60:14 ‫וְהָלְכ֨וּ אֵלַ֤יִךְ שְׁח֙וֹחַ֙ בְּנֵ֣י מְעַנַּ֔יִךְ וְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲו֛וּ עַל־כַּפּ֥וֹת רַגְלַ֖יִךְ כָּל־מְנַֽאֲצָ֑יִךְ וְקָ֤רְאוּ לָךְ֙ עִ֣יר יְהוָ֔ה צִיּ֖וֹן קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

And the sons of those who afflicted you

Will go to you in submission,

And all those who despised you

Will bow down at the soles of your feet,

And they will call you the City of the Lord,

Zion, the Holy Place of Israel.

Isa 60:15 ‫תַּ֧חַת הֱיוֹתֵ֛ךְ עֲזוּבָ֥ה וּשְׂנוּאָ֖ה וְאֵ֣ין עוֹבֵ֑ר וְשַׂמְתִּיךְ֙ לִגְא֣וֹן עוֹלָ֔ם מְשׂ֖וֹשׂ דּ֥וֹר וָדֽוֹר׃‬

Instead of you being forsaken and hated,

With no-one passing through,

I will make you the magnificence of the age

– A joy for generation upon generation.

age: or world.
Isa 60:16 ‫וְיָנַקְתְּ֙ חֲלֵ֣ב גּוֹיִ֔ם וְשֹׁ֥ד מְלָכִ֖ים תִּינָ֑קִי וְיָדַ֗עַתְּ כִּ֣י אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ מֽוֹשִׁיעֵ֔ךְ וְגֹאֲלֵ֖ךְ אֲבִ֥יר יַעֲקֹֽב׃‬

And you will suck the milk of the Gentiles,

And you will suck the breast of kings,

And you will know that I am the Lord your saviour,

And your redeemer

– The mighty one of Jacob.

suck the breast: the expression has obviously become a fixed idiom for obtain riches from, having lost its previous association with nourishment and female gender. This is comparable with words such as the English consider, which has lost its association with ↴
Isa 60:17 ‫תַּ֣חַת הַנְּחֹ֜שֶׁת אָבִ֣יא זָהָ֗ב וְתַ֤חַת הַבַּרְזֶל֙ אָ֣בִיא כֶ֔סֶף וְתַ֤חַת הָֽעֵצִים֙ נְחֹ֔שֶׁת וְתַ֥חַת הָאֲבָנִ֖ים בַּרְזֶ֑ל וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י פְקֻדָּתֵךְ֙ שָׁל֔וֹם וְנֹגְשַׂ֖יִךְ צְדָקָֽה׃‬

Instead of copper I will bring gold,

And instead of iron, I will bring silver,

And instead of the wood, copper,

And instead of the stones, iron.

And I will appoint you peaceable oversight,

And your tax gatherers in righteousness.

↳ astrology (Latin sidus, a constellation), and NT ἑρμηνεύω, to translate, which has lost its connection with Hermes.

tax gatherers: as [CB], with reference to Luke 3:13. The Hebrew commonly means taskmaster, superintendent.
Isa 60:18 ‫לֹא־יִשָּׁמַ֨ע ע֤וֹד חָמָס֙ בְּאַרְצֵ֔ךְ שֹׁ֥ד וָשֶׁ֖בֶר בִּגְבוּלָ֑יִךְ וְקָרָ֤את יְשׁוּעָה֙ חוֹמֹתַ֔יִךְ וּשְׁעָרַ֖יִךְ תְּהִלָּֽה׃‬

Violence will no longer be heard in your land,

Nor devastation or ruin within your borders,

And you will call your walls, Salvation,

And your gates, Praise.

ruin ← breakage.
Isa 60:19 ‫לֹא־יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֨ךְ ע֤וֹד הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ לְא֣וֹר יוֹמָ֔ם וּלְנֹ֕גַהּ הַיָּרֵ֖חַ לֹא־יָאִ֣יר לָ֑ךְ וְהָיָה־לָ֤ךְ יְהוָה֙ לְא֣וֹר עוֹלָ֔ם וֵאלֹהַ֖יִךְ לְתִפְאַרְתֵּֽךְ׃‬

You will no longer have the sun for light by day,

And the moon will not illuminate you by shining,

But the Lord will be your age-abiding light,

And your God will be your majesty.

Rev 21:23, Rev 22:5.
Isa 60:20 ‫לֹא־יָב֥וֹא עוֹד֙ שִׁמְשֵׁ֔ךְ וִירֵחֵ֖ךְ לֹ֣א יֵאָסֵ֑ף כִּ֣י יְהוָ֗ה יִֽהְיֶה־לָּךְ֙ לְא֣וֹר עוֹלָ֔ם וְשָׁלְמ֖וּ יְמֵ֥י אֶבְלֵֽךְ׃‬

Your sun will no longer set,

And your moon will not wane,

For the Lord will be your age-abiding light,

And the days of your mourning will have been fulfilled.

wane ← be drawn back.
Isa 60:21 ‫וְעַמֵּךְ֙ כֻּלָּ֣ם צַדִּיקִ֔ים לְעוֹלָ֖ם יִ֣ירְשׁוּ אָ֑רֶץ נֵ֧צֶר *מטעו **מַטָּעַ֛י מַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדַ֖י לְהִתְפָּאֵֽר׃‬

And your people will all be righteous.

They will inherit the land age-abidingly,

As a shoot in {Q: my plantations} [K: his plantation]

– The work of my hands for glorification.

The ketiv / qeré issue is a vav / yod issue.

for glorification ← to be glorified.
Isa 60:22 ‫הַקָּטֹן֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָאֶ֔לֶף וְהַצָּעִ֖יר לְג֣וֹי עָצ֑וּם אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה בְּעִתָּ֥הּ אֲחִישֶֽׁנָּה׃ ס‬

He who is small will become a thousand,

And he who is little, a mighty nation.

I, the Lord, will hasten it in its time.”

Isa 61:1 ‫ר֛וּחַ אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִ֖ה עָלָ֑י יַ֡עַן מָשַׁח֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֹתִ֜י לְבַשֵּׂ֣ר עֲנָוִ֗ים שְׁלָחַ֙נִי֙ לַחֲבֹ֣שׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵ֔ב לִקְרֹ֤א לִשְׁבוּיִם֙ דְּר֔וֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִ֖ים פְּקַח־קֽוֹחַ׃‬

The spirit of my Lord the Lord is upon me,

Because the Lord has anointed me

To declare good news to the meek.

He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted,

To proclaim freedom to captives,

And release to prisoners,

Luke 4:18, Matt 11:5 (allusion).

release ← opening, i.e. of prison.

prisoners ← bound ones.
Isa 61:2 ‫לִקְרֹ֤א שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וְי֥וֹם נָקָ֖ם לֵאלֹהֵ֑ינוּ לְנַחֵ֖ם כָּל־אֲבֵלִֽים׃‬

To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord,

And the day of vengeance of our God,

To comfort all who mourn,

Luke 4:19, Luke 21:22.

acceptable year ← year of acceptance, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 61:3 ‫לָשׂ֣וּם ׀ לַאֲבֵלֵ֣י צִיּ֗וֹן לָתֵת֩ לָהֶ֨ם פְּאֵ֜ר תַּ֣חַת אֵ֗פֶר שֶׁ֤מֶן שָׂשׂוֹן֙ תַּ֣חַת אֵ֔בֶל מַעֲטֵ֣ה תְהִלָּ֔ה תַּ֖חַת ר֣וּחַ כֵּהָ֑ה וְקֹרָ֤א לָהֶם֙ אֵילֵ֣י הַצֶּ֔דֶק מַטַּ֥ע יְהוָ֖ה לְהִתְפָּאֵֽר׃‬

To re-appoint the mourners of Zion,

To give them a turban instead of ashes,

Oil of gladness instead of mourning

– A mantle of praise instead of a melancholic spirit.

And they will be called oaks of righteousness

– The Lord's plantation for glorification.

re-appoint ← appoint, i.e. to appoint them to something joyful. For other re- words, see Isa 61:4.

melancholic ← dull.
Isa 61:4 ‫וּבָנוּ֙ חָרְב֣וֹת עוֹלָ֔ם שֹׁמְמ֥וֹת רִֽאשֹׁנִ֖ים יְקוֹמֵ֑מוּ וְחִדְּשׁוּ֙ עָ֣רֵי חֹ֔רֶב שֹׁמְמ֖וֹת דּ֥וֹר וָדֽוֹר׃‬

And they will rebuild the age-old desolate places,

And they will re-establish the first devastations

And renew the desolate cities

– The desolations which were of generation after generation.

rebuild ... re-establish ← build ... establish.

desolate cities ← cities of desolation, a Hebraic genitive.

generation after generation ← generation and generation.
Isa 61:5 ‫וְעָמְד֣וּ זָרִ֔ים וְרָע֖וּ צֹאנְכֶ֑ם וּבְנֵ֣י נֵכָ֔ר אִכָּרֵיכֶ֖ם וְכֹרְמֵיכֶֽם׃‬

And strangers will stand in service

And tend your sheep,

And foreigners will be your farmers

And your vinedressers,

Isa 61:6 ‫וְאַתֶּ֗ם כֹּהֲנֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ תִּקָּרֵ֔אוּ מְשָׁרְתֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ יֵאָמֵ֖ר לָכֶ֑ם חֵ֤יל גּוֹיִם֙ תֹּאכֵ֔לוּ וּבִכְבוֹדָ֖ם תִּתְיַמָּֽרוּ׃‬

Whereas you will be called priests of the Lord

– You will be spoken of as the servants of our God.

You will eat from the resources of the Gentiles,

And you will obtain their glory by way of exchange.

Rev 1:6, Rev 5:10, Rev 20:6.

resources ← forces.

obtain their glory by way of exchange: AV differs (shall ye boast yourselves), perhaps from the Vulgate (superbietis).
Isa 61:7 ‫תַּ֤חַת בָּשְׁתְּכֶם֙ מִשְׁנֶ֔ה וּכְלִמָּ֖ה יָרֹ֣נּוּ חֶלְקָ֑ם לָכֵ֤ן בְּאַרְצָם֙ מִשְׁנֶ֣ה יִירָ֔שׁוּ שִׂמְחַ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לָהֶֽם׃‬

Instead of your shame will be a double portion,

And instead of ignominy,

They will rejoice over their lot,

Which is why they will inherit double in their land,

And they will have age-abiding joy.

portion: [CB], of honour.
Isa 61:8 ‫כִּ֣י אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ אֹהֵ֣ב מִשְׁפָּ֔ט שֹׂנֵ֥א גָזֵ֖ל בְּעוֹלָ֑ה וְנָתַתִּ֤י פְעֻלָּתָם֙ בֶּאֱמֶ֔ת וּבְרִ֥ית עוֹלָ֖ם אֶכְר֥וֹת לָהֶֽם׃‬

For I, the Lord, love justice;

I hate robbery at the burnt offering.

But I will make their deeds truthful,

And I will make an age-abiding covenant for them.

truthful ← in truth.

make an age-abiding covenant ← cut an age-abiding covenant.
Isa 61:9 ‫וְנוֹדַ֤ע בַּגּוֹיִם֙ זַרְעָ֔ם וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶ֖ם בְּת֣וֹךְ הָעַמִּ֑ים כָּל־רֹֽאֵיהֶם֙ יַכִּיר֔וּם כִּ֛י הֵ֥ם זֶ֖רַע בֵּרַ֥ךְ יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

And their seed will be known among the Gentiles,

And their descendants among the various peoples.

All who see them will acknowledge them,

For they are the seed

Which the Lord has blessed.

Isa 61:10 ‫שׂ֧וֹשׂ אָשִׂ֣ישׂ בַּֽיהוָ֗ה תָּגֵ֤ל נַפְשִׁי֙ בֵּֽאלֹהַ֔י כִּ֤י הִלְבִּישַׁ֙נִי֙ בִּגְדֵי־יֶ֔שַׁע מְעִ֥יל צְדָקָ֖ה יְעָטָ֑נִי כֶּֽחָתָן֙ יְכַהֵ֣ן פְּאֵ֔ר וְכַכַּלָּ֖ה תַּעְדֶּ֥ה כֵלֶֽיהָ׃‬

I will greatly rejoice in the Lord;

My being will be glad in my God,

For he will have clothed me in garments of salvation.

He will have wrapped me in a mantle of righteousness,

As a bridegroom decks himself out with a turban,

And the bride adorns herself with her ornaments.

greatly rejoice: infinitive absolute.

being ← soul.
Isa 61:11 ‫כִּ֤י כָאָ֙רֶץ֙ תּוֹצִ֣יא צִמְחָ֔הּ וּכְגַנָּ֖ה זֵרוּעֶ֣יהָ תַצְמִ֑יחַ כֵּ֣ן ׀ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה יַצְמִ֤יחַ צְדָקָה֙ וּתְהִלָּ֔ה נֶ֖גֶד כָּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם׃‬

For as the earth produces its vegetation,

And as a garden gives growth to what is sown in it,

So my Lord the Lord

Will give growth to righteousness

And praise before all the nations.

what is sown in it ← its sowings.
Isa 62:1 ‫לְמַ֤עַן צִיּוֹן֙ לֹ֣א אֶחֱשֶׁ֔ה וּלְמַ֥עַן יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם לֹ֣א אֶשְׁק֑וֹט עַד־יֵצֵ֤א כַנֹּ֙גַהּ֙ צִדְקָ֔הּ וִישׁוּעָתָ֖הּ כְּלַפִּ֥יד יִבְעָֽר׃‬

For the sake of Zion,

I will not be silent,

And for the sake of Jerusalem

I will not be quiet,

Until its righteousness goes forth

Like a brilliance,

And its salvation

Like a blazing torch.

a blazing torch ← a torch (which) blazes.
Isa 62:2 ‫וְרָא֤וּ גוֹיִם֙ צִדְקֵ֔ךְ וְכָל־מְלָכִ֖ים כְּבוֹדֵ֑ךְ וְקֹ֤רָא לָךְ֙ שֵׁ֣ם חָדָ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר פִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה יִקֳּבֶֽנּוּ׃‬

And the nations will see your righteousness,

And all kings your glory,

And you will be called by a new name

Which the mouth of the Lord will specify.

Isa 62:3 ‫וְהָיִ֛יתְ עֲטֶ֥רֶת תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת בְּיַד־יְהוָ֑ה *וצנוף **וּצְנִ֥יף מְלוּכָ֖ה בְּכַף־אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃‬

And you will be a crown of splendour

In the Lord's hand,

And a royal turban

In the hand of your God.

turban: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning (a vav / yod issue).

royal turban ← turban of royalty, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 62:4 ‫לֹֽא־יֵאָמֵר֩ לָ֨ךְ ע֜וֹד עֲזוּבָ֗ה וּלְאַרְצֵךְ֙ לֹא־יֵאָמֵ֥ר עוֹד֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה כִּ֣י לָ֗ךְ יִקָּרֵא֙ חֶפְצִי־בָ֔הּ וּלְאַרְצֵ֖ךְ בְּעוּלָ֑ה כִּֽי־חָפֵ֤ץ יְהוָה֙ בָּ֔ךְ וְאַרְצֵ֖ךְ תִּבָּעֵֽל׃‬

You will no longer be said to be forsaken,

And your land will no longer be said to be a desolation,

For you will be called Hephzi-Bah,

And your land, Beulah,

When the Lord delights in you,

And when your land is married.

Hephzi-Bah: i.e. my delight in it.

Beulah: i.e. married.
Isa 62:5 ‫כִּֽי־יִבְעַ֤ל בָּחוּר֙ בְּתוּלָ֔ה יִבְעָל֖וּךְ בָּנָ֑יִךְ וּמְשׂ֤וֹשׂ חָתָן֙ עַל־כַּלָּ֔ה יָשִׂ֥ישׂ עָלַ֖יִךְ אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃‬

For as a young man marries a virgin,

So your sons will marry you,

And as is the joy of the bridegroom over his bride,

So your God will rejoice over you.

Isa 62:6 ‫עַל־חוֹמֹתַ֣יִךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם הִפְקַ֙דְתִּי֙ שֹֽׁמְרִ֔ים כָּל־הַיּ֧וֹם וְכָל־הַלַּ֛יְלָה תָּמִ֖יד לֹ֣א יֶחֱשׁ֑וּ הַמַּזְכִּרִים֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה אַל־דֳּמִ֖י לָכֶֽם׃‬

I will appoint watchmen on your walls

All day and all night constantly,

O Jerusalem;

They will not be silent.

You who make mention of the Lord,

Do not keep silence.

do not keep silence ← let (there) not (be) silence in you.
Isa 62:7 ‫וְאַֽל־תִּתְּנ֥וּ דֳמִ֖י ל֑וֹ עַד־יְכוֹנֵ֞ן וְעַד־יָשִׂ֧ים אֶת־יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֛ם תְּהִלָּ֖ה בָּאָֽרֶץ׃‬

And do not present him with silence

Until he has established and appointed

Jerusalem a praise on the earth.

Isa 62:8 ‫נִשְׁבַּ֧ע יְהוָ֛ה בִּֽימִינ֖וֹ וּבִזְר֣וֹעַ עֻזּ֑וֹ אִם־אֶתֵּן֩ אֶת־דְּגָנֵ֨ךְ ע֤וֹד מַֽאֲכָל֙ לְאֹ֣יְבַ֔יִךְ וְאִם־יִשְׁתּ֤וּ בְנֵֽי־נֵכָר֙ תִּֽירוֹשֵׁ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָגַ֖עַתְּ בּֽוֹ׃‬

The Lord has sworn by his right hand,

And by his strong arm,

I will certainly not give your corn

As food to your enemies any more,

And foreigners certainly will not drink your new wine

Which you have toiled over.

his strong arm ← the arm of his strength, a Hebraic genitive.

I will certainly not give ... certainly will not drink: strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35.
Isa 62:9 ‫כִּ֤י מְאַסְפָיו֙ יֹאכְלֻ֔הוּ וְהִֽלְל֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֑ה וּֽמְקַבְּצָ֥יו יִשְׁתֻּ֖הוּ בְּחַצְר֥וֹת קָדְשִֽׁי׃ ס‬

For those who gather it in

Will eat it,

And they will praise the Lord,

And those who collect it

Will drink it,

In my holy courtyards.”

my holy courtyards ← the courtyards of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 62:10 ‫עִבְר֤וּ עִבְרוּ֙ בַּשְּׁעָרִ֔ים פַּנּ֖וּ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הָעָ֑ם סֹ֣לּוּ סֹ֤לּוּ הַֽמְסִלָּה֙ סַקְּל֣וּ מֵאֶ֔בֶן הָרִ֥ימוּ נֵ֖ס עַל־הָעַמִּֽים׃‬

Pass through, pass through the gates;

Prepare a way for the people.

Raise up, raise up a highway,

Clear it of stones;

Raise a banner

For the sake of the various peoples.

a highway ← the highway.
Isa 62:11 ‫הִנֵּ֣ה יְהוָ֗ה הִשְׁמִ֙יעַ֙ אֶל־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ אִמְרוּ֙ לְבַת־צִיּ֔וֹן הִנֵּ֥ה יִשְׁעֵ֖ךְ בָּ֑א הִנֵּ֤ה שְׂכָרוֹ֙ אִתּ֔וֹ וּפְעֻלָּת֖וֹ לְפָנָֽיו׃‬

Behold, the Lord has made a proclamation

To the end of the earth:

“Say to the daughter of Zion,

‘Behold, your salvation is coming;

Behold, his reward is with him,

And his recompense for his work is before him.’ ”

Isa 62:12 ‫וְקָרְא֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם עַם־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ גְּאוּלֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וְלָךְ֙ יִקָּרֵ֣א דְרוּשָׁ֔ה עִ֖יר לֹ֥א נֶעֱזָֽבָה׃ ס‬

And they will call them

The holy people

– The Lord's redeemed.

And you will be called

Sought After

– A city not forsaken.

the holy people ← the people of holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 63:1 ‫מִי־זֶ֣ה ׀ בָּ֣א מֵאֱד֗וֹם חֲמ֤וּץ בְּגָדִים֙ מִבָּצְרָ֔ה זֶ֚ה הָד֣וּר בִּלְבוּשׁ֔וֹ צֹעֶ֖ה בְּרֹ֣ב כֹּח֑וֹ אֲנִ֛י מְדַבֵּ֥ר בִּצְדָקָ֖ה רַ֥ב לְהוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃‬

Who is this

Who has come from Edom,

In reddened clothes from Bozrah?

– He who is adorned in his attire?

He strides in his great might.

It is I who speak in righteousness,

Powerful to save.”

Rev 19:13.

in reddened clothes ← splendid (in scarlet) of clothes, but the root meaning is to be leavened. The colour is explicitly red in Isa 63:2, with juice metaphorically referring to blood.
Isa 63:2 ‫מַדּ֥וּעַ אָדֹ֖ם לִלְבוּשֶׁ֑ךָ וּבְגָדֶ֖יךָ כְּדֹרֵ֥ךְ בְּגַֽת׃‬

Why are your clothes red,

And why are your garments

Like those of one who treads the wine press?

treads ← treads in.
Isa 63:3 ‫פּוּרָ֣ה ׀ דָּרַ֣כְתִּי לְבַדִּ֗י וּמֵֽעַמִּים֙ אֵֽין־אִ֣ישׁ אִתִּ֔י וְאֶדְרְכֵ֣ם בְּאַפִּ֔י וְאֶרְמְסֵ֖ם בַּחֲמָתִ֑י וְיֵ֤ז נִצְחָם֙ עַל־בְּגָדַ֔י וְכָל־מַלְבּוּשַׁ֖י אֶגְאָֽלְתִּי׃‬

I have trodden the wine press on my own,

And there was no man from the various peoples with me.

And I trod them in my anger,

And I trampled on them in my fury,

And their juice was spattered on my garments,

And I stained all my articles of clothing.

Rev 14:20, Rev 19:13, Rev 19:15.

I have trodden (etc.): these verses are written from a future perspective, looking back.

juice: AV differs (blood), which is the figurative meaning.

I stained: in an Aramaic form.
Isa 63:4 ‫כִּ֛י י֥וֹם נָקָ֖ם בְּלִבִּ֑י וּשְׁנַ֥ת גְּאוּלַ֖י בָּֽאָה׃‬

For the day of vengeance is in my heart,

And the year of my redeemed has come.

Luke 21:22.
Isa 63:5 ‫וְאַבִּיט֙ וְאֵ֣ין עֹזֵ֔ר וְאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵ֖ם וְאֵ֣ין סוֹמֵ֑ךְ וַתּ֤וֹשַֽׁע לִי֙ זְרֹעִ֔י וַחֲמָתִ֖י הִ֥יא סְמָכָֽתְנִי׃‬

And I looked,

And there was no helper,

And I was astonished

That there was no-one supporting.

But my arm worked salvation for me,

And it was my fury

Which supported me.

Isa 63:6 ‫וְאָב֤וּס עַמִּים֙ בְּאַפִּ֔י וַאֲשַׁכְּרֵ֖ם בַּחֲמָתִ֑י וְאוֹרִ֥יד לָאָ֖רֶץ נִצְחָֽם׃ ס‬

And I will trample various peoples in my anger,

And I will make them drunk in my fury,

And I will bring their juice down to the ground.”

juice: standing for blood as in Isa 63:3. AV differs somewhat (strength).
Isa 63:7 ‫חַֽסְדֵ֨י יְהוָ֤ה ׀ אַזְכִּיר֙ תְּהִלֹּ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה כְּעַ֕ל כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־גְּמָלָ֖נוּ יְהוָ֑ה וְרַב־טוּב֙ לְבֵ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־גְּמָלָ֥ם כְּֽרַחֲמָ֖יו וּכְרֹ֥ב חֲסָדָֽיו׃‬

I will make mention of the Lord's kindnesses

– The Lord's praiseworthy acts –

According to everything that the Lord has recompensed us with,

And the great goodness towards the house of Israel

Which he recompensed them with,

According to his mercy

And according to his many kind deeds.

praiseworthy acts ← praises.
Isa 63:8 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַךְ־עַמִּ֣י הֵ֔מָּה בָּנִ֖ים לֹ֣א יְשַׁקֵּ֑רוּ וַיְהִ֥י לָהֶ֖ם לְמוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃‬

For he said,

“Indeed, they are my people,

Sons who will not act falsely.”

And he became their saviour.

sons who will not act falsely: when Jer 33:33 takes place.
Isa 63:9 ‫בְּֽכָל־צָרָתָ֣ם ׀ *לא **ל֣וֹ צָ֗ר וּמַלְאַ֤ךְ פָּנָיו֙ הֽוֹשִׁיעָ֔ם בְּאַהֲבָת֥וֹ וּבְחֶמְלָת֖וֹ ה֣וּא גְאָלָ֑ם וַֽיְנַטְּלֵ֥ם וַֽיְנַשְּׂאֵ֖ם כָּל־יְמֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם׃‬

In all their adversity

{Q: He suffered adversity} [K: He did not suffer adversity],

And the angel of his presence saved them,

And in his love and in his compassion

He redeemed them

And took them up

And raised them up,

All the days of the age.

On the ketiv, see Ex 21:8. Our text ← it was {Q: - } [K: not] adverse to him.
Isa 63:10 ‫וְהֵ֛מָּה מָר֥וּ וְעִצְּב֖וּ אֶת־ר֣וּחַ קָדְשׁ֑וֹ וַיֵּהָפֵ֥ךְ לָהֶ֛ם לְאוֹיֵ֖ב ה֥וּא נִלְחַם־בָּֽם׃‬

But they rebelled

And grieved his holy spirit,

And he turned into their enemy,

And he fought against them.

his holy spirit ← the spirit of his holiness.
Isa 63:11 ‫וַיִּזְכֹּ֥ר יְמֵֽי־עוֹלָ֖ם מֹשֶׁ֣ה עַמּ֑וֹ אַיֵּ֣ה ׀ הַֽמַּעֲלֵ֣ם מִיָּ֗ם אֵ֚ת רֹעֵ֣י צֹאנ֔וֹ אַיֵּ֛ה הַשָּׂ֥ם בְּקִרְבּ֖וֹ אֶת־ר֥וּחַ קָדְשֽׁוֹ׃‬

But he remembered the age-old days

– Moses and his people – and said,

“Where is he who brought them up out of the sea,

With the shepherds of his flock?

Where is he

Who put his holy spirit inside them?

In this section, the Lord asks rhetorical questions.

his holy spirit ← the spirit of his holiness, a Hebraic genitive.

inside them ← in his / its inside, a reference to the flock.
Isa 63:12 ‫מוֹלִיךְ֙ לִימִ֣ין מֹשֶׁ֔ה זְר֖וֹעַ תִּפְאַרְתּ֑וֹ בּ֤וֹקֵֽעַ מַ֙יִם֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת ל֖וֹ שֵׁ֥ם עוֹלָֽם׃‬

Where is he who led them by Moses' right hand,

By his magnificent arm,

Dividing water in front of them,

So making for himself an age-abiding name,

his magnificent arm ← the arm of his magnificence, a Hebraic genitive. Reference the Lord / the Messiah.
Isa 63:13 ‫מוֹלִיכָ֖ם בַּתְּהֹמ֑וֹת כַּסּ֥וּס בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר לֹ֥א יִכָּשֵֽׁלוּ׃‬

As he led them through the depths,

Like a horse through the desert,

So that they should not flounder?”

Isa 63:14 ‫כַּבְּהֵמָה֙ בַּבִּקְעָ֣ה תֵרֵ֔ד ר֥וּחַ יְהוָ֖ה תְּנִיחֶ֑נּוּ כֵּ֚ן נִהַ֣גְתָּ עַמְּךָ֔ לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת לְךָ֖ שֵׁ֥ם תִּפְאָֽרֶת׃‬

As cattle go down into the valley,

So the spirit of the Lord settled them down;

So you led your people

To make for yourself a magnificent name.

them ← him / it; see Isa 63:11.

a magnificent name ← a name of magnificence, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 63:15 ‫הַבֵּ֤ט מִשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וּרְאֵ֔ה מִזְּבֻ֥ל קָדְשְׁךָ֖ וְתִפְאַרְתֶּ֑ךָ אַיֵּ֤ה קִנְאָֽתְךָ֙ וּגְב֣וּרֹתֶ֔ךָ הֲמ֥וֹן מֵעֶ֛יךָ וְֽרַחֲמֶ֖יךָ אֵלַ֥י הִתְאַפָּֽקוּ׃‬

Look from heaven,

And see from your holy magnificent dwelling place.

Where are your zeal and your mighty deeds?

Are your many sympathies

And your compassion towards me


your holy magnificent dwelling place ← the dwelling place of your holiness and your magnificence, a Hebraic genitive.

sympathies ← bowels.
Isa 63:16 ‫כִּֽי־אַתָּ֣ה אָבִ֔ינוּ כִּ֤י אַבְרָהָם֙ לֹ֣א יְדָעָ֔נוּ וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹ֣א יַכִּירָ֑נוּ אַתָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אָבִ֔ינוּ גֹּאֲלֵ֥נוּ מֵֽעוֹלָ֖ם שְׁמֶֽךָ׃‬

For you are our father,

For Abraham did not know us,

And Israel did not acknowledge us.

You, O Lord, are our father,

Our redeemer;

Your name is age-old.

Isa 63:17 ‫לָ֣מָּה תַתְעֵ֤נוּ יְהוָה֙ מִדְּרָכֶ֔יךָ תַּקְשִׁ֥יחַ לִבֵּ֖נוּ מִיִּרְאָתֶ֑ךָ שׁ֚וּב לְמַ֣עַן עֲבָדֶ֔יךָ שִׁבְטֵ֖י נַחֲלָתֶֽךָ׃‬

Why, O Lord,

Are you leading us astray from your paths,

And why are you hardening our heart from fearing you?

Return for the sake of your servants

– The tribes of your inheritance.

fearing you ← fear of you, an objective genitive.
Isa 63:18 ‫לַמִּצְעָ֕ר יָרְשׁ֖וּ עַם־קָדְשֶׁ֑ךָ צָרֵ֕ינוּ בּוֹסְס֖וּ מִקְדָּשֶֽׁךָ׃‬

For a while they took possession of your holy people

– Our adversaries who trod down your sanctuary.

took possession: the AV differs as to the subject of this verb.

your holy people ← the people of your holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 63:19 ‫הָיִ֗ינוּ מֵֽעוֹלָם֙ לֹֽא־מָשַׁ֣לְתָּ בָּ֔ם לֹֽא־נִקְרָ֥א שִׁמְךָ֖ עֲלֵיהֶ֑ם לוּא־קָרַ֤עְתָּ שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ יָרַ֔דְתָּ מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ הָרִ֥ים נָזֹֽלּוּ׃‬

We have been from age-old time,

But you have not had rule over them.

They have not been called after your name.

¶ If only you would split the heavens open

And come down,

And that mountains would be shaken at your presence.

¶ Verse division: part of Isa 63:19MT is in Isa 64:1AV.

they have not been called after your name ← your name has not been called over them. Compare James 2:7.
Isa 64:1
Isa 64:2AV
‫כִּקְדֹ֧חַ אֵ֣שׁ הֲמָסִ֗ים מַ֚יִם תִּבְעֶה־אֵ֔שׁ לְהוֹדִ֥יעַ שִׁמְךָ֖ לְצָרֶ֑יךָ מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ גּוֹיִ֥ם יִרְגָּֽזוּ׃‬

As fire burns brushwood,

And fire boils water,

So it will be

In making your name known to your adversaries

When the nations tremble at your presence,

brushwood: AV differs (melting).

in making ... known: gerundial use of the infinitive.

tremble: or be overawed.
Isa 64:2
Isa 64:3AV
‫בַּעֲשׂוֹתְךָ֥ נוֹרָא֖וֹת לֹ֣א נְקַוֶּ֑ה יָרַ֕דְתָּ מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ הָרִ֥ים נָזֹֽלּוּ׃‬

When you do fearful things

Which we do not expect,

Such as when you came down,

And when mountains were shaken at your presence.

Isa 64:3
Isa 64:4AV
‫וּמֵעוֹלָ֥ם לֹא־שָׁמְע֖וּ לֹ֣א הֶאֱזִ֑ינוּ עַ֣יִן לֹֽא־רָאָ֗תָה אֱלֹהִים֙ זוּלָ֣תְךָ֔ יַעֲשֶׂ֖ה לִמְחַכֵּה־לֽוֹ׃‬

For they have never heard,

Nor have they given ear,

Nor has an eye seen,

O God, except you,

What he will do

For him who awaits him.

1 Cor 2:9.

never ← not from an age.

he will do: standing for you will do. A change of grammatical person from the second person; compare Isa 44:23.
Isa 64:4
Isa 64:5AV
‫פָּגַ֤עְתָּ אֶת־שָׂשׂ֙ וְעֹ֣שֵׂה צֶ֔דֶק בִּדְרָכֶ֖יךָ יִזְכְּר֑וּךָ הֵן־אַתָּ֤ה קָצַ֙פְתָּ֙ וַֽנֶּחֱטָ֔א בָּהֶ֥ם עוֹלָ֖ם וְנִוָּשֵֽׁעַ׃‬

You met with him who rejoices

And does righteousness;

They will remember you by your ways.

Look, you have been angry,

And we have sinned against them throughout the age,

But we will be saved.

they will remember you: perhaps to avoid the passive, you will be remembered.
Isa 64:5
Isa 64:6AV
‫וַנְּהִ֤י כַטָּמֵא֙ כֻּלָּ֔נוּ וּכְבֶ֥גֶד עִדִּ֖ים כָּל־צִדְקֹתֵ֑ינוּ וַנָּ֤בֶל כֶּֽעָלֶה֙ כֻּלָּ֔נוּ וַעֲוֺנֵ֖נוּ כָּר֥וּחַ יִשָּׂאֻֽנוּ׃‬

And we have all been like an unclean thing;

All our righteous deeds are like a menstruous cloth,

And we have all faded like a leaf,

And our iniquities have carried us away like the wind.

faded: intransitive use of hiphil.
Isa 64:6
Isa 64:7AV
‫וְאֵין־קוֹרֵ֣א בְשִׁמְךָ֔ מִתְעוֹרֵ֖ר לְהַחֲזִ֣יק בָּ֑ךְ כִּֽי־הִסְתַּ֤רְתָּ פָנֶ֙יךָ֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וַתְּמוּגֵ֖נוּ בְּיַד־עֲוֺנֵֽנוּ׃‬

And there is no-one calling on your name,

Arousing himself to take hold of you,

For you have hidden your face from us,

And you have caused us to melt

On account of our iniquities.

to melt: the metaphorical sense is to despond.

on account of ← by the hand of.
Isa 64:7
Isa 64:8AV
‫וְעַתָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה אָבִ֣ינוּ אָ֑תָּה אֲנַ֤חְנוּ הַחֹ֙מֶר֙ וְאַתָּ֣ה יֹצְרֵ֔נוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדְךָ֖ כֻּלָּֽנוּ׃‬

And now, O Lord,

You are our father;

We are the clay,

And you are our potter,

And we are all the work of your hand.

Isa 64:8
Isa 64:9AV
‫אַל־תִּקְצֹ֤ף יְהוָה֙ עַד־מְאֹ֔ד וְאַל־לָעַ֖ד תִּזְכֹּ֣ר עָוֺ֑ן הֵ֥ן הַבֶּט־נָ֖א עַמְּךָ֥ כֻלָּֽנוּ׃‬

O Lord,

Do not be extremely angry,

And do not remember iniquity in perpetuity.

Behold, do look,

We are all your people.

extremely ← as far as much.
Isa 64:9
Isa 64:10AV
‫עָרֵ֥י קָדְשְׁךָ֖ הָי֣וּ מִדְבָּ֑ר צִיּוֹן֙ מִדְבָּ֣ר הָיָ֔תָה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם שְׁמָמָֽה׃‬

Your holy cities have become a desert;

Zion has become a desert,

Jerusalem – a desolation.

your holy cities ← the cities of your holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 64:10
Isa 64:11AV
‫בֵּ֧ית קָדְשֵׁ֣נוּ וְתִפְאַרְתֵּ֗נוּ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הִֽלְל֙וּךָ֙ אֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ הָיָ֖ה לִשְׂרֵ֣פַת אֵ֑שׁ וְכָל־מַחֲמַדֵּ֖ינוּ הָיָ֥ה לְחָרְבָּֽה׃‬

Our holy and majestic house,

In which our fathers praised you,

Has become a burnt-out conflagration,

And all our delightful objects

Have become a desolation.

our holy and majestic house ← the house of our holiness and our majesty.

a burnt-out conflagration ← a burning of fire.
Isa 64:11
Isa 64:12AV
‫הַעַל־אֵ֥לֶּה תִתְאַפַּ֖ק יְהוָ֑ה תֶּחֱשֶׁ֥ה וּתְעַנֵּ֖נוּ עַד־מְאֹֽד׃ ס‬

Will you restrain yourself

Concerning these things,

O Lord?

Or will you be silent

And afflict us in the extreme?

in the extreme ← as far as much.
Isa 65:1 ‫נִדְרַ֙שְׁתִּי֙ לְל֣וֹא שָׁאָ֔לוּ נִמְצֵ֖אתִי לְלֹ֣א בִקְשֻׁ֑נִי אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ הִנֵּ֣נִי הִנֵּ֔נִי אֶל־גּ֖וֹי לֹֽא־קֹרָ֥א בִשְׁמִֽי׃‬

“I have been consulted

By those who did not ask for me;

I have been found

By those who did not seek me.

I said, ‘Here I am, here I am

To a nation

Which was not called by my name.

Rom 10:20.

here I am (2x)behold me.
Isa 65:2 ‫פֵּרַ֧שְׂתִּי יָדַ֛י כָּל־הַיּ֖וֹם אֶל־עַ֣ם סוֹרֵ֑ר הַהֹלְכִים֙ הַדֶּ֣רֶךְ לֹא־ט֔וֹב אַחַ֖ר מַחְשְׁבֹתֵיהֶֽם׃‬

I have stretched out my hands all day long

To a recalcitrant people

Who walk in a way which is not good,

After their own thoughts.

Rom 10:21.
Isa 65:3 ‫הָעָ֗ם הַמַּכְעִיסִ֥ים אוֹתִ֛י עַל־פָּנַ֖י תָּמִ֑יד זֹֽבְחִים֙ בַּגַּנּ֔וֹת וּֽמְקַטְּרִ֖ים עַל־הַלְּבֵנִֽים׃‬

A people who provoke me to anger to my face

All the time,

Sacrificing in the gardens

And burning incense on the bricks,

Isa 65:4 ‫הַיֹּֽשְׁבִים֙ בַּקְּבָרִ֔ים וּבַנְּצוּרִ֖ים יָלִ֑ינוּ הָאֹֽכְלִים֙ בְּשַׂ֣ר הַחֲזִ֔יר *ופרק **וּמְרַ֥ק פִּגֻּלִ֖ים כְּלֵיהֶֽם׃‬

Who live in sepulchres

And dwell in secret spaces,

Who eat pork,

And whose pans contain soup made from abominable things,

soup: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

secret: other meanings of the word are guarded, preserved, blockaded. AV differs somewhat (monuments).
Isa 65:5 ‫הָאֹֽמְרִים֙ קְרַ֣ב אֵלֶ֔יךָ אַל־תִּגַּשׁ־בִּ֖י כִּ֣י קְדַשְׁתִּ֑יךָ אֵ֚לֶּה עָשָׁ֣ן בְּאַפִּ֔י אֵ֥שׁ יֹקֶ֖דֶת כָּל־הַיּֽוֹם׃‬

Who say, ‘Keep yourself to yourself;

Do not approach me,

For I am holier than you.’

These things are smoke in my nose

– A fire burning all day long.

keep yourself to yourself ← draw near to yourself.
Isa 65:6 ‫הִנֵּ֥ה כְתוּבָ֖ה לְפָנָ֑י לֹ֤א אֶחֱשֶׂה֙ כִּ֣י אִם־שִׁלַּ֔מְתִּי וְשִׁלַּמְתִּ֖י עַל־חֵיקָֽם׃‬

Behold, it is written before me;

I will not be silent,

But I will repay,

And I will repay

Into their bosom.

Isa 65:7 ‫עֲ֠וֺנֹתֵיכֶם וַעֲוֺנֹ֨ת אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֤ם יַחְדָּו֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר קִטְּרוּ֙ עַל־הֶ֣הָרִ֔ים וְעַל־הַגְּבָע֖וֹת חֵרְפ֑וּנִי וּמַדֹּתִ֧י פְעֻלָּתָ֛ם רִֽאשֹׁנָ֖ה *על־**אֶל־חֵיקָֽם׃ ס‬

As for your iniquities,

And the iniquities of your fathers together,

Says the Lord

Your fathers who burned incense on the mountains

And showed me contempt on the hills –

I will mete out their first undertaking

Into their bosom.”

into: the ketiv often has the sense of the qeré.
Isa 65:8 ‫כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר יִמָּצֵ֤א הַתִּירוֹשׁ֙ בָּֽאֶשְׁכּ֔וֹל וְאָמַר֙ אַל־תַּשְׁחִיתֵ֔הוּ כִּ֥י בְרָכָ֖ה בּ֑וֹ כֵּ֤ן אֶֽעֱשֶׂה֙ לְמַ֣עַן עֲבָדַ֔י לְבִלְתִּ֖י הַֽשְׁחִ֥ית הַכֹּֽל׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“As the new wine is found in the bunch of grapes,

And someone says,

‘Do not ruin it,

For there is a blessing in it’,

So I will do for the sake of my servants

So as not to bring all to ruin.

this is whatthus.
Isa 65:9 ‫וְהוֹצֵאתִ֤י מִֽיַּעֲקֹב֙ זֶ֔רַע וּמִיהוּדָ֖ה יוֹרֵ֣שׁ הָרָ֑י וִירֵשׁ֣וּהָ בְחִירַ֔י וַעֲבָדַ֖י יִשְׁכְּנוּ־שָֽׁמָּה׃‬

And I will bring a seed out of Jacob,

And out of Judah an inheritor of my mountains,

And my chosen ones will inherit this,

And my servants will dwell there.

this ← it.
Isa 65:10 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה הַשָּׁרוֹן֙ לִנְוֵה־צֹ֔אן וְעֵ֥מֶק עָכ֖וֹר לְרֵ֣בֶץ בָּקָ֑ר לְעַמִּ֖י אֲשֶׁ֥ר דְּרָשֽׁוּנִי׃‬

And Sharon will be a pasture for sheep,

And the Valley of Achor a place for oxen to lie down

– For my people who have sought me.

Sharon ← the Sharon.

pasture: or fold.
Isa 65:11 ‫וְאַתֶּם֙ עֹזְבֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה הַשְּׁכֵחִ֖ים אֶת־הַ֣ר קָדְשִׁ֑י הַֽעֹרְכִ֤ים לַגַּד֙ שֻׁלְחָ֔ן וְהַֽמְמַלְאִ֖ים לַמְנִ֥י מִמְסָֽךְ׃‬

But you are forsakers of the Lord,

Who forget my holy mountain,

Who prepare a table for Gad,

And who fill the vial with spiced wine

For Meni,

my holy mountain ← the mountain of my holiness.

Gad ... Meni ← fortune ... destiny (see next verse). AV differs somewhat (number).
Isa 65:12 ‫וּמָנִ֨יתִי אֶתְכֶ֜ם לַחֶ֗רֶב וְכֻלְּכֶם֙ לַטֶּ֣בַח תִּכְרָ֔עוּ יַ֤עַן קָרָ֙אתִי֙ וְלֹ֣א עֲנִיתֶ֔ם דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַעְתֶּ֑ם וַתַּעֲשׂ֤וּ הָרַע֙ בְּעֵינַ֔י וּבַאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־חָפַ֖צְתִּי בְּחַרְתֶּֽם׃ פ‬

So I will destine you for the sword,

And you will all stoop for slaughter,

Because I called,

But you did not answer;

I spoke,

But you did not listen,

And you did what is evil in my sight,

And you chose

What I dislike.”

destine: a play on words with Meni (Isa 65:11).
Isa 65:13 ‫לָכֵ֞ן כֹּה־אָמַ֣ר ׀ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה הִנֵּ֨ה עֲבָדַ֤י ׀ יֹאכֵ֙לוּ֙ וְאַתֶּ֣ם תִּרְעָ֔בוּ הִנֵּ֧ה עֲבָדַ֛י יִשְׁתּ֖וּ וְאַתֶּ֣ם תִּצְמָ֑אוּ הִנֵּ֧ה עֲבָדַ֛י יִשְׂמָ֖חוּ וְאַתֶּ֥ם תֵּבֹֽשׁוּ׃‬

Therefore this is what my Lord the Lord says:

“Behold, my servants will eat,

But you will hunger;

Behold, my servants will drink,

But you will thirst;

Behold, my servants will rejoice,

But you will be ashamed.

this is whatthus.

but (3x): adversative use of the vav.
Isa 65:14 ‫הִנֵּ֧ה עֲבָדַ֛י יָרֹ֖נּוּ מִטּ֣וּב לֵ֑ב וְאַתֶּ֤ם תִּצְעֲקוּ֙ מִכְּאֵ֣ב לֵ֔ב וּמִשֵּׁ֥בֶר ר֖וּחַ תְּיֵלִֽילוּ׃‬

Behold, my servants will be jubilant from a cheerful heart,

But you will cry out from a painful heart,

And you will wail from a broken spirit.

a cheerful heart ← cheerfulness of heart.

a painful heart ← painfulness of heart.

a broken spirit ← breakage of spirit.
Isa 65:15 ‫וְהִנַּחְתֶּ֨ם שִׁמְכֶ֤ם לִשְׁבוּעָה֙ לִבְחִירַ֔י וֶהֱמִיתְךָ֖ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה וְלַעֲבָדָ֥יו יִקְרָ֖א שֵׁ֥ם אַחֵֽר׃‬

And you will leave your name

As a curse to my chosen ones,

And my Lord the Lord will put you to death,

And he will call his servants by another name,

Isa 65:16 ‫אֲשֶׁ֨ר הַמִּתְבָּרֵ֜ךְ בָּאָ֗רֶץ יִתְבָּרֵךְ֙ בֵּאלֹהֵ֣י אָמֵ֔ן וְהַנִּשְׁבָּ֣ע בָּאָ֔רֶץ יִשָּׁבַ֖ע בֵּאלֹהֵ֣י אָמֵ֑ן כִּ֣י נִשְׁכְּח֗וּ הַצָּרוֹת֙ הָרִ֣אשֹׁנ֔וֹת וְכִ֥י נִסְתְּר֖וּ מֵעֵינָֽי׃‬

So that he who is blessed on earth

Will be blessed by the God of truth,

And he who swears on earth

Will swear by the God of truth,

Because the former adversities will be forgotten,

And because they will be hidden from my eyes.

on earth: or by the earth.
Isa 65:17 ‫כִּֽי־הִנְנִ֥י בוֹרֵ֛א שָׁמַ֥יִם חֲדָשִׁ֖ים וָאָ֣רֶץ חֲדָשָׁ֑ה וְלֹ֤א תִזָּכַ֙רְנָה֙ הָרִ֣אשֹׁנ֔וֹת וְלֹ֥א תַעֲלֶ֖ינָה עַל־לֵֽב׃‬

For I am about to create new heavens and a new earth,

And the former things will not be remembered,

And they will not arise in the heart.

2 Pet 3:13, Rev 21:1.

I am about to ← behold me.
Isa 65:18 ‫כִּֽי־אִם־שִׂ֤ישׂוּ וְגִ֙ילוּ֙ עֲדֵי־עַ֔ד אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֲנִ֣י בוֹרֵ֑א כִּי֩ הִנְנִ֨י בוֹרֵ֧א אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֛ם גִּילָ֖ה וְעַמָּ֥הּ מָשֽׂוֹשׂ׃‬

But rejoice and exult in all perpetuity,

In what I am about to create,

For I am about to create Jerusalem

– A joy –

And her people will be a delight.

in all perpetuity ← perpetuities of perpetuity.

I am about to ← behold me.
Isa 65:19 ‫וְגַלְתִּ֥י בִירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וְשַׂשְׂתִּ֣י בְעַמִּ֑י וְלֹֽא־יִשָּׁמַ֥ע בָּהּ֙ ע֔וֹד ק֥וֹל בְּכִ֖י וְק֥וֹל זְעָקָֽה׃‬

And I will rejoice in Jerusalem

And exult in my people.

And the sound of weeping

And the sound of outcry

Will no longer be heard in it.

Isa 65:20 ‫לֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה מִשָּׁ֜ם ע֗וֹד ע֤וּל יָמִים֙ וְזָקֵ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְמַלֵּ֖א אֶת־יָמָ֑יו כִּ֣י הַנַּ֗עַר בֶּן־מֵאָ֤ה שָׁנָה֙ יָמ֔וּת וְהַ֣חוֹטֶ֔א בֶּן־מֵאָ֥ה שָׁנָ֖ה יְקֻלָּֽל׃‬

There will no longer be from there

A child a few days old,

Or an old man,

Whose days are not fulfilled.

For a child will die at one hundred years old,

And a sinner aged one hundred years will be accursed.

or: disjunctive use of the vav.

whose days are not fulfilled ← who does not fill his days.
Isa 65:21 ‫וּבָנ֥וּ בָתִּ֖ים וְיָשָׁ֑בוּ וְנָטְע֣וּ כְרָמִ֔ים וְאָכְל֖וּ פִּרְיָֽם׃‬

And they will build houses and live in them,

And they will plant vineyards

And eat their fruit.

Isa 65:22 ‫לֹ֤א יִבְנוּ֙ וְאַחֵ֣ר יֵשֵׁ֔ב לֹ֥א יִטְּע֖וּ וְאַחֵ֣ר יֹאכֵ֑ל כִּֽי־כִימֵ֤י הָעֵץ֙ יְמֵ֣י עַמִּ֔י וּמַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יְדֵיהֶ֖ם יְבַלּ֥וּ בְחִירָֽי׃‬

They will not build and another will live there;

They will not plant and another will eat,

For the days of my people

Will be like the days of a tree,

And my chosen ones

Will enjoy the work of their hands.

Isa 65:23 ‫לֹ֤א יִֽיגְעוּ֙ לָרִ֔יק וְלֹ֥א יֵלְד֖וּ לַבֶּהָלָ֑ה כִּ֣י זֶ֜רַע בְּרוּכֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ הֵ֔מָּה וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶ֖ם אִתָּֽם׃‬

They will not toil in vain,

And they will not give birth in prospect of terror,

For they will be a seed blessed by the Lord,

As will their offspring with them.

Isa 65:24 ‫וְהָיָ֥ה טֶֽרֶם־יִקְרָ֖אוּ וַאֲנִ֣י אֶעֱנֶ֑ה ע֛וֹד הֵ֥ם מְדַבְּרִ֖ים וַאֲנִ֥י אֶשְׁמָֽע׃‬

And it will come to pass

That before they call out,

I will answer,

And while they are still speaking,

I will heed them.

Isa 65:25 ‫זְאֵ֨ב וְטָלֶ֜ה יִרְע֣וּ כְאֶחָ֗ד וְאַרְיֵה֙ כַּבָּקָ֣ר יֹֽאכַל־תֶּ֔בֶן וְנָחָ֖שׁ עָפָ֣ר לַחְמ֑וֹ לֹֽא־יָרֵ֧עוּ וְלֹֽא־יַשְׁחִ֛יתוּ בְּכָל־הַ֥ר קָדְשִׁ֖י אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

The wolf and the lamb will feed together,

And the lion like the ox will eat straw,

But as for the serpent,

His food will be dust.

They will not do harm,

And they will not cause damage

Anywhere in my holy mountain”,

Says the Lord.

|| Isa 11:6, Isa 11:9.

together ← as one.

food ← bread, standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.

anywhere in ← in all of.

my holy mountain ← the mountain of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 66:1 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם כִּסְאִ֔י וְהָאָ֖רֶץ הֲדֹ֣ם רַגְלָ֑י אֵי־זֶ֥ה בַ֙יִת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּבְנוּ־לִ֔י וְאֵי־זֶ֥ה מָק֖וֹם מְנוּחָתִֽי׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

Heaven is my throne,

And the earth is my footstool.

What house is it which you will build me,

And what resting place of mine will you build?

Matt 5:34, Matt 5:35, Acts 7:49.

this is whatthus.
Isa 66:2 ‫וְאֶת־כָּל־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ יָדִ֣י עָשָׂ֔תָה וַיִּהְי֥וּ כָל־אֵ֖לֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה וְאֶל־זֶ֣ה אַבִּ֔יט אֶל־עָנִי֙ וּנְכֵה־ר֔וּחַ וְחָרֵ֖ד עַל־דְּבָרִֽי׃‬

For my hand made all these things,

And all these things have come to pass,

Says the Lord,

But here are those whom I will watch over:

The poor, and the contrite,

And him who trembles at my word.

Acts 7:50.

my hand: in a Hebrew “OSV” (object-subject-verb) sentence.

are those(is) this.

contrite ← struck of spirit.
Isa 66:3 ‫שׁוֹחֵ֨ט הַשּׁ֜וֹר מַכֵּה־אִ֗ישׁ זוֹבֵ֤חַ הַשֶּׂה֙ עֹ֣רֵֽף כֶּ֔לֶב מַעֲלֵ֤ה מִנְחָה֙ דַּם־חֲזִ֔יר מַזְכִּ֥יר לְבֹנָ֖ה מְבָ֣רֵֽךְ אָ֑וֶן גַּם־הֵ֗מָּה בָּֽחֲרוּ֙ בְּדַרְכֵיהֶ֔ם וּבְשִׁקּוּצֵיהֶ֖ם נַפְשָׁ֥ם חָפֵֽצָה׃‬

But he who slaughters an ox as if he is striking a man,

He who sacrifices a lamb as if he is breaking a dog's neck,

He who makes a meal-offering as if it is the blood of a pig,

He who makes a memorial with incense as if he is blessing an idol

– These also have chosen their ways,

And their being has delighted in their abominations.

an idol: or iniquity.

being ← soul.
Isa 66:4 ‫גַּם־אֲנִ֞י אֶבְחַ֣ר בְּתַעֲלֻלֵיהֶ֗ם וּמְגֽוּרֹתָם֙ אָבִ֣יא לָהֶ֔ם יַ֤עַן קָרָ֙אתִי֙ וְאֵ֣ין עוֹנֶ֔ה דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי וְלֹ֣א שָׁמֵ֑עוּ וַיַּעֲשׂ֤וּ הָרַע֙ בְּעֵינַ֔י וּבַאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־חָפַ֖צְתִּי בָּחָֽרוּ׃ ס‬

I too will choose their depravity,

And I will bring their fears upon them,

Because I called,

But there was no-one who answered;

I spoke,

But they did not listen;

And they did what is wrong in my sight,

And they chose what I dislike.

depravity ← depravities.
Isa 66:5 ‫שִׁמְעוּ֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה הַחֲרֵדִ֖ים אֶל־דְּבָר֑וֹ אָמְרוּ֩ אֲחֵיכֶ֨ם שֹׂנְאֵיכֶ֜ם מְנַדֵּיכֶ֗ם לְמַ֤עַן שְׁמִי֙ יִכְבַּ֣ד יְהוָ֔ה וְנִרְאֶ֥ה בְשִׂמְחַתְכֶ֖ם וְהֵ֥ם יֵבֹֽשׁוּ׃‬

Hear the word of the Lord,

You who tremble at his word.

Your brothers who hate you,

And who thrust you out for my name's sake, said,

‘Let the Lord be glorified.’

When he appears, to your joy,

They will be ashamed.

Isa 66:6 ‫ק֤וֹל שָׁאוֹן֙ מֵעִ֔יר ק֖וֹל מֵֽהֵיכָ֑ל ק֣וֹל יְהוָ֔ה מְשַׁלֵּ֥ם גְּמ֖וּל לְאֹיְבָֽיו׃‬

A sound of tumult from the city,

A sound from the temple,

The voice of the Lord

Giving retribution to his enemies

Will be heard.

voice: the same word as sound.

giving ← paying.
Isa 66:7 ‫בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּחִ֖יל יָלָ֑דָה בְּטֶ֨רֶם יָב֥וֹא חֵ֛בֶל לָ֖הּ וְהִמְלִ֥יטָה זָכָֽר׃‬

Before she was in labour,

She gave birth.

Before her throes of childbearing came upon her,

She was delivered of a male child.

This section, up to Isa 66:14, is about the New Israel, not a Gentile nation. See note on Matt 21:43.
Isa 66:8 ‫מִֽי־שָׁמַ֣ע כָּזֹ֗את מִ֤י רָאָה֙ כָּאֵ֔לֶּה הֲי֤וּחַל אֶ֙רֶץ֙ בְּי֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד אִם־יִוָּ֥לֵֽד גּ֖וֹי פַּ֣עַם אֶחָ֑ת כִּֽי־חָ֛לָה גַּם־יָלְדָ֥ה צִיּ֖וֹן אֶת־בָּנֶֽיהָ׃‬

Who has heard of anything like this?

Who has seen things like these?

Can the earth be given birth to in one day?

Or can a nation be born in one moment?

For Zion has been in labour

And has given birth to her sons.

Isa 66:9 ‫הַאֲנִ֥י אַשְׁבִּ֛יר וְלֹ֥א אוֹלִ֖יד יֹאמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה אִם־אֲנִ֧י הַמּוֹלִ֛יד וְעָצַ֖רְתִּי אָמַ֥ר אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃ ס‬

Will I cause the breakthrough

But not the childbirth?

– Says the Lord.

Or shall I, who cause the childbirth,

Hold it back?

– Says your God.

Isa 66:10 ‫שִׂמְח֧וּ אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֛ם וְגִ֥ילוּ בָ֖הּ כָּל־אֹהֲבֶ֑יהָ שִׂ֤ישׂוּ אִתָּהּ֙ מָשׂ֔וֹשׂ כָּל־הַמִּֽתְאַבְּלִ֖ים עָלֶֽיהָ׃‬

Be glad with Jerusalem,

And exult in her,

All you who love her.

Rejoice with her in joy,

All you who mourn over her,

Isa 66:11 ‫לְמַ֤עַן תִּֽינְקוּ֙ וּשְׂבַעְתֶּ֔ם מִשֹּׁ֖ד תַּנְחֻמֶ֑יהָ לְמַ֧עַן תָּמֹ֛צּוּ וְהִתְעַנַּגְתֶּ֖ם מִזִּ֥יז כְּבוֹדָֽהּ׃ ס‬

In order that you may suck and be satisfied

From her comforting breast,

And in order that you may imbibe

And delight yourself

In the abundance of her glory.”

her comforting breast ← the breast of her comfortings, a Hebraic genitive.

imbibe ← suck, but not the same word as the word translated suck above.
Isa 66:12 ‫כִּֽי־כֹ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה הִנְנִ֣י נֹטֶֽה־אֵ֠לֶיהָ כְּנָהָ֨ר שָׁל֜וֹם וּכְנַ֧חַל שׁוֹטֵ֛ף כְּב֥וֹד גּוֹיִ֖ם וִֽינַקְתֶּ֑ם עַל־צַד֙ תִּנָּשֵׂ֔אוּ וְעַל־בִּרְכַּ֖יִם תְּשָׁעֳשָֽׁעוּ׃‬

For this is what the Lord says:

I am about to extend peace to her

Like a river,

And the glory of the Gentiles

Like an overflowing brook

For you to suck.

You will be carried alongside

And you will be indulged in her lap.

this is whatthus.

I am about to ← behold me.

in her lap ← on (her) knees.
Isa 66:13 ‫כְּאִ֕ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִמּ֖וֹ תְּנַחֲמֶ֑נּוּ כֵּ֤ן אָֽנֹכִי֙ אֲנַ֣חֶמְכֶ֔ם וּבִירֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם תְּנֻחָֽמוּ׃‬

As a man whose mother comforts him,

So I will comfort you,

And you will be comforted

In Jerusalem.

Isa 66:14 ‫וּרְאִיתֶם֙ וְשָׂ֣שׂ לִבְּכֶ֔ם וְעַצְמוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם כַּדֶּ֣שֶׁא תִפְרַ֑חְנָה וְנוֹדְעָ֤ה יַד־יְהוָה֙ אֶת־עֲבָדָ֔יו וְזָעַ֖ם אֶת־אֹיְבָֽיו׃‬

And when you see it,

Your heart will rejoice,

And your bones will thrive like grass,

And the hand of the Lord will be known among his servants,

But indignation among his enemies.

Isa 66:15 ‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ בָּאֵ֣שׁ יָב֔וֹא וְכַסּוּפָ֖ה מַרְכְּבֹתָ֑יו לְהָשִׁ֤יב בְּחֵמָה֙ אַפּ֔וֹ וְגַעֲרָת֖וֹ בְּלַהֲבֵי־אֵֽשׁ׃‬

For behold, the Lord will come with fire,

And his chariots will be like a whirlwind,

To satisfy his anger in fury,

And his rebuke in fiery flames.

satisfy ← repay.

his rebuke: either subjective (the Lord rebukes in vengeance), or objective (the Lord takes vengeance on those who rebuked him).

fiery flames ← flames of fire, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 66:16 ‫כִּ֤י בָאֵשׁ֙ יְהוָ֣ה נִשְׁפָּ֔ט וּבְחַרְבּ֖וֹ אֶת־כָּל־בָּשָׂ֑ר וְרַבּ֖וּ חַֽלְלֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬

For the Lord will contend with all flesh

With fire and with his sword,

And those defeated by the Lord

Will be numerous.

those defeated by the Lordthe Lord's pierced.
Isa 66:17 ‫הַמִּתְקַדְּשִׁ֨ים וְהַמִּֽטַּהֲרִ֜ים אֶל־הַגַּנּ֗וֹת אַחַ֤ר *אחד **אַחַת֙ בַּתָּ֔וֶךְ אֹֽכְלֵי֙ בְּשַׂ֣ר הַחֲזִ֔יר וְהַשֶּׁ֖קֶץ וְהָעַכְבָּ֑ר יַחְדָּ֥ו יָסֻ֖פוּ נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Those who sanctify themselves and purify themselves in the gardens,

Behind one thing in the middle,

And those who eat pork,

And the abomination, and the mouse,

Will come to an end together”,

Says the Lord.

one: the ketiv is masculine, qeré feminine (the usual form for an abstraction).

thing: [CB] App. 42, a phallus.

abomination: [CB] refers this to consuming blood.
Isa 66:18 ‫וְאָנֹכִ֗י מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם֙ וּמַחְשְׁבֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם בָּאָ֕ה לְקַבֵּ֥ץ אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם וְהַלְּשֹׁנ֑וֹת וּבָ֖אוּ וְרָא֥וּ אֶת־כְּבוֹדִֽי׃‬

“And as for me,

And their deeds and their thoughts,

The time will come

To gather all the nations and the languages,

And they will come

And see my glory.

the time will come ... to gather: AV differs somewhat (I will gather).
Isa 66:19 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֨י בָהֶ֜ם א֗וֹת וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֣י מֵהֶ֣ם ׀ פְּ֠לֵיטִים אֶֽל־הַגּוֹיִ֞ם תַּרְשִׁ֨ישׁ פּ֥וּל וְל֛וּד מֹ֥שְׁכֵי קֶ֖שֶׁת תֻּבַ֣ל וְיָוָ֑ן הָאִיִּ֣ים הָרְחֹקִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹא־שָׁמְע֤וּ אֶת־שִׁמְעִי֙ וְלֹא־רָא֣וּ אֶת־כְּבוֹדִ֔י וְהִגִּ֥ידוּ אֶת־כְּבוֹדִ֖י בַּגּוֹיִֽם׃‬

And I will place a sign among them,

And I will send to the Gentiles those of them who escape,

To Tarshish, Pul and Lud,

To those who draw the bow,

To Tubal and Javan,

And to distant maritime countries

Who have not heard my fame,

And who have not seen my glory.

And they will tell of my glory among the Gentiles.

maritime countries: or islands.
Isa 66:20 ‫וְהֵבִ֣יאוּ אֶת־כָּל־אֲחֵיכֶ֣ם מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֣ם ׀ מִנְחָ֣ה ׀ לַֽיהוָ֡ה בַּסּוּסִ֡ים וּ֠בָרֶכֶב וּבַצַּבִּ֨ים וּבַפְּרָדִ֜ים וּבַכִּרְכָּר֗וֹת עַ֣ל הַ֥ר קָדְשִׁ֛י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יָבִיאוּ֩ בְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֛ה בִּכְלִ֥י טָה֖וֹר בֵּ֥ית יְהוָֽה׃‬

And they shall bring all your brothers from all the nations

With an offering to the Lord,

By horse and by chariot

And by covered wagon

And by mule and by dromedary,

To my holy mountain in Jerusalem,

Says the Lord,

When the sons of Israel bring the offering in clean equipment

To the house of the Lord.

covered wagon: AV differs somewhat (litters).

my holy mountain ← the mountain of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Isa 66:21 ‫וְגַם־מֵהֶ֥ם אֶקַּ֛ח לַכֹּהֲנִ֥ים לַלְוִיִּ֖ם אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬

And I will take a portion from them

For the Levite priests”,

Says the Lord.

Isa 66:22 ‫כִּ֣י כַאֲשֶׁ֣ר הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם הַ֠חֳדָשִׁים וְהָאָ֨רֶץ הַחֲדָשָׁ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲנִ֥י עֹשֶׂ֛ה עֹמְדִ֥ים לְפָנַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה כֵּ֛ן יַעֲמֹ֥ד זַרְעֲכֶ֖ם וְשִׁמְכֶֽם׃‬

“For as the new heavens and the new earth,

Which I will make,

Shall stand before me,

Says the Lord,

So your seed and your name will stand.

2 Pet 3:13, Rev 21:1.
Isa 66:23 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה מִֽדֵּי־חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ וּמִדֵּ֥י שַׁבָּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ יָב֧וֹא כָל־בָּשָׂ֛ר לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֥ת לְפָנַ֖י אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬

And it will come to pass

That at every new moon and every Sabbath,

All flesh will come to worship before me”,

Says the Lord.

at every new moon and every Sabbath ← as often as a new moon in its new moon and as often as a Sabbath in its Sabbath.
Isa 66:24 ‫וְיָצְא֣וּ וְרָא֔וּ בְּפִגְרֵי֙ הָאֲנָשִׁ֔ים הַפֹּשְׁעִ֖ים בִּ֑י כִּ֣י תוֹלַעְתָּ֞ם לֹ֣א תָמ֗וּת וְאִשָּׁם֙ לֹ֣א תִכְבֶּ֔ה וְהָי֥וּ דֵרָא֖וֹן לְכָל־בָּשָֽׂר׃‬

“And they will go out

And see the carcases of the men who have transgressed against me,

For their worm will not die,

And their fire will not be extinguished,

And they will be an abhorrence

To all flesh.”

Mark 9:44, Mark 9:46, Mark 9:48.