The Far Above All Translation of the Old Testament / Tanakh

Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

Version 0.33.105, 15 February 2024


We offer a freely copyable translation of the Old Testament / Tanakh based on the Masoretic Text. The translation follows the Masoretic Text, ketiv or qeré (which will be indicated), and vowels (but we retain freedom regarding word grouping), except that the changes made by the Sopherim are reversed (see Companion Bible Appendices 32 and 33). Textual and explanatory remarks may be made in the notes. Our translation may be freely copied (see copyright notices below).


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The Hebrew / Aramaic text as starting material is the Westminster Leningrad Codex [4.18], obtained from

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We nevertheless suggest that commercial publishers wishing to publish our combined Hebrew and English documents should verify the copyright position of the Hebrew text for themselves.

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Our copyright

The Introduction, the English translation and notes (referred to as "this text" below) Copyright © 2012-2022 by Graham G. Thomason. Anyone is permitted to copy and distribute this text or any portion of this text. It may be incorporated in a larger work, and/or quoted from, stored in a database retrieval system, photocopied, reprinted, or otherwise duplicated by anyone without prior notification, permission, compensation to the holder, or any other restrictions. All rights to this text are released to everyone and no-one can reduce these rights at any time. The permitted use or reproduction of the above-mentioned text does not imply doctrinal or theological agreement by the present translator and publisher with whatever views may be maintained or promulgated by other publishers. For the purpose of assigning responsibility, it is requested that the present translator's name and the title associated with this text and its availability at as well as this disclaimer be retained in any subsequent reproduction of this material.
- end of quotation -


Please see the separate Introduction to this Hebrew / Aramaic text and translation.

Hos 1:1 ‫דְּבַר־יְהוָ֣ה ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיָ֗ה אֶל־הוֹשֵׁ֙עַ֙ בֶּן־בְּאֵרִ֔י בִּימֵ֨י עֻזִּיָּ֥ה יוֹתָ֛ם אָחָ֥ז יְחִזְקִיָּ֖ה מַלְכֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה וּבִימֵ֛י יָרָבְעָ֥ם בֶּן־יוֹאָ֖שׁ מֶ֥לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ This is the word of the Lord which came to Hosea the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, the king of Israel. came ← became.

Hosea ← Hoshea, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.
Hos 1:2 ‫תְּחִלַּ֥ת דִּבֶּר־יְהוָ֖ה בְּהוֹשֵׁ֑עַ פ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־הוֹשֵׁ֗עַ לֵ֣ךְ קַח־לְךָ֞ אֵ֤שֶׁת זְנוּנִים֙ וְיַלְדֵ֣י זְנוּנִ֔ים כִּֽי־זָנֹ֤ה תִזְנֶה֙ הָאָ֔רֶץ מֵֽאַחֲרֵ֖י יְהוָֽה׃‬ This is the beginning of the word of the Lord through Hosea. And the Lord said to Hosea, “Go, take a wife of prostitution and children of prostitution, for the land has thoroughly committed prostitution in departing from following the Lord.” take ← take to yourself.

thoroughly committed prostitution: infinitive absolute.

in departing from following ← from after.
Hos 1:3 ‫וַיֵּ֙לֶךְ֙ וַיִּקַּ֔ח אֶת־גֹּ֖מֶר בַּת־דִּבְלָ֑יִם וַתַּ֥הַר וַתֵּֽלֶד־ל֖וֹ בֵּֽן׃‬ So he went and took Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim. And she conceived and bore him a son.
Hos 1:4 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֵלָ֔יו קְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יִזְרְעֶ֑אל כִּי־ע֣וֹד מְעַ֗ט וּפָ֨קַדְתִּ֜י אֶת־דְּמֵ֤י יִזְרְעֶאל֙ עַל־בֵּ֣ית יֵה֔וּא וְהִ֨שְׁבַּתִּ֔י מַמְלְכ֖וּת בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And the Lord said to him, “Call him Jezreel, for in just a little while, I will visit the blood of Jezreel on the house of Jehu, and I will put an end to the kingdom of the house of Israel. Jezreel (2x): see Josh 15:56.
Hos 1:5 ‫וְהָיָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וְשָֽׁבַרְתִּי֙ אֶת־קֶ֣שֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּעֵ֖מֶק יִזְרְעֶֽאל׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day that I will break the bow of Israel in the Valley of Jezreel.” Jezreel: see Josh 15:56.
Hos 1:6 ‫וַתַּ֤הַר עוֹד֙ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בַּ֔ת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ קְרָ֥א שְׁמָ֖הּ לֹ֣א רֻחָ֑מָה כִּי֩ לֹ֨א אוֹסִ֜יף ע֗וֹד אֲרַחֵם֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּֽי־נָשֹׂ֥א אֶשָּׂ֖א לָהֶֽם׃‬ Then she conceived again and bore a daughter, and he said to him, “Call her Lo-Ruhamah, for I will not have compassion any more on the house of Israel, for I will utterly carry them away. 1 Pet 2:10.

utterly carry: infinitive absolute.
Hos 1:7 ‫וְאֶת־בֵּ֤ית יְהוּדָה֙ אֲרַחֵ֔ם וְהֽוֹשַׁעְתִּ֖ים בַּיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם וְלֹ֣א אֽוֹשִׁיעֵ֗ם בְּקֶ֤שֶׁת וּבְחֶ֙רֶב֙ וּבְמִלְחָמָ֔ה בְּסוּסִ֖ים וּבְפָרָשִֽׁים׃‬ But on the house of Judah I will have compassion, and I will deliver them through the Lord their God, but I will not deliver them through the bow or sword or war, or through horses or through horsemen.”
Hos 1:8 ‫וַתִּגְמֹ֖ל אֶת־לֹ֣א רֻחָ֑מָה וַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֥לֶד בֵּֽן׃‬ And she weaned Lo-Ruhamah, then she conceived and bore a son.
Hos 1:9 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר קְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ לֹ֣א עַמִּ֑י כִּ֤י אַתֶּם֙ לֹ֣א עַמִּ֔י וְאָנֹכִ֖י לֹֽא־אֶהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶֽם׃ ס‬ And he said, “Call him Lo-Ammi, because you will not be my people, and I will not belong to you. Rom 9:25.

belong ← be.
Hos 2:1
Hos 1:10AV
‫וְֽ֠הָיָה מִסְפַּ֤ר בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כְּח֣וֹל הַיָּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יִמַּ֖ד וְלֹ֣א יִסָּפֵ֑ר וְֽ֠הָיָה בִּמְק֞וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יֵאָמֵ֤ר לָהֶם֙ לֹֽא־עַמִּ֣י אַתֶּ֔ם יֵאָמֵ֥ר לָהֶ֖ם בְּנֵ֥י אֵֽל־חָֽי׃‬ And the number of the sons of Israel will be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured and cannot be counted, and it will come to pass that in the place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people’, it will be said to them, ‘You are the sons of the living God.’ Rom 9:25, Rom 9:26, 1 Pet 2:10, Rev 21:3.
Hos 2:2
Hos 1:11AV
‫וְ֠נִקְבְּצוּ בְּנֵֽי־יְהוּדָ֤ה וּבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו וְשָׂמ֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם רֹ֥אשׁ אֶחָ֖ד וְעָל֣וּ מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּ֥י גָד֖וֹל י֥וֹם יִזְרְעֶֽאל׃‬ And the sons of Judah and the sons of Israel will be gathered together, and they will appoint for themselves one head, and they will come up from the land, for great will be the day of Jezreel. Jezreel: see Josh 15:56.
Hos 2:3
Hos 2:1AV
‫אִמְר֥וּ לַאֲחֵיכֶ֖ם עַמִּ֑י וְלַאֲחֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם רֻחָֽמָה׃‬ Say to your brothers, ‘Ammi’, and to your sisters, ‘Ruhamah.’ 1 Pet 2:10.

Ammi ← my people.

Ruhamah ← receiving compassion.
Hos 2:4
Hos 2:2AV
‫רִ֤יבוּ בְאִמְּכֶם֙ רִ֔יבוּ כִּֽי־הִיא֙ לֹ֣א אִשְׁתִּ֔י וְאָנֹכִ֖י לֹ֣א אִישָׁ֑הּ וְתָסֵ֤ר זְנוּנֶ֙יהָ֙ מִפָּנֶ֔יה וְנַאֲפוּפֶ֖יהָ מִבֵּ֥ין שָׁדֶֽיהָ׃‬

Contend with your mother, contend with her,

For she is not my wife,

And I am not her husband.

And let her put her prostitution away,

And her adulteries from between her breasts,

prostitution ← prostitutions.

away ← away from before her.
Hos 2:5
Hos 2:3AV
‫פֶּן־אַפְשִׁיטֶ֣נָּה עֲרֻמָּ֔ה וְהִ֨צַּגְתִּ֔יהָ כְּי֖וֹם הִוָּֽלְדָ֑הּ וְשַׂמְתִּ֣יהָ כַמִּדְבָּ֗ר וְשַׁתִּ֙הָ֙ כְּאֶ֣רֶץ צִיָּ֔ה וַהֲמִתִּ֖יהָ בַּצָּמָֽא׃‬

Lest I strip her naked

And make her like the day she was born,

And I make her like a desert,

And I make her like a dry land,

And I kill her through thirst,

make ... make ... make: Hebrew has three different words; it's our English that is otiose here.

a desert ← the desert. Idiomatic use of the generic article. See [ABD] §12 2(b)i.
Hos 2:6
Hos 2:4AV
‫וְאֶת־בָּנֶ֖יהָ לֹ֣א אֲרַחֵ֑ם כִּֽי־בְנֵ֥י זְנוּנִ֖ים הֵֽמָּה׃‬

And I do not have compassion on her sons,

Because they are the sons of prostitution,

prostitution ← prostitutions.
Hos 2:7
Hos 2:5AV
‫כִּ֤י זָֽנְתָה֙ אִמָּ֔ם הֹבִ֖ישָׁה הֽוֹרָתָ֑ם כִּ֣י אָמְרָ֗ה אֵלְכָ֞ה אַחֲרֵ֤י מְאַהֲבַי֙ נֹתְנֵ֤י לַחְמִי֙ וּמֵימַ֔י צַמְרִ֣י וּפִשְׁתִּ֔י שַׁמְנִ֖י וְשִׁקּוּיָֽי׃‬

For their mother has committed prostitution.

She acted shamefully when she conceived them,

For she said, ‘I will go after my lovers,

Who give me my bread and my water,

My wool and my flax,

My oil and my drink.’

bread ... water: standing for all kinds of food and drink.
Hos 2:8
Hos 2:6AV
‫לָכֵ֛ן הִנְנִי־שָׂ֥ךְ אֶת־דַּרְכֵּ֖ךְ בַּסִּירִ֑ים וְגָֽדַרְתִּי֙ אֶת־גְּדֵרָ֔הּ וּנְתִיבוֹתֶ֖יהָ לֹ֥א תִמְצָֽא׃‬

Therefore I am about to hedge your way in with thorns

And put up her walling,

And she will not find her paths.

I am about to ← behold me.

put up her walling ← “wall” her wall.
Hos 2:9
Hos 2:7AV
‫וְרִדְּפָ֤ה אֶת־מְאַהֲבֶ֙יהָ֙ וְלֹֽא־תַשִּׂ֣יג אֹתָ֔ם וּבִקְשָׁ֖תַם וְלֹ֣א תִמְצָ֑א וְאָמְרָ֗ה אֵלְכָ֤ה וְאָשׁ֙וּבָה֙ אֶל־אִישִׁ֣י הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן כִּ֣י ט֥וֹב לִ֛י אָ֖ז מֵעָֽתָּה׃‬

And she will pursue her lovers,

But she will not catch up with them,

And she will seek them

But will not find them,

And she will say, ‘Let me go,

And I will return to my first husband,

For it was better with me then than now.’

Hos 2:10
Hos 2:8AV
‫וְהִיא֙ לֹ֣א יָֽדְעָ֔ה כִּ֤י אָֽנֹכִי֙ נָתַ֣תִּי לָ֔הּ הַדָּגָ֖ן וְהַתִּיר֣וֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָ֑ר וְכֶ֨סֶף הִרְבֵּ֥יתִי לָ֛הּ וְזָהָ֖ב עָשׂ֥וּ לַבָּֽעַל׃‬

For she did not know that it was I

Who gave her her corn and new wine and new oil,

And who increased her silver and gold,

Which they fashioned for Baal.

Hos 2:11
Hos 2:9AV
‫לָכֵ֣ן אָשׁ֔וּב וְלָקַחְתִּ֤י דְגָנִי֙ בְּעִתּ֔וֹ וְתִירוֹשִׁ֖י בְּמֽוֹעֲד֑וֹ וְהִצַּלְתִּי֙ צַמְרִ֣י וּפִשְׁתִּ֔י לְכַסּ֖וֹת אֶת־עֶרְוָתָֽהּ׃‬

That is why I will take my corn back again on its day,

And my new wine in its season,

And I will recall my wool and my flax,

Which were used to cover her nakedness.

day ← time.

recall ← take / snatch away.
Hos 2:12
Hos 2:10AV
‫וְעַתָּ֛ה אֲגַלֶּ֥ה אֶת־נַבְלֻתָ֖הּ לְעֵינֵ֣י מְאַהֲבֶ֑יהָ וְאִ֖ישׁ לֹֽא־יַצִּילֶ֥נָּה מִיָּדִֽי׃‬

And now I will reveal her obscenity

In the eyes of her lovers,

And no-one will be able to deliver her from my hand.

Hos 2:13
Hos 2:11AV
‫וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי֙ כָּל־מְשׂוֹשָׂ֔הּ חַגָּ֖הּ חָדְשָׁ֣הּ וְשַׁבַּתָּ֑הּ וְכֹ֖ל מוֹעֲדָֽהּ׃‬

And I will put a stop to all her rejoicing,

Her celebration of feasts,

Her new moons, and her Sabbaths,

And all her festivals.

feasts ... new moons ... Sabbaths ... festivals ← feast ... new moon ... Sabbath ... festival.
Hos 2:14
Hos 2:12AV
‫וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִ֗י גַּפְנָהּ֙ וּתְאֵ֣נָתָ֔הּ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמְרָ֗ה אֶתְנָ֥ה הֵ֙מָּה֙ לִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽתְנוּ־לִ֖י מְאַֽהֲבָ֑י וְשַׂמְתִּ֣ים לְיַ֔עַר וַאֲכָלָ֖תַם חַיַּ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬

And I will lay her vines and her fig trees waste,

Of which she said,

‘They are my reward which my lovers gave me.’

And I will make them a woodland,

And the beasts of the field will devour them.

vines ... fig trees ← vine ... fig tree.
Hos 2:15
Hos 2:13AV
‫וּפָקַדְתִּ֣י עָלֶ֗יהָ אֶת־יְמֵ֤י הַבְּעָלִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּקְטִ֣יר לָהֶ֔ם וַתַּ֤עַד נִזְמָהּ֙ וְחֶלְיָתָ֔הּ וַתֵּ֖לֶךְ אַחֲרֵ֣י מְאַהֲבֶ֑יהָ וְאֹתִ֥י שָׁכְחָ֖ה נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬

And I will visit on her the days of the Baalim,

When she burnt incense to them

And adorned herself with her earring and her necklace

And went after her lovers,

But she forgot me,

Says the Lord.

Hos 2:16
Hos 2:14AV
‫לָכֵ֗ן הִנֵּ֤ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ מְפַתֶּ֔יהָ וְהֹֽלַכְתִּ֖יהָ הַמִּדְבָּ֑ר וְדִבַּרְתִּ֖י עַל לִבָּֽהּ׃‬

So look, I will allure her

And make her go to the desert

Where I will speak kindly to her.

where: wider use of the vav.

speak kindly to her ← to her heart.
Hos 2:17
Hos 2:15AV
‫וְנָתַ֨תִּי לָ֤הּ אֶת־כְּרָמֶ֙יהָ֙ מִשָּׁ֔ם וְאֶת־עֵ֥מֶק עָכ֖וֹר לְפֶ֣תַח תִּקְוָ֑ה וְעָ֤נְתָה שָּׁ֙מָּה֙ כִּימֵ֣י נְעוּרֶ֔יהָ וִּכְי֖וֹם עֲלֹתָ֥הּ מֵאֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרָֽיִם׃ ס‬

And I will give her back her vineyards

When she comes from there,

And the Valley of Achor as a door of hope.

And she will sing there, as in the days of her youth,

And as on the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt.

Hos 2:18
Hos 2:16AV
‫וְהָיָ֤ה בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה תִּקְרְאִ֖י אִישִׁ֑י וְלֹֽא־תִקְרְאִי־לִ֥י ע֖וֹד בַּעְלִֽי׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day,

Says the Lord,

That you will call me, ‘My husband’,

And you will no longer call me, ‘My Baal’.

my Baal: a play on words, with the meanings my husband / owner / lord or my Baal.
Hos 2:19
Hos 2:17AV
‫וַהֲסִרֹתִ֛י אֶת־שְׁמ֥וֹת הַבְּעָלִ֖ים מִפִּ֑יהָ וְלֹֽא־יִזָּכְר֥וּ ע֖וֹד בִּשְׁמָֽם׃‬

And I will remove the names of the Baalim from her mouth,

And they will no longer be remembered by their name.

Hos 2:20
Hos 2:18AV
‫וְכָרַתִּ֨י לָהֶ֤ם בְּרִית֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא עִם־חַיַּ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ וְעִם־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְרֶ֖מֶשׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה וְקֶ֨שֶׁת וְחֶ֤רֶב וּמִלְחָמָה֙ אֶשְׁבּ֣וֹר מִן־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהִשְׁכַּבְתִּ֖ים לָבֶֽטַח׃‬

I will make a covenant with them on that day,

With the wild animals and with the birds of the sky,

And the creeping things of the ground,

And I will break the bow and sword, and war from the land,

And I will enable them to lie down in security.

wild animals ← animal of the field.
Hos 2:21
Hos 2:19AV
‫וְאֵרַשְׂתִּ֥יךְ לִ֖י לְעוֹלָ֑ם וְאֵרַשְׂתִּ֥יךְ לִי֙ בְּצֶ֣דֶק וּבְמִשְׁפָּ֔ט וּבְחֶ֖סֶד וּֽבְרַחֲמִֽים׃‬

And I will betroth you to myself for an age-abiding marriage,

And I will betroth you to myself in righteousness and in judgment,

And in kindness and in compassion.

Hos 2:22
Hos 2:20AV
‫וְאֵרַשְׂתִּ֥יךְ לִ֖י בֶּאֱמוּנָ֑ה וְיָדַ֖עַתְּ אֶת־יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

And I will betroth you to myself in faithfulness,

And you will know the Lord.

Hos 2:23
Hos 2:21AV
‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא אֶֽעֱנֶה֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה אֶעֱנֶ֖ה אֶת־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְהֵ֖ם יַעֲנ֥וּ אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That I will answer,

Says the Lord.

I will answer the heavens,

And they will answer the earth.

Hos 2:24
Hos 2:22AV
‫וְהָאָ֣רֶץ תַּעֲנֶ֔ה אֶת־הַדָּגָ֖ן וְאֶת־הַתִּיר֣וֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַיִּצְהָ֑ר וְהֵ֖ם יַעֲנ֥וּ אֶֽת־יִזְרְעֶֽאל׃‬

And the earth will answer the corn,

And the new wine and the new oil,

And they will answer Jezreel.

Jezreel: see Josh 15:56.
Hos 2:25
Hos 2:23AV
‫וּזְרַעְתִּ֤יהָ לִּי֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ וְרִֽחַמְתִּ֖י אֶת־לֹ֣א רֻחָ֑מָה וְאָמַרְתִּ֤י לְלֹֽא־עַמִּי֙ עַמִּי־אַ֔תָּה וְה֖וּא יֹאמַ֥ר אֱלֹהָֽי׃ פ‬

And I will sow her to myself in the land,

And I will have compassion on Lo-Ruhamah,

And I will say to Lo-Ammi,

‘You are my people’,

And he will say,

You are my God.’ ”

Rom 9:26, 2 Cor 6:16.

he: the man standing for the entire people.
Hos 3:1 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י ע֚וֹד לֵ֣ךְ אֱ‍ֽהַב־אִשָּׁ֔ה אֲהֻ֥בַת רֵ֖עַ וּמְנָאָ֑פֶת כְּאַהֲבַ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהֵ֗ם פֹּנִים֙ אֶל־אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וְאֹהֲבֵ֖י אֲשִׁישֵׁ֥י עֲנָבִֽים׃‬ Then the Lord said to me, “Go again and make love to a woman who is loved by a friend, but who is adulterous, just as the Lord loves the sons of Israel, but they are turning to other gods, and they love cakes of raisins.” cakes of raisins ← cakes of grapes. AV differs (flagons of wine).
Hos 3:2 ‫וָאֶכְּרֶ֣הָ לִּ֔י בַּחֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר כָּ֑סֶף וְחֹ֥מֶר שְׂעֹרִ֖ים וְלֵ֥תֶךְ שְׂעֹרִֽים׃‬ So I bought her for fifteen pieces of silver and a homer of barley and a lethek of barley. homer: about 60 imperial gallons or 270 litres.

lethek: half a homer, so about 30 imperial gallons or 135 litres.
Hos 3:3 ‫וָאֹמַ֣ר אֵלֶ֗יהָ יָמִ֤ים רַבִּים֙ תֵּ֣שְׁבִי לִ֔י לֹ֣א תִזְנִ֔י וְלֹ֥א תִֽהְיִ֖י לְאִ֑ישׁ וְגַם־אֲנִ֖י אֵלָֽיִךְ׃‬ And I said to her, “Remain with me for many days, and do not commit prostitution. So do not have a relationship with any man, because after all, I myself will be for you.” have a relationship with ← be to.
Hos 3:4 ‫כִּ֣י ׀ יָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֗ים יֵֽשְׁבוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֵ֥ין מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ וְאֵ֣ין שָׂ֔ר וְאֵ֥ין זֶ֖בַח וְאֵ֣ין מַצֵּבָ֑ה וְאֵ֥ין אֵפ֖וֹד וּתְרָפִֽים׃‬ For the sons of Israel will remain many days with no king and no prince, and no sacrifice and no pillar and no ephod or household gods. pillar: some form of memorial or idolatrous statue; compare Ex 24:4 and 2 Ki 3:2.

household gods ← teraphim. Compare Gen 31:19.
Hos 3:5 ‫אַחַ֗ר יָשֻׁ֙בוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּבִקְשׁוּ֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת דָּוִ֣ד מַלְכָּ֑ם וּפָחֲד֧וּ אֶל־יְהוָ֛ה וְאֶל־טוּב֖וֹ בְּאַחֲרִ֥ית הַיָּמִֽים׃ פ‬ But afterwards the sons of Israel will return and seek the Lord their God and David their king, and they will fear the Lord and his goodness in the latter days.
Hos 4:1 ‫שִׁמְע֥וּ דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּ֣י רִ֤יב לַֽיהוָה֙ עִם־יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ כִּ֠י אֵין־אֱמֶ֧ת וְֽאֵין־חֶ֛סֶד וְאֵֽין־דַּ֥עַת אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּאָֽרֶץ׃‬

Hear the word of the Lord,

You sons of Israel,

For the Lord has a quarrel

With the inhabitants of the land.

For there is no truth,

And there is no mercy,

And there is no knowledge of God in the land.

Hos 4:2 ‫אָלֹ֣ה וְכַחֵ֔שׁ וְרָצֹ֥חַ וְגָנֹ֖ב וְנָאֹ֑ף פָּרָ֕צוּ וְדָמִ֥ים בְּדָמִ֖ים נָגָֽעוּ׃‬

They burst out in cursing and lying

And murder and stealing and adultery,

And they strike with bloodshed upon bloodshed.

cursing ... lying ... murder ... stealing ... adultery: all infinitive absolute used gerundially.

they strike: AV differs (blood toucheth).
Hos 4:3 ‫עַל־כֵּ֣ן ׀ תֶּאֱבַ֣ל הָאָ֗רֶץ וְאֻמְלַל֙ כָּל־יוֹשֵׁ֣ב בָּ֔הּ בְּחַיַּ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְגַם־דְּגֵ֥י הַיָּ֖ם יֵאָסֵֽפוּ׃‬

That is why the earth will mourn,

And every inhabitant of it will languish,

Among the wild animals

And among the birds of the sky.

And also the fish of the sea will perish.

perish ← be gathered, i.e. with their deceased ancestors.
Hos 4:4 ‫אַ֥ךְ אִ֛ישׁ אַל־יָרֵ֖ב וְאַל־יוֹכַ֣ח אִ֑ישׁ וְעַמְּךָ֖ כִּמְרִיבֵ֥י כֹהֵֽן׃‬

But let no-one quarrel

And no-one contend,

For your people are like those who contend with the priest.

We take the second אִישׁ as the subject of יוֹכַח; AV differs, taking it as the object (yet let no man strive, nor reprove another).
Hos 4:5 ‫וְכָשַׁלְתָּ֣ הַיּ֔וֹם וְכָשַׁ֧ל גַּם־נָבִ֛יא עִמְּךָ֖ לָ֑יְלָה וְדָמִ֖יתִי אִמֶּֽךָ׃‬

So you will stumble in the daytime,

And the prophet will stumble too with you at night,

And I will reduce your mother to silence.

Hos 4:6 ‫נִדְמ֥וּ עַמִּ֖י מִבְּלִ֣י הַדָּ֑עַת כִּֽי־אַתָּ֞ה הַדַּ֣עַת מָאַ֗סְתָּ וְאֶמְאָֽסְאךָ֙ מִכַּהֵ֣ן לִ֔י וַתִּשְׁכַּח֙ תּוֹרַ֣ת אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֶשְׁכַּ֥ח בָּנֶ֖יךָ גַּם־אָֽנִי׃‬

My people are reduced to silence for want of knowledge,

For you have rejected knowledge,

And I have rejected you from officiating as a priest to me.

Since you have forgotten the law of your God,

I for my part will forget your sons.

since: causal use of the vav.

for my part ← also.
Hos 4:7 ‫כְּרֻבָּ֖ם כֵּ֣ן חָֽטְאוּ־לִ֑י כְּבוֹדָ֖ם בְּקָל֥וֹן אָמִֽיר׃‬

As they increased,

They sinned against me.

{P: They have exchanged my honour} [M: I will exchange their honour]

For dishonour.

An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB] App. 33. P= כְּבוֹדִי ... הֵמִירוּ. AV differs, reading the MT.
Hos 4:8 ‫חַטַּ֥את עַמִּ֖י יֹאכֵ֑לוּ וְאֶל־עֲוֺנָ֖ם יִשְׂא֥וּ נַפְשֽׁוֹ׃‬

They eat the sin-offering of my people,

And they set their affections on iniquity.

set their affections on iniquity ← lift their soul to their iniquity.
Hos 4:9 ‫וְהָיָ֥ה כָעָ֖ם כַּכֹּהֵ֑ן וּפָקַדְתִּ֤י עָלָיו֙ דְּרָכָ֔יו וּמַעֲלָלָ֖יו אָשִׁ֥יב לֽוֹ׃‬

And the people and the priest acted in the same way,

So I will visit their ways on them,

And I will requite them with their own deeds.

and the people and the priest acted in the same way ← it was as the people so the priest. Compare Isa 24:2.
Hos 4:10 ‫וְאָֽכְלוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׂבָּ֔עוּ הִזְנ֖וּ וְלֹ֣א יִפְרֹ֑צוּ כִּֽי־אֶת־יְהוָ֥ה עָזְב֖וּ לִשְׁמֹֽר׃‬

And they will eat,

But not be satisfied,

And they will commit prostitution

But not abound,

For they have forsaken the Lord

And the keeping of his law.

the keeping: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Hos 4:11 ‫זְנ֛וּת וְיַ֥יִן וְתִיר֖וֹשׁ יִֽקַּֽח־לֵֽב׃‬

Prostitution and wine and new wine

Have taken hold of their heart.

Hos 4:12 ‫עַמִּי֙ בְּעֵצ֣וֹ יִשְׁאָ֔ל וּמַקְל֖וֹ יַגִּ֣יד ל֑וֹ כִּ֣י ר֤וּחַ זְנוּנִים֙ הִתְעָ֔ה וַיִּזְנ֖וּ מִתַּ֥חַת אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽם׃‬

My people inquires at its wooden idol,

And its stick answers them,

For a spirit of prostitution has led them astray,

And they commit prostitution

Under the eyes of their God.

Hos 4:13 ‫עַל־רָאשֵׁ֨י הֶהָרִ֜ים יְזַבֵּ֗חוּ וְעַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת֙ יְקַטֵּ֔רוּ תַּ֣חַת אַלּ֧וֹן וְלִבְנֶ֛ה וְאֵלָ֖ה כִּ֣י ט֣וֹב צִלָּ֑הּ עַל־כֵּ֗ן תִּזְנֶ֙ינָה֙ בְּנ֣וֹתֵיכֶ֔ם וְכַלּוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם תְּנָאַֽפְנָה׃‬

On the tops of mountains they offer sacrifices,

And on the hills they burn incense,

Under the oak tree, the white poplar and the terebinth,

For its shade is pleasant,

Which is why your daughters commit prostitution,

And your brides commit adultery.

which is why: or, perhaps, which (is) how.
Hos 4:14 ‫לֹֽא־אֶפְק֨וֹד עַל־בְּנוֹתֵיכֶ֜ם כִּ֣י תִזְנֶ֗ינָה וְעַל־כַּלּֽוֹתֵיכֶם֙ כִּ֣י תְנָאַ֔פְנָה כִּי־הֵם֙ עִם־הַזֹּנ֣וֹת יְפָרֵ֔דוּ וְעִם־הַקְּדֵשׁ֖וֹת יְזַבֵּ֑חוּ וְעָ֥ם לֹֽא־יָבִ֖ין יִלָּבֵֽט׃‬

I will not punish your daughters

When they commit prostitution,

Or your daughters-in-law

When they commit adultery,

For the men go aside with prostitutes,

And they sacrifice with the harlots.

So the people who do not understand will stumble.

Hos 4:15 ‫אִם־זֹנֶ֤ה אַתָּה֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אַל־יֶאְשַׁ֖ם יְהוּדָ֑ה וְאַל־תָּבֹ֣אוּ הַגִּלְגָּ֗ל וְאַֽל־תַּעֲלוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית אָ֔וֶן וְאַל־תִּשָּׁבְע֖וּ חַי־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Although you engage in prostitution, O Israel,

Don't let Judah become guilty.

And do not go to Gilgal,

And do not go up to Beth-Aven,

And do not swear, “The Lord lives.”

Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
Hos 4:16 ‫כִּ֚י כְּפָרָ֣ה סֹֽרֵרָ֔ה סָרַ֖ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עַתָּה֙ יִרְעֵ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה כְּכֶ֖בֶשׂ בַּמֶּרְחָֽב׃‬

For Israel is recalcitrant like a recalcitrant heifer,

And now the Lord will put them to pasture,

Like a lamb in a wide open place.

Hos 4:17 ‫חֲב֧וּר עֲצַבִּ֛ים אֶפְרָ֖יִם הַֽנַּֽח־לֽוֹ׃‬

Ephraim is joined to idols;

Leave him to it.

Hos 4:18 ‫סָ֖ר סָבְאָ֑ם הַזְנֵ֣ה הִזְנ֔וּ אָהֲב֥וּ הֵב֛וּ קָל֖וֹן מָגִנֶּֽיהָ׃‬

Their drinking bout has gone,

They have loved committing abundant prostitution;

Give them their way.

Her princes are a dishonour.

has gone: AV differs (is sour).

they have loved: AV differs in association of the word (her rulers with shame do love).

committing abundant prostitution: infinitive absolute.

princes ← shields. But [AnLx], tropically, princes.
Hos 4:19 ‫צָרַ֥ר ר֛וּחַ אוֹתָ֖הּ בִּכְנָפֶ֑יהָ וְיֵבֹ֖שׁוּ מִזִּבְחוֹתָֽם ס‬

The wind has tied her up in her wings,

And they will be ashamed of their sacrifices.

Hos 5:1 ‫שִׁמְעוּ־זֹ֨את הַכֹּהֲנִ֜ים וְהַקְשִׁ֣יבוּ ׀ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּבֵ֤ית הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַאֲזִ֔ינוּ כִּ֥י לָכֶ֖ם הַמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט כִּֽי־פַח֙ הֱיִיתֶ֣ם לְמִצְפָּ֔ה וְרֶ֖שֶׁת פְּרוּשָׂ֥ה עַל־תָּבֽוֹר׃‬

Hear this, you priests,

And hearken, O house of Israel,

And give ear, O royal house,

For judgment on you is impending,

Because you were a snare to Mizpah

And a net spread out over Tabor.

Hos 5:2 ‫וְשַׁחֲטָ֥ה שֵׂטִ֖ים הֶעְמִ֑יקוּ וַאֲנִ֖י מוּסָ֥ר לְכֻלָּֽם׃‬

The backsliders had deep designs to slaughter,

While I passed censure on all of them.

Hos 5:3 ‫אֲנִי֙ יָדַ֣עְתִּי אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹֽא־נִכְחַ֣ד מִמֶּ֑נִּי כִּ֤י עַתָּה֙ הִזְנֵ֣יתָ אֶפְרַ֔יִם נִטְמָ֖א יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

I know Ephraim,

And Israel is not hidden from me,

For now you, Ephraim have committed prostitution,

And Israel has become unclean.

Hos 5:4 ‫לֹ֤א יִתְּנוּ֙ מַ֣עַלְלֵיהֶ֔ם לָשׁ֖וּב אֶל־אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם כִּ֣י ר֤וּחַ זְנוּנִים֙ בְּקִרְבָּ֔ם וְאֶת־יְהוָ֖ה לֹ֥א יָדָֽעוּ׃‬

They do not make their works fit for returning to their God,

For a spirit of prostitution is in their midst,

And they do not know the Lord.

Hos 5:5 ‫וְעָנָ֥ה גְאֽוֹן־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּפָנָ֑יו וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל וְאֶפְרַ֗יִם יִכָּֽשְׁלוּ֙ בַּעֲוֺנָ֔ם כָּשַׁ֥ל גַּם־יְהוּדָ֖ה עִמָּֽם׃‬

And the pride of Israel will testify to its face,

And Israel and Ephraim will stumble in their iniquity,

And Judah will stumble too with them.

Hos 5:6 ‫בְּצֹאנָ֣ם וּבִבְקָרָ֗ם יֵֽלְכ֛וּ לְבַקֵּ֥שׁ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה וְלֹ֣א יִמְצָ֑אוּ חָלַ֖ץ מֵהֶֽם׃‬

They will go and seek the Lord among their sheep and their cattle,

But they will not find him.

He will have withdrawn from them.

Hos 5:7 ‫בַּיהוָ֣ה בָּגָ֔דוּ כִּֽי־בָנִ֥ים זָרִ֖ים יָלָ֑דוּ עַתָּ֛ה יֹאכְלֵ֥ם חֹ֖דֶשׁ אֶת־חֶלְקֵיהֶֽם׃ ס‬

They have dealt treacherously with the Lord,

For they have borne sons who are strangers,

And now they will be devoured in a month along with their apportioned regions.

they will be devoured in a month ← a month will devour them.
Hos 5:8 ‫תִּקְע֤וּ שׁוֹפָר֙ בַּגִּבְעָ֔ה חֲצֹצְרָ֖ה בָּרָמָ֑ה הָרִ֙יעוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית אָ֔וֶן אַחֲרֶ֖יךָ בִּנְיָמִֽין׃‬

Blow the ramshorn in Gibeah

And the trumpet in Ramah.

Sound the alarm in Beth-Aven.

Look behind you, Benjamin.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.
Hos 5:9 ‫אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ לְשַׁמָּ֣ה תִֽהְיֶ֔ה בְּי֖וֹם תּֽוֹכֵחָ֑ה בְּשִׁבְטֵי֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הוֹדַ֖עְתִּי נֶאֱמָנָֽה׃‬

Ephraim will become a desolation on the day of rebuke.

Among the tribes of Israel,

I have made it known faithfully.

Hos 5:10 ‫הָיוּ֙ שָׂרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה כְּמַסִּיגֵ֖י גְּב֑וּל עֲלֵיהֶ֕ם אֶשְׁפּ֥וֹךְ כַּמַּ֖יִם עֶבְרָתִֽי׃‬

The princes of Judah were like those who moved the boundary.

I will pour out my anger on them like water.

Hos 5:11 ‫עָשׁ֥וּק אֶפְרַ֖יִם רְצ֣וּץ מִשְׁפָּ֑ט כִּ֣י הוֹאִ֔יל הָלַ֖ךְ אַחֲרֵי־צָֽו׃‬

Ephraim is oppressed,

Justice has been perverted,

For he willingly followed the commandment.

perverted ← broken.

followed the commandment: of 1 Ki 12:28 etc. [CB].
Hos 5:12 ‫וַאֲנִ֥י כָעָ֖שׁ לְאֶפְרָ֑יִם וְכָרָקָ֖ב לְבֵ֥ית יְהוּדָֽה׃‬

So I will be like the moth to Ephraim

And like rot to the house of Judah.

Hos 5:13 ‫וַיַּ֨רְא אֶפְרַ֜יִם אֶת־חָלְי֗וֹ וִֽיהוּדָה֙ אֶת־מְזֹר֔וֹ וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ אֶל־אַשּׁ֔וּר וַיִּשְׁלַ֖ח אֶל־מֶ֣לֶךְ יָרֵ֑ב וְה֗וּא לֹ֤א יוּכַל֙ לִרְפֹּ֣א לָכֶ֔ם וְלֹֽא־יִגְהֶ֥ה מִכֶּ֖ם מָזֽוֹר׃‬

When Ephraim saw his sickness

And Judah saw his wound,

Ephraim went to Assyria

And sent envoys to King Jareb.

But he was not able to cure you,

And he did not heal your wound.

Hos 5:14 ‫כִּ֣י אָנֹכִ֤י כַשַּׁ֙חַל֙ לְאֶפְרַ֔יִם וְכַכְּפִ֖יר לְבֵ֣ית יְהוּדָ֑ה אֲנִ֨י אֲנִ֤י אֶטְרֹף֙ וְאֵלֵ֔ךְ אֶשָּׂ֖א וְאֵ֥ין מַצִּֽיל׃‬

For I will be like a lion to Ephraim

And as a young lion to the house of Judah.

I myself will tear to pieces

And go, and carry off,

And there will be no-one to deliver him.

Hos 5:15 ‫אֵלֵ֤ךְ אָשׁ֙וּבָה֙ אֶל־מְקוֹמִ֔י עַ֥ד אֲשֶֽׁר־יֶאְשְׁמ֖וּ וּבִקְשׁ֣וּ פָנָ֑י בַּצַּ֥ר לָהֶ֖ם יְשַׁחֲרֻֽנְנִי׃‬

I will go and return to my place

Until they acknowledge their guilt

And seek my face.

When they are in straits,

They will diligently seek me.

diligently seek ← dawn-seek.
Hos 6:1 ‫לְכוּ֙ וְנָשׁ֣וּבָה אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֛י ה֥וּא טָרָ֖ף וְיִרְפָּאֵ֑נוּ יַ֖ךְ וְיַחְבְּשֵֽׁנוּ׃‬

“Come, let us return to the Lord,

For he tore apart,

But he will heal us.

He struck,

But he will bind us up.

Hos 6:2 ‫יְחַיֵּ֖נוּ מִיֹּמָ֑יִם בַּיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י יְקִמֵ֖נוּ וְנִחְיֶ֥ה לְפָנָֽיו׃‬

He will make us alive after two days;

On the third day he will raise us up,

And we will live in his presence.

two days ... third day: consider Ps 90:4, 2 Pet 3:8, where a day stands for 1000 years. Could the two days be a Lo-Ammi period from AD 70 to AD 2070, with restoration in the third “day”?
Hos 6:3 ‫וְנֵדְעָ֣ה נִרְדְּפָ֗ה לָדַ֙עַת֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כְּשַׁ֖חַר נָכ֣וֹן מֽוֹצָא֑וֹ וְיָב֤וֹא כַגֶּ֙שֶׁם֙ לָ֔נוּ כְּמַלְק֖וֹשׁ י֥וֹרֶה אָֽרֶץ׃‬

And we will know, saying,

‘Let us follow so as to know the Lord.

His rising is like the steady dawn,

And he will come like rain on us,

Like the late and early rain on the land.’ ”

Hos 6:4 ‫מָ֤ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לְּךָ֙ אֶפְרַ֔יִם מָ֥ה אֶעֱשֶׂה־לְּךָ֖ יְהוּדָ֑ה וְחַסְדְּכֶם֙ כַּֽעֲנַן־בֹּ֔קֶר וְכַטַּ֖ל מַשְׁכִּ֥ים הֹלֵֽךְ׃‬

What shall I do to you, Ephraim?

What shall I do to you, Judah?

For the compassion you show

Is just as a cloud in the morning,

And like the early dew,

Which goes away.

Hos 6:5 ‫עַל־כֵּ֗ן חָצַ֙בְתִּי֙ בַּנְּבִיאִ֔ים הֲרַגְתִּ֖ים בְּאִמְרֵי־פִ֑י וּמִשְׁפָּטֶ֖יךָ א֥וֹר יֵצֵֽא׃‬

That is why I have hewn into the prophets;

I have killed them by the words of my mouth,

And my judgments on you go forth like light.

prophets: i.e. false prophets here.

my judgments on you: an objective suffix “you”. AV differs, subjective (thy judgments).
Hos 6:6 ‫כִּ֛י חֶ֥סֶד חָפַ֖צְתִּי וְלֹא־זָ֑בַח וְדַ֥עַת אֱלֹהִ֖ים מֵעֹלֽוֹת׃‬

For I desired mercy

And not sacrifice,

And knowledge of God

Rather than burnt offerings.

Matt 9:13, Matt 12:7.

mercy: or kindness. The NT quotes use ἔλεος.
Hos 6:7 ‫וְהֵ֕מָּה כְּאָדָ֖ם עָבְר֣וּ בְרִ֑ית שָׁ֖ם בָּ֥גְדוּ בִֽי׃‬

But they like Adam have transgressed the covenant;

There, they dealt treacherously with me.

Adam: AV differs (men).
Hos 6:8 ‫גִּלְעָ֕ד קִרְיַ֖ת פֹּ֣עֲלֵי אָ֑וֶן עֲקֻבָּ֖ה מִדָּֽם׃‬

Gilead is a town of workers of iniquity

A town stained with blood.

Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
Hos 6:9 ‫וּכְחַכֵּ֨י אִ֜ישׁ גְּדוּדִ֗ים חֶ֚בֶר כֹּֽהֲנִ֔ים דֶּ֖רֶךְ יְרַצְּחוּ־שֶׁ֑כְמָה כִּ֥י זִמָּ֖ה עָשֽׂוּ׃‬

And as gangs wait for a man,

So is a company of priests.

On the road to Shechem they commit murder,

For they perpetrate wickedness.

to Shechem: AV differs (by consent).

wickedness: with connotations of scheming.
Hos 6:10 ‫בְּבֵית֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל רָאִ֖יתִי *שעריריה **שַׁעֲרֽוּרִיָּ֑ה שָׁ֚ם זְנ֣וּת לְאֶפְרַ֔יִם נִטְמָ֖א יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

In the house of Israel I have seen a horrible thing.

In that place there is the prostitution of Ephraim.

Israel is defiled.

a horrible thing: the ketiv can be regarded as a variant form of the qeré. A yod / vav issue.
Hos 6:11 ‫גַּם־יְהוּדָ֕ה שָׁ֥ת קָצִ֖יר לָ֑ךְ בְּשׁוּבִ֖י שְׁב֥וּת עַמִּֽי׃ פ‬

For you also, Judah,

He has appointed a reaping time,

When I reverse the captivity of my people.

Hos 7:1 ‫כְּרָפְאִ֣י לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְנִגְלָ֞ה עֲוֺ֤ן אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ וְרָע֣וֹת שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן כִּ֥י פָעֲל֖וּ שָׁ֑קֶר וְגַנָּ֣ב יָב֔וֹא פָּשַׁ֥ט גְּד֖וּד בַּחֽוּץ׃‬

When I heal Israel,

The iniquity of Ephraim will be revealed,

As will the evil deeds of Samaria.

For they have acted falsely,

And the thief comes in,

And a gang commits robbery in the open.

Hos 7:2 ‫וּבַל־יֹֽאמְרוּ֙ לִלְבָבָ֔ם כָּל־רָעָתָ֖ם זָכָ֑רְתִּי עַתָּה֙ סְבָב֣וּם מַֽעַלְלֵיהֶ֔ם נֶ֥גֶד פָּנַ֖י הָיֽוּ׃‬

And they don't consider

That I have remembered all their wrongdoing.

Their deeds surround them now;

They are before me.

consider ← say in their heart.
Hos 7:3 ‫בְּרָעָתָ֖ם יְשַׂמְּחוּ־מֶ֑לֶךְ וּבְכַחֲשֵׁיהֶ֖ם שָׂרִֽים׃‬

With their evil deeds they pleased the king,

And with their falsehood, princes.

Hos 7:4 ‫כֻּלָּם֙ מְנָ֣אֲפִ֔ים כְּמ֣וֹ תַנּ֔וּר בֹּעֵ֖רָה מֵֽאֹפֶ֑ה יִשְׁבּ֣וֹת מֵעִ֔יר מִלּ֥וּשׁ בָּצֵ֖ק עַד־חֻמְצָתֽוֹ׃‬

They are all adulterers,

Like a baker's burning oven.

Will he stop stoking it,

Or kneading the dough before it is leavened?

There is no interrogative particle, but an interrogative sense seems to best fit the context. AV differs, translating noninterrogatively (declaratively).
Hos 7:5 ‫י֣וֹם מַלְכֵּ֔נוּ הֶחֱל֥וּ שָׂרִ֖ים חֲמַ֣ת מִיָּ֑יִן מָשַׁ֥ךְ יָד֖וֹ אֶת־לֹצְצִֽים׃‬

On the festival day of our king,

The princes made him weak with the intoxication of wine.

He stretched out his hand with the scoffers.

intoxication ← venom, from חֵמָה. Wider use of the construct state, before a preposition, [Ges-HG] §130. AV differs (bottles), re-pointing to חֵמַת from חֵמָת.
Hos 7:6 ‫כִּֽי־קֵרְב֧וּ כַתַּנּ֛וּר לִבָּ֖ם בְּאָרְבָּ֑ם כָּל־הַלַּ֙יְלָה֙ יָשֵׁ֣ן אֹֽפֵהֶ֔ם בֹּ֕קֶר ה֥וּא בֹעֵ֖ר כְּאֵ֥שׁ לֶהָבָֽה׃‬

For in their plotting they bring their hearts near to an oven.

All night their baker sleeps,

But in the morning, it burns like a blazing fire.

plotting ← ambushing.

hearts ← heart.

their baker: not from אַף, anger. This verse resumes the analogy of Hos 7:4.
Hos 7:7 ‫כֻּלָּ֤ם יֵחַ֙מּוּ֙ כַּתַּנּ֔וּר וְאָכְל֖וּ אֶת־שֹֽׁפְטֵיהֶ֑ם כָּל־מַלְכֵיהֶ֣ם נָפָ֔לוּ אֵין־קֹרֵ֥א בָהֶ֖ם אֵלָֽי׃‬

They are all as hot as a furnace,

And they have devoured their judges.

All their kings have fallen;

There is no-one among them who calls to me.

Hos 7:8 ‫אֶפְרַ֕יִם בָּעַמִּ֖ים ה֣וּא יִתְבּוֹלָ֑ל אֶפְרַ֛יִם הָיָ֥ה עֻגָ֖ה בְּלִ֥י הֲפוּכָֽה׃‬

Ephraim is mixing with the Gentiles;

Ephraim is like a cake which wasn't turned over.

Hos 7:9 ‫אָכְל֤וּ זָרִים֙ כֹּח֔וֹ וְה֖וּא לֹ֣א יָדָ֑ע גַּם־שֵׂיבָה֙ זָ֣רְקָה בּ֔וֹ וְה֖וּא לֹ֥א יָדָֽע׃‬

Strangers have devoured his strength,

And he does not realize it.

Also grey hair is strewn over him,

But he is not aware of it.

realize ... is ... aware ← know ... knows. Otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Hos 7:10 ‫וְעָנָ֥ה גְאֽוֹן־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּפָנָ֑יו וְלֹֽא־שָׁ֙בוּ֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א בִקְשֻׁ֖הוּ בְּכָל־זֹֽאת׃‬

And the pride of Israel testifies to his face,

Yet they do not return to the Lord their God,

And for all this they do not seek him.

Hos 7:11 ‫וַיְהִ֣י אֶפְרַ֔יִם כְּיוֹנָ֥ה פוֹתָ֖ה אֵ֣ין לֵ֑ב מִצְרַ֥יִם קָרָ֖אוּ אַשּׁ֥וּר הָלָֽכוּ׃‬

And Ephraim has become like an unsuspecting dove,

Without mettle.

They call out to Egypt;

They go to Assyria.

mettle ← a heart.
Hos 7:12 ‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵלֵ֗כוּ אֶפְר֤וֹשׂ עֲלֵיהֶם֙ רִשְׁתִּ֔י כְּע֥וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם אֽוֹרִידֵ֑ם אַיְסִרֵ֕ם כְּשֵׁ֖מַע לַעֲדָתָֽם׃ ס‬

As they go,

I will spread my net over them;

I will bring them down like the birds of the sky.

I will chasten them according to the report of their congregation.

Hos 7:13 ‫א֤וֹי לָהֶם֙ כִּֽי־נָדְד֣וּ מִמֶּ֔נִּי שֹׁ֥ד לָהֶ֖ם כִּֽי־פָ֣שְׁעוּ בִ֑י וְאָנֹכִ֣י אֶפְדֵּ֔ם וְהֵ֕מָּה דִּבְּר֥וּ עָלַ֖י כְּזָבִֽים׃‬

Woe to them,

For they have wandered away from me.

Devastation be upon them,

For they have transgressed against me.

Although I redeemed them,

They nevertheless speak lies about me.

although ... nevertheless: wider use of the vav, as a concessive conjunction and its correlative adverb.
Hos 7:14 ‫וְלֹֽא־זָעֲק֤וּ אֵלַי֙ בְּלִבָּ֔ם כִּ֥י יְיֵלִ֖ילוּ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָ֑ם עַל־דָּגָ֧ן וְתִיר֛וֹשׁ יִתְגּוֹרָ֖רוּ יָס֥וּרוּ בִֽי׃‬

And they did not call out to me in their heart,

For they howled on their couches,

Where they congregate for their food and wine.

They have departed from me.

departed: AV differs (rebel), reading יָסוֹרוּ from סָרַר.
Hos 7:15 ‫וַאֲנִ֣י יִסַּ֔רְתִּי חִזַּ֖קְתִּי זְרֽוֹעֹתָ֑ם וְאֵלַ֖י יְחַשְּׁבוּ־רָֽע׃‬

And I chastened them,

And I strengthened their arms,

Yet they devise wickedness against me.

Hos 7:16 ‫יָשׁ֣וּבוּ ׀ לֹ֣א עָ֗ל הָיוּ֙ כְּקֶ֣שֶׁת רְמִיָּ֔ה יִפְּל֥וּ בַחֶ֛רֶב שָׂרֵיהֶ֖ם מִזַּ֣עַם לְשׁוֹנָ֑ם ז֥וֹ לַעְגָּ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם׃‬

They return,

But not to the Most High.

They are like an untrustworthy bow.

Their princes fall by the sword

Because of the insolence of their tongue.

This is the cause of them suffering derision in the land of Egypt.

Hos 8:1 ‫אֶל־חִכְּךָ֣ שֹׁפָ֔ר כַּנֶּ֖שֶׁר עַל־בֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֑ה יַ֚עַן עָבְר֣וּ בְרִיתִ֔י וְעַל־תּוֹרָתִ֖י פָּשָֽׁעוּ׃‬

Put the ramshorn to your mouth;

War is coming like an eagle against the house of the Lord,

Because they have transgressed my covenant

And violated my law.

mouth ← palate.
Hos 8:2 ‫לִ֖י יִזְעָ֑קוּ אֱלֹהַ֥י יְֽדַעֲנ֖וּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

To me they will cry,

“We – Israel – know you,

O God of mine.”

Hos 8:3 ‫זָנַ֥ח יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל ט֑וֹב אוֹיֵ֖ב יִרְדְּֽפוֹ׃‬

Israel has cast off that which is good;

The enemy will pursue him.

Hos 8:4 ‫הֵ֤ם הִמְלִיכוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א מִמֶּ֔נִּי הֵשִׂ֖ירוּ וְלֹ֣א יָדָ֑עְתִּי כַּסְפָּ֣ם וּזְהָבָ֗ם עָשׂ֤וּ לָהֶם֙ עֲצַבִּ֔ים לְמַ֖עַן יִכָּרֵֽת׃‬

They have appointed kings,

But not from me;

They have appointed princes,

But I did not acknowledge it.

With their silver and their gold

They have made themselves idols,

Which is why they will be cut off.

acknowledge ← know.

which is why: the more common meaning is in order that. Compare Isa 44:9.

they will be cut off ← it (i.e. the people) will be cut off.
Hos 8:5 ‫זָנַח֙ עֶגְלֵ֣ךְ שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן חָרָ֥ה אַפִּ֖י בָּ֑ם עַד־מָתַ֕י לֹ֥א יוּכְל֖וּ נִקָּיֹֽן׃‬

He has rejected your calf, Samaria.

My anger is kindled against them.

How long will they fail to attain to innocence?

he has rejected your calf: AV differs (thy calf ... hath cast thee off).
Hos 8:6 ‫כִּ֤י מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְה֔וּא חָרָ֣שׁ עָשָׂ֔הוּ וְלֹ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים ה֑וּא כִּֽי־שְׁבָבִ֣ים יִֽהְיֶ֔ה עֵ֖גֶל שֹׁמְרֽוֹן׃‬

For the artificer who made it was from Israel

A man, who is not God.

For Samaria's calf will become splinters.

a man, who is not God: or it (is) not God. The pronoun could refer to the artificer or the calf.
Hos 8:7 ‫כִּ֛י ר֥וּחַ יִזְרָ֖עוּ וְסוּפָ֣תָה יִקְצֹ֑רוּ קָמָ֣ה אֵֽין־ל֗וֹ צֶ֚מַח בְּלִ֣י יַֽעֲשֶׂה־קֶּ֔מַח אוּלַ֣י יַֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה זָרִ֖ים יִבְלָעֻֽהוּ׃‬

For they have sown wind,

But they will reap a hurricane.

It has no standing corn;

It is a shoot without yielding anything

By which one can make flour.

If perchance it does yield anything,

Strangers will swallow it up.

Hos 8:8 ‫נִבְלַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עַתָּה֙ הָי֣וּ בַגּוֹיִ֔ם כִּכְלִ֖י אֵֽין־חֵ֥פֶץ בּֽוֹ׃‬

Israel is swallowed up.

Now they are among the Gentiles,

Like an item in which there is no pleasure.

Hos 8:9 ‫כִּֽי־הֵ֙מָּה֙ עָל֣וּ אַשּׁ֔וּר פֶּ֖רֶא בּוֹדֵ֣ד ל֑וֹ אֶפְרַ֖יִם הִתְנ֥וּ אֲהָבִֽים ‬

For they went to Assyria,

Like a wild donkey on its own.

And Ephraim hired lovers.

Hos 8:10 ‫גַּ֛ם כִּֽי־יִתְנ֥וּ בַגּוֹיִ֖ם עַתָּ֣ה אֲקַבְּצֵ֑ם וַיָּחֵ֣לּוּ מְּעָ֔ט מִמַּשָּׂ֖א מֶ֥לֶךְ שָׂרִֽים׃‬

Even though they have hired lovers among the Gentiles,

Now I will gather them,

But they will profane themselves for a while,

Under the burden of the king of princes.

will profane themselves: hiphil of חָלַל. The word could theoretically be re-pointed in many stem-formations from חָלַל ,חָלָה ,יָחַל and חוּל. In niphal or pual from חָלַל it reads will be profaned.
Hos 8:11 ‫כִּֽי־הִרְבָּ֥ה אֶפְרַ֛יִם מִזְבְּחֹ֖ת לַחֲטֹ֑א הָיוּ־ל֥וֹ מִזְבְּח֖וֹת לַחֲטֹֽא׃‬

For Ephraim has increased the number of altars

With which to sin.

They have become altars

For him to sin.

Hos 8:12 ‫*אכתוב־**אֶ֨כְתָּב־ל֔וֹ *רבו **רֻבֵּ֖י תּֽוֹרָתִ֑י כְּמוֹ־זָ֖ר נֶחְשָֽׁבוּ׃‬

I have written down for him

{Q: The great things} [K: The greatness] in my law,

But they were considered

Something strange.

I have written down: the ketiv can be regarded as the scriptio plena spelling of the qeré.

the great things (qeré) ... the greatness (ketiv): a vav / yod issue.
Hos 8:13 ‫זִבְחֵ֣י הַבְהָבַ֗י יִזְבְּח֤וּ בָשָׂר֙ וַיֹּאכֵ֔לוּ יְהוָ֖ה לֹ֣א רָצָ֑ם עַתָּ֞ה יִזְכֹּ֤ר עֲוֺנָם֙ וְיִפְקֹ֣ד חַטֹּאותָ֔ם הֵ֖מָּה מִצְרַ֥יִם יָשֽׁוּבוּ׃‬

They offer the sacrifices which are gifts to me,

And they eat the flesh,

But the Lord does not accept them.

Now he will remember their iniquity,

And he will visit their sins.

They will return to Egypt.

offer ← sacrifice.

the sacrifices which are gifts to me ← the sacrifices of my gifts. An epexegetic genitive.
Hos 8:14 ‫וַיִּשְׁכַּ֨ח יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־עֹשֵׂ֗הוּ וַיִּ֙בֶן֙ הֵֽיכָל֔וֹת וִֽיהוּדָ֕ה הִרְבָּ֖ה עָרִ֣ים בְּצֻר֑וֹת וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי־אֵ֣שׁ בְּעָרָ֔יו וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנֹתֶֽיהָ׃ ס‬

And Israel has forgotten its maker

And has built temples,

And Judah has increased its fortified cities.

So I shall send fire into its cities,

Which will devour her palaces.

Hos 9:1 ‫אַל־תִּשְׂמַ֨ח יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל ׀ אֶל־גִּיל֙ כָּֽעַמִּ֔ים כִּ֥י זָנִ֖יתָ מֵעַ֣ל אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ אָהַ֣בְתָּ אֶתְנָ֔ן עַ֖ל כָּל־גָּרְנ֥וֹת דָּגָֽן׃‬

Do not be pleased, Israel,

With rejoicing as the Gentiles do,

For you have committed prostitution against your God.

You have loved the wages of prostitution

On every floor for threshing corn.

Hos 9:2 ‫גֹּ֥רֶן וָיֶ֖קֶב לֹ֣א יִרְעֵ֑ם וְתִיר֖וֹשׁ יְכַ֥חֶשׁ בָּֽהּ׃‬

The threshing floor and the wine vat will not feed them,

And the new wine in the land will fail.

the landit, feminine, but no nearby feminine antecedent.
Hos 9:3 ‫לֹ֥א יֵשְׁב֖וּ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ יְהוָ֑ה וְשָׁ֤ב אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ מִצְרַ֔יִם וּבְאַשּׁ֖וּר טָמֵ֥א יֹאכֵֽלוּ׃‬

They will not dwell in the Lord's land,

And Ephraim will return to Egypt,

And he will eat unclean food in Assyria.

Hos 9:4 ‫לֹא־יִסְּכ֨וּ לַיהוָ֥ה ׀ יַיִן֮ וְלֹ֣א יֶֽעֶרְבוּ־לוֹ֒ זִבְחֵיהֶ֗ם כְּלֶ֤חֶם אוֹנִים֙ לָהֶ֔ם כָּל־אֹכְלָ֖יו יִטַמָּ֑אוּ כִּֽי־לַחְמָ֣ם לְנַפְשָׁ֔ם לֹ֥א יָב֖וֹא בֵּ֥ית יְהוָֽה׃‬

They will not pour out wine offerings to the Lord,

And they will not be pleasing to him.

Their sacrifices will be like mourners' food to them;

All who eat it will be defiled.

For their bread for their life

Will not come into the house of the Lord.

mourners' ← of sorrow.

life ← soul.
Hos 9:5 ‫מַֽה־תַּעֲשׂ֖וּ לְי֣וֹם מוֹעֵ֑ד וּלְי֖וֹם חַג־יְהוָֽה׃‬

What will you do on the festival day,

And on a day of the feast of the Lord?

Hos 9:6 ‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה הָֽלְכוּ֙ מִשֹּׁ֔ד מִצְרַ֥יִם תְּקַבְּצֵ֖ם מֹ֣ף תְּקַבְּרֵ֑ם מַחְמַ֣ד לְכַסְפָּ֗ם קִמּוֹשׂ֙ יִֽירָשֵׁ֔ם ח֖וֹחַ בְּאָהֳלֵיהֶֽם׃‬

For look, they have departed on account of the devastation.

Egypt will gather them,

And Memphis will bury them.

As for their delightful silver items,

Nettles will inherit them,

As will thorn bushes in their tents.

gather them: i.e. to their fathers, in death.

their delightful silver itemsthe delight of their silver.

as will thorn bushes in their tents: or (and there will be) thorn bushes in their tents.
Hos 9:7 ‫בָּ֣אוּ ׀ יְמֵ֣י הַפְּקֻדָּ֗ה בָּ֚אוּ יְמֵ֣י הַשִׁלֻּ֔ם יֵדְע֖וּ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֱוִ֣יל הַנָּבִ֗יא מְשֻׁגָּע֙ אִ֣ישׁ הָר֔וּחַ עַ֚ל רֹ֣ב עֲוֺנְךָ֔ וְרַבָּ֖ה מַשְׂטֵמָֽה׃‬

The days of visitation are coming,

The days of retribution are coming,

And Israel will know it.

The prophet is a fool;

The spiritual man is mad,

Because of the abundance of your iniquity

And the great enmity.

Luke 21:22.
Hos 9:8 ‫צֹפֶ֥ה אֶפְרַ֖יִם עִם־אֱלֹהָ֑י נָבִ֞יא פַּ֤ח יָקוֹשׁ֙ עַל־כָּל־דְּרָכָ֔יו מַשְׂטֵמָ֖ה בְּבֵ֥ית אֱלֹהָֽיו׃‬

Ephraim was a watchman with my God.

As for the prophet,

The fowler's trap is set on all his ways.

There is enmity in the house of his God.

As for the prophet (etc.): AV differs (also possible).
Hos 9:9 ‫הֶעְמִֽיקוּ־שִׁחֵ֖תוּ כִּימֵ֣י הַגִּבְעָ֑ה יִזְכּ֣וֹר עֲוֺנָ֔ם יִפְק֖וֹד חַטֹּאותָֽם׃ ס‬

They have deeply corrupted their ways,

As in the days of Gibeah.

He will remember their iniquity;

He will visit their sins.

Gibeah: see Josh 15:57.
Hos 9:10 ‫כַּעֲנָבִ֣ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֗ר מָצָ֙אתִי֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כְּבִכּוּרָ֤ה בִתְאֵנָה֙ בְּרֵ֣אשִׁיתָ֔הּ רָאִ֖יתִי אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם הֵ֜מָּה בָּ֣אוּ בַֽעַל־פְּע֗וֹר וַיִּנָּֽזְרוּ֙ לַבֹּ֔שֶׁת וַיִּהְי֥וּ שִׁקּוּצִ֖ים כְּאָהֳבָֽם׃‬

I found Israel like bunches of grapes in the desert;

I saw your fathers like early fruit on the fig tree in its early days.

But they went to Baal-Peor;

They consecrated themselves to a shameful thing

And became abominations with their acts of love.

early days ← beginning.

with their acts of love ← according to their loving.
Hos 9:11 ‫אֶפְרַ֕יִם כָּע֖וֹף יִתְעוֹפֵ֣ף כְּבוֹדָ֑ם מִלֵּדָ֥ה וּמִבֶּ֖טֶן וּמֵהֵרָיֽוֹן׃‬

Ephraim is like a bird;

Their glory has flown away.

They are deprived of birth,

Of pregnancy, and of conception.

pregnancy ← womb.
Hos 9:12 ‫כִּ֤י אִם־יְגַדְּלוּ֙ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וְשִׁכַּלְתִּ֖ים מֵֽאָדָ֑ם כִּֽי־גַם־א֥וֹי לָהֶ֖ם בְּשׂוּרִ֥י מֵהֶֽם׃‬

Although they bring up their sons,

I will bereave them,

Depriving them of a man.

For woe indeed to them

When I depart from them.

Hos 9:13 ‫אֶפְרַ֛יִם כַּאֲשֶׁר־רָאִ֥יתִי לְצ֖וֹר שְׁתוּלָ֣ה בְנָוֶ֑ה וְאֶפְרַ֕יִם לְהוֹצִ֥יא אֶל־הֹרֵ֖ג בָּנָֽיו׃‬

Ephraim, as what I have seen in Tyre,

Was planted in a pasture.

But Ephraim is on the point of bringing its sons to the slayer.

bringing ← bringing out. Gerundial use of the infinitive.
Hos 9:14 ‫תֵּן־לָהֶ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה מַה־תִּתֵּ֑ן תֵּן־לָהֶם֙ רֶ֣חֶם מַשְׁכִּ֔יל וְשָׁדַ֖יִם צֹמְקִֽים׃‬

O Lord, give them ...

– What will you give them?

Give them a miscarrying womb and dried up breasts.

Hos 9:15 ‫כָּל־רָעָתָ֤ם בַּגִּלְגָּל֙ כִּֽי־שָׁ֣ם שְׂנֵאתִ֔ים עַ֚ל רֹ֣עַ מַֽעַלְלֵיהֶ֔ם מִבֵּיתִ֖י אֲגָרְשֵׁ֑ם לֹ֤א אוֹסֵף֙ אַהֲבָתָ֔ם כָּל־שָׂרֵיהֶ֖ם סֹרְרִֽים׃‬

All the wickedness was in Gilgal,

For there I hated them,

Because of the wickedness of their deeds.

I will drive them out of my house,

I will no longer love them;

All their princes are refractory.

Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
Hos 9:16 ‫הֻכָּ֣ה אֶפְרַ֔יִם שָׁרְשָׁ֥ם יָבֵ֖שׁ פְּרִ֣י *בלי־**בַֽל־יַעֲשׂ֑וּן גַּ֚ם כִּ֣י יֵֽלֵד֔וּן וְהֵמַתִּ֖י מַחֲמַדֵּ֥י בִטְנָֽם׃ ס‬

Ephraim has been struck,

Their root is dried up,

And they do not produce fruit.

Even if they do bear children,

I will kill the delights of their womb.

not: the ketiv can be regarded as a variant form of the qeré.
Hos 9:17 ‫יִמְאָסֵ֣ם אֱלֹהַ֔י כִּ֛י לֹ֥א שָׁמְע֖וּ ל֑וֹ וְיִהְי֥וּ נֹדְדִ֖ים בַּגּוֹיִֽם׃ ס‬

My God has rejected them,

For they have not heard him,

And they have become wanderers among the Gentiles.

Hos 10:1 ‫גֶּ֤פֶן בּוֹקֵק֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל פְּרִ֖י יְשַׁוֶּה־לּ֑וֹ כְּרֹ֣ב לְפִרְי֗וֹ הִרְבָּה֙ לַֽמִּזְבְּח֔וֹת כְּט֣וֹב לְאַרְצ֔וֹ הֵיטִ֖יבוּ מַצֵּבֽוֹת׃‬

Israel is a luxuriant vine;

It yields its fruit.

But in proportion to the abundance of its fruit,

It has increased its altars.

In proportion to the goodness of its land,

They have been good at erecting idolatrous statues.

luxuriant: AV differs (empty). See [AnLx] under בָּקַק.
Hos 10:2 ‫חָלַ֥ק לִבָּ֖ם עַתָּ֣ה יֶאְשָׁ֑מוּ ה֚וּא יַעֲרֹ֣ף מִזְבְּחוֹתָ֔ם יְשֹׁדֵ֖ד מַצֵּבוֹתָֽם׃‬

Their heart is divided;

Now they will bear their guilt.

He will break the necks of their altars;

He will devastate their idolatrous statues.

Hos 10:3 ‫כִּ֤י עַתָּה֙ יֹֽאמְר֔וּ אֵ֥ין מֶ֖לֶךְ לָ֑נוּ כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יָרֵ֙אנוּ֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְהַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מַה־יַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽנוּ׃‬

For they will now say,

“We have no king,

For we have not feared the Lord”,

And, “What would a king do for us?”

Hos 10:4 ‫דִּבְּר֣וּ דְבָרִ֔ים אָל֥וֹת שָׁ֖וְא כָּרֹ֣ת בְּרִ֑ית וּפָרַ֤ח כָּרֹאשׁ֙ מִשְׁפָּ֔ט עַ֖ל תַּלְמֵ֥י שָׂדָֽי׃‬

They have spoken words,

Swearing falsely,

Making a covenant,

So that judgment flourishes like hemlock in the furrows of the field.

falsely ← falsity. Adverbial use of a noun.
Hos 10:5 ‫לְעֶגְלוֹת֙ בֵּ֣ית אָ֔וֶן יָג֖וּרוּ שְׁכַ֣ן שֹֽׁמְר֑וֹן כִּי־אָבַ֨ל עָלָ֜יו עַמּ֗וֹ וּכְמָרָיו֙ עָלָ֣יו יָגִ֔ילוּ עַל־כְּבוֹד֖וֹ כִּֽי־גָלָ֥ה מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃‬

The inhabitants of Samaria will fear for the calves of Beth-Aven,

For its people shall mourn for it,

As will the idolatrous priests who rejoiced over it

– Over its glory,

Which has departed from it.

calves: i.e. idolatrous images of (female) calves.
Hos 10:6 ‫גַּם־אוֹתוֹ֙ לְאַשּׁ֣וּר יוּבָ֔ל מִנְחָ֖ה לְמֶ֣לֶךְ יָרֵ֑ב בָּשְׁנָה֙ אֶפְרַ֣יִם יִקָּ֔ח וְיֵב֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵעֲצָתֽוֹ׃‬

This too will be carried to Assyria,

As a present for King Jareb.

Ephraim will receive shame,

And Israel will be ashamed because of his counsel.

Hos 10:7 ‫נִדְמֶ֥ה שֹׁמְר֖וֹן מַלְכָּ֑הּ כְּקֶ֖צֶף עַל־פְּנֵי־מָֽיִם׃‬

Samaria with her king is reduced to silence,

Like foam on the surface of the sea.

Hos 10:8 ‫וְנִשְׁמְד֞וּ בָּמ֣וֹת אָ֗וֶן חַטַּאת֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל ק֣וֹץ וְדַרְדַּ֔ר יַעֲלֶ֖ה עַל־מִזְבְּחוֹתָ֑ם וְאָמְר֤וּ לֶֽהָרִים֙ כַּסּ֔וּנוּ וְלַגְּבָע֖וֹת נִפְל֥וּ עָלֵֽינוּ׃ ס‬

And the idolatrous raised sites of Aven will be destroyed.

They are Israel's sin.

Thorns and brambles will come up on their altars.

And they will say to the mountains,

Cover us”,

And to the hills,

Fall on us.

Luke 23:30, Rev 6:16.
Hos 10:9 ‫מִימֵי֙ הַגִּבְעָ֔ה חָטָ֖אתָ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל שָׁ֣ם עָמָ֔דוּ לֹֽא־תַשִּׂיגֵ֧ם בַּגִּבְעָ֛ה מִלְחָמָ֖ה עַל־בְּנֵ֥י עַֽלְוָֽה׃‬

From the days of Gibeah

You have sinned, O Israel.

There they took a stand.

Did not battle befall them in Gibeah

Because of the wicked men?

Gibeah (2x): see Josh 15:57. For the incident, see Judg 19 and 20.

did not: AV differs (not interrogative).

wicked men ← sons of iniquity.
Hos 10:10 ‫בְּאַוָּתִ֖י וְאֶסֳּרֵ֑ם וְאֻסְּפ֤וּ עֲלֵיהֶם֙ עַמִּ֔ים בְּאָסְרָ֖ם לִשְׁתֵּ֥י *עינתם **עוֹנֹתָֽם׃‬

In my longing I would chastise them

When nations were gathered against them,

When they {K: joined battle at their two fountains} [Q: were bound for their two iniquities].

AV differs (two furrows), which Strong's Concordance refers to the ketiv.
Hos 10:11 ‫וְאֶפְרַ֜יִם עֶגְלָ֤ה מְלֻמָּדָה֙ אֹהַ֣בְתִּי לָד֔וּשׁ וַאֲנִ֣י עָבַ֔רְתִּי עַל־ט֖וּב צַוָּארָ֑הּ אַרְכִּ֤יב אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ יַחֲר֣וֹשׁ יְהוּדָ֔ה יְשַׂדֶּד־ל֖וֹ יַעֲקֹֽב׃‬

But Ephraim is a trained calf,

Which likes to tread corn,

And I passed over the beauty of her neck.

I will cause Ephraim to be ridden,

And Judah will plough,

And Jacob will harrow for him.

I passed over the beauty of her neck: the farming context would suggest re-pointing עַל as עֺל, yoke, perhaps giving I passed a good yoke (over) her neck, although the verb in qal stem-formation would be strained (re-pointing as piel would fit).
Hos 10:12 ‫זִרְע֨וּ לָכֶ֤ם לִצְדָקָה֙ קִצְר֣וּ לְפִי־חֶ֔סֶד נִ֥ירוּ לָכֶ֖ם נִ֑יר וְעֵת֙ לִדְר֣וֹשׁ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה עַד־יָב֕וֹא וְיֹרֶ֥ה צֶ֖דֶק לָכֶֽם׃‬

Sow righteousness for yourselves,

Reap in proportion to your mercy,

And break up fallow land for yourselves,

For it is time to be seeking the Lord

Until he comes

And rains righteousness on you.

Hos 10:13 ‫חֲרַשְׁתֶּם־רֶ֛שַׁע עַוְלָ֥תָה קְצַרְתֶּ֖ם אֲכַלְתֶּ֣ם פְּרִי־כָ֑חַשׁ כִּֽי־בָטַ֥חְתָּ בְדַרְכְּךָ֖ בְּרֹ֥ב גִּבּוֹרֶֽיךָ׃‬

You have ploughed injustice,

You have reaped iniquity,

You have eaten the fruit of falsehood,

For you put trust in your own way

– In the greatness of your warriors.

Compare the verse with Job 4:8.
Hos 10:14 ‫וְקָ֣אם שָׁאוֹן֮ בְּעַמֶּךָ֒ וְכָל־מִבְצָרֶ֣יךָ יוּשַּׁ֔ד כְּשֹׁ֧ד שַֽׁלְמַ֛ן בֵּ֥ית אַֽרְבֵ֖אל בְּי֣וֹם מִלְחָמָ֑ה אֵ֥ם עַל־בָּנִ֖ים רֻטָּֽשָׁה׃‬

And a tumult will arise among your people,

And all your fortified cities will be plundered,

As when Shalman plundered Beth-Arbel on the day of battle,

When a mother was dashed to pieces with her sons.

with her sons: or on (her) sons.
Hos 10:15 ‫כָּ֗כָה עָשָׂ֤ה לָכֶם֙ בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל מִפְּנֵ֖י רָעַ֣ת רָֽעַתְכֶ֑ם בַּשַּׁ֕חַר נִדְמֹ֥ה נִדְמָ֖ה מֶ֥לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

So shall Beth-El do to you,

Because of your great wickedness;

At dawn, the king of Israel will be utterly reduced to silence.

your great wickedness ← the wickedness of your wickedness.

utterly reduced to silence: niphal infinitive absolute.
Hos 11:1 ‫כִּ֛י נַ֥עַר יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וָאֹהֲבֵ֑הוּ וּמִמִּצְרַ֖יִם קָרָ֥אתִי לִבְנִֽי׃‬

When Israel was a child,

I loved him,

And I called my son from Egypt.

Matt 2:15.
Hos 11:2 ‫קָרְא֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם כֵּ֚ן הָלְכ֣וּ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם לַבְּעָלִ֣ים יְזַבֵּ֔חוּ וְלַפְּסִלִ֖ים יְקַטֵּרֽוּן׃‬

As they called them,

So they departed from their presence.

They sacrificed to the Baalim,

And they burnt incense to carved images.

they called them: [CB], i.e. the prophets called them.
Hos 11:3 ‫וְאָנֹכִ֤י תִרְגַּ֙לְתִּי֙ לְאֶפְרַ֔יִם קָחָ֖ם עַל־זְרֽוֹעֹתָ֑יו וְלֹ֥א יָדְע֖וּ כִּ֥י רְפָאתִֽים׃‬

And I taught Ephraim to walk,

Taking them by their arms,

But they did not know that I had healed them.

their arms ← his arms.
Hos 11:4 ‫בְּחַבְלֵ֨י אָדָ֤ם אֶמְשְׁכֵם֙ בַּעֲבֹת֣וֹת אַהֲבָ֔ה וָאֶהְיֶ֥ה לָהֶ֛ם כִּמְרִ֥ימֵי עֹ֖ל עַ֣ל לְחֵיהֶ֑ם וְאַ֥ט אֵלָ֖יו אוֹכִֽיל׃‬

I drew them with human cords,

With strings of love,

And I was to them like those who lift off the yoke on their jaws.

And I stretched my hand out to them

And fed them.

human cords ← cords of Adam.

to them ← to him.
Hos 11:5 ‫לֹ֤א יָשׁוּב֙ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וְאַשּׁ֖וּר ה֣וּא מַלְכּ֑וֹ כִּ֥י מֵאֲנ֖וּ לָשֽׁוּב׃‬

He shall not return to the land of Egypt,

Or go to Assyria, which was his king

When they refused to repent.

AV differs, including in time frame.
Hos 11:6 ‫וְחָלָ֥ה חֶ֙רֶב֙ בְּעָרָ֔יו וְכִלְּתָ֥ה בַדָּ֖יו וְאָכָ֑לָה מִֽמֹּעֲצ֖וֹתֵיהֶֽם׃‬

And the sword was wielded in his cities,

And it wasted his officials,

And it devoured them,

Because of their counsels.

was wielded ← was being hurled. Participle of חוּל.

officials: AV differs (branches). More usual meanings are parts, staves, linen garments, but [AnLx] also gives princes.

AV differs, including ↴
Hos 11:7 ‫וְעַמִּ֥י תְלוּאִ֖ים לִמְשֽׁוּבָתִ֑י וְאֶל־עַל֙ יִקְרָאֻ֔הוּ יַ֖חַד לֹ֥א יְרוֹמֵם׃‬

But my people are bent on backsliding from me.

Although they call upon him

– To the Most High –

They collectively do not exalt him.

↳ in time frame. We maintain a theme of compassion throughout this chapter.

backsliding from me ← my backsliding, an objective genitive (they disobey me).
Hos 11:8 ‫אֵ֞יךְ אֶתֶּנְךָ֣ אֶפְרַ֗יִם אֲמַגֶּנְךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֵ֚יךְ אֶתֶּנְךָ֣ כְאַדְמָ֔ה אֲשִֽׂימְךָ֖ כִּצְבֹאיִ֑ם נֶהְפַּ֤ךְ עָלַי֙ לִבִּ֔י יַ֖חַד נִכְמְר֥וּ נִחוּמָֽי׃‬

How could I give you up, Ephraim,

Or deliver you up, Israel?

How could I give you up, like Admah,

Or make you like Zeboim?

My heart has turned within me;

My consolations are altogether kindled.

Hos 11:9 ‫לֹ֤א אֶֽעֱשֶׂה֙ חֲר֣וֹן אַפִּ֔י לֹ֥א אָשׁ֖וּב לְשַׁחֵ֣ת אֶפְרָ֑יִם כִּ֣י אֵ֤ל אָֽנֹכִי֙ וְלֹא־אִ֔ישׁ בְּקִרְבְּךָ֣ קָד֔וֹשׁ וְלֹ֥א אָב֖וֹא בְּעִֽיר׃‬

I will not execute the fury of my anger;

I will not ruin Ephraim again,

For I am God, and not man

– The holy one in your midst –

And I will not come in anger.

in anger: from root עִיר. AV differs (into the city), from root עוּר.
Hos 11:10 ‫אַחֲרֵ֧י יְהוָ֛ה יֵלְכ֖וּ כְּאַרְיֵ֣ה יִשְׁאָ֑ג כִּֽי־ה֣וּא יִשְׁאַ֔ג וְיֶחֶרְד֥וּ בָנִ֖ים מִיָּֽם׃‬

They shall walk after the Lord;

He shall roar like a lion.

When he roars,

Sons of men tremble more than they do from a roaring sea.

sea: AV differs (the west).
Hos 11:11 ‫יֶחֶרְד֤וּ כְצִפּוֹר֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם וּכְיוֹנָ֖ה מֵאֶ֣רֶץ אַשּׁ֑וּר וְהוֹשַׁבְתִּ֥ים עַל־בָּתֵּיהֶ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

They will tremble like a bird from Egypt

Or a dove from the land of Assyria.

Then I will settle them in their houses,

Says the Lord.

Hos 12:1
Hos 11:12AV
‫סְבָבֻ֤נִי בְכַ֙חַשׁ֙ אֶפְרַ֔יִם וּבְמִרְמָ֖ה בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וִֽיהוּדָ֗ה עֹ֥ד רָד֙ עִם־אֵ֔ל וְעִם־קְדוֹשִׁ֖ים נֶאֱמָֽן׃‬

Ephraim has surrounded me with falsehood,

And the house of Israel with deceit,

But Judah still walks with God,

And is faithful with the holy ones.

walks: from רוּד. AV differs (rules), taking it from רָדָה.
Hos 12:2
Hos 12:1AV
‫אֶפְרַ֜יִם רֹעֶ֥ה ר֙וּחַ֙ וְרֹדֵ֣ף קָדִ֔ים כָּל־הַיּ֕וֹם כָּזָ֥ב וָשֹׁ֖ד יַרְבֶּ֑ה וּבְרִית֙ עִם־אַשּׁ֣וּר יִכְרֹ֔תוּ וְשֶׁ֖מֶן לְמִצְרַ֥יִם יוּבָֽל׃‬

Ephraim is feeding on wind

And is pursuing the eastern blast.

All day long he does more fraud and plundering,

And they have made a covenant with Assyria,

And oil is brought to Egypt.

does more ← increases.
Hos 12:3
Hos 12:2AV
‫וְרִ֥יב לַֽיהוָ֖ה עִם־יְהוּדָ֑ה וְלִפְקֹ֤ד עַֽל־יַעֲקֹב֙ כִּדְרָכָ֔יו כְּמַעֲלָלָ֖יו יָשִׁ֥יב לֽוֹ׃‬

And the Lord has a quarrel with Judah,

And a reason to visit Jacob according to his ways.

He will recompense him according to his works.

Hos 12:4
Hos 12:3AV
‫בַּבֶּ֖טֶן עָקַ֣ב אֶת־אָחִ֑יו וּבְאוֹנ֖וֹ שָׂרָ֥ה אֶת־אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬

In the womb he supplanted his brother,

And in his strength he wrestled with God.

wrestled with God: see Gen 32:29 (Gen 32:28AV).
Hos 12:5
Hos 12:4AV
‫וָיָּ֤שַׂר אֶל־מַלְאָךְ֙ וַיֻּכָ֔ל בָּכָ֖ה וַיִּתְחַנֶּן־ל֑וֹ בֵּֽית־אֵל֙ יִמְצָאֶ֔נּוּ וְשָׁ֖ם יְדַבֵּ֥ר עִמָּֽנוּ׃‬

And he contended with the angel,

And he prevailed.

He wept and entreated him.

In Beth-El he found him,

And there he spoke with us.

he prevailed: perhaps, with [CB], understand the angel prevailed; see [CB] here, and [CB]'s note at Gen 32:28.
Hos 12:6
Hos 12:5AV
‫וַֽיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י הַצְּבָא֑וֹת יְהוָ֖ה זִכְרֽוֹ׃‬

And the Lord is the God of hosts;

The Lord is his memorial name.

Hos 12:7
Hos 12:6AV
‫וְאַתָּ֖ה בֵּאלֹהֶ֣יךָ תָשׁ֑וּב חֶ֤סֶד וּמִשְׁפָּט֙ שְׁמֹ֔ר וְקַוֵּ֥ה אֶל־אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ תָּמִֽיד׃‬

And you will return to your God.

Keep mercy and judgment,

And wait for your God, always.

Hos 12:8
Hos 12:7AV
‫כְּנַ֗עַן בְּיָד֛וֹ מֹאזְנֵ֥י מִרְמָ֖ה לַעֲשֹׁ֥ק אָהֵֽב׃‬

He is a merchant.

In his hand are false balances;

He loves to defraud.

Hos 12:9
Hos 12:8AV
‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶפְרַ֔יִם אַ֣ךְ עָשַׁ֔רְתִּי מָצָ֥אתִי א֖וֹן לִ֑י כָּל־יְגִיעַ֕י לֹ֥א יִמְצְאוּ־לִ֖י עָוֺ֥ן אֲשֶׁר־חֵֽטְא׃‬

And Ephraim said,

“Surely I have become rich;

I have found wealth for myself.

In all my labours they will not find in me any wrongdoing,

Which would be sin.”

Hos 12:10
Hos 12:9AV
‫וְאָנֹכִ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם עֹ֛ד אוֹשִֽׁיבְךָ֥ בָאֳהָלִ֖ים כִּימֵ֥י מוֹעֵֽד׃‬

But I am the Lord your God

From the land of Egypt.

I will yet have you dwell in tents,

As on the days of the festival.

Hos 12:11
Hos 12:10AV
‫וְדִבַּ֙רְתִּי֙ עַל־הַנְּבִיאִ֔ים וְאָנֹכִ֖י חָז֣וֹן הִרְבֵּ֑יתִי וּבְיַ֥ד הַנְּבִיאִ֖ים אֲדַמֶּֽה׃‬

And I have spoken through the prophets,

And I have increased the number of visions,

And I have given metaphors through the intermediacy of the prophets.

intermediacy ← hand.
Hos 12:12
Hos 12:11AV
‫אִם־גִּלְעָ֥ד אָ֙וֶן֙ אַךְ־שָׁ֣וְא הָי֔וּ בַּגִּלְגָּ֖ל שְׁוָרִ֣ים זִבֵּ֑חוּ גַּ֤ם מִזְבְּחוֹתָם֙ כְּגַלִּ֔ים עַ֖ל תַּלְמֵ֥י שָׂדָֽי׃‬

Is Gilead vanity?

Surely they are falsehood.

They sacrifice oxen in Gilgal,

And their altars are like heaps of stones in the furrows of the field.

Gilead: see Gen 31:21.

Gilgal ← the Gilgal.
Hos 12:13
Hos 12:12AV
‫וַיִּבְרַ֥ח יַעֲקֹ֖ב שְׂדֵ֣ה אֲרָ֑ם וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ד יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּאִשָּׁ֔ה וּבְאִשָּׁ֖ה שָׁמָֽר׃‬

And Jacob fled to the country of Aramaea,

And Israel served there for a wife,

And for a wife he kept sheep.

Israel: Jacob's later name, referring to the man, not the nation.

wife ... wife: otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Hos 12:14
Hos 12:13AV
‫וּבְנָבִ֕יא הֶעֱלָ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וּבְנָבִ֖יא נִשְׁמָֽר׃‬

And by a prophet

The Lord brought Israel up out of Egypt,

And by a prophet

He was guarded.

by a prophet (2x): i.e. by Moses.
Hos 12:15
Hos 12:14AV
‫הִכְעִ֥יס אֶפְרַ֖יִם תַּמְרוּרִ֑ים וְדָמָיו֙ עָלָ֣יו יִטּ֔וֹשׁ וְחֶ֨רְפָּת֔וֹ יָשִׁ֥יב ל֖וֹ אֲדֹנָֽיו׃‬

Ephraim provoked the Lord bitterly,

And he will leave his acts of bloodshed on him,

And his Lord will requite him his reproach.

Hos 13:1 ‫כְּדַבֵּ֤ר אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ רְתֵ֔ת נָשָׂ֥א ה֖וּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֶּאְשַׁ֥ם בַּבַּ֖עַל וַיָּמֹֽת׃‬

When Ephraim spoke of trembling,

He carried weight in Israel,

But he became guilty with Baal

And died.

spoke of trembling: or spoke, (there was) trembling. [BDB] admits both.
Hos 13:2 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה ׀ יוֹסִ֣פוּ לַחֲטֹ֗א וַיַּעְשׂ֣וּ לָהֶם֩ מַסֵּכָ֨ה מִכַּסְפָּ֤ם כִּתְבוּנָם֙ עֲצַבִּ֔ים מַעֲשֵׂ֥ה חָרָשִׁ֖ים כֻּלֹּ֑ה לָהֶם֙ הֵ֣ם אֹמְרִ֔ים זֹבְחֵ֣י אָדָ֔ם עֲגָלִ֖ים יִשָּׁקֽוּן׃‬

And now they are sinning more,

And they have made a cast image for themselves from their silver

According to their understanding

– Idols, all of it the work of artificers.

To them they say,

“Let those who sacrifice men kiss the calves.”

those who sacrifice men: AV differs (men who sacrifice).
Hos 13:3 ‫לָכֵ֗ן יִֽהְיוּ֙ כַּעֲנַן־בֹּ֔קֶר וְכַטַּ֖ל מַשְׁכִּ֣ים הֹלֵ֑ךְ כְּמֹץ֙ יְסֹעֵ֣ר מִגֹּ֔רֶן וּכְעָשָׁ֖ן מֵאֲרֻבָּֽה׃‬

Therefore they shall be like the cloud in the morning,

And like the early dew which evaporates;

Like chaff blown away from the threshing floor,

And like smoke from a chimney.

cloud in the morning ← cloud of the morning.

evaporates ← goes.
Hos 13:4 ‫וְאָנֹכִ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וֵאלֹהִ֤ים זֽוּלָתִי֙ לֹ֣א תֵדָ֔ע וּמוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אַ֖יִן בִּלְתִּֽי׃‬

But I am the Lord your God,

From the land of Egypt.

And you will know no gods besides me,

And that there is no saviour except me.

Hos 13:5 ‫אֲנִ֥י יְדַעְתִּ֖יךָ בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר בְּאֶ֖רֶץ תַּלְאֻבֽוֹת׃‬

I knew you in the desert,

In the land of drought.

Hos 13:6 ‫כְּמַרְעִיתָם֙ וַיִּשְׂבָּ֔עוּ שָׂבְע֖וּ וַיָּ֣רָם לִבָּ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֖ן שְׁכֵחֽוּנִי׃‬

Such was their pasture,

That they were satisfied.

They were satisfied,

And their heart was lifted.

That is why they forgot me.

Hos 13:7 ‫וָאֱהִ֥י לָהֶ֖ם כְּמוֹ־שָׁ֑חַל כְּנָמֵ֖ר עַל־דֶּ֥רֶךְ אָשֽׁוּר׃‬

And I was to them like a lion,

I watched like a leopard by the wayside;

Hos 13:8 ‫אֶפְגְּשֵׁם֙ כְּדֹ֣ב שַׁכּ֔וּל וְאֶקְרַ֖ע סְג֣וֹר לִבָּ֑ם וְאֹכְלֵ֥ם שָׁם֙ כְּלָבִ֔יא חַיַּ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה תְּבַקְּעֵֽם׃‬

I came against them like a bear bereaved of cubs,

And I will tear the enclosure of their heart,

And I will devour them there like a lion;

A wild animal will tear them in pieces.

the enclosure: here, the pericardium.
Hos 13:9 ‫שִֽׁחֶתְךָ֥ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כִּֽי־בִ֥י בְעֶזְרֶֽךָ׃‬

It has ruined you, Israel,

For you are against me

– Against your helper.

helper ← help.

AV differs in many respects.
Hos 13:10 ‫אֱהִ֤י מַלְכְּךָ֙ אֵפ֔וֹא וְיוֹשִֽׁיעֲךָ֖ בְּכָל־עָרֶ֑יךָ וְשֹׁ֣פְטֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֔רְתָּ תְּנָה־לִּ֖י מֶ֥לֶךְ וְשָׂרִֽים׃‬

I will be your king.

Where is he who can save you in all your cities,

And your rulers regarding whom you said,

“Give me a king and princes”?

rulers ← judges, but also rulers.
Hos 13:11 ‫אֶֽתֶּן־לְךָ֥ מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ בְּאַפִּ֔י וְאֶקַּ֖ח בְּעֶבְרָתִֽי׃ ס‬

I gave you a king in my anger,

And I took one away in my wrath.

Hos 13:12 ‫צָרוּר֙ עֲוֺ֣ן אֶפְרָ֔יִם צְפוּנָ֖ה חַטָּאתֽוֹ׃‬

The iniquity of Ephraim is stowed away;

His sin is hidden away.

stowed away ← bundled up.
Hos 13:13 ‫חֶבְלֵ֥י יֽוֹלֵדָ֖ה יָבֹ֣אוּ ל֑וֹ הוּא־בֵן֙ לֹ֣א חָכָ֔ם כִּֽי־עֵ֥ת לֹֽא־יַעֲמֹ֖ד בְּמִשְׁבַּ֥ר בָּנִֽים׃‬

The birth pangs of one bearing a child will come upon him.

He is not a wise son,

For time will not stand still

When it comes to the sons breaking out of the womb.

time will not stand still: AV differs (he should not stay).
Hos 13:14 ‫מִיַּ֤ד שְׁאוֹל֙ אֶפְדֵּ֔ם מִמָּ֖וֶת אֶגְאָלֵ֑ם אֱהִ֨י דְבָרֶיךָ֜ מָ֗וֶת אֱהִ֤י קָֽטָבְךָ֙ שְׁא֔וֹל נֹ֖חַם יִסָּתֵ֥ר מֵעֵינָֽי׃‬

I will deliver them from the power of the grave;

I will redeem them from death.

O death, I will be a plague on you;

O grave, I will be your destruction.

Repentance will be hidden from my eyes.

1 Cor 15:55.

power ← hand.

a plague ← plagues.

repentance will be hidden from my eyes: i.e. I will not repent of this.
Hos 13:15 ‫כִּ֣י ה֔וּא בֵּ֥ן אַחִ֖ים יַפְרִ֑יא יָב֣וֹא קָדִים֩ ר֨וּחַ יְהוָ֜ה מִמִּדְבָּ֣ר עֹלֶ֗ה וְיֵב֤וֹשׁ מְקוֹרוֹ֙ וְיֶחֱרַ֣ב מַעְיָנ֔וֹ ה֣וּא יִשְׁסֶ֔ה אוֹצַ֖ר כָּל־כְּלִ֥י חֶמְדָּֽה׃‬

For he will be fruitful among his brothers,

But then an east wind will come

– An almighty wind will come up from the desert.

And his fount will become dry,

And his spring will dry up.

He shall plunder the treasury of every precious object.

fruitful: a play on words, “Ephraimful”.

almighty wind ← wind of the Lord. An idiom for an extreme; compare Gen 23:6.

become dry: see [ST]; also be ashamed, בּוֹשׁ being cognate with יָבֵשׁ.

precious ← desirable.
Hos 14:1
Hos 13:16AV
‫תֶּאְשַׁם֙ שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן כִּ֥י מָרְתָ֖ה בֵּֽאלֹהֶ֑יהָ בַּחֶ֣רֶב יִפֹּ֔לוּ עֹלְלֵיהֶ֣ם יְרֻטָּ֔שׁוּ וְהָרִיּוֹתָ֖יו יְבֻקָּֽעוּ׃ פ‬

Samaria will bear her guilt,

For she has rebelled against her God.

They will fall by the sword.

Their children will be torn apart,

And his pregnant women will be ripped open.

bear her guilt: AV differs (become desolate).

his: perhaps the change of gender indicates a reference to Israel, the subject of the next verse.
Hos 14:2
Hos 14:1AV
‫שׁ֚וּבָה יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַ֖ד יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ כִּ֥י כָשַׁ֖לְתָּ בַּעֲוֺנֶֽךָ׃‬

Return Israel, to the Lord your God,

For you have stumbled in your iniquity.

Hos 14:3
Hos 14:2AV
‫קְח֤וּ עִמָּכֶם֙ דְּבָרִ֔ים וְשׁ֖וּבוּ אֶל־יְהוָ֑ה אִמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו כָּל־תִּשָּׂ֤א עָוֺן֙ וְקַח־ט֔וֹב וּֽנְשַׁלְּמָ֥ה פָרִ֖ים שְׂפָתֵֽינוּ׃‬

Take with you words,

And return to the Lord,

And say to him,

“Take away all our iniquity,

Receive us favourably,

And we will repay with the calves of our lips.

with the calves of our lips: regrouping the letters and re-pointing, פְּרִי מִשְּׂפָתֵינוּ, would yield the fruit from our lips, an expression used in Heb 13:15. But “calves” gives the sense of sacrifice.
Hos 14:4
Hos 14:3AV
‫אַשּׁ֣וּר ׀ לֹ֣א יוֹשִׁיעֵ֗נוּ עַל־סוּס֙ לֹ֣א נִרְכָּ֔ב וְלֹא־נֹ֥אמַר ע֛וֹד אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ לְמַעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדֵ֑ינוּ אֲשֶׁר־בְּךָ֖ יְרֻחַ֥ם יָתֽוֹם׃‬

Assyria will not save us;

Let us not ride on horses,

And let us no longer say, ‘Our gods’ to the work of our hands.

Let it be that through you

The orphan receives compassion.”

Hos 14:5
Hos 14:4AV
‫אֶרְפָּא֙ מְשׁ֣וּבָתָ֔ם אֹהֲבֵ֖ם נְדָבָ֑ה כִּ֛י שָׁ֥ב אַפִּ֖י מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃‬

“I will heal their apostasy,

I will love them freely,

For my anger will have turned from him.

him: i.e., [CB], Israel.
Hos 14:6
Hos 14:5AV
‫אֶהְיֶ֤ה כַטַּל֙ לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יִפְרַ֖ח כַּשּֽׁוֹשַׁנָּ֑ה וְיַ֥ךְ שָׁרָשָׁ֖יו כַּלְּבָנֽוֹן׃‬

I will be like dew to Israel,

And he will flourish like a lily,

And he will strike root

As trees do in Lebanon.

strike root ← strike his roots.
Hos 14:7
Hos 14:6AV
‫יֵֽלְכוּ֙ יֹֽנְקוֹתָ֔יו וִיהִ֥י כַזַּ֖יִת הוֹד֑וֹ וְרֵ֥יחַֽ ל֖וֹ כַּלְּבָנֽוֹן׃‬

His shoots will spread,

And his splendour will be like an olive tree,

And he will have a scent

As aromatic trees do in Lebanon.

spread ← go; flow.
Hos 14:8
Hos 14:7AV
‫יָשֻׁ֙בוּ֙ יֹשְׁבֵ֣י בְצִלּ֔וֹ יְחַיּ֥וּ דָגָ֖ן וְיִפְרְח֣וּ כַגָּ֑פֶן זִכְר֖וֹ כְּיֵ֥ין לְבָנֽוֹן׃ ס‬

And they who dwell in his shadow will return,

And they will revive like corn

And flourish like the vine.

Their memorial will be like the wine of Lebanon.

revive: piel, which is usually transitive, but one can supply themselves (compare Hos 8:10). Re-pointed as qal (יִחְיוּ), which seems more natural, it would be intransitive.

memorial: AV differs (scent).
Hos 14:9
Hos 14:8AV
‫אֶפְרַ֕יִם מַה־לִּ֥י ע֖וֹד לָֽעֲצַבִּ֑ים אֲנִ֧י עָנִ֣יתִי וַאֲשׁוּרֶ֗נּוּ אֲנִי֙ כִּבְר֣וֹשׁ רַֽעֲנָ֔ן מִמֶּ֖נִּי פֶּרְיְךָ֥ נִמְצָֽא׃‬

Ephraim will say,

‘What have I to do with idols any more?’

And I will answer and regard him.

I will be like a green cypress;

And from me your fruit will be found.

Hos 14:10
Hos 14:9AV
‫מִ֤י חָכָם֙ וְיָ֣בֵֽן אֵ֔לֶּה נָב֖וֹן וְיֵֽדָעֵ֑ם כִּֽי־יְשָׁרִ֞ים דַּרְכֵ֣י יְהוָ֗ה וְצַדִּקִים֙ יֵ֣לְכוּ בָ֔ם וּפֹשְׁעִ֖ים יִכָּ֥שְׁלוּ בָֽם׃‬

Let him who is wise understand these things,

And let him who is intelligent know them,

For the ways of the Lord are upright,

And the righteous will walk in them,

But the transgressors will stumble in them.”

Joel 1:1 ‫דְּבַר־יְהוָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיָ֔ה אֶל־יוֹאֵ֖ל בֶּן־פְּתוּאֵֽל׃‬ The word of the Lord which came to Joel the son of Pethuel. came ← became.
Joel 1:2 ‫שִׁמְעוּ־זֹאת֙ הַזְּקֵנִ֔ים וְהַֽאֲזִ֔ינוּ כֹּ֖ל יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ הֶהָ֤יְתָה זֹּאת֙ בִּֽימֵיכֶ֔ם וְאִ֖ם בִּימֵ֥י אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶֽם׃‬

Listen to this, you elders,

And give ear, all you dwellers of the land.

Was there ever anything like this in your days,

Or in the days of your fathers?

Joel 1:3 ‫עָלֶ֖יהָ לִבְנֵיכֶ֣ם סַפֵּ֑רוּ וּבְנֵיכֶם֙ לִבְנֵיהֶ֔ם וּבְנֵיהֶ֖ם לְד֥וֹר אַחֵֽר׃‬

Tell your sons about it,

And have your sons tell their sons,

And have their sons tell another generation.

Joel 1:4 ‫יֶ֤תֶר הַגָּזָם֙ אָכַ֣ל הָֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה וְיֶ֥תֶר הָאַרְבֶּ֖ה אָכַ֣ל הַיָּ֑לֶק וְיֶ֣תֶר הַיֶּ֔לֶק אָכַ֖ל הֶחָסִֽיל׃‬

What was left by the gnawing locust,

The swarming locust has eaten.

What was left by the swarming locust,

The devouring locust has eaten.

And what was left by the devouring locust,

The consuming locust has eaten.

Joel 1:5 ‫הָקִ֤יצוּ שִׁכּוֹרִים֙ וּבְכ֔וּ וְהֵילִ֖לוּ כָּל־שֹׁ֣תֵי יָ֑יִן עַל־עָסִ֕יס כִּ֥י נִכְרַ֖ת מִפִּיכֶֽם׃‬

Wake up, drunkards, and weep;

And all drinkers of wine,

Wail over the new wine,

For it is cut off from your mouth.

Joel 1:6 ‫כִּֽי־גוֹי֙ עָלָ֣ה עַל־אַרְצִ֔י עָצ֖וּם וְאֵ֣ין מִסְפָּ֑ר שִׁנָּיו֙ שִׁנֵּ֣י אַרְיֵ֔ה וּֽמְתַלְּע֥וֹת לָבִ֖יא לֽוֹ׃‬

For a nation has gone up onto my land

– A powerful and innumerable one.

Its teeth are the teeth of a lion,

And it has the incisors of a great lion.

Joel 1:7 ‫שָׂ֤ם גַּפְנִי֙ לְשַׁמָּ֔ה וּתְאֵנָתִ֖י לִקְצָפָ֑ה חָשֹׂ֤ף חֲשָׂפָהּ֙ וְהִשְׁלִ֔יךְ הִלְבִּ֖ינוּ שָׂרִיגֶֽיהָ׃‬

It has made my vine a desolation

And my fig tree splinters.

It has stripped it bare

And cast it away;

Its branches have turned white.

stripped ... bare: infinitive absolute (enhancing stripped).
Joel 1:8 ‫אֱלִ֕י כִּבְתוּלָ֥ה חֲגֻֽרַת־שַׂ֖ק עַל־בַּ֥עַל נְעוּרֶֽיהָ׃‬

Lament like a virgin girded in sackcloth

For the husband of her youth.

husband: i.e. intended husband.
Joel 1:9 ‫הָכְרַ֥ת מִנְחָ֛ה וָנֶ֖סֶךְ מִבֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֑ה אָֽבְלוּ֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים מְשָׁרְתֵ֖י יְהוָֽה׃‬

The meal-offering and the libation

Have been cut off from the house of the Lord.

The priests – the Lord's servants – are in mourning.

Joel 1:10 ‫שֻׁדַּ֣ד שָׂדֶ֔ה אָבְלָ֖ה אֲדָמָ֑ה כִּ֚י שֻׁדַּ֣ד דָּגָ֔ן הוֹבִ֥ישׁ תִּיר֖וֹשׁ אֻמְלַ֥ל יִצְהָֽר׃‬

The countryside is wasted,

The ground mourns,

For the corn is wasted.

The new wine has dried up;

The new oil is languishing.

Joel 1:11 ‫הֹבִ֣ישׁוּ אִכָּרִ֗ים הֵילִ֙ילוּ֙ כֹּֽרְמִ֔ים עַל־חִטָּ֖ה וְעַל־שְׂעֹרָ֑ה כִּ֥י אָבַ֖ד קְצִ֥יר שָׂדֶֽה׃‬

The farmers have been put to shame.

The vinedressers are howling,

Also for the wheat and for the barley,

Because the harvest of the field has failed.

Joel 1:12 ‫הַגֶּ֣פֶן הוֹבִ֔ישָׁה וְהַתְּאֵנָ֖ה אֻמְלָ֑לָה רִמּ֞וֹן גַּם־תָּמָ֣ר וְתַפּ֗וּחַ כָּל־עֲצֵ֤י הַשָּׂדֶה֙ יָבֵ֔שׁוּ כִּֽי־הֹבִ֥ישׁ שָׂשׂ֖וֹן מִן־בְּנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃ ס‬

The vine has dried up,

The fig tree is languishing

– The pomegranate and the date and the apple too.

All the trees of the field have dried up,

For joy has dried up from the sons of Adam.

Joel 1:13 ‫חִגְר֨וּ וְסִפְד֜וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֗ים הֵילִ֙ילוּ֙ מְשָׁרְתֵ֣י מִזְבֵּ֔חַ בֹּ֚אוּ לִ֣ינוּ בַשַּׂקִּ֔ים מְשָׁרְתֵ֖י אֱלֹהָ֑י כִּ֥י נִמְנַ֛ע מִבֵּ֥ית אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם מִנְחָ֥ה וָנָֽסֶךְ׃‬

Gird yourselves and mourn, you priests,

Howl, you servants of the altar.

Come and pass the night in sackcloth,

You servants of my God,

For the meal-offering and the libation have been withheld from the house of your God.

Joel 1:14 ‫קַדְּשׁוּ־צוֹם֙ קִרְא֣וּ עֲצָרָ֔ה אִסְפ֣וּ זְקֵנִ֗ים כֹּ֚ל יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ בֵּ֖ית יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם וְזַעֲק֖וּ אֶל־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Hold a holy fast;

Proclaim a solemn assembly.

Gather the elders and all the inhabitants of the land to the house of the Lord your God,

And cry out to the Lord.

hold a holy fast ← sanctify a fast.
Joel 1:15 ‫אֲהָ֖הּ לַיּ֑וֹם כִּ֤י קָרוֹב֙ י֣וֹם יְהוָ֔ה וּכְשֹׁ֖ד מִשַׁדַּ֥י יָבֽוֹא׃‬

Alas for the day!

For the day of the Lord is near,

And it will come as devastation from the Almighty.

Rev 1:10.
Joel 1:16 ‫הֲל֛וֹא נֶ֥גֶד עֵינֵ֖ינוּ אֹ֣כֶל נִכְרָ֑ת מִבֵּ֥ית אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ שִׂמְחָ֥ה וָגִֽיל׃‬

Is not food cut off in front of our eyes?

Are not happiness and rejoicing cut off from the house of our God?

Joel 1:17 ‫עָבְשׁ֣וּ פְרֻד֗וֹת תַּ֚חַת מֶגְרְפֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם נָשַׁ֙מּוּ֙ אֹֽצָר֔וֹת נֶהֶרְס֖וּ מַמְּגֻר֑וֹת כִּ֥י הֹבִ֖ישׁ דָּגָֽן׃‬

The seeds decay under their covering soil,

The storehouses have been laid waste,

The garners have been demolished,

For the corn supply has dried up.

Joel 1:18 ‫מַה־נֶּאֶנְחָ֣ה בְהֵמָ֗ה נָבֹ֙כוּ֙ עֶדְרֵ֣י בָקָ֔ר כִּ֛י אֵ֥ין מִרְעֶ֖ה לָהֶ֑ם גַּם־עֶדְרֵ֥י הַצֹּ֖אן נֶאְשָֽׁמוּ׃‬

How the cattle sigh,

How the herds of oxen are perplexed,

For there is no pasture for them,

And the flocks of sheep are perishing.

Joel 1:19 ‫אֵלֶ֥יךָ יְהוָ֖ה אֶקְרָ֑א כִּ֣י אֵ֗שׁ אָֽכְלָה֙ נְא֣וֹת מִדְבָּ֔ר וְלֶ֣הָבָ֔ה לִהֲטָ֖ה כָּל־עֲצֵ֥י הַשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬

On you, O Lord, I will call,

For fire has devoured the pastures of the desert,

And a flame has set all the trees of the field ablaze.

Joel 1:20 ‫גַּם־בַּהֲמ֥וֹת שָׂדֶ֖ה תַּעֲר֣וֹג אֵלֶ֑יךָ כִּ֤י יָֽבְשׁוּ֙ אֲפִ֣יקֵי מָ֔יִם וְאֵ֕שׁ אָכְלָ֖ה נְא֥וֹת הַמִּדְבָּֽר׃ פ‬

The beasts of the field also bleat to you,

For the brooks of water have dried up,

And fire has devoured the pastures of the desert.

Joel 2:1 ‫תִּקְע֨וּ שׁוֹפָ֜ר בְּצִיּ֗וֹן וְהָרִ֙יעוּ֙ בְּהַ֣ר קָדְשִׁ֔י יִרְגְּז֕וּ כֹּ֖ל יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּֽי־בָ֥א יוֹם־יְהוָ֖ה כִּ֥י קָרֽוֹב׃‬

Blow the ramshorn in Zion,

And sound the alarm on my holy mountain.

Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble,

For the day of the Lord is coming,

For it is near.

Rev 1:10.

my holy mountain ← the mountain of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.

tremble: or stand in awe.
Joel 2:2 ‫י֧וֹם חֹ֣שֶׁךְ וַאֲפֵלָ֗ה י֤וֹם עָנָן֙ וַעֲרָפֶ֔ל כְּשַׁ֖חַר פָּרֻ֣שׂ עַל־הֶֽהָרִ֑ים עַ֚ם רַ֣ב וְעָצ֔וּם כָּמֹ֗הוּ לֹ֤א נִֽהְיָה֙ מִן־הָ֣עוֹלָ֔ם וְאַֽחֲרָיו֙ לֹ֣א יוֹסֵ֔ף עַד־שְׁנֵ֖י דּ֥וֹר וָדֽוֹר׃‬

It is a day of darkness and dimness,

A day of cloud and gloom,

Like blackness spreading over the mountains,

Consisting of a numerous and strong people.

There has not been anything like it from ancient time,

Nor will there again be after it,

In the years of generation after generation.

blackness: AV differs (morning). The word also means dawn, but a root meaning is to be black. The clause describes an attack on Zion just prior to the Lord's intervention.

ancient time ← the age.

in the years ← up to the years.
Joel 2:3 ‫לְפָנָיו֙ אָ֣כְלָה אֵ֔שׁ וְאַחֲרָ֖יו תְּלַהֵ֣ט לֶֽהָבָ֑ה כְּגַן־עֵ֨דֶן הָאָ֜רֶץ לְפָנָ֗יו וְאַֽחֲרָיו֙ מִדְבַּ֣ר שְׁמָמָ֔ה וְגַם־פְּלֵיטָ֖ה לֹא־הָ֥יְתָה לּֽוֹ׃‬

Fire will consume in front of them,

And behind them a flame will spread a conflagration.

The land in front of them is like the garden of Eden,

But behind them is a desolate desert,

And they will not have anyone who escapes it.

them (4x)it / him, which we take as referring to the people of the previous verse.

desolate desert ← desert of desolation, a Hebraic genitive.
Joel 2:4 ‫כְּמַרְאֵ֥ה סוּסִ֖ים מַרְאֵ֑הוּ וּכְפָרָשִׁ֖ים כֵּ֥ן יְרוּצֽוּן׃‬

Their appearance is as the appearance of horses,

And they run like horsemen.

Joel 2:5 ‫כְּק֣וֹל מַרְכָּב֗וֹת עַל־רָאשֵׁ֤י הֶֽהָרִים֙ יְרַקֵּד֔וּן כְּקוֹל֙ לַ֣הַב אֵ֔שׁ אֹכְלָ֖ה קָ֑שׁ כְּעַ֣ם עָצ֔וּם עֱר֖וּךְ מִלְחָמָֽה׃‬

They rattle along over the tops of hills

With the noise of chariots

And with a sound like a flame devouring stubble.

They are a powerful people,

Equipped for war.

flame ← flame of fire.

a powerful people ← as a powerful people. The ke perhaps denoting intensity. Compare [AnLx], כְּ II (c).
Joel 2:6 ‫מִפָּנָ֖יו יָחִ֣ילוּ עַמִּ֑ים כָּל־פָּנִ֖ים קִבְּצ֥וּ פָארֽוּר׃‬

In their presence nations will writhe;

All faces will lose their shine.

lose ← gather in.
Joel 2:7 ‫כְּגִבּוֹרִ֣ים יְרֻצ֔וּן כְּאַנְשֵׁ֥י מִלְחָמָ֖ה יַעֲל֣וּ חוֹמָ֑ה וְאִ֤ישׁ בִּדְרָכָיו֙ יֵֽלֵכ֔וּן וְלֹ֥א יְעַבְּט֖וּן אֹרְחוֹתָֽם׃‬

Like warriors they run;

Like men of war, they climb a wall.

And each one marches in his file,

And they do not break ranks.

ranks ← their ranks.
Joel 2:8 ‫וְאִ֤ישׁ אָחִיו֙ לֹ֣א יִדְחָק֔וּן גֶּ֥בֶר בִּמְסִלָּת֖וֹ יֵֽלֵכ֑וּן וּבְעַ֥ד הַשֶּׁ֛לַח יִפֹּ֖לוּ לֹ֥א יִבְצָֽעוּ׃‬

And no-one jostles his neighbour;

Each man walks on his path.

And when they fall, hit by a missile,

They do not break up the formation.

his neighbour ← his brother.

they do not break up the formation: AV differs (they shall not be wounded).
Joel 2:9 ‫בָּעִ֣יר יָשֹׁ֗קּוּ בַּֽחוֹמָה֙ יְרֻצ֔וּן בַּבָּתִּ֖ים יַעֲל֑וּ בְּעַ֧ד הַחַלּוֹנִ֛ים יָבֹ֖אוּ כַּגַּנָּֽב׃‬

In the city, they scurry to and fro,

And they run on the wall.

They climb into houses;

They come through windows like a thief.

Joel 2:10 ‫לְפָנָיו֙ רָ֣גְזָה אֶ֔רֶץ רָעֲשׁ֖וּ שָׁמָ֑יִם שֶׁ֤מֶשׁ וְיָרֵ֙חַ֙ קָדָ֔רוּ וְכוֹכָבִ֖ים אָסְפ֥וּ נָגְהָֽם׃‬

In front of them the earth will tremble,

And the heavens will shake.

The sun and moon will be darkened,

And the stars will withdraw their brightness.

withdraw ← gather in; a different word from Joel 2:6.
Joel 2:11 ‫וַֽיהוָ֗ה נָתַ֤ן קוֹלוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י חֵיל֔וֹ כִּ֣י רַ֤ב מְאֹד֙ מַחֲנֵ֔הוּ כִּ֥י עָצ֖וּם עֹשֵׂ֣ה דְבָר֑וֹ כִּֽי־גָד֧וֹל יוֹם־יְהוָ֛ה וְנוֹרָ֥א מְאֹ֖ד וּמִ֥י יְכִילֶֽנּוּ׃‬

And the Lord will sound his voice before his army

(For his camp is very mighty),

And he who gives his word is powerful.

For great is the day of the Lord,

And quite terrible,

And who can endure it?

Rev 1:10.
Joel 2:12 ‫וְגַם־עַתָּה֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה שֻׁ֥בוּ עָדַ֖י בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶ֑ם וּבְצ֥וֹם וּבְבְכִ֖י וּבְמִסְפֵּֽד׃‬

And even now,

Says the Lord,

Return to me with your whole heart,

And with fasting and with weeping

And with mourning.

Joel 2:13 ‫וְקִרְע֤וּ לְבַבְכֶם֙ וְאַל־בִּגְדֵיכֶ֔ם וְשׁ֖וּבוּ אֶל־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־חַנּ֤וּן וְרַחוּם֙ ה֔וּא אֶ֤רֶךְ אַפַּ֙יִם֙ וְרַב־חֶ֔סֶד וְנִחָ֖ם עַל־הָרָעָֽה׃‬

And tear your heart,

And not your clothes,

And return to the Lord your God,

For he is gracious and merciful,

Longsuffering and of great kindness,

Who repents of doing harm.

for he is gracious and merciful (etc.): compare Jonah 4:2.

repents of doing harm: i.e. is open to a change of heart if warranted by repentance of the sinners in view.
Joel 2:14 ‫מִ֥י יוֹדֵ֖עַ יָשׁ֣וּב וְנִחָ֑ם וְהִשְׁאִ֤יר אַֽחֲרָיו֙ בְּרָכָ֔ה מִנְחָ֣ה וָנֶ֔סֶךְ לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃ פ‬

Who knows if they will return and repent,

And leave a gift behind

– A meal-offering and a libation

To the Lord your God?

they ← he. A collective reference to a people. AV differs, referring this to God, also possible, but incompatible with a meal-offering and a libation in our sentence structure.

gift: or blessing.

behind ← behind them.
Joel 2:15 ‫תִּקְע֥וּ שׁוֹפָ֖ר בְּצִיּ֑וֹן קַדְּשׁוּ־צ֖וֹם קִרְא֥וּ עֲצָרָֽה׃‬

Sound the ramshorn in Zion,

Hold a holy fast;

Proclaim a solemn assembly.

hold a holy fast ← sanctify a fast.
Joel 2:16 ‫אִסְפוּ־עָ֞ם קַדְּשׁ֤וּ קָהָל֙ קִבְצ֣וּ זְקֵנִ֔ים אִסְפוּ֙ עֽוֹלָלִ֔ים וְיֹנְקֵ֖י שָׁדָ֑יִם יֵצֵ֤א חָתָן֙ מֵֽחֶדְר֔וֹ וְכַלָּ֖ה מֵחֻפָּתָֽהּ׃‬

Gather the people,

Proclaim a holy convocation,

Assemble the elders,

Gather the children,

And those who are breastfed.

Let the bridegroom go out of his room,

And the bride go out of her bridal chamber.

proclaim a holy convocation ← sanctify a convocation.

are breastfed ← suck breasts.
Joel 2:17 ‫בֵּ֤ין הָאוּלָם֙ וְלַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ יִבְכּוּ֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים מְשָׁרְתֵ֖י יְהוָ֑ה וְֽיֹאמְר֞וּ ח֧וּסָה יְהוָ֣ה עַל־עַמֶּ֗ךָ וְאַל־תִּתֵּ֨ן נַחֲלָתְךָ֤ לְחֶרְפָּה֙ לִמְשָׁל־בָּ֣ם גּוֹיִ֔ם לָ֚מָּה יֹאמְר֣וּ בָֽעַמִּ֔ים אַיֵּ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽם׃‬

Between the portico and the altar,

Let the priests – the servants of the Lord – weep,

And let them say,

“Take pity, O Lord on your people,

And do not allow your inheritance to become a reproach,

By which the Gentiles would have a proverb against them.

Why should those among the Gentiles say,

‘Where is their God?’ ”

would have a proverb: AV differs (should rule), also possible, but less suited to the context.

why should those among the Gentiles say (etc.): compare Ps 79:10.
Joel 2:18 ‫וַיְקַנֵּ֥א יְהוָ֖ה לְאַרְצ֑וֹ וַיַּחְמֹ֖ל עַל־עַמּֽוֹ׃‬

And the Lord will be zealous for his land,

And he will spare his people.

Joel 2:19 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן יְהוָ֜ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְעַמּ֗וֹ הִנְנִ֨י שֹׁלֵ֤חַ לָכֶם֙ אֶת־הַדָּגָן֙ וְהַתִּיר֣וֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָ֔ר וּשְׂבַעְתֶּ֖ם אֹת֑וֹ וְלֹא־אֶתֵּ֨ן אֶתְכֶ֥ם ע֛וֹד חֶרְפָּ֖ה בַּגּוֹיִֽם׃‬

And the Lord will answer

And will say to his people,

“Look, I am sending you corn and new wine and new oil,

And you will be satisfied with it,

And I will no longer make you a reproach among the Gentiles.

Joel 2:20 ‫וְֽאֶת־הַצְּפוֹנִ֞י אַרְחִ֣יק מֵעֲלֵיכֶ֗ם וְהִדַּחְתִּיו֮ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ צִיָּ֣ה וּשְׁמָמָה֒ אֶת־פָּנָ֗יו אֶל־הַיָּם֙ הַקַּדְמֹנִ֔י וְסֹפ֖וֹ אֶל־הַיָּ֣ם הָאַֽחֲר֑וֹן וְעָלָ֣ה בָאְשׁ֗וֹ וְתַ֙עַל֙ צַחֲנָת֔וֹ כִּ֥י הִגְדִּ֖יל לַעֲשֽׂוֹת׃‬

And I will remove the northerner from you,

And I will drive him out into a dry and desolate land,

With his face towards the eastern sea,

And his rear towards the western sea,

And his stench will go up,

And his foul smell will rise,

For he acted presumptuously in what he did.

the eastern sea ... the western sea: i.e. the Dead Sea ... the Mediterranean.
Joel 2:21 ‫אַל־תִּֽירְאִ֖י אֲדָמָ֑ה גִּ֣ילִי וּשְׂמָ֔חִי כִּֽי־הִגְדִּ֥יל יְהוָ֖ה לַעֲשֽׂוֹת׃‬

Do not fear, O land;

Rejoice and be happy,

For the Lord has presumed to act.

presumed to act: or done great things, but this is the figure of speech called ironic echo, a special case of antanaclasis, using the same words as in the previous verse in a different way.
Joel 2:22 ‫אַל־תִּֽירְאוּ֙ בַּהֲמ֣וֹת שָׂדַ֔י כִּ֥י דָשְׁא֖וּ נְא֣וֹת מִדְבָּ֑ר כִּֽי־עֵץ֙ נָשָׂ֣א פִרְי֔וֹ תְּאֵנָ֥ה וָגֶ֖פֶן נָתְנ֥וּ חֵילָֽם׃‬

Do not fear, you wild animals,

For the pastures of the desert will sprout grass,

For the tree will bear its fruit;

The fig tree and the vine will yield their richness.

Joel 2:23 ‫וּבְנֵ֣י צִיּ֗וֹן גִּ֤ילוּ וְשִׂמְחוּ֙ בַּיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם כִּֽי־נָתַ֥ן לָכֶ֛ם אֶת־הַמּוֹרֶ֖ה לִצְדָקָ֑ה וַיּ֣וֹרֶד לָכֶ֗ם גֶּ֛שֶׁם מוֹרֶ֥ה וּמַלְק֖וֹשׁ בָּרִאשֽׁוֹן׃‬

So, you sons of Zion,

Be glad and rejoice in the Lord your God,

For he has given you the teacher of righteousness,

And he has brought down rain upon you,

Early rain and late rain, as aforetime.

teacher of righteousness: or early rain for righteousness, but this is a play on Hebrew words; see below.

early rain: a play on words with teacher of righteousness.
Joel 2:24 ‫וּמָלְא֥וּ הַגֳּרָנ֖וֹת בָּ֑ר וְהֵשִׁ֥יקוּ הַיְקָבִ֖ים תִּיר֥וֹשׁ וְיִצְהָֽר׃‬

And the threshing floors will be full of grain,

And the vats will overflow with new wine and new oil.

Joel 2:25 ‫וְשִׁלַּמְתִּ֤י לָכֶם֙ אֶת־הַשָּׁנִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר֙ אָכַ֣ל הָֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה הַיֶּ֖לֶק וְהֶחָסִ֣יל וְהַגָּזָ֑ם חֵילִי֙ הַגָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר שִׁלַּ֖חְתִּי בָּכֶֽם׃‬

And I will restore to you the years

Which the swarming locust devoured,

And the devouring locust, and the consuming locust and the gnawing locust

– My great army which I sent against you.

Joel 2:26 ‫וַאֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם אָכוֹל֙ וְשָׂב֔וֹעַ וְהִלַּלְתֶּ֗ם אֶת־שֵׁ֤ם יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה עִמָּכֶ֖ם לְהַפְלִ֑יא וְלֹא־יֵבֹ֥שׁוּ עַמִּ֖י לְעוֹלָֽם׃‬

And you will eat freely and be satisfied,

And you will praise the name of the Lord your God,

Who dealt wondrously with you,

And my people will never be ashamed.

eat freely: infinitive absolute.

be satisfied: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.

never ← not for the age.
Joel 2:27 ‫וִידַעְתֶּ֗ם כִּ֣י בְקֶ֤רֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אָ֔נִי וַאֲנִ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם וְאֵ֣ין ע֑וֹד וְלֹא־יֵבֹ֥שׁוּ עַמִּ֖י לְעוֹלָֽם׃ ס‬

And you will know that I am in the midst of Israel,

And that I am the Lord your God,

And that there is no other.

And my people will never be ashamed.”

never ← not for the age.
Joel 3:1
Joel 2:28AV
‫וְהָיָ֣ה אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן אֶשְׁפּ֤וֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִי֙ עַל־כָּל־בָּשָׂ֔ר וְנִבְּא֖וּ בְּנֵיכֶ֣ם וּבְנֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם זִקְנֵיכֶם֙ חֲלֹמ֣וֹת יַחֲלֹמ֔וּן בַּח֣וּרֵיכֶ֔ם חֶזְיֹנ֖וֹת יִרְאֽוּ׃‬

“And it will come to pass after that,

That I will pour out my spirit on all flesh,

And your sons and your daughters will prophesy,

And your old people will have dreams,

And your young men will see visions.

Acts 2:17.

have dreams ← dream dreams.
Joel 3:2
Joel 2:29AV
‫וְגַ֥ם עַל־הָֽעֲבָדִ֖ים וְעַל־הַשְּׁפָח֑וֹת בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔מָּה אֶשְׁפּ֖וֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִֽי׃‬

And I will also pour out my spirit

On menservants and maidservants in those days.

Acts 2:18.
Joel 3:3
Joel 2:30AV
‫וְנָֽתַתִּי֙ מֽוֹפְתִ֔ים בַּשָּׁמַ֖יִם וּבָאָ֑רֶץ דָּ֣ם וָאֵ֔שׁ וְתִֽימֲר֖וֹת עָשָֽׁן׃‬

And I will show wonders in the sky and on the earth

– Blood and fire,

And pillars of smoke.

Acts 2:19.

in the sky: or in heaven.
Joel 3:4
Joel 2:31AV
‫הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ יֵהָפֵ֣ךְ לְחֹ֔שֶׁךְ וְהַיָּרֵ֖חַ לְדָ֑ם לִפְנֵ֗י בּ֚וֹא י֣וֹם יְהוָ֔ה הַגָּד֖וֹל וְהַנּוֹרָֽא׃‬

The sun will be turned to darkness,

And the moon to blood,

Before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes.

Acts 2:20, Rev 6:12.
Joel 3:5
Joel 2:32AV
‫וְהָיָ֗ה כֹּ֧ל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָ֛א בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה יִמָּלֵ֑ט כִּ֠י בְּהַר־צִיּ֨וֹן וּבִירוּשָׁלִַ֜ם תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה פְלֵיטָ֗ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וּבַ֨שְּׂרִידִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה קֹרֵֽא׃‬

And it shall come to pass

That everyone who calls on the name of the Lord

Will be delivered,

For on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be deliverance,

As the Lord has said,

And for the remnants whom the Lord calls.

Acts 2:21, Rom 10:13.

remnants ← escapees.
Joel 4:1
Joel 3:1AV
‫כִּ֗י הִנֵּ֛ה בַּיָּמִ֥ים הָהֵ֖מָּה וּבָעֵ֣ת הַהִ֑יא אֲשֶׁ֥ר *אשוב **אָשִׁ֛יב אֶת־שְׁב֥וּת יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

For look,

In those days and at that time,

When I reverse the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem,

reverse: the ketiv would normally mean when I return, intransitively, but also, [AnLx], bring back. A vav / yod issue.
Joel 4:2
Joel 3:2AV
‫וְקִבַּצְתִּי֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְה֣וֹרַדְתִּ֔ים אֶל־עֵ֖מֶק יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֑ט וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּ֨י עִמָּ֜ם שָׁ֗ם עַל־עַמִּ֨י וְנַחֲלָתִ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר פִּזְּר֣וּ בַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְאֶת־אַרְצִ֖י חִלֵּֽקוּ׃‬

I will gather all the Gentiles,

And I will bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat,

And I will litigate with them there,

Concerning my people and my inheritance Israel,

Whom they have scattered among the nations,

And as to why they have divided up my land.

Joel 4:3
Joel 3:3AV
‫וְאֶל־עַמִּ֖י יַדּ֣וּ גוֹרָ֑ל וַיִּתְּנ֤וּ הַיֶּ֙לֶד֙ בַּזּוֹנָ֔ה וְהַיַּלְדָּ֛ה מָכְר֥וּ בַיַּ֖יִן וַיִּשְׁתּֽוּ׃‬

For they have cast lots for my people,

And they have given boys for prostitutes,

And they have sold girls for wine

And have drunk it.

for: causal use of the vav.

boys ... prostitutes ... girls ← the boy ... the prostitute ... the girl. Collective usage.
Joel 4:4
Joel 3:4AV
‫וְ֠גַם מָה־אַתֶּ֥ם לִי֙ צֹ֣ר וְצִיד֔וֹן וְכֹ֖ל גְּלִיל֣וֹת פְּלָ֑שֶׁת הַגְּמ֗וּל אַתֶּם֙ מְשַׁלְּמִ֣ים עָלָ֔י וְאִם־גֹּמְלִ֤ים אַתֶּם֙ עָלַ֔י קַ֣ל מְהֵרָ֔ה אָשִׁ֥יב גְּמֻלְכֶ֖ם בְּרֹאשְׁכֶֽם׃‬

And also, what have you to do with me,

Tyre and Sidon and all the regions of Philistia?

Will you repay me with retribution?

Well if you retribute me,

I will swiftly and rapidly return your retribution onto your head.

what have you to do with me ← what you to me.

Sidon: see Gen 10:15.
Joel 4:5
Joel 3:5AV
‫אֲשֶׁר־כַּסְפִּ֥י וּזְהָבִ֖י לְקַחְתֶּ֑ם וּמַֽחֲמַדַּי֙ הַטֹּבִ֔ים הֲבֵאתֶ֖ם לְהֵיכְלֵיכֶֽם׃‬

For you have taken my silver and my gold,

And you have brought my fine precious objects into your temples.

precious ← desirable.
Joel 4:6
Joel 3:6AV
‫וּבְנֵ֤י יְהוּדָה֙ וּבְנֵ֣י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם מְכַרְתֶּ֖ם לִבְנֵ֣י הַיְּוָנִ֑ים לְמַ֥עַן הַרְחִיקָ֖ם מֵעַ֥ל גְּבוּלָֽם׃‬

And you have sold the sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem to the sons of the Greeks,

So removing them from their territory.

territory ← border.
Joel 4:7
Joel 3:7AV
‫הִנְנִ֣י מְעִירָ֔ם מִן־הַ֨מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר־מְכַרְתֶּ֥ם אֹתָ֖ם שָׁ֑מָּה וַהֲשִׁבֹתִ֥י גְמֻלְכֶ֖ם בְּרֹאשְׁכֶֽם׃‬

Look, I am stirring them up

To move them from the place where you sold them,

And I will bring back your recompense onto your head.

Joel 4:8
Joel 3:8AV
‫וּמָכַרְתִּ֞י אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶ֣ם וְאֶת־בְּנֽוֹתֵיכֶ֗ם בְּיַד֙ בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וּמְכָר֥וּם לִשְׁבָאיִ֖ם אֶל־גּ֣וֹי רָח֑וֹק כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃ ס‬

And I will sell your sons and your daughters

Into the hand of the sons of Judah,

Who will sell them to the Sabaeans

– To a distant nation –

For the Lord has spoken.

Joel 4:9
Joel 3:9AV
‫קִרְאוּ־זֹאת֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם קַדְּשׁ֖וּ מִלְחָמָ֑ה הָעִ֙ירוּ֙ הַגִּבּוֹרִ֔ים יִגְּשׁ֣וּ יַֽעֲל֔וּ כֹּ֖ל אַנְשֵׁ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬

Announce this among the nations,

Proclaim a holy war,

Arouse the warriors,

Let all men of war approach

And go up.

proclaim a holy war ← sanctify a war.
Joel 4:10
Joel 3:10AV
‫כֹּ֤תּוּ אִתֵּיכֶם֙ לַֽחֲרָב֔וֹת וּמַזְמְרֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם לִרְמָחִ֑ים הַֽחַלָּ֔שׁ יֹאמַ֖ר גִּבּ֥וֹר אָֽנִי׃‬

Beat your ploughshares into swords

And your pruning shears into spears.

Let him who is weak say,

‘I am a warrior.’

Joel 4:11
Joel 3:11AV
‫ע֣וּשׁוּ וָבֹ֧אוּ כָֽל־הַגּוֹיִ֛ם מִסָּבִ֖יב וְנִקְבָּ֑צוּ שָׁ֕מָּה הַֽנְחַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה גִּבּוֹרֶֽיךָ׃‬

Make haste and come,

All you nations round about,

And be gathered there.

O Lord,

Bring down your warriors.

make haste: AV differs (assemble yourselves).

there: AV differs in word association, as does MT (thither cause thy mighty ones to come down).
Joel 4:12
Joel 3:12AV
‫יֵע֙וֹרוּ֙ וְיַעֲל֣וּ הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֶל־עֵ֖מֶק יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֑ט כִּ֣י שָׁ֗ם אֵשֵׁ֛ב לִשְׁפֹּ֥ט אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם מִסָּבִֽיב׃‬

Let the nations be aroused

And go up to the Valley of Jehoshaphat,

For there I will sit to judge all the nations round about.

Jehoshaphat: i.e. the Lord (Jehovah / Yahveh) will judge.
Joel 4:13
Joel 3:13AV
‫שִׁלְח֣וּ מַגָּ֔ל כִּ֥י בָשַׁ֖ל קָצִ֑יר בֹּ֤אֽוּ רְדוּ֙ כִּֽי־מָ֣לְאָה גַּ֔ת הֵשִׁ֙יקוּ֙ הַיְקָבִ֔ים כִּ֥י רַבָּ֖ה רָעָתָֽם׃‬

Send in the sickle,

For the harvest is ripe;

Come and tread,

For the wine press is full.

The wine vats are overflowing,

For great is their wickedness.

Rev 14:15.

tread: from root רָדָה. AV differs (get you down), from root יָרַד.
Joel 4:14
Joel 3:14AV
‫הֲמוֹנִ֣ים הֲמוֹנִ֔ים בְּעֵ֖מֶק הֶֽחָר֑וּץ כִּ֤י קָרוֹב֙ י֣וֹם יְהוָ֔ה בְּעֵ֖מֶק הֶחָרֽוּץ׃‬

There are multitudes, multitudes,

In the Valley of Decision,

For the day of the Lord is near,

In the Valley of Decision.

Joel 4:15
Joel 3:15AV
‫שֶׁ֥מֶשׁ וְיָרֵ֖חַ קָדָ֑רוּ וְכוֹכָבִ֖ים אָסְפ֥וּ נָגְהָֽם׃‬

The sun and moon will be darkened,

And the stars will withdraw their brightness.

Acts 2:20, Rev 6:12.

withdraw: as Joel 2:10.
Joel 4:16
Joel 3:16AV
‫וַיהוָ֞ה מִצִּיּ֣וֹן יִשְׁאָ֗ג וּמִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ יִתֵּ֣ן קוֹל֔וֹ וְרָעֲשׁ֖וּ שָׁמַ֣יִם וָאָ֑רֶץ וַֽיהוָה֙ מַֽחֲסֶ֣ה לְעַמּ֔וֹ וּמָע֖וֹז לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

And the Lord will roar from Zion;

He will sound his voice from Jerusalem,

And heaven and earth will tremble.

But the Lord will be a refuge for his people,

And a stronghold to the sons of Israel.

the Lord will roar (etc.): compare Amos 1:2.
Joel 4:17
Joel 3:17AV
‫וִֽידַעְתֶּ֗ם כִּ֣י אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם שֹׁכֵ֖ן בְּצִיּ֣וֹן הַר־קָדְשִׁ֑י וְהָיְתָ֤ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ קֹ֔דֶשׁ וְזָרִ֥ים לֹא־יַֽעַבְרוּ־בָ֖הּ עֽוֹד׃ ס‬

And you will know that I am the Lord your God,

Dwelling in Zion, my holy mountain.

And Jerusalem will be holy,

And strangers will no longer pass through her.

holy (second occurrence in verse)holiness.
Joel 4:18
Joel 3:18AV
‫וְהָיָה֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא יִטְּפ֧וּ הֶהָרִ֣ים עָסִ֗יס וְהַגְּבָעוֹת֙ תֵּלַ֣כְנָה חָלָ֔ב וְכָל־אֲפִיקֵ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה יֵ֣לְכוּ מָ֑יִם וּמַעְיָ֗ן מִבֵּ֤ית יְהוָה֙ יֵצֵ֔א וְהִשְׁקָ֖ה אֶת־נַ֥חַל הַשִּׁטִּֽים׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day

That the mountains will distil new wine,

And the hills will run with milk,

And all the brooks of Judah will run with water,

And a spring will come out at the house of the Lord,

And it will feed the stream of Shittim.

Alluded to in John 7:38.

feed ← water.

Shittim: i.e. Acacias.
Joel 4:19
Joel 3:19AV
‫מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לִשְׁמָמָ֣ה תִֽהְיֶ֔ה וֶאֱד֕וֹם לְמִדְבַּ֥ר שְׁמָמָ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶ֑ה מֵֽחֲמַס֙ בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁפְכ֥וּ דָם־נָקִ֖יא בְּאַרְצָֽם׃‬

Egypt will become a desolation,

And Edom will become a desolate desert,

Because of the violence done to the sons of Judah,

In that they shed innocent blood in their land.

violence done to the sons of Judah ← violence of the sons of Judah, an objective genitive.
Joel 4:20
Joel 3:20AV
‫וִיהוּדָ֖ה לְעוֹלָ֣ם תֵּשֵׁ֑ב וִירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם לְד֥וֹר וָדֽוֹר׃‬

But Judah will remain age-abidingly,

And Jerusalem from generation to generation,

Joel 4:21
Joel 3:21AV
‫וְנִקֵּ֖יתִי דָּמָ֣ם לֹֽא־נִקֵּ֑יתִי וַֽיהוָ֖ה שֹׁכֵ֥ן בְּצִיּֽוֹן׃‬

And I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed,

And the Lord will dwell in Zion.”

Amos 1:1 ‫דִּבְרֵ֣י עָמ֔וֹס אֲשֶׁר־הָיָ֥ה בַנֹּקְדִ֖ים מִתְּק֑וֹעַ אֲשֶׁר֩ חָזָ֨ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל בִּימֵ֣י ׀ עֻזִיָּ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֗ה וּבִימֵ֞י יָרָבְעָ֤ם בֶּן־יוֹאָשׁ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שְׁנָתַ֖יִם לִפְנֵ֥י הָרָֽעַשׁ׃‬ The words of Amos, who was among the herdsmen from Tekoa, describing what he saw concerning Israel, in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, the king of Israel, two years before the earthquake. Uzziah ← Uziah. See 2 Ki 15:13.
Amos 1:2 ‫וַיֹּאמַ֓ר ׀ יְהוָה֙ מִצִיּ֣וֹן יִשְׁאָ֔ג וּמִירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם יִתֵּ֣ן קוֹל֑וֹ וְאָֽבְלוּ֙ נְא֣וֹת הָרֹעִ֔ים וְיָבֵ֖שׁ רֹ֥אשׁ הַכַּרְמֶֽל׃ פ‬

And he said,

The Lord will roar from Zion,

And he will sound his voice from Jerusalem,

And the pastures of the shepherds will mourn,

And the summit of Carmel will dry up.”

the Lord will roar (etc.): compare Joel 4:16 (Joel 3:16AV).

Carmel ← the Carmel.
Amos 1:3 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י דַמֶּ֔שֶׂק וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־דּוּשָׁ֛ם בַּחֲרֻצ֥וֹת הַבַּרְזֶ֖ל אֶת־הַגִּלְעָֽד׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“For three transgressions of Damascus,

And for four,

I will not avert it,

Because of their threshing of Gilead

With iron threshing sledges.

this is whatthus.

Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
Amos 1:4 ‫וְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בְּבֵ֣ית חֲזָאֵ֑ל וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנ֥וֹת בֶּן־הֲדָֽד׃‬

So I will send fire on the house of Hazael,

Which will consume the palaces of Ben-Hadad.

Amos 1:5 ‫וְשָֽׁבַרְתִּי֙ בְּרִ֣יחַ דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וְהִכְרַתִּ֤י יוֹשֵׁב֙ מִבִּקְעַת־אָ֔וֶן וְתוֹמֵ֥ךְ שֵׁ֖בֶט מִבֵּ֣ית עֶ֑דֶן וְגָל֧וּ עַם־אֲרָ֛ם קִ֖ירָה אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬

And I will break the gate-bar of Damascus,

And I will cut off the inhabitant from the lowland of Aven,

And him who wields the sceptre of Beth-Eden.

And the people of Aramaea will go into captivity in Kir,

Says the Lord.”

Aven: as MT and AV, here the same place as Beth-Aven. The city of On (as in Gen 41:45), also called Heliopolis, has the same consonantal spelling.

in Kir ← to Kir.
Amos 1:6 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י עַזָּ֔ה וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־הַגְלוֹתָ֛ם גָּל֥וּת שְׁלֵמָ֖ה לְהַסְגִּ֥יר לֶאֱדֽוֹם׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“For three transgressions of Gaza,

And for four,

I will not avert it,

Because of their act of taking a people entirely captive,

To deliver them to Edom.

this is whatthus.
Amos 1:7 ‫וְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בְּחוֹמַ֣ת עַזָּ֑ה וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנֹתֶֽיהָ׃‬

And I will send fire onto the wall of Gaza,

Which will consume her palaces.

Amos 1:8 ‫וְהִכְרַתִּ֤י יוֹשֵׁב֙ מֵֽאַשְׁדּ֔וֹד וְתוֹמֵ֥ךְ שֵׁ֖בֶט מֵֽאַשְׁקְל֑וֹן וַהֲשִׁיב֨וֹתִי יָדִ֜י עַל־עֶקְר֗וֹן וְאָֽבְדוּ֙ שְׁאֵרִ֣ית פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה׃ פ‬

And I will cut off the inhabitant from Ashdod,

And him who wields the sceptre from Ashkelon.

And I will turn my hand against Ekron,

And the remnants of the Philistines will perish,

Says the Lord, the Lord.”

Amos 1:9 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵי־צֹ֔ר וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַֽל־הַסְגִּירָ֞ם גָּל֤וּת שְׁלֵמָה֙ לֶאֱד֔וֹם וְלֹ֥א זָכְר֖וּ בְּרִ֥ית אַחִֽים׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“For three transgressions of Tyre,

And for four,

I will not avert it,

Because they delivered them up with a complete captivity to Edom,

And they did not remember the brotherly covenant.

this is whatthus.

brotherly covenant ← covenant of brothers, between David / Solomon and Hiram king of Tyre, 1 Ki 5:1 (1 Ki 4:21AV).
Amos 1:10 ‫וְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בְּח֣וֹמַת צֹ֑ר וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנֹתֶֽיהָ׃ פ‬

And I will send fire onto the wall of Tyre,

Which will consume her palaces.”

Amos 1:11 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י אֱד֔וֹם וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־רָדְפ֨וֹ בַחֶ֤רֶב אָחִיו֙ וְשִׁחֵ֣ת רַחֲמָ֔יו וַיִּטְרֹ֤ף לָעַד֙ אַפּ֔וֹ וְעֶבְרָת֖וֹ שְׁמָ֥רָה נֶֽצַח׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“For three transgressions of Edom,

And for four,

I will not avert it,

Because they pursued their brother with the sword,

And forswore compassion,

And their anger was perpetually tearing them to pieces,

And they retained their wrath unremittingly.

this is whatthus.

compassion ← his compassions.
Amos 1:12 ‫וְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בְּתֵימָ֑ן וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנ֥וֹת בָּצְרָֽה׃ פ‬

And I will send fire on Teman,

Which will consume the palaces of Bozrah.”

Amos 1:13 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֔וֹן וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־בִּקְעָם֙ הָר֣וֹת הַגִּלְעָ֔ד לְמַ֖עַן הַרְחִ֥יב אֶת־גְּבוּלָֽם׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“For three transgressions of the sons of Ammon,

And for four,

I will not avert it,

Because of them ripping open the pregnant women of Gilead

In order to widen their territory.

this is whatthus.

Gilead: see Gen 31:21.

territory ← border.
Amos 1:14 ‫וְהִצַּ֤תִּי אֵשׁ֙ בְּחוֹמַ֣ת רַבָּ֔ה וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֑יהָ בִּתְרוּעָה֙ בְּי֣וֹם מִלְחָמָ֔ה בְּסַ֖עַר בְּי֥וֹם סוּפָֽה ‬

And I will light a fire on the wall of Rabbah,

Which will consume her palaces,

With an alarm sound on the day of war,

With a storm on the day of the whirlwind.

Amos 1:15 ‫וְהָלַ֥ךְ מַלְכָּ֖ם בַּגּוֹלָ֑ה ה֧וּא וְשָׂרָ֛יו יַחְדָּ֖ו אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬

And their king will go into captivity,

He together with his princes,

Says the Lord.”

Amos 2:1 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־שָׂרְפ֛וֹ עַצְמ֥וֹת מֶֽלֶךְ־אֱד֖וֹם לַשִּֽׂיד׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“For three transgressions of Moab,

And for four,

I will not avert it,

Because he burnt the bones of the king of Edom to lime.

this is whatthus.
Amos 2:2 ‫וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי־אֵ֣שׁ בְּמוֹאָ֔ב וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנ֣וֹת הַקְּרִיּ֑וֹת וּמֵ֤ת בְּשָׁאוֹן֙ מוֹאָ֔ב בִּתְרוּעָ֖ה בְּק֥וֹל שׁוֹפָֽר׃‬

And I will send fire to Moab,

Which will consume the palaces of Kerioth,

And Moab will die in a tumult,

In an alarm sound

– At the sound of the ramshorn.

Kerioth: AV= Kirioth. Recognized as a place by [LHG], but the site is unknown.
Amos 2:3 ‫וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י שׁוֹפֵ֖ט מִקִּרְבָּ֑הּ וְכָל־שָׂרֶ֛יהָ אֶהֱר֥וֹג עִמּ֖וֹ אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬

And I will cut off the judge from their midst,

And I will kill all their princes with him,

Says the Lord.”

Amos 2:4 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַֽל־מָאֳסָ֞ם אֶת־תּוֹרַ֣ת יְהוָ֗ה וְחֻקָּיו֙ לֹ֣א שָׁמָ֔רוּ וַיַּתְעוּם֙ כִּזְבֵיהֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הָלְכ֥וּ אֲבוֹתָ֖ם אַחֲרֵיהֶֽם׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“For three transgressions of Judah,

And for four,

I will not avert it,

Because of them rejecting the law of the Lord,

When they did not keep his statutes,

And their lies led them astray

Lies which their fathers walked in.

this is whatthus.

walked in ← walked after.
Amos 2:5 ‫וְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בִּֽיהוּדָ֑ה וְאָכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנ֥וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ פ‬

And I will send fire to Judah,

Which will consume the palaces of Jerusalem.”

Amos 2:6 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־מִכְרָ֤ם בַּכֶּ֙סֶף֙ צַדִּ֔יק וְאֶבְי֖וֹן בַּעֲב֥וּר נַעֲלָֽיִם׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

“For three transgressions of Israel,

And for four,

I will not avert it,

Because they sold the righteous for silver,

And the poor in return for a pair of sandals.

this is whatthus.
Amos 2:7 ‫הַשֹּׁאֲפִ֤ים עַל־עֲפַר־אֶ֙רֶץ֙ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ דַּלִּ֔ים וְדֶ֥רֶךְ עֲנָוִ֖ים יַטּ֑וּ וְאִ֣ישׁ וְאָבִ֗יו יֵֽלְכוּ֙ אֶל־הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ה לְמַ֥עַן חַלֵּ֖ל אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם קָדְשִֽׁי׃‬

They crush the head of the poor in the dust of the earth,

And they pervert the way of the meek,

And a man and his father go to a girl

To profane my holy name.

crush: AV differs (pant after). We take the metaphorical sense of [AnLx], and we consider it cognate with שׁוּף.

my holy name ← the name of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Amos 2:8 ‫וְעַל־בְּגָדִ֤ים חֲבֻלִים֙ יַטּ֔וּ אֵ֖צֶל כָּל־מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וְיֵ֤ין עֲנוּשִׁים֙ יִשְׁתּ֔וּ בֵּ֖ית אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽם׃‬

And they recline in clothes taken in pledge,

Next to every altar,

And they drink confiscated wine

In the house of their God.

recline ← incline, stem-formation hiphil, elsewhere transitive.

God: AV differs (god), uncapitalized.
Amos 2:9 ‫וְאָ֨נֹכִ֜י הִשְׁמַ֤דְתִּי אֶת־הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר כְּגֹ֤בַהּ אֲרָזִים֙ גָּבְה֔וֹ וְחָסֹ֥ן ה֖וּא כָּֽאַלּוֹנִ֑ים וָאַשְׁמִ֤יד פִּרְיוֹ֙ מִמַּ֔עַל וְשָׁרָשָׁ֖יו מִתָּֽחַת׃‬

Yet I destroyed the Amorite before them,

Whose height was as the height of cedars,

And who was as strong as oak trees.

And I destroyed his fruit above,

And his roots below the ground.

Amorite: see Gen 10:16.
Amos 2:10 ‫וְאָנֹכִ֛י הֶעֱלֵ֥יתִי אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וָאוֹלֵ֨ךְ אֶתְכֶ֤ם בַּמִּדְבָּר֙ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה לָרֶ֖שֶׁת אֶת־אֶ֥רֶץ הָאֱמֹרִֽי׃‬

And I brought you up out of the land of Egypt,

And I led you in the desert for forty years,

To inherit the land of the Amorite.

Amorite: see Gen 10:16.
Amos 2:11 ‫וָאָקִ֤ים מִבְּנֵיכֶם֙ לִנְבִיאִ֔ים וּמִבַּחוּרֵיכֶ֖ם לִנְזִרִ֑ים הַאַ֥ף אֵֽין־זֹ֛את בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

And I raised up some of your sons to be prophets,

And some of your youths to be Nazarites.

Is this not so,

O sons of Israel?

Says the Lord,

Amos 2:12 ‫וַתַּשְׁק֥וּ אֶת־הַנְּזִרִ֖ים יָ֑יִן וְעַל־הַנְּבִיאִים֙ צִוִּיתֶ֣ם לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹ֖א תִּנָּבְאֽוּ׃‬

But you gave the Nazarites wine to drink,

And you commanded the prophets, saying,

‘Do not prophesy.’

Amos 2:13 ‫הִנֵּ֛ה אָנֹכִ֥י מֵעִ֖יק תַּחְתֵּיכֶ֑ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר תָּעִיק֙ הָעֲגָלָ֔ה הַֽמְלֵאָ֥ה לָ֖הּ עָמִֽיר׃‬

Look, I am burdened by you,

As a cart full of sheaves is burdened.

am burdened by ... is burdened ← press down under ... presses down. An intransitive hiphil, or implicitly reflexive (supply myself etc.).

a cart ← the cart. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
Amos 2:14 ‫וְאָבַ֤ד מָנוֹס֙ מִקָּ֔ל וְחָזָ֖ק לֹא־יְאַמֵּ֣ץ כֹּח֑וֹ וְגִבּ֖וֹר לֹא־יְמַלֵּ֥ט נַפְשֽׁוֹ׃‬

So refuge will be unavailable to the swift,

And the strong will not be able to build up his force,

And the warrior will not be able to save his life.

so: consecutive (result) use of the vav.

life ← soul.
Amos 2:15 ‫וְתֹפֵ֤שׂ הַקֶּ֙שֶׁת֙ לֹ֣א יַעֲמֹ֔ד וְקַ֥ל בְּרַגְלָ֖יו לֹ֣א יְמַלֵּ֑ט וְרֹכֵ֣ב הַסּ֔וּס לֹ֥א יְמַלֵּ֖ט נַפְשֽׁוֹ׃‬

And the archer will not stand,

And he who is swift on his feet will not escape,

And he who rides on a horse will not save his life.

life ← soul.
Amos 2:16 ‫וְאַמִּ֥יץ לִבּ֖וֹ בַּגִּבּוֹרִ֑ים עָר֛וֹם יָנ֥וּס בַּיּוֹם־הַה֖וּא נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ פ‬

And he who is courageous among warriors

Will flee naked on that day,

Says the Lord.”

Amos 3:1 ‫שִׁמְע֞וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עַ֚ל כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר הֶעֱלֵ֛יתִי מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ Hear this word which the Lord has spoken concerning you, you sons of Israel, concerning all the family which I brought up from the land of Egypt, saying,
Amos 3:2 ‫רַ֚ק אֶתְכֶ֣ם יָדַ֔עְתִּי מִכֹּ֖ל מִשְׁפְּח֣וֹת הָאֲדָמָ֑ה עַל־כֵּן֙ אֶפְקֹ֣ד עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת כָּל־עֲוֺנֹֽתֵיכֶֽם׃‬

“Only you have I known,

Of all the families of the earth,

Which is why I will visit on you

All your iniquities.

Compare Deut 4:34, Deut 7:6 - Deut 7:7.

earth ← ground.
Amos 3:3 ‫הֲיֵלְכ֥וּ שְׁנַ֖יִם יַחְדָּ֑ו בִּלְתִּ֖י אִם־נוֹעָֽדוּ׃‬

Can two walk together,

Unless they have met by appointment?

have met by appointment: or are in agreement.
Amos 3:4 ‫הֲיִשְׁאַ֤ג אַרְיֵה֙ בַּיַּ֔עַר וְטֶ֖רֶף אֵ֣ין ל֑וֹ הֲיִתֵּ֨ן כְּפִ֤יר קוֹלוֹ֙ מִמְּעֹ֣נָת֔וֹ בִּלְתִּ֖י אִם־לָכָֽד׃‬

Does the lion roar in the forest

When it has no prey?

Does the young lion sound its voice from its den

If it has not caught anything?

Amos 3:5 ‫הֲתִפֹּ֤ל צִפּוֹר֙ עַל־פַּ֣ח הָאָ֔רֶץ וּמוֹקֵ֖שׁ אֵ֣ין לָ֑הּ הֲיַֽעֲלֶה־פַּח֙ מִן־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה וְלָכ֖וֹד לֹ֥א יִלְכּֽוֹד׃‬

Does a bird fall into a snare on the ground

When there is no bait set for it?

Does the snare snap up from the ground

When it has trapped nothing at all?

bait ← trap. Perhaps just referring to the setting up of the trap.

snap up ← rise. AV differs (shall (one) take up).

trapped nothing at all: using an infinitive absolute.
Amos 3:6 ‫אִם־יִתָּקַ֤ע שׁוֹפָר֙ בְּעִ֔יר וְעָ֖ם לֹ֣א יֶחֱרָ֑דוּ אִם־תִּהְיֶ֤ה רָעָה֙ בְּעִ֔יר וַיהוָ֖ה לֹ֥א עָשָֽׂה׃‬

Is the ramshorn ever sounded in the city

Without the people fearing?

Is there ever calamity in the city

Which the Lord did not cause?

cause ← do.
Amos 3:7 ‫כִּ֣י לֹ֧א יַעֲשֶׂ֛ה אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִ֖ה דָּבָ֑ר כִּ֚י אִם־גָּלָ֣ה סוֹד֔וֹ אֶל־עֲבָדָ֖יו הַנְּבִיאִֽים׃‬

For the Lord, the Lord, does not do anything,

Except after he has revealed his secret

To his servants, the prophets.

Amos 3:8 ‫אַרְיֵ֥ה שָׁאָ֖ג מִ֣י לֹ֣א יִירָ֑א אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ דִּבֶּ֔ר מִ֖י לֹ֥א יִנָּבֵֽא׃‬

When the lion roars,

Who will not fear?

And when the Lord, the Lord, speaks,

Who will not prophesy?

Amos 3:9 ‫הַשְׁמִ֙יעוּ֙ עַל־אַרְמְנ֣וֹת בְּאַשְׁדּ֔וֹד וְעַֽל־אַרְמְנ֖וֹת בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְאִמְר֗וּ הֵאָֽסְפוּ֙ עַל־הָרֵ֣י שֹׁמְר֔וֹן וּרְא֞וּ מְהוּמֹ֤ת רַבּוֹת֙ בְּתוֹכָ֔הּ וַעֲשׁוּקִ֖ים בְּקִרְבָּֽהּ׃‬

Proclaim it to the palaces in Ashdod,

And to the palaces in the land of Egypt,

And say,

‘Be gathered on the mountains of Samaria,

And see the great consternation within it,

And the oppressed in its midst.’

consternation ← consternations.
Amos 3:10 ‫וְלֹֽא־יָדְע֥וּ עֲשׂוֹת־נְכֹחָ֖ה נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה הָאֽוֹצְרִ֛ים חָמָ֥ס וָשֹׁ֖ד בְּאַרְמְנֽוֹתֵיהֶֽם׃ פ‬

For they do not know how to do what is right,

Says the Lord

– Those who treasure up violence and spoil in their palaces.

for: causal use of the vav.
Amos 3:11 ‫לָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה צַ֖ר וּסְבִ֣יב הָאָ֑רֶץ וְהוֹרִ֤ד מִמֵּךְ֙ עֻזֵּ֔ךְ וְנָבֹ֖זּוּ אַרְמְנוֹתָֽיִךְ׃‬

Therefore this is what the Lord, the Lord, says:

There will be an adversary,

And he will be around the land,

And he will sap your strength from you,

And your palaces will be plundered.’

this is whatthus.

sap ← bring down.
Amos 3:12 ‫כֹּה֮ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָה֒ כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ יַצִּ֨יל הָרֹעֶ֜ה מִפִּ֧י הָאֲרִ֛י שְׁתֵּ֥י כְרָעַ֖יִם א֣וֹ בְדַל־אֹ֑זֶן כֵּ֣ן יִנָּצְל֞וּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל הַיֹּֽשְׁבִים֙ בְּשֹׁ֣מְר֔וֹן בִּפְאַ֥ת מִטָּ֖ה וּבִדְמֶ֥שֶׁק עָֽרֶשׂ׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

‘As the shepherd saves two legs or a piece of an ear

From the mouth of the lion,

So the sons of Israel will be saved

– Those dwelling in Samaria,

In the corner of a bed

Or on a damask couch.

this is whatthus.
Amos 3:13 ‫שִׁמְע֥וּ וְהָעִ֖ידוּ בְּבֵ֣ית יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב נְאֻם־אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י הַצְּבָאֽוֹת׃‬

Hear and testify in the house of Jacob,

Says the Lord, the Lord God of hosts.

in: or against.
Amos 3:14 ‫כִּ֗י בְּי֛וֹם פָּקְדִ֥י פִשְׁעֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עָלָ֑יו וּפָֽקַדְתִּי֙ עַל־מִזְבְּח֣וֹת בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל וְנִגְדְּעוּ֙ קַרְנ֣וֹת הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְנָפְל֖וּ לָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

For on the day when I visit the transgressions of Israel on them,

I will also visit the altars of Beth-El,

And the horns of the altars will be cut off,

And they will fall to the ground.

Amos 3:15 ‫וְהִכֵּיתִ֥י בֵית־הַחֹ֖רֶף עַל־בֵּ֣ית הַקָּ֑יִץ וְאָבְד֞וּ בָּתֵּ֣י הַשֵּׁ֗ן וְסָפ֛וּ בָּתִּ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

And I will strike the winter house against the summer house,

And the ivory houses will cease to exist,

And many other houses will come to an end,

Says the Lord.

Amos 4:1 ‫שִׁמְע֞וּ הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה פָּר֤וֹת הַבָּשָׁן֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּהַ֣ר שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן הָעֹשְׁק֣וֹת דַּלִּ֔ים הָרֹצְצ֖וֹת אֶבְיוֹנִ֑ים הָאֹמְרֹ֥ת לַאֲדֹֽנֵיהֶ֖ם הָבִ֥יאָה וְנִשְׁתֶּֽה׃‬

Hear this word, you heifers of Bashan,

Who are in the mountain of Samaria,

Who oppress the poor,

Who crush the needy,

Who say to their lords,

«Bring wine,

And let us drink.»

heifers: standing for women, or wives.

Bashan ← the Basham.
Amos 4:2 ‫נִשְׁבַּ֨ע אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ בְּקָדְשׁ֔וֹ כִּ֛י הִנֵּ֥ה יָמִ֖ים בָּאִ֣ים עֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וְנִשָּׂ֤א אֶתְכֶם֙ בְּצִנּ֔וֹת וְאַחֲרִיתְכֶ֖ן בְּסִיר֥וֹת דּוּגָֽה׃‬

The Lord, the Lord, has sworn by his holiness,

For look, the days are coming on you,

When he will take you away by hooks,

And your posterity by fishing tackle.

Amos 4:3 ‫וּפְרָצִ֥ים תֵּצֶ֖אנָה אִשָּׁ֣ה נֶגְדָּ֑הּ וְהִשְׁלַכְתֶּ֥נָה הַהַרְמ֖וֹנָה נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

And you will go out in waves, one opposite another,

And you will throw the hooks at the palace,

Says the Lord.

you (2x): feminine plural.

waves ← bursts, or breaches.

The sense is not clear to us, but we do not emend the text as many translations do.
Amos 4:4 ‫בֹּ֤אוּ בֵֽית־אֵל֙ וּפִשְׁע֔וּ הַגִּלְגָּ֖ל הַרְבּ֣וּ לִפְשֹׁ֑עַ וְהָבִ֤יאוּ לַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ זִבְחֵיכֶ֔ם לִשְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים מַעְשְׂרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם׃‬

Go to Beth-El and transgress,

And to Gilgal and transgress more.

And bring your sacrifices in the morning,

And within three days bring your tithes.

Gilgal ← the Gilgal.

transgress more ← increase transgressing.

days: [CB] notes as years, referring to Num 28:3 and Deut 14:28. But [WLC], LXX and the Vulgate read days.

The grammatical forms ↴
Amos 4:5 ‫וְקַטֵּ֤ר מֵֽחָמֵץ֙ תּוֹדָ֔ה וְקִרְא֥וּ נְדָב֖וֹת הַשְׁמִ֑יעוּ כִּ֣י כֵ֤ן אֲהַבְתֶּם֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה׃‬

And burn your thank-offering with leavened bread,

And call for the freewill-offerings.

Proclaim them,

For that is what you love,

You sons of Israel,

Says the Lord, the Lord.

↳ revert to masculine in this and subsequent verses.

with ← from.

that is whatso.

The verse is ironic.
Amos 4:6 ‫וְגַם־אֲנִי֩ נָתַ֨תִּי לָכֶ֜ם נִקְי֤וֹן שִׁנַּ֙יִם֙ בְּכָל־עָ֣רֵיכֶ֔ם וְחֹ֣סֶר לֶ֔חֶם בְּכֹ֖ל מְקוֹמֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Now I myself have given you clean teeth in all your cities,

And shortage of bread in all your places,

Yet you have not returned to me,

Says the Lord.

clean teeth ← cleanness of teeth, standing for famine.

yet: adversative / concessive use of the vav.
Amos 4:7 ‫וְגַ֣ם אָנֹכִי֩ מָנַ֨עְתִּי מִכֶּ֜ם אֶת־הַגֶּ֗שֶׁם בְּע֨וֹד שְׁלֹשָׁ֤ה חֳדָשִׁים֙ לַקָּצִ֔יר וְהִמְטַרְתִּי֙ עַל־עִ֣יר אֶחָ֔ת וְעַל־עִ֥יר אַחַ֖ת לֹ֣א אַמְטִ֑יר חֶלְקָ֤ה אַחַת֙ תִּמָּטֵ֔ר וְחֶלְקָ֛ה אֲשֶֽׁר־לֹֽא־תַמְטִ֥יר עָלֶ֖יהָ תִּיבָֽשׁ׃‬

And I have also withheld rain from you,

With three months to go before the harvest,

And I brought rain to one city,

But I did not bring rain to another city.

One parcel of land was rained on,

But the parcel of land where I brought no rain

Dried up.

I brought no rain: third person feminine, standing for my soul (=I), compare Ps 16:2, or second person masculine, so an interlocution, you brought no rain, in direct speech, by Amos.

AV differs somewhat in word association.
Amos 4:8 ‫וְנָע֡וּ שְׁתַּיִם֩ שָׁלֹ֨שׁ עָרִ֜ים אֶל־עִ֥יר אַחַ֛ת לִשְׁתּ֥וֹת מַ֖יִם וְלֹ֣א יִשְׂבָּ֑עוּ וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

So the inhabitants of two or three cities had to travel to one city and back

To drink water,

And they were not satiated,

Yet you did not return to me,

Says the Lord.

yet: adversative use of the vav.
Amos 4:9 ‫הִכֵּ֣יתִי אֶתְכֶם֮ בַּשִּׁדָּפ֣וֹן וּבַיֵּרָקוֹן֒ הַרְבּ֨וֹת גַּנּוֹתֵיכֶ֧ם וְכַרְמֵיכֶ֛ם וּתְאֵנֵיכֶ֥ם וְזֵיתֵיכֶ֖ם יֹאכַ֣ל הַגָּזָ֑ם וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

And I struck you with much blight and mildew

In your gardens and vineyards,

And the gnawing locust ate your fig trees and olive trees,

Yet you did not return to me,

Says the Lord.

yet: adversative use of the vav.
Amos 4:10 ‫שִׁלַּ֨חְתִּי בָכֶ֥ם דֶּ֙בֶר֙ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם הָרַ֤גְתִּי בַחֶ֙רֶב֙ בַּח֣וּרֵיכֶ֔ם עִ֖ם שְׁבִ֣י סֽוּסֵיכֶ֑ם וָאַעֲלֶ֞ה בְּאֹ֤שׁ מַחֲנֵיכֶם֙ וּֽבְאַפְּכֶ֔ם וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

I sent a plague to you,

Egyptian style.

I killed your youths with the sword,

With capture of your horses,

And I caused the stench of your camps to go up into your nostrils,

Yet you did not return to me,

Says the Lord.

Egyptian style ← in the way of Egypt.

nostrils ← nostril, nose, or anger.

yet: adversative use of the vav.
Amos 4:11 ‫הָפַ֣כְתִּי בָכֶ֗ם כְּמַהְפֵּכַ֤ת אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־סְדֹ֣ם וְאֶת־עֲמֹרָ֔ה וַתִּהְי֕וּ כְּא֖וּד מֻצָּ֣ל מִשְׂרֵפָ֑ה וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

I have caused overthrowings among you,

Like the overthrow of God of Sodom and Gomorrah,

And you became like a firebrand rescued from the fire,

Yet you did not return to me,

Says the Lord.

overthrow of God: perhaps an idiom for an extreme quality, a mighty overthrow; compare Gen 23:6 etc.

yet: adversative use of the vav.
Amos 4:12 ‫לָכֵ֕ן כֹּ֥ה אֶעֱשֶׂה־לְּךָ֖ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עֵ֚קֶב כִּֽי־זֹ֣את אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּ֔ךְ הִכּ֥וֹן לִקְרַאת־אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

So I will deal with you this way,

O Israel.

Now because this is what I will do to you,

Prepare to meet your God,

O Israel.

Amos 4:13 ‫כִּ֡י הִנֵּה֩ יוֹצֵ֨ר הָרִ֜ים וּבֹרֵ֣א ר֗וּחַ וּמַגִּ֤יד לְאָדָם֙ מַה־שֵּׂח֔וֹ עֹשֵׂ֥ה שַׁ֙חַר֙ עֵיפָ֔ה וְדֹרֵ֖ךְ עַל־בָּ֣מֳתֵי אָ֑רֶץ יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ׃ ס‬

For look, he who forms the mountains,

And creates the wind,

And tells man what his purpose is,

Makes dawn darkness,

And treads on the idolatrous raised sites of the land

– The Lord God of hosts is his name.

his purpose: i.e. God's purpose, by analogy with Amos 3:7. AV differs (uncapitalized pronoun). N.B. Our convention is not to capitalize pronouns at all.
Amos 5:1 ‫שִׁמְע֞וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֜י נֹשֵׂ֧א עֲלֵיכֶ֛ם קִינָ֖ה בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ Hear this word which I am relating against you as a lamentation, O house of Israel. relating ← raising, an idiom introducing prophecy, lamentations etc.
Amos 5:2 ‫נָֽפְלָה֙ לֹֽא־תוֹסִ֣יף ק֔וּם בְּתוּלַ֖ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל נִטְּשָׁ֥ה עַל־אַדְמָתָ֖הּ אֵ֥ין מְקִימָֽהּ׃‬

The virgin of Israel has fallen;

She cannot get up again.

She has been left on the ground;

There is no-one to lift her up.’

the ground ← her ground.
Amos 5:3 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה הָעִ֛יר הַיֹּצֵ֥את אֶ֖לֶף תַּשְׁאִ֣יר מֵאָ֑ה וְהַיּוֹצֵ֥את מֵאָ֛ה תַּשְׁאִ֥יר עֲשָׂרָ֖ה לְבֵ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬

For this is what the Lord, the Lord, says:

‘The city that goes out with a thousand

Will be left with a hundred,

And the city that goes out with a hundred

Will be left with ten

Remaining to the house of Israel.’

this is whatthus.

will be left with (2x)will leave, i.e. to itself.
Amos 5:4 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֥ה אָמַ֛ר יְהוָ֖ה לְבֵ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל דִּרְשׁ֖וּנִי וִֽחְיֽוּ׃‬

For this is what the Lord says to the house of Israel:

‘Seek me and live.

this is whatthus.
Amos 5:5 ‫וְאַֽל־תִּדְרְשׁוּ֙ בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל וְהַגִּלְגָּל֙ לֹ֣א תָבֹ֔אוּ וּבְאֵ֥ר שֶׁ֖בַע לֹ֣א תַעֲבֹ֑רוּ כִּ֤י הַגִּלְגָּל֙ גָּלֹ֣ה יִגְלֶ֔ה וּבֵֽית־אֵ֖ל יִהְיֶ֥ה לְאָֽוֶן׃‬

But do not seek Beth-El,

And do not go to Gilgal,

And do not cross to Beersheba,

For Gilgal will certainly go into exile,

And Beth-El will be annihilated.

Gilgal (2x)the Gilgal.

will certainly go into exile: infinitive absolute.

annihilated ← nothingness.
Amos 5:6 ‫דִּרְשׁ֥וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה וִֽחְי֑וּ פֶּן־יִצְלַ֤ח כָּאֵשׁ֙ בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵ֔ף וְאָכְלָ֥ה וְאֵין־מְכַבֶּ֖ה לְבֵֽית־אֵֽל׃‬

Seek the Lord and live

Lest he advances like a fire over the house of Joseph,

And it consumes it,

And there is no-one to extinguish it in Beth-El,

in Beth-El ← for Beth-El.
Amos 5:7 ‫הַהֹפְכִ֥ים לְלַעֲנָ֖ה מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה לָאָ֥רֶץ הִנִּֽיחוּ׃‬

You who turn judgment to wormwood,

And who lay righteousness down on the ground.

wormwood: i.e., metaphorically, distress.
Amos 5:8 ‫עֹשֵׂ֨ה כִימָ֜ה וּכְסִ֗יל וְהֹפֵ֤ךְ לַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ צַלְמָ֔וֶת וְי֖וֹם לַ֣יְלָה הֶחְשִׁ֑יךְ הַקּוֹרֵ֣א לְמֵֽי־הַיָּ֗ם וַֽיִּשְׁפְּכֵ֛ם עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאָ֖רֶץ יְהוָ֥ה שְׁמֽוֹ׃ ס‬

He who makes the Pleiades and Orion,

And turns the shadow of death into morning,

And darkens day into night,

Who calls the water of the sea

And pours it onto the face of the earth

– The Lord is his name –

Amos 5:9 ‫הַמַּבְלִ֥יג שֹׁ֖ד עַל־עָ֑ז וְשֹׁ֖ד עַל־מִבְצָ֥ר יָבֽוֹא׃‬

Who brings sudden destruction on the strong,

And destruction which will come upon the fortification.

AV differs throughout (That strengtheneth the spoiled against the strong, so that the spoiled shall come against the fortress).
Amos 5:10 ‫שָׂנְא֥וּ בַשַּׁ֖עַר מוֹכִ֑יחַ וְדֹבֵ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יְתָעֵֽבוּ׃‬

They have hated him who rebuked at the gate,

And they have loathed him who speaks that which is upright.

gate: or law court, where judicial hearings were held.
Amos 5:11 ‫לָ֠כֵן יַ֣עַן בּוֹשַׁסְכֶ֞ם עַל־דָּ֗ל וּמַשְׂאַת־בַּר֙ תִּקְח֣וּ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ בָּתֵּ֥י גָזִ֛ית בְּנִיתֶ֖ם וְלֹא־תֵ֣שְׁבוּ בָ֑ם כַּרְמֵי־חֶ֣מֶד נְטַעְתֶּ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תִשְׁתּ֖וּ אֶת־יֵינָֽם׃‬

Therefore, because you have trampled on the poor

And taken a cart-load of grain from him,

Although you have built houses of hewn stone,

You will not live in them,

And although you have planted attractive vineyards,

You will not drink their wine.

Amos 5:12 ‫כִּ֤י יָדַ֙עְתִּי֙ רַבִּ֣ים פִּשְׁעֵיכֶ֔ם וַעֲצֻמִ֖ים חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶ֑ם צֹרְרֵ֤י צַדִּיק֙ לֹ֣קְחֵי כֹ֔פֶר וְאֶבְיוֹנִ֖ים בַּשַּׁ֥עַר הִטּֽוּ׃‬

For I know that your transgressions are many,

And that your sins are enormous.

They are oppressors of the righteous,

And takers of bribes,

And they pervert the justice of the poor at the gate.

bribes: or ransom, but apparently bribe in 1 Sam 12:3.

gate: or law court, where judicial hearings were held.
Amos 5:13 ‫לָכֵ֗ן הַמַּשְׂכִּ֛יל בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖יא יִדֹּ֑ם כִּ֛י עֵ֥ת רָעָ֖ה הִֽיא׃‬

Therefore let him who is prudent

Be silent at that time,

For it is an evil time.

Amos 5:14 ‫דִּרְשׁוּ־ט֥וֹב וְאַל־רָ֖ע לְמַ֣עַן תִּֽחְי֑וּ וִיהִי־כֵ֞ן יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־צְבָא֛וֹת אִתְּכֶ֖ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲמַרְתֶּֽם׃‬

Seek good and not evil,

In order that you may live,

And it will be the case

That the Lord God of hosts will be with you,

As you have said.

the case ← so / thus.
Amos 5:15 ‫שִׂנְאוּ־רָע֙ וְאֶ֣הֱבוּ ט֔וֹב וְהַצִּ֥יגוּ בַשַּׁ֖עַר מִשְׁפָּ֑ט אוּלַ֗י יֶֽחֱנַ֛ן יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁאֵרִ֥ית יוֹסֵֽף׃ ס‬

Hate evil and love good,

And install justice at the gate;

Maybe the Lord God of hosts will be merciful

To the remnant of Joseph.’

gate: or law court, where judicial hearings were held.
Amos 5:16 ‫לָ֠כֵן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֨ר יְהוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י צְבָאוֹת֙ אֲדֹנָ֔י בְּכָל־רְחֹב֣וֹת מִסְפֵּ֔ד וּבְכָל־חוּצ֖וֹת יֹאמְר֣וּ הוֹ־ה֑וֹ וְקָרְא֤וּ אִכָּר֙ אֶל־אֵ֔בֶל וּמִסְפֵּ֖ד אֶל־י֥וֹדְעֵי נֶֽהִי׃‬

Therefore this is what the Lord God of hosts

– The Lord* – says:

There will be mourning in all streets,

And in all open places they will say,

«Woe, Woe»,

And they will call the farmer to lamentation,

And those who know wailing, to mourning.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

this is whatthus.
Amos 5:17 ‫וּבְכָל־כְּרָמִ֖ים מִסְפֵּ֑ד כִּֽי־אֶעֱבֹ֥ר בְּקִרְבְּךָ֖ אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

And there will be mourning in all the vineyards,

For I will pass through your precincts,

Says the Lord.

Amos 5:18 ‫ה֥וֹי הַמִּתְאַוִּ֖ים אֶת־י֣וֹם יְהוָ֑ה לָמָּה־זֶּ֥ה לָכֶ֛ם י֥וֹם יְהוָ֖ה הוּא־חֹ֥שֶׁךְ וְלֹא־אֽוֹר׃‬

Woe to those who long for the day of the Lord.

What is it to you?

The day of the Lord is darkness

And not light.

Rev 1:10.

what is it ← why (is) this. The sense is What (good news) (is) it ...?
Amos 5:19 ‫כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר יָנ֥וּס אִישׁ֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י הָאֲרִ֔י וּפְגָע֖וֹ הַדֹּ֑ב וּבָ֣א הַבַּ֔יִת וְסָמַ֤ךְ יָדוֹ֙ עַל־הַקִּ֔יר וּנְשָׁכ֖וֹ הַנָּחָֽשׁ׃‬

It is like a man fleeing from the lion,

When a bear meets him,

Or when he comes home,

When he rests his arm on a wall,

A serpent bites him.

a wall ... a serpent ← the wall ... the serpent. Unexpected definite articles; compare Gen 22:9.
Amos 5:20 ‫הֲלֹא־חֹ֛שֶׁךְ י֥וֹם יְהוָ֖ה וְלֹא־א֑וֹר וְאָפֵ֖ל וְלֹא־נֹ֥גַֽהּ לֽוֹ׃‬

Is not the day of the Lord darkness and not light?

And is it not gloomy

With no brightness in it?

Rev 1:10.
Amos 5:21 ‫שָׂנֵ֥אתִי מָאַ֖סְתִּי חַגֵּיכֶ֑ם וְלֹ֥א אָרִ֖יחַ בְּעַצְּרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם׃‬

I hate, I reject your feasts,

And I do not fragrantly smell your solemn assemblies.

Amos 5:22 ‫כִּ֣י אִם־תַּעֲלוּ־לִ֥י עֹל֛וֹת וּמִנְחֹתֵיכֶ֖ם לֹ֣א אֶרְצֶ֑ה וְשֶׁ֥לֶם מְרִיאֵיכֶ֖ם לֹ֥א אַבִּֽיט׃‬

Although you offer burnt offerings and your meal-offerings to me,

I will not receive them,

And I will not take pleasure in the peace-offering of your fatted calves.

take pleasure ← look upon with pleasure.
Amos 5:23 ‫הָסֵ֥ר מֵעָלַ֖י הֲמ֣וֹן שִׁרֶ֑יךָ וְזִמְרַ֥ת נְבָלֶ֖יךָ לֹ֥א אֶשְׁמָֽע׃‬

Remove from me the noise of your songs,

For I will not hear the music of your lutes.

Amos 5:24 ‫וְיִגַּ֥ל כַּמַּ֖יִם מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וּצְדָקָ֖ה כְּנַ֥חַל אֵיתָֽן׃‬

Let judgment roll on like water,

And righteousness like a constant stream.

constant: as opposed to seasonal.
Amos 5:25 ‫הַזְּבָחִ֨ים וּמִנְחָ֜ה הִֽגַּשְׁתֶּם־לִ֧י בַמִּדְבָּ֛ר אַרְבָּעִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

For forty years you offered me sacrifices and meal-offerings in the desert,

O house of Israel.

Acts 7:42.

meal-offerings ← meal-offering.
Amos 5:26 ‫וּנְשָׂאתֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת סִכּ֣וּת מַלְכְּכֶ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת כִּיּ֣וּן צַלְמֵיכֶ֑ם כּוֹכַב֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם לָכֶֽם׃‬

But you raised up the shrine of your king,

And Saturn, your images and the star of your gods

Which you made for yourselves.

your king: this could be re-pointed to your Moloch, as in Acts 7:43.

Acts 7:43.

Saturn: Hebrew Chiun, the Egyptian / Greek god Remphan.

gods: or god.
Amos 5:27 ‫וְהִגְלֵיתִ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵהָ֣לְאָה לְדַמָּ֑שֶׂק אָמַ֛ר יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ׃ פ‬

So I will deport you to beyond Damascus,

Says the Lord

– The God of hosts is his name.

Acts 7:43, where the city mentioned is Babylon.
Amos 6:1 ‫ה֚וֹי הַשַּׁאֲנַנִּ֣ים בְּצִיּ֔וֹן וְהַבֹּטְחִ֖ים בְּהַ֣ר שֹׁמְר֑וֹן נְקֻבֵי֙ רֵאשִׁ֣ית הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וּבָ֥אוּ לָהֶ֖ם בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

Woe to those at ease in Zion,

And those who trust in the mountain of Samaria

– Those who are designated the foremost of the nations –

To whom the house of Israel came.

The sense is: Woe to the elite of Judah, and to the privileged whole unsplit house of Israel, to whom split-off northern Israel came (for justice and judgment). See [CB].
Amos 6:2 ‫עִבְר֤וּ כַֽלְנֵה֙ וּרְא֔וּ וּלְכ֥וּ מִשָּׁ֖ם חֲמַ֣ת רַבָּ֑ה וּרְד֣וּ גַת־פְּלִשְׁתּ֗ים הֲטוֹבִים֙ מִן־הַמַּמְלָכ֣וֹת הָאֵ֔לֶּה אִם־רַ֥ב גְּבוּלָ֖ם מִגְּבֻלְכֶֽם׃‬

Cross to Calneh and look,

And go from there to Greater Hamath,

And go down to Gath of the Philistines.

Are they better than these kingdoms,

And is their border greater than your border?

Calneh ... Greater Hamath ... Gath: these had been overthrown, as we interpret [CB].

border?: read the question mark as question-comma. The next line would be uncapitalized in prose format.
Amos 6:3 ‫הַֽמְנַדִּ֖ים לְי֣וֹם רָ֑ע וַתַּגִּישׁ֖וּן שֶׁ֥בֶת חָמָֽס׃‬

You who push back the evil day,

But bring forward the seat of violence,

push back: i.e. in their minds.

seat of violence: antithetically reminiscent of AV's mercy seat (our atonement cover), but it is not the same word for seat.
Amos 6:4 ‫הַשֹּֽׁכְבִים֙ עַל־מִטּ֣וֹת שֵׁ֔ן וּסְרֻחִ֖ים עַל־עַרְשׂוֹתָ֑ם וְאֹכְלִ֤ים כָּרִים֙ מִצֹּ֔אן וַעֲגָלִ֖ים מִתּ֥וֹךְ מַרְבֵּֽק׃‬

You who lie on ivory beds

And stretch out on their couches

And eat the fatted lambs of the flock and calves from the stall,

you ... their: the sentence starts in Amos 6:2 with an imperative (second person), but it changes to third person in this verse.

stretch out ← (are) stretched out.
Amos 6:5 ‫הַפֹּרְטִ֖ים עַל־פִּ֣י הַנָּ֑בֶל כְּדָוִ֕יד חָשְׁב֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם כְּלֵי־שִֽׁיר׃‬

Who chant to the sound of the lute,

Who like David invent for themselves musical instruments,

themselves: on the grammatical person, see note to Amos 6:4.

musical instruments ← instruments of song.
Amos 6:6 ‫הַשֹּׁתִ֤ים בְּמִזְרְקֵי֙ יַ֔יִן וְרֵאשִׁ֥ית שְׁמָנִ֖ים יִמְשָׁ֑חוּ וְלֹ֥א נֶחְל֖וּ עַל־שֵׁ֥בֶר יוֹסֵֽף ‬

Who drink from sacrificial wine dishes

And anoint themselves with prime oils,

And who are not grieved by the break-up of Joseph.

themselves: on the grammatical person, see note to Amos 6:4.

the break-up of Joseph: i.e. the splitting of Israel into two kingdoms.
Amos 6:7 ‫לָכֵ֛ן עַתָּ֥ה יִגְל֖וּ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ גֹּלִ֑ים וְסָ֖ר מִרְזַ֥ח סְרוּחִֽים׃ פ‬

That is why they will now go into captivity,

At the head of the body of captives.

And the merrymaking of those reclining will be gone.’

Amos 6:8 ‫נִשְׁבַּע֩ אֲדֹנָ֨י יְהוִ֜ה בְּנַפְשׁ֗וֹ נְאֻם־יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י צְבָא֔וֹת מְתָאֵ֤ב אָֽנֹכִי֙ אֶת־גְּא֣וֹן יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְאַרְמְנֹתָ֖יו שָׂנֵ֑אתִי וְהִסְגַּרְתִּ֖י עִ֥יר וּמְלֹאָֽהּ׃‬

The Lord, the Lord, has sworn by himself,

Says the Lord God of hosts,

‘I abhor the pride of Jacob,

And I hate his palaces,

So I will deliver up the city and its fulness.’

himself ← his soul.
Amos 6:9 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה אִם־יִוָּ֨תְר֜וּ עֲשָׂרָ֧ה אֲנָשִׁ֛ים בְּבַ֥יִת אֶחָ֖ד וָמֵֽתוּ׃‬ And it will come to pass, if ten men remain in one house, that they will die.
Amos 6:10 ‫וּנְשָׂא֞וֹ דּוֹד֣וֹ וּמְסָרְפ֗וֹ לְהוֹצִ֣יא עֲצָמִים֮ מִן־הַבַּיִת֒ וְאָמַ֞ר לַאֲשֶׁ֨ר בְּיַרְכְּתֵ֥י הַבַּ֛יִת הַע֥וֹד עִמָּ֖ךְ וְאָמַ֣ר אָ֑פֶס וְאָמַ֣ר הָ֔ס כִּ֛י לֹ֥א לְהַזְכִּ֖יר בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהוָֽה׃‬ And a man's uncle will take him aside, as will his cremator, to take the bones out from the house, and he will say to anyone who is at the sides of the house, ‘Are there any more with you?’ And he will say, ‘None.’ And he will say, ‘Keep quiet, for it is not the time to make mention of the name of the Lord.’
Amos 6:11 ‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ מְצַוֶּ֔ה וְהִכָּ֛ה הַבַּ֥יִת הַגָּד֖וֹל רְסִיסִ֑ים וְהַבַּ֥יִת הַקָּטֹ֖ן בְּקִעִֽים׃‬

For look, the Lord commands

And strikes a large house into fragments,

And a small house into split stone.

a large house ... a small house: unexpected definite articles. See Gen 22:9.
Amos 6:12 ‫הַיְרֻצ֤וּן בַּסֶּ֙לַע֙ סוּסִ֔ים אִֽם־יַחֲר֖וֹשׁ בַּבְּקָרִ֑ים כִּֽי־הֲפַכְתֶּ֤ם לְרֹאשׁ֙ מִשְׁפָּ֔ט וּפְרִ֥י צְדָקָ֖ה לְלַעֲנָֽה׃‬

Do horses run on a rock,

Or does anyone plough it with oxen?

For you have turned justice into hemlock,

And the fruit of righteousness into wormwood.

Amos 6:13 ‫הַשְּׂמֵחִ֖ים לְלֹ֣א דָבָ֑ר הָאֹ֣מְרִ֔ים הֲל֣וֹא בְחָזְקֵ֔נוּ לָקַ֥חְנוּ לָ֖נוּ קַרְנָֽיִם׃‬

You rejoice in a thing of no substance,

Saying, ‘Did we not acquire our prestigious position through our own strength?’

a thing of no substance ← a not a thing.

prestigious position ← horns.
Amos 6:14 ‫כִּ֡י הִנְנִי֩ מֵקִ֨ים עֲלֵיכֶ֜ם בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל נְאֻם־יְהוָ֛ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י הַצְּבָא֖וֹת גּ֑וֹי וְלָחֲצ֥וּ אֶתְכֶ֛ם מִלְּב֥וֹא חֲמָ֖ת עַד־נַ֥חַל הָעֲרָבָֽה׃ ס‬

For look, I am about to raise a nation up against you,

O house of Israel,

Says the Lord God of hosts,

And they will oppress you,

So that you cannot go to Hamath

Or anywhere up to the brook of the arid tract.”

I am about to ← behold me.

Hamath: AV= Hemath here.
Amos 7:1 ‫כֹּ֤ה הִרְאַ֙נִי֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה וְהִנֵּה֙ יוֹצֵ֣ר גֹּבַ֔י בִּתְחִלַּ֖ת עֲל֣וֹת הַלָּ֑קֶשׁ וְהִ֨נֵּה־לֶ֔קֶשׁ אַחַ֖ר גִּזֵּ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ This is what my Lord the Lord showed me, and what I saw was him fashioning the locust at the start of when the latter growth springs up, and then I saw the latter growth after the king's reapings. this is whatthus.

what I saw was ... then I saw ← behold ... behold.

locust: not one of those in Joel 1:4.

reapings: of grass / herbs, Amos 7:2; perhaps of hay. AV differs slightly (mowings).
Amos 7:2 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה אִם־כִּלָּה֙ לֶֽאֱכוֹל֙ אֶת־עֵ֣שֶׂב הָאָ֔רֶץ וָאֹמַ֗ר אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ סְֽלַֽח־נָ֔א מִ֥י יָק֖וּם יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב כִּ֥י קָטֹ֖ן הֽוּא׃‬ And it came to pass, when the locust had finished eating the grass of the land, that I said, “My Lord the Lord, please forgive the question. Who will endure it? Will Jacob? For he is small.” grass: or herbs.

who: AV differs (by whom).

endure: or rise; prosper.
Amos 7:3 ‫נִחַ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה עַל־זֹ֑את לֹ֥א תִהְיֶ֖ה אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬ And the Lord repented over this. “It will not come to pass”, said the Lord.
Amos 7:4 ‫כֹּ֤ה הִרְאַ֙נִי֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֥ה קֹרֵ֛א לָרִ֥ב בָּאֵ֖שׁ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה וַתֹּ֙אכַל֙ אֶת־תְּה֣וֹם רַבָּ֔ה וְאָכְלָ֖ה אֶת־הַחֵֽלֶק׃‬ This is what my Lord the Lord showed me, and what I saw was my Lord the Lord calling for a contention by fire, and it consumed the Great Ocean, and it consumed a portion of land. this is whatthus.

what I saw wasbehold.

a portion ← the portion. Hebrew often has an unexpected definite article, as in Gen 22:9, but perhaps definite here. [CB] refers this to what is given to Israel.
Amos 7:5 ‫וָאֹמַ֗ר אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ חֲדַל־נָ֔א מִ֥י יָק֖וּם יַעֲקֹ֑ב כִּ֥י קָטֹ֖ן הֽוּא׃‬ And I said, “My Lord the Lord, please stop. Who will endure it? Will Jacob? For he is small.” endure: see Amos 7:2.
Amos 7:6 ‫נִחַ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה עַל־זֹ֑את גַּם־הִיא֙ לֹ֣א תִֽהְיֶ֔ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה׃ ס‬ And the Lord repented over this. “This will not come to pass either”, my Lord the Lord said.
Amos 7:7 ‫כֹּ֣ה הִרְאַ֔נִי וְהִנֵּ֧ה אֲדֹנָ֛י נִצָּ֖ב עַל־חוֹמַ֣ת אֲנָ֑ךְ וּבְיָד֖וֹ אֲנָֽךְ׃‬ This is what he showed me, and what I saw was the Lord* standing on a vertical wall, and in his hand was a plumbline. Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

this is whatthus.

what I saw wasbehold.

vertical wall ← wall of plumbline.
Amos 7:8 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י מָֽה־אַתָּ֤ה רֹאֶה֙ עָמ֔וֹס וָאֹמַ֖ר אֲנָ֑ךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲדֹנָ֗י הִנְנִ֨י שָׂ֤ם אֲנָךְ֙ בְּקֶ֙רֶב֙ עַמִּ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹֽא־אוֹסִ֥יף ע֖וֹד עֲב֥וֹר לֽוֹ׃‬ And the Lord said to me, “What do you see, Amos?” And I said, “A plumbline.” And the Lord* said,

I am about to place a plumbline

In the midst of my people Israel.

I will not forgive them any more.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

I am about to ← behold me.

forgive ← pass through, but also pass by, metaphorically.
Amos 7:9 ‫וְנָשַׁ֙מּוּ֙ בָּמ֣וֹת יִשְׂחָ֔ק וּמִקְדְּשֵׁ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יֶחֱרָ֑בוּ וְקַמְתִּ֛י עַל־בֵּ֥ית יָרָבְעָ֖ם בֶּחָֽרֶב׃ פ‬

And the high places of Isaac will become desolate,

And the sanctuaries of Israel will be devastated.

And I will rise up against the house of Jeroboam with the sword.”

Amos 7:10 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח אֲמַצְיָה֙ כֹּהֵ֣ן בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל אֶל־יָרָבְעָ֥ם מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר קָשַׁ֨ר עָלֶ֜יךָ עָמ֗וֹס בְּקֶ֙רֶב֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹא־תוּכַ֣ל הָאָ֔רֶץ לְהָכִ֖יל אֶת־כָּל־דְּבָרָֽיו׃‬ Then Amaziah the priest of Beth-El sent word to Jeroboam the king of Israel and said, “Amos has conspired against you in the midst of the house of Israel. The land is not able to endure any of his words. the priest of Beth-El sent: regrouping, one could read, the priest sent (word to) Beth-El, which was the place of the royal residence, Amos 7:13.

any ← all.
Amos 7:11 ‫כִּי־כֹה֙ אָמַ֣ר עָמ֔וֹס בַּחֶ֖רֶב יָמ֣וּת יָרָבְעָ֑ם וְיִ֨שְׂרָאֵ֔ל גָּלֹ֥ה יִגְלֶ֖ה מֵעַ֥ל אַדְמָתֽוֹ׃ ס‬ For this is what Amos says:

‘Jeroboam will die by the sword,

And Israel will certainly go into captivity,

Away from its land.’ ”

this is whatthus.

away from ← from on.
Amos 7:12 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲמַצְיָה֙ אֶל־עָמ֔וֹס חֹזֶ֕ה לֵ֥ךְ בְּרַח־לְךָ֖ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ יְהוּדָ֑ה וֶאֱכָל־שָׁ֣ם לֶ֔חֶם וְשָׁ֖ם תִּנָּבֵֽא׃‬ And Amaziah said to Amos, “Go, you seer. Flee to the land of Judah, and eat bread there, and prophesy there. bread: standing for food in general. See 1 Sam 28:22-24.
Amos 7:13 ‫וּבֵֽית־אֵ֔ל לֹֽא־תוֹסִ֥יף ע֖וֹד לְהִנָּבֵ֑א כִּ֤י מִקְדַּשׁ־מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ ה֔וּא וּבֵ֥ית מַמְלָכָ֖ה הֽוּא׃ ס‬ And do not prophesy any more in Beth-El, for it is the king's sanctuary, and it is the royal residence.” royal residence ← house of the kingdom.
Amos 7:14 ‫וַיַּ֤עַן עָמוֹס֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־אֲמַצְיָ֔ה לֹא־נָבִ֣יא אָנֹ֔כִי וְלֹ֥א בֶן־נָבִ֖יא אָנֹ֑כִי כִּֽי־בוֹקֵ֥ר אָנֹ֖כִי וּבוֹלֵ֥ס שִׁקְמִֽים׃‬ Then Amos answered and said to Amaziah, “I am not a prophet, and I am not a prophet's son, for I am a herdsman and a picker of sycamore fig fruit.” I am not a prophet: perhaps ironic, since his prophecies were rejected. Or perhaps supply by profession.
Amos 7:15 ‫וַיִּקָּחֵ֣נִי יְהוָ֔ה מֵאַחֲרֵ֖י הַצֹּ֑אן וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלַי֙ יְהוָ֔ה לֵ֥ךְ הִנָּבֵ֖א אֶל־עַמִּ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ But the Lord took me from looking after the flock, and the Lord said to me, “Go and prophesy to my people Israel, and say,
Amos 7:16 ‫וְעַתָּ֖ה שְׁמַ֣ע דְּבַר־יְהוָ֑ה אַתָּ֣ה אֹמֵ֗ר לֹ֤א תִנָּבֵא֙ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְלֹ֥א תַטִּ֖יף עַל־בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂחָֽק׃‬ ‘And now, hear the word of the Lord, you who are saying,

«Do not prophesy against Israel,

And do not distil prognostications against the house of Isaac

Isaac: in an unusual spelling.
Amos 7:17 ‫לָכֵ֞ן כֹּה־אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה אִשְׁתְּךָ֞ בָּעִ֤יר תִּזְנֶה֙ וּבָנֶ֤יךָ וּבְנֹתֶ֙יךָ֙ בַּחֶ֣רֶב יִפֹּ֔לוּ וְאַדְמָתְךָ֖ בַּחֶ֣בֶל תְּחֻלָּ֑ק וְאַתָּ֗ה עַל־אֲדָמָ֤ה טְמֵאָה֙ תָּמ֔וּת וְיִ֨שְׂרָאֵ֔ל גָּלֹ֥ה יִגְלֶ֖ה מֵעַ֥ל אַדְמָתֽוֹ׃ ס‬ Because of that, this is what the Lord says:

«Your wife will commit whoredom in the city,

And your sons and daughters will fall by the sword,

And your land will be divided up with the measuring line,

And you will die on unclean land,

And Israel will certainly go into captivity

Away from its land.» ’ ”

this is whatthus.

certainly go into captivity: infinitive absolute.

away from ← from on.
Amos 8:1 ‫כֹּ֥ה הִרְאַ֖נִי אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה וְהִנֵּ֖ה כְּל֥וּב קָֽיִץ׃‬ This is what my Lord the Lord showed me, and what I saw was a basket of summer fruit. this is whatthus.

what I saw wasbehold.
Amos 8:2 ‫וַיֹּ֗אמֶר מָֽה־אַתָּ֤ה רֹאֶה֙ עָמ֔וֹס וָאֹמַ֖ר כְּל֣וּב קָ֑יִץ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י בָּ֤א הַקֵּץ֙ אֶל־עַמִּ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹא־אוֹסִ֥יף ע֖וֹד עֲב֥וֹר לֽוֹ׃‬ And he said, “What do you see, Amos?” And I said, “A basket of summer fruit.” And the Lord said to me,

“The end has come to my people Israel;

I will not forgive them any more.

forgive: or pass through. Compare Amos 7:8.
Amos 8:3 ‫וְהֵילִ֜ילוּ שִׁיר֤וֹת הֵיכָל֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה רַ֣ב הַפֶּ֔גֶר בְּכָל־מָק֖וֹם הִשְׁלִ֥יךְ הָֽס׃ פ‬

And the songs of the temple will be howlings on that day,

Says the Lord, the Lord.

Corpses will be numerous everywhere.

Men will say, ‘He has cast it off.

Keep silence.’

the songs of the temple will be howlings: or they will howl songs of the temple.

he has cast it off: AV differs (they shall cast them forth).
Amos 8:4 ‫שִׁמְעוּ־זֹ֕את הַשֹּׁאֲפִ֖ים אֶבְי֑וֹן וְלַשְׁבִּ֖ית *ענוי־**עֲנִיֵּי־אָֽרֶץ׃‬

Hear this, you who swallow up the needy

And in so doing, put a stop

To the livelihood of the {Q: poor} [K: meek] of the land,

The ketiv / qeré issue is a vav / yod issue.

put a stop ← to put a stop.
Amos 8:5 ‫לֵאמֹ֗ר מָתַ֞י יַעֲבֹ֤ר הַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ וְנַשְׁבִּ֣ירָה שֶּׁ֔בֶר וְהַשַּׁבָּ֖ת וְנִפְתְּחָה־בָּ֑ר לְהַקְטִ֤ין אֵיפָה֙ וּלְהַגְדִּ֣יל שֶׁ֔קֶל וּלְעַוֵּ֖ת מֹאזְנֵ֥י מִרְמָֽה׃‬

Saying, ‘When will the new moon be over,

So we can sell corn?

And the Sabbath,

So we can open the grain stores,

Selling a short ephah,

And in so doing, make more shekels,

And swindle with false balances;

ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.

swindle ← distort.
Amos 8:6 ‫לִקְנ֤וֹת בַּכֶּ֙סֶף֙ דַּלִּ֔ים וְאֶבְי֖וֹן בַּעֲב֣וּר נַעֲלָ֑יִם וּמַפַּ֥ל בַּ֖ר נַשְׁבִּֽיר׃‬

So we can buy the poverty-stricken for silver,

And the needy for a pair of sandals’,

And saying, ‘Let us sell the refuse of the grain.’

Amos 8:7 ‫נִשְׁבַּ֥ע יְהוָ֖ה בִּגְא֣וֹן יַעֲקֹ֑ב אִם־אֶשְׁכַּ֥ח לָנֶ֖צַח כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂיהֶֽם׃‬

The Lord has sworn by the excellency of Jacob,

I will certainly never forget any of their works.’

I will certainly never forget: strong denial using an abbreviation of the oath formula of 2 Sam 3:35, enhanced by for ever.

any ← all.
Amos 8:8 ‫הַ֤עַל זֹאת֙ לֹֽא־תִרְגַּ֣ז הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאָבַ֖ל כָּל־יוֹשֵׁ֣ב בָּ֑הּ וְעָלְתָ֤ה כָאֹר֙ כֻּלָּ֔הּ וְנִגְרְשָׁ֥ה *ונשקה **וְנִשְׁקְעָ֖ה כִּיא֥וֹר מִצְרָֽיִם׃ ס‬

Will the land not tremble for this,

And every inhabitant on it mourn?

And will it not all rise like a river

And be driven about

And be submerged like the River of Egypt?

be submerged: the ketiv is from נשׁקה, be overflown, and the qeré is from נשׁקע, be submerged. So the meanings are similar.
Amos 8:9 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נְאֻם֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה וְהֵבֵאתִ֥י הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ בַּֽצָּהֳרָ֑יִם וְהַחֲשַׁכְתִּ֥י לָאָ֖רֶץ בְּי֥וֹם אֽוֹר׃‬

And it will happen on that day,

Says the Lord, the Lord,

That I will make the sun set at noon,

And I will make the earth dark on a day in broad daylight.

Amos 8:10 ‫וְהָפַכְתִּ֨י חַגֵּיכֶ֜ם לְאֵ֗בֶל וְכָל־שִֽׁירֵיכֶם֙ לְקִינָ֔ה וְהַעֲלֵיתִ֤י עַל־כָּל־מָתְנַ֙יִם֙ שָׂ֔ק וְעַל־כָּל־רֹ֖אשׁ קָרְחָ֑ה וְשַׂמְתִּ֙יהָ֙ כְּאֵ֣בֶל יָחִ֔יד וְאַחֲרִיתָ֖הּ כְּי֥וֹם מָֽר׃‬

And I will turn your feasts into mourning

And all your songs into a dirge,

And I will cause you to put sackcloth round every waist,

And there will be baldness on every head,

And I will make the land like mourning for an only son,

And its final condition will be a bitter day.

the landit, feminine.

for an only sonof an only (one). LXX= ἀγαπητοῦ, of a beloved; Vulgate= unigniti, of an only-begotten.

a bitter day ← like a bitter day, but see note to Gen 24:28.
Amos 8:11 ‫הִנֵּ֣ה ׀ יָמִ֣ים בָּאִ֗ים נְאֻם֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּ֥י רָעָ֖ב בָּאָ֑רֶץ לֹֽא־רָעָ֤ב לַלֶּ֙חֶם֙ וְלֹֽא־צָמָ֣א לַמַּ֔יִם כִּ֣י אִם־לִשְׁמֹ֔עַ אֵ֖ת דִּבְרֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬

Behold, the days are coming,

Says the Lord, the Lord,

When I will send a famine to the land,

But not a famine of bread,

And not thirst for water,

But one of hearing the words of the Lord.

Amos 8:12 ‫וְנָעוּ֙ מִיָּ֣ם עַד־יָ֔ם וּמִצָּפ֖וֹן וְעַד־מִזְרָ֑ח יְשֽׁוֹטְט֛וּ לְבַקֵּ֥שׁ אֶת־דְּבַר־יְהוָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א יִמְצָֽאוּ׃‬

And they will wander from sea to sea,

And from the north to the east,

And they will run to and fro

To seek the word of the Lord,

But they will not find it.

wander: or stagger.
Amos 8:13 ‫בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא תִּ֠תְעַלַּפְנָה הַבְּתוּלֹ֧ת הַיָּפ֛וֹת וְהַבַּחוּרִ֖ים בַּצָּמָֽא׃‬

On that day, the beautiful virgins will faint,

As will the young men, from thirst,

faint: or veil themselves, in which case there is a play on words, as the word also yokes the young men, who simply faint from thirst (unveiled).
Amos 8:14 ‫הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים֙ בְּאַשְׁמַ֣ת שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן וְאָמְר֗וּ חֵ֤י אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ דָּ֔ן וְחֵ֖י דֶּ֣רֶךְ בְּאֵֽר־שָׁ֑בַע וְנָפְל֖וּ וְלֹא־יָק֥וּמוּ עֽוֹד׃ ס‬

Who swear by the guilt of Samaria,

And say, ‘As your God lives, Dan’,

And, ‘As the way of Beersheba lives.’

So they will fall,

And not rise again.”

Amos 9:1 ‫רָאִ֨יתִי אֶת־אֲדֹנָ֜י נִצָּ֣ב עַֽל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֗חַ וַיֹּאמֶר֩ הַ֨ךְ הַכַּפְתּ֜וֹר וְיִרְעֲשׁ֣וּ הַסִּפִּ֗ים וּבְצַ֙עַם֙ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ כֻּלָּ֔ם וְאַחֲרִיתָ֖ם בַּחֶ֣רֶב אֶהֱרֹ֑ג לֹֽא־יָנ֤וּס לָהֶם֙ נָ֔ס וְלֹֽא־יִמָּלֵ֥ט לָהֶ֖ם פָּלִֽיט׃‬

I saw the Lord* standing on the altar,

And he said, “Strike the capital of the pillar

So that the lintels shake,

And make them all crash onto their heads,

And I will kill the last of them with the sword.

None of them fleeing will get away,

And no fugitive among them will escape.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

lintels ← thresholds, but here apparently the “threshold” above the head.
Amos 9:2 ‫אִם־יַחְתְּר֣וּ בִשְׁא֔וֹל מִשָּׁ֖ם יָדִ֣י תִקָּחֵ֑ם וְאִֽם־יַעֲלוּ֙ הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם מִשָּׁ֖ם אוֹרִידֵֽם׃‬

Even if they dig through to the underworld,

My hand will take them from there,

And even if they ascend to heaven,

I will bring them down from there.

underworld: or grave.
Amos 9:3 ‫וְאִם־יֵחָֽבְאוּ֙ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ הַכַּרְמֶ֔ל מִשָּׁ֥ם אֲחַפֵּ֖שׂ וּלְקַחְתִּ֑ים וְאִם־יִסָּ֨תְר֜וּ מִנֶּ֤גֶד עֵינַי֙ בְּקַרְקַ֣ע הַיָּ֔ם מִשָּׁ֛ם אֲצַוֶּ֥ה אֶת־הַנָּחָ֖שׁ וּנְשָׁכָֽם׃‬

And if they hide on the top of Carmel,

I will search and take them from there,

And if they conceal themselves from my eyes on the sea bed,

I will command the serpent

And it will bite them,

Ousting them from there.

Carmel ← the Carmel.
Amos 9:4 ‫וְאִם־יֵלְכ֤וּ בַשְּׁבִי֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אֹֽיבֵיהֶ֔ם מִשָּׁ֛ם אֲצַוֶּ֥ה אֶת־הַחֶ֖רֶב וַהֲרָגָ֑תַם וְשַׂמְתִּ֨י עֵינִ֧י עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם לְרָעָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א לְטוֹבָֽה׃‬

And if they go into exile before their enemies,

There I will command the sword,

And it will kill them.

And I will set my eye against them,

For their harm and not for their good.

there ← from there.
Amos 9:5 ‫וַאדֹנָ֨י יְהוִ֜ה הַצְּבָא֗וֹת הַנּוֹגֵ֤עַ בָּאָ֙רֶץ֙ וַתָּמ֔וֹג וְאָבְל֖וּ כָּל־י֣וֹשְׁבֵי בָ֑הּ וְעָלְתָ֤ה כַיְאֹר֙ כֻּלָּ֔הּ וְשָׁקְעָ֖ה כִּיאֹ֥ר מִצְרָֽיִם ‬

And it is the Lord, the Lord of hosts,

Who strikes the earth

So that it melts,

So that all its inhabitants mourn,

And it all rises like a river,

And it is submerged like the River of Egypt;

its inhabitants ← the inhabitants in it.
Amos 9:6 ‫הַבּוֹנֶ֤ה בַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ *מעלותו **מַעֲלוֹתָ֔יו וַאֲגֻדָּת֖וֹ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ יְסָדָ֑הּ הַקֹּרֵ֣א לְמֵֽי־הַיָּ֗ם וַֽיִּשְׁפְּכֵ֛ם עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאָ֖רֶץ יְהוָ֥ה שְׁמֽוֹ׃‬

Who builds his high residences in the heavens,

And as for his vault of the heavens above the earth,

He founded it.

He calls to the water of the sea,

And pours it out on the surface of the earth

– The Lord is his name.

high residences: the ketiv could be regarded as a scriptio defectiva spelling of the qeré. The word is as for sundial degrees, or for ascents as a possible translation of the titles of Psalms 120 - 134.
Amos 9:7 ‫הֲל֣וֹא כִבְנֵי֩ כֻשִׁיִּ֨ים אַתֶּ֥ם לִ֛י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה הֲל֣וֹא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל הֶעֱלֵ֙יתִי֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וּפְלִשְׁתִּיִּ֥ים מִכַּפְתּ֖וֹר וַאֲרָ֥ם מִקִּֽיר׃‬

Are you not to me like the sons of Ethiopians,

O sons of Israel?

Says the Lord.

Did I not bring Israel up out of the land of Egypt?

And the Philistines from Caphtor,

And the Aramaean from Kir?

Caphtor: [CB] refers this to Crete.
Amos 9:8 ‫הִנֵּ֞ה עֵינֵ֣י ׀ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה בַּמַּמְלָכָה֙ הַֽחַטָּאָ֔ה וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּ֣י אֹתָ֔הּ מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֣י הָאֲדָמָ֑ה אֶ֗פֶס כִּ֠י לֹ֣א הַשְׁמֵ֥יד אַשְׁמִ֛יד אֶת־בֵּ֥ית יַעֲקֹ֖ב נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Look, the eyes of the Lord, the Lord, are against the sinful kingdom,

And I will cut it off from the face of the earth,

Except that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob,

Says the Lord.

sinful kingdom ← kingdom of sin, a Hebraic genitive.

earth ← ground, land.

utterly destroy: infinitive absolute.
Amos 9:9 ‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ מְצַוֶּ֔ה וַהֲנִע֥וֹתִי בְכָֽל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר יִנּ֙וֹעַ֙ בַּכְּבָרָ֔ה וְלֹֽא־יִפּ֥וֹל צְר֖וֹר אָֽרֶץ׃‬

For behold, I am about to command

And cause the house of Israel to wander among all the nations,

As corn is shaken around in a sieve,

But no grain falls to the ground.

wander: or stagger; compare Amos 8:2. It is also related to the word for shaken around in this verse.
Amos 9:10 ‫בַּחֶ֣רֶב יָמ֔וּתוּ כֹּ֖ל חַטָּאֵ֣י עַמִּ֑י הָאֹמְרִ֗ים לֹֽא־תַגִּ֧ישׁ וְתַקְדִּ֛ים בַּעֲדֵ֖ינוּ הָרָעָֽה׃‬

All sinners among my people will die by the sword,

Who say,

‘No evil will approach and come upon us.’

sinners among ← sinners of. Wider use of the construct state.
Amos 9:11 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא אָקִ֛ים אֶת־סֻכַּ֥ת דָּוִ֖יד הַנֹּפֶ֑לֶת וְגָדַרְתִּ֣י אֶת־פִּרְצֵיהֶ֗ן וַהֲרִֽסֹתָיו֙ אָקִ֔ים וּבְנִיתִ֖יהָ כִּימֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם׃‬

On that day I will raise up the tabernacle of David,

Which has fallen down,

And I will wall up their breaches,

And I will raise up its ruins,

And I will build her up

As in days of old,

Acts 15:16.

tabernacle ← booth. Not the same word as the one for the tabernacle.

its ... her: referring to the house (masculine) of Jacob and the tabernacle (feminine) of David.

of old ← of the age.
Amos 9:12 ‫לְמַ֨עַן יִֽירְשׁ֜וּ אֶת־שְׁאֵרִ֤ית אֱדוֹם֙ וְכָל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָ֥א שְׁמִ֖י עֲלֵיהֶ֑ם נְאֻם־יְהוָ֖ה עֹ֥שֶׂה זֹּֽאת׃ פ‬

In order that they who are called after my name

May inherit the remnant of Edom

And all the Gentiles,

Says the Lord

Who is doing this.

Acts 15:17, James 2:7.

who are called after my name ← on whom my name has been called. See James 2:7.

One could construe this verse with they and all the Gentiles among whom my name is called as the subject of the verb may inherit. The absence of a second אֶת־, infixed in וְכָל, militates for this; compare Gen 1:1 (אֶת־ repeated).
Amos 9:13 ‫הִנֵּ֨ה יָמִ֤ים בָּאִים֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וְנִגַּ֤שׁ חוֹרֵשׁ֙ בַּקֹּצֵ֔ר וְדֹרֵ֥ךְ עֲנָבִ֖ים בְּמֹשֵׁ֣ךְ הַזָּ֑רַע וְהִטִּ֤יפוּ הֶֽהָרִים֙ עָסִ֔יס וְכָל־הַגְּבָע֖וֹת תִּתְמוֹגַֽגְנָה׃‬

Look, the days are coming,

Says the Lord,

When the ploughman will be close behind the reaper,

And the grape-treader the seed-sower,

And the mountains will distil new wine,

And all the hills will melt.

will be close behind ← approaching. Perhaps suggesting no winter.
Amos 9:14 ‫וְשַׁבְתִּי֮ אֶת־שְׁב֣וּת עַמִּ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וּבָנ֞וּ עָרִ֤ים נְשַׁמּוֹת֙ וְיָשָׁ֔בוּ וְנָטְע֣וּ כְרָמִ֔ים וְשָׁת֖וּ אֶת־יֵינָ֑ם וְעָשׂ֣וּ גַנּ֔וֹת וְאָכְל֖וּ אֶת־פְּרִיהֶֽם׃‬

And I will reverse the captivity of my people Israel,

And they will rebuild the desolate cities

And they will dwell in them,

And they will plant vineyards

And they will drink their wine,

And they will make gardens

And they will eat their fruit.

rebuild ← build.
Amos 9:15 ‫וּנְטַעְתִּ֖ים עַל־אַדְמָתָ֑ם וְלֹ֨א יִנָּתְשׁ֜וּ ע֗וֹד מֵעַ֤ל אַדְמָתָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָתַ֣תִּי לָהֶ֔ם אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ׃‬

And I will plant them on their land,

And they will not be plucked up any more from their land

Which I have given to them,

Says the Lord your God.”

Obad 1:1 ‫חֲז֖וֹן עֹֽבַדְיָ֑ה כֹּֽה־אָמַר֩ אֲדֹנָ֨י יְהוִ֜ה לֶאֱד֗וֹם שְׁמוּעָ֨ה שָׁמַ֜עְנוּ מֵאֵ֤ת יְהוָה֙ וְצִיר֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֣ם שֻׁלָּ֔ח ק֛וּמוּ וְנָק֥וּמָה עָלֶיהָ לַמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬ The vision of Obadiah. This is what my Lord the Lord says to Edom:

“We have heard a report from the Lord,

And an envoy sent among the nations,

Saying, ‘Rise and let us rise against her in war.’

|| Jer 49:14.

this is whatthus.

This verse contains the words of Edom's foes [CB].
Obad 1:2 ‫הִנֵּ֥ה קָטֹ֛ן נְתַתִּ֖יךָ בַּגּוֹיִ֑ם בָּז֥וּי אַתָּ֖ה מְאֹֽד׃‬


I have made you small among the nations;

You are greatly despised.

|| Jer 49:15.

Here, the Lord speaks his own words.
Obad 1:3 ‫זְד֤וֹן לִבְּךָ֙ הִשִּׁיאֶ֔ךָ שֹׁכְנִ֥י בְחַגְוֵי־סֶּ֖לַע מְר֣וֹם שִׁבְתּ֑וֹ אֹמֵ֣ר בְּלִבּ֔וֹ מִ֥י יוֹרִדֵ֖נִי אָֽרֶץ׃‬

The insolence of your heart has deceived you,

You who dwell in the fissures of the rock.

He who has a high dwelling place

Says in his heart,

‘Who can bring me down to earth?’

|| Jer 49:16.

The verse changes from second to third grammatical person (not uncommon in Hebrew).
Obad 1:4 ‫אִם־תַּגְבִּ֣יהַּ כַּנֶּ֔שֶׁר וְאִם־בֵּ֥ין כּֽוֹכָבִ֖ים שִׂ֣ים קִנֶּ֑ךָ מִשָּׁ֥ם אוֹרִֽידְךָ֖ נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Even if you exalt yourself like the eagle,

And even if you make your nest among the stars,

I will bring you down from there,

Says the Lord.

|| Jer 49:16.
Obad 1:5 ‫אִם־גַּנָּבִ֤ים בָּאֽוּ־לְךָ֙ אִם־שׁ֣וֹדְדֵי לַ֔יְלָה אֵ֣יךְ נִדְמֵ֔יתָה הֲל֥וֹא יִגְנְב֖וּ דַּיָּ֑ם אִם־בֹּֽצְרִים֙ בָּ֣אוּ לָ֔ךְ הֲל֖וֹא יַשְׁאִ֥ירוּ עֹלֵלֽוֹת׃‬

If thieves were to come to you,

Or burglars in the night,

How you would be ruined!

Would they not steal as much as they want?

If grape-harvest raiders come to you,

Will they not just leave gleanings?

|| Jer 49:9.

as much as they want ← their sufficiency.
Obad 1:6 ‫אֵ֚יךְ נֶחְפְּשׂ֣וּ עֵשָׂ֔ו נִבְע֖וּ מַצְפֻּנָֽיו׃‬

How the affairs of Esau are investigated,

And how his hidden designs are searched out!

|| Jer 49:10.

investigated: the same word as laid bare in Jer 49:10, but we translate maintaining parallelism within the verse (investigated ... searched out).
Obad 1:7 ‫עַֽד־הַגְּב֣וּל שִׁלְּח֗וּךָ כֹּ֚ל אַנְשֵׁ֣י בְרִיתֶ֔ךָ הִשִּׁיא֛וּךָ יָכְל֥וּ לְךָ֖ אַנְשֵׁ֣י שְׁלֹמֶ֑ךָ לַחְמְךָ֗ יָשִׂ֤ימוּ מָזוֹר֙ תַּחְתֶּ֔יךָ אֵ֥ין תְּבוּנָ֖ה בּֽוֹ׃‬

All your allies have sent you to the border;

They have deceived you.

Those who were well-disposed to you have outwitted you;

They place your bread in a hunter's net under you,

But you have no understanding about it at all.

your allies ← the men of your covenant.

those who were well-disposed to you ← the men of your peace.

outwitted ← prevailed over.
Obad 1:8 ‫הֲל֛וֹא בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה וְהַאֲבַדְתִּ֤י חֲכָמִים֙ מֵֽאֱד֔וֹם וּתְבוּנָ֖ה מֵהַ֥ר עֵשָֽׂו׃‬

Will I not destroy the wise men of Edom on that day,

Says the Lord,

And remove understanding from the mount of Esau?

of Edom ← from Edom.
Obad 1:9 ‫וְחַתּ֥וּ גִבּוֹרֶ֖יךָ תֵּימָ֑ן לְמַ֧עַן יִכָּֽרֶת־אִ֛ישׁ מֵהַ֥ר עֵשָׂ֖ו מִקָּֽטֶל׃‬

And your warriors of Teman will be afraid

Of each man being cut off

From the mount of Esau,

And they will be afraid of slaughter.

your warriors of Teman: AV differs (thy mighty men, O Teman), also possible, but see [Ges-HG] §128d for examples of genitives after a noun with a suffix.
Obad 1:10 ‫מֵחֲמַ֛ס אָחִ֥יךָ יַעֲקֹ֖ב תְּכַסְּךָ֣ בוּשָׁ֑ה וְנִכְרַ֖תָּ לְעוֹלָֽם׃‬

For the violence done against your brother Jacob,

Shame will cover you,

And you will be cut off age-abidingly.

violence done against your brother ← violence of your brother, an objective genitive (you violated your brother).
Obad 1:11 ‫בְּיוֹם֙ עֲמָֽדְךָ֣ מִנֶּ֔גֶד בְּי֛וֹם שְׁב֥וֹת זָרִ֖ים חֵיל֑וֹ וְנָכְרִ֞ים בָּ֣אוּ *שערו **שְׁעָרָ֗יו וְעַל־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ יַדּ֣וּ גוֹרָ֔ל גַּם־אַתָּ֖ה כְּאַחַ֥ד מֵהֶֽם׃‬

On the day when you stood opposite Jacob,

On the day when strangers took his army captive,

And foreigners came to his {K: gate} [Q: gates]

And cast lots over Jerusalem,

You too were one of them.

one of them ← like one of them, but see note to Gen 24:28.
Obad 1:12 ‫וְאַל־תֵּ֤רֶא בְיוֹם־אָחִ֙יךָ֙ בְּי֣וֹם נָכְר֔וֹ וְאַל־תִּשְׂמַ֥ח לִבְנֵֽי־יְהוּדָ֖ה בְּי֣וֹם אָבְדָ֑ם וְאַל־תַּגְדֵּ֥ל פִּ֖יךָ בְּי֥וֹם צָרָֽה׃‬

But do not look with satisfaction

On the day of your brother,

On the day of his loss of sovereignty.

And do not rejoice over the sons of Judah

On the day when they perish,

And do not gloat

On the day of their adversity.

loss of sovereignty ← alienation.

gloat ← magnify your mouth.

AV differs, using the past tense. But the forms are prohibitions, being either warnings previously given, or regarding a future event.
Obad 1:13 ‫אַל־תָּב֤וֹא בְשַֽׁעַר־עַמִּי֙ בְּי֣וֹם אֵידָ֔ם אַל־תֵּ֧רֶא גַם־אַתָּ֛ה בְּרָעָת֖וֹ בְּי֣וֹם אֵיד֑וֹ וְאַל־תִּשְׁלַ֥חְנָה בְחֵיל֖וֹ בְּי֥וֹם אֵידֽוֹ׃‬

Do not go to the gate of my people

On the day of their calamity,

And do not look upon their suffering

On the day of their calamity,

And do not send forces against their forces

On the day of their calamity.

go ... their calamity ... send ... their forces: a mid verse switch of grammatical person of both verbal subjects and suffixes, but we take them as the same references.
Obad 1:14 ‫וְאַֽל־תַּעֲמֹד֙ עַל־הַפֶּ֔רֶק לְהַכְרִ֖ית אֶת־פְּלִיטָ֑יו וְאַל־תַּסְגֵּ֥ר שְׂרִידָ֖יו בְּי֥וֹם צָרָֽה׃‬

And do not stand at the road junction,

To cut off their escapees,

And do not close off their fugitives

On the day of adversity.

Obad 1:15 ‫כִּֽי־קָר֥וֹב יוֹם־יְהוָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשִׂ֙יתָ֙ יֵעָ֣שֶׂה לָּ֔ךְ גְּמֻלְךָ֖ יָשׁ֥וּב בְּרֹאשֶֽׁךָ׃‬

For the day of the Lord is near,

Coming upon all nations.

As you have done,

So it shall be done to you;

Your recompense will return onto your head.

Rev 1:10.
Obad 1:16 ‫כִּ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר שְׁתִיתֶם֙ עַל־הַ֣ר קָדְשִׁ֔י יִשְׁתּ֥וּ כָֽל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם תָּמִ֑יד וְשָׁת֣וּ וְלָע֔וּ וְהָי֖וּ כְּל֥וֹא הָיֽוּ׃‬

For as you have drunk on my holy mountain,

So all the nations will drink continually.

And they will drink and swallow,

And they will be as if they had never existed.

|| Jer 49:12.

my holy mountain ← the mountain of my holiness, a Hebraic genitive.

never ← not.
Obad 1:17 ‫וּבְהַ֥ר צִיּ֛וֹן תִּהְיֶ֥ה פְלֵיטָ֖ה וְהָ֣יָה קֹ֑דֶשׁ וְיָֽרְשׁוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב אֵ֖ת מוֹרָֽשֵׁיהֶם׃‬

And on Mount Zion there will be deliverance,

And it will be holy,

And the house of Jacob will receive their inheritances.

holy ← holiness.

receive their inheritances ← inherit their inheritances.
Obad 1:18 ‫וְהָיָה֩ בֵית־יַעֲקֹ֨ב אֵ֜שׁ וּבֵ֧ית יוֹסֵ֣ף לֶהָבָ֗ה וּבֵ֤ית עֵשָׂו֙ לְקַ֔שׁ וְדָלְק֥וּ בָהֶ֖ם וַאֲכָל֑וּם וְלֹֽא־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה שָׂרִיד֙ לְבֵ֣ית עֵשָׂ֔ו כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃‬

And the house of Jacob will become fire,

And the house of Joseph a flame,

But the house of Esau will become stubble.

So they will be burned and consumed,

And there will not be any escapee of the house of Esau,

For the Lord has spoken.

they will be burned and consumed ← they will burn them and consume them. Avoidance of the passive.
Obad 1:19 ‫וְיָרְשׁ֨וּ הַנֶּ֜גֶב אֶת־הַ֣ר עֵשָׂ֗ו וְהַשְּׁפֵלָה֙ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְיָרְשׁוּ֙ אֶת־שְׂדֵ֣ה אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְאֵ֖ת שְׂדֵ֣ה שֹׁמְר֑וֹן וּבִנְיָמִ֖ן אֶת־הַגִּלְעָֽד׃‬

And the south will inherit the mount of Esau,

And the lowlands will inherit the Philistines,

And they will inherit the territory of Ephraim,

And the territory of Samaria.

And Benjamin will inherit Gilead.

territory (2x)field.

Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
Obad 1:20 ‫וְגָלֻ֣ת הַֽחֵל־הַ֠זֶּה לִבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל אֲשֶֽׁר־כְּנַעֲנִים֙ עַד־צָ֣רְפַ֔ת וְגָלֻ֥ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּסְפָרַ֑ד יִֽרְשׁ֕וּ אֵ֖ת עָרֵ֥י הַנֶּֽגֶב׃‬

And the captives of these forces of the sons of Israel

Who are scattered among the Canaanites

Will inherit territory as far as Zarephath.

And the captives of Jerusalem

Who are in Sepharad

Will inherit the cities of the south.

are scattered among: AV differs (shall possess).

Zarephath: see 1 Ki 17:9.

Sepharad: the Modern Hebrew for Spain, though not universally acknowledged as the ancient meaning. See also [CB].
Obad 1:21 ‫וְעָל֤וּ מֽוֹשִׁעִים֙ בְּהַ֣ר צִיּ֔וֹן לִשְׁפֹּ֖ט אֶת־הַ֣ר עֵשָׂ֑ו וְהָיְתָ֥ה לַֽיהוָ֖ה הַמְּלוּכָֽה׃‬

And saviours will go to Mount Zion,

To judge the mount of Esau,

And the kingdom will be the Lord's.”

Jonah 1:1 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־יוֹנָ֥ה בֶן־אֲמִתַּ֖י לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord came to Jonah the son of Amittai and said, came ← became.
Jonah 1:2 ‫ק֠וּם לֵ֧ךְ אֶל־נִֽינְוֵ֛ה הָעִ֥יר הַגְּדוֹלָ֖ה וּקְרָ֣א עָלֶ֑יהָ כִּֽי־עָלְתָ֥ה רָעָתָ֖ם לְפָנָֽי׃‬ “Get up and go to Nineveh, the great city, and call out to it that their wickedness has come up into my presence.”
Jonah 1:3 ‫וַיָּ֤קָם יוֹנָה֙ לִבְרֹ֣חַ תַּרְשִׁ֔ישָׁה מִלִּפְנֵ֖י יְהוָ֑ה וַיֵּ֨רֶד יָפ֜וֹ וַיִּמְצָ֥א אָנִיָּ֣ה ׀ בָּאָ֣ה תַרְשִׁ֗ישׁ וַיִּתֵּ֨ן שְׂכָרָ֜הּ וַיֵּ֤רֶד בָּהּ֙ לָב֤וֹא עִמָּהֶם֙ תַּרְשִׁ֔ישָׁה מִלִּפְנֵ֖י יְהוָֽה׃‬ But Jonah got up to flee to Tarshish, away from the presence of the Lord, and he went down to Joppa, and he found a ship going to Tarshish, and he paid the fare for this, and he went down into it, to go with them to Tarshish, away from the presence of the Lord.
Jonah 1:4 ‫וַֽיהוָ֗ה הֵטִ֤יל רֽוּחַ־גְּדוֹלָה֙ אֶל־הַיָּ֔ם וַיְהִ֥י סַֽעַר־גָּד֖וֹל בַּיָּ֑ם וְהָ֣אֳנִיָּ֔ה חִשְּׁבָ֖ה לְהִשָּׁבֵֽר׃‬ But the Lord sent out a great wind to the sea, and there was a great storm on the sea, and the ship was on the point of being broken. was on the point of ← reckoned, thought, but also was about to.
Jonah 1:5 ‫וַיִּֽירְא֣וּ הַמַּלָּחִ֗ים וַֽיִּזְעֲקוּ֮ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־אֱלֹהָיו֒ וַיָּטִ֨לוּ אֶת־הַכֵּלִ֜ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר בָּֽאֳנִיָּה֙ אֶל־הַיָּ֔ם לְהָקֵ֖ל מֵֽעֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וְיוֹנָ֗ה יָרַד֙ אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵ֣י הַסְּפִינָ֔ה וַיִּשְׁכַּ֖ב וַיֵּרָדַֽם׃‬ And the sailors were afraid, and each one called to his god, and they jettisoned the cargo which was in the ship into the sea in order to lighten the vessel from it, but Jonah had gone down into the cabins of the vessel and had lain down, and he was in deep sleep. cargo: [CB] has tackling, but the word is used of various objects, such as kitchen utensils (Lev 11:34), weapons (1 Sam 8:12), and musical instruments (2 Chr 23:13).
Jonah 1:6 ‫וַיִּקְרַ֤ב אֵלָיו֙ רַ֣ב הַחֹבֵ֔ל וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ מַה־לְּךָ֣ נִרְדָּ֑ם ק֚וּם קְרָ֣א אֶל־אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אוּלַ֞י יִתְעַשֵּׁ֧ת הָאֱלֹהִ֛ים לָ֖נוּ וְלֹ֥א נֹאבֵֽד׃‬ And the captain approached him and said to him, “What are you doing sleeping? Get up and call on your God. It may be that God will consider us, and we will not perish.” what are you doing sleeping ← what (is it) to you sleeping.
Jonah 1:7 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֗הוּ לְכוּ֙ וְנַפִּ֣ילָה גֽוֹרָל֔וֹת וְנֵ֣דְעָ֔ה בְּשֶׁלְּמִ֛י הָרָעָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לָ֑נוּ וַיַּפִּ֙לוּ֙ גּֽוֹרָל֔וֹת וַיִּפֹּ֥ל הַגּוֹרָ֖ל עַל־יוֹנָֽה׃‬ And each man said to his neighbour, “Come and let us cast lots, so we know on account of whom this misfortune of ours has come.” And they cast lots, and the lot fell on Jonah.
Jonah 1:8 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֔יו הַגִּידָה־נָּ֣א לָ֔נוּ בַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר לְמִי־הָרָעָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לָ֑נוּ מַה־מְּלַאכְתְּךָ֙ וּמֵאַ֣יִן תָּב֔וֹא מָ֣ה אַרְצֶ֔ךָ וְאֵֽי־מִזֶּ֥ה עַ֖ם אָֽתָּה׃‬ And they said to him, “Please tell us on account of what this misfortune of ours is, and what your business is, and where you come from, and what your country is, and of which people you are.” what: or whom.
Jonah 1:9 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם עִבְרִ֣י אָנֹ֑כִי וְאֶת־יְהוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ אֲנִ֣י יָרֵ֔א אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה אֶת־הַיָּ֖ם וְאֶת־הַיַּבָּשָֽׁה׃‬ And he said to them, “I am a Hebrew, and I fear the Lord God of heaven, who made the sea and the dry land.” I fear: in a Hebrew “OSV” (object-subject-verb) sentence.
Jonah 1:10 ‫וַיִּֽירְא֤וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ יִרְאָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֔ה וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו מַה־זֹּ֣את עָשִׂ֑יתָ כִּֽי־יָדְע֣וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים כִּֽי־מִלִּפְנֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ ה֣וּא בֹרֵ֔חַ כִּ֥י הִגִּ֖יד לָהֶֽם׃‬ And the men were afraid with a great fear, and the men said to him, “What is this that you have done?” For the men knew that he was fleeing from the Lord, for he had told them. from ← from the face of.
Jonah 1:11 ‫וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ אֵלָיו֙ מַה־נַּ֣עֲשֶׂה לָּ֔ךְ וְיִשְׁתֹּ֥ק הַיָּ֖ם מֵֽעָלֵ֑ינוּ כִּ֥י הַיָּ֖ם הוֹלֵ֥ךְ וְסֹעֵֽר׃‬ And they said to him, “What should we do to you, so that the sea will calm down for us? For the sea is becoming more and more tempestuous.” for us ← from on us.
Jonah 1:12 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם שָׂא֙וּנִי֙ וַהֲטִילֻ֣נִי אֶל־הַיָּ֔ם וְיִשְׁתֹּ֥ק הַיָּ֖ם מֵֽעֲלֵיכֶ֑ם כִּ֚י יוֹדֵ֣עַ אָ֔נִי כִּ֣י בְשֶׁלִּ֔י הַסַּ֧עַר הַגָּד֛וֹל הַזֶּ֖ה עֲלֵיכֶֽם׃‬ And he said to them, “Lift me up and throw me into the sea, and the sea will calm down for you, for I know that it is on account of me that this great storm has come on you.” for you ← from on you.
Jonah 1:13 ‫וַיַּחְתְּר֣וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים לְהָשִׁ֛יב אֶל־הַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה וְלֹ֣א יָכֹ֑לוּ כִּ֣י הַיָּ֔ם הוֹלֵ֥ךְ וְסֹעֵ֖ר עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃‬ Then the men rowed in order to return to dry land, but they could not do it, because the sea was becoming more and more tempestuous on them. but: adversative use of the vav.
Jonah 1:14 ‫וַיִּקְרְא֨וּ אֶל־יְהוָ֜ה וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ אָנָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אַל־נָ֣א נֹאבְדָ֗ה בְּנֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הַזֶּ֔ה וְאַל־תִּתֵּ֥ן עָלֵ֖ינוּ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֑יא כִּֽי־אַתָּ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר חָפַ֖צְתָּ עָשִֽׂיתָ׃‬ So they called to the Lord and said, “We beseech you, Lord, please do not let us perish because of this man's life, and do not lay innocent blood on us, for you, O Lord, do what you please.” life ← soul.
Jonah 1:15 ‫וַיִּשְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־יוֹנָ֔ה וַיְטִלֻ֖הוּ אֶל־הַיָּ֑ם וַיַּעֲמֹ֥ד הַיָּ֖ם מִזַּעְפּֽוֹ׃‬ So they lifted Jonah up and threw him in the sea. And the sea stopped its raging.
Jonah 1:16 ‫וַיִּֽירְא֧וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֛ים יִרְאָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה אֶת־יְהוָ֑ה וַיִּֽזְבְּחוּ־זֶ֙בַח֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וַֽיִּדְּר֖וּ נְדָרִֽים׃‬ And the men feared the Lord with a great fear, and they offered a sacrifice to the Lord, and they made vows. offered ← sacrificed.

made vows ← vowed vows.
Jonah 2:1
Jonah 1:17AV
‫וַיְמַ֤ן יְהוָה֙ דָּ֣ג גָּד֔וֹל לִבְלֹ֖עַ אֶת־יוֹנָ֑ה וַיְהִ֤י יוֹנָה֙ בִּמְעֵ֣י הַדָּ֔ג שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה יָמִ֖ים וּשְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה לֵילֽוֹת׃‬ Then the Lord appointed a large fish to swallow Jonah. And Jonah was in the inner parts of the fish for three days and three nights. Matt 12:40.
Jonah 2:2
Jonah 2:1AV
‫וַיִּתְפַּלֵּ֣ל יוֹנָ֔ה אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהָ֑יו מִמְּעֵ֖י הַדָּגָֽה׃‬ And Jonah prayed to the Lord his God from the inner parts of the fish.
Jonah 2:3
Jonah 2:2AV
‫וַיֹּ֗אמֶר קָ֠רָאתִי מִצָּ֥רָה לִ֛י אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה וַֽיַּעֲנֵ֑נִי מִבֶּ֧טֶן שְׁא֛וֹל שִׁוַּ֖עְתִּי שָׁמַ֥עְתָּ קוֹלִֽי׃‬ And he said,

“I called on account of my predicament to the Lord,

And he answered me.

I cried out from the belly of the underworld,

And you heard my voice.

underworld: the word can sometimes be translated grave.
Jonah 2:4
Jonah 2:3AV
‫וַתַּשְׁלִיכֵ֤נִי מְצוּלָה֙ בִּלְבַ֣ב יַמִּ֔ים וְנָהָ֖ר יְסֹבְבֵ֑נִי כָּל־מִשְׁבָּרֶ֥יךָ וְגַלֶּ֖יךָ עָלַ֥י עָבָֽרוּ׃‬

And you cast me into the deep,

In the heart of the seas,

And the tide surrounded me.

All your breakers and your waves passed over me.

in the heart of the seas: more loosely on the high seas.
Jonah 2:5
Jonah 2:4AV
‫וַאֲנִ֣י אָמַ֔רְתִּי נִגְרַ֖שְׁתִּי מִנֶּ֣גֶד עֵינֶ֑יךָ אַ֚ךְ אוֹסִ֣יף לְהַבִּ֔יט אֶל־הֵיכַ֖ל קָדְשֶֽׁךָ׃‬

And I said,

‘I have been driven out of your sight,

But I will look again at your holy temple.’

sight ← eyes.

your holy temple ← the temple of your holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Jonah 2:6
Jonah 2:5AV
‫אֲפָפ֤וּנִי מַ֙יִם֙ עַד־נֶ֔פֶשׁ תְּה֖וֹם יְסֹבְבֵ֑נִי ס֖וּף חָב֥וּשׁ לְרֹאשִֽׁי׃‬

Water has surrounded me,

Threatening my life.

The deep has encompassed me;

Sea-weed is bound around my head.

threatening my life ← up to soul.
Jonah 2:7
Jonah 2:6AV
‫לְקִצְבֵ֤י הָרִים֙ יָרַ֔דְתִּי הָאָ֛רֶץ בְּרִחֶ֥יהָ בַעֲדִ֖י לְעוֹלָ֑ם וַתַּ֧עַל מִשַּׁ֛חַת חַיַּ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהָֽי׃‬

I descended to the roots of the mountains;

The earth with its bars were closing in after me for age-long time,

But you rescued my life from the pit,

O Lord my God.

rescued ← raised.
Jonah 2:8
Jonah 2:7AV
‫בְּהִתְעַטֵּ֤ף עָלַי֙ נַפְשִׁ֔י אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה זָכָ֑רְתִּי וַתָּב֤וֹא אֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ תְּפִלָּתִ֔י אֶל־הֵיכַ֖ל קָדְשֶֽׁךָ׃‬

When my life was draining away from me,

I remembered the Lord,

And my prayer came to you

– To your holy temple.

life ← soul.

your holy temple ← the temple of your holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Jonah 2:9
Jonah 2:8AV
‫מְשַׁמְּרִ֖ים הַבְלֵי־שָׁ֑וְא חַסְדָּ֖ם יַעֲזֹֽבוּ׃‬

Those who pay respect to vain idols

Abandon themselves to their tender mercies,

AV differs, and [CB] offers another explanation.

their tender mercies ← their kindness. We take this as irony, as the idols' (nonexistent) kindness.
Jonah 2:10
Jonah 2:9AV
‫וַאֲנִ֗י בְּק֤וֹל תּוֹדָה֙ אֶזְבְּחָה־לָּ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָדַ֖רְתִּי אֲשַׁלֵּ֑מָה יְשׁוּעָ֖תָה לַיהוָֽה׃ ס‬

But I will sacrifice to you with a voice of thanksgiving;

That which I vowed,

I will fulfil,

For salvation is of the Lord.”

Jonah 2:11
Jonah 2:10AV
‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה לַדָּ֑ג וַיָּקֵ֥א אֶת־יוֹנָ֖ה אֶל־הַיַּבָּשָֽׁה׃ פ‬ Then the Lord spoke to the fish, and it ejected Jonah onto the dry land.
Jonah 3:1 ‫וַיְהִ֧י דְבַר־יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־יוֹנָ֖ה שֵׁנִ֥ית לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord came to Jonah a second time and said, came ← became.
Jonah 3:2 ‫ק֛וּם לֵ֥ךְ אֶל־נִֽינְוֵ֖ה הָעִ֣יר הַגְּדוֹלָ֑ה וִּקְרָ֤א אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ אֶת־הַקְּרִיאָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י דֹּבֵ֥ר אֵלֶֽיךָ׃‬ Arise and go to Nineveh, the great city, and proclaim to it the proclamation which I am speaking to you.
Jonah 3:3 ‫וַיָּ֣קָם יוֹנָ֗ה וַיֵּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־נִֽינְוֶ֖ה כִּדְבַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה וְנִֽינְוֵ֗ה הָיְתָ֤ה עִיר־גְּדוֹלָה֙ לֵֽאלֹהִ֔ים מַהֲלַ֖ךְ שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת יָמִֽים׃‬ So Jonah got up and went to Nineveh according to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, it being three days' journey round its perimeter. exceedingly great ← great to God, an idiom using Elohim, God, for an extreme quality. See Gen 23:6.
Jonah 3:4 ‫וַיָּ֤חֶל יוֹנָה֙ לָב֣וֹא בָעִ֔יר מַהֲלַ֖ךְ י֣וֹם אֶחָ֑ד וַיִּקְרָא֙ וַיֹּאמַ֔ר ע֚וֹד אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְנִֽינְוֵ֖ה נֶהְפָּֽכֶת׃‬ And Jonah began to go into the city, making a day's journey, and he made a proclamation and said, “There are forty days to go, then Nineveh will be overturned.” forty days to go ← still forty days.
Jonah 3:5 ‫וַֽיַּאֲמִ֛ינוּ אַנְשֵׁ֥י נִֽינְוֵ֖ה בֵּֽאלֹהִ֑ים וַיִּקְרְאוּ־צוֹם֙ וַיִּלְבְּשׁ֣וּ שַׂקִּ֔ים מִגְּדוֹלָ֖ם וְעַד־קְטַנָּֽם׃‬ And the men of Nineveh believed God, and they called a fast, and they put on sackcloth, both great and small. both great and small ← from great and to small. See 1 Sam 15:3 and Gen 6:7.
Jonah 3:6 ‫וַיִּגַּ֤ע הַדָּבָר֙ אֶל־מֶ֣לֶך נִֽינְוֵ֔ה וַיָּ֙קָם֙ מִכִּסְא֔וֹ וַיַּעֲבֵ֥ר אַדַּרְתּ֖וֹ מֵֽעָלָ֑יו וַיְכַ֣ס שַׂ֔ק וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב עַל־הָאֵֽפֶר׃‬ And the matter reached the king of Nineveh, and he rose up from his throne and removed his robe and covered himself with sackcloth and sat in ashes.
Jonah 3:7 ‫וַיַּזְעֵ֗ק וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ בְּנִֽינְוֵ֔ה מִטַּ֧עַם הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וּגְדֹלָ֖יו לֵאמֹ֑ר הָאָדָ֨ם וְהַבְּהֵמָ֜ה הַבָּקָ֣ר וְהַצֹּ֗אן אַֽל־יִטְעֲמוּ֙ מְא֔וּמָה אַ֨ל־יִרְע֔וּ וּמַ֖יִם אַל־יִשְׁתּֽוּ׃‬ And he made a pronouncement and announced in Nineveh by decree of the king and his nobles and said, “Let man, and cattle, and oxen, and sheep not taste anything, nor feed, and let them not drink water.
Jonah 3:8 ‫וְיִתְכַּסּ֣וּ שַׂקִּ֗ים הָֽאָדָם֙ וְהַבְּהֵמָ֔ה וְיִקְרְא֥וּ אֶל־אֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּחָזְקָ֑ה וְיָשֻׁ֗בוּ אִ֚ישׁ מִדַּרְכּ֣וֹ הָֽרָעָ֔ה וּמִן־הֶחָמָ֖ס אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּכַפֵּיהֶֽם׃‬ But let man and cattle be covered in sackcloth, and let them call out to God in strength of mind, and let each man turn from his wicked way and from the violence which is in their hands.
Jonah 3:9 ‫מִֽי־יוֹדֵ֣עַ יָשׁ֔וּב וְנִחַ֖ם הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְשָׁ֛ב מֵחֲר֥וֹן אַפּ֖וֹ וְלֹ֥א נֹאבֵֽד׃‬ Who knows whether God will turn and repent and turn from the fury of his anger, so that we do not perish.”
Jonah 3:10 ‫וַיַּ֤רְא הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ אֶֽת־מַ֣עֲשֵׂיהֶ֔ם כִּי־שָׁ֖בוּ מִדַּרְכָּ֣ם הָרָעָ֑ה וַיִּנָּ֣חֶם הָאֱלֹהִ֗ים עַל־הָרָעָ֛ה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר לַעֲשׂוֹת־לָהֶ֖ם וְלֹ֥א עָשָֽׂה׃‬ And God saw their deeds – that they had turned from their evil way – and God repented of the harm which he had said he would do to them, and he did not do it.
Jonah 4:1 ‫וַיֵּ֥רַע אֶל־יוֹנָ֖ה רָעָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה וַיִּ֖חַר לֽוֹ׃‬ But it greatly displeased Jonah, and it infuriated him. it greatly displeased Jonah ← it displeased Jonah (with) great displeasure.
Jonah 4:2 ‫וַיִּתְפַּלֵּ֨ל אֶל־יְהוָ֜ה וַיֹּאמַ֗ר אָנָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ הֲלוֹא־זֶ֣ה דְבָרִ֗י עַד־הֱיוֹתִי֙ עַל־אַדְמָתִ֔י עַל־כֵּ֥ן קִדַּ֖מְתִּי לִבְרֹ֣חַ תַּרְשִׁ֑ישָׁה כִּ֣י יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּ֤י אַתָּה֙ אֵֽל־חַנּ֣וּן וְרַח֔וּם אֶ֤רֶךְ אַפַּ֙יִם֙ וְרַב־חֶ֔סֶד וְנִחָ֖ם עַל־הָרָעָֽה׃‬ And he prayed to the Lord and said, “O Lord I beseech you, was not this result my concern, up to the time that I was in my land? – the reason I was quick to flee to Tarshish? For I knew that you were a compassionate and merciful God, longsuffering and of great kindness, and repentant of that which is bad. concern ← word, thing.

that you were a compassionate and merciful God (etc.): compare Joel 2:13.
Jonah 4:3 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה קַח־נָ֥א אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֖י מִמֶּ֑נִּי כִּ֛י ט֥וֹב מוֹתִ֖י מֵחַיָּֽי׃ ס‬ And now, O Lord, take, I beseech you, my life from me, for it is better for me to die than to live.” life ← soul.

it is better for me to die than to live ← my death (is) better than my life.
Jonah 4:4 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה הַהֵיטֵ֖ב חָ֥רָה לָֽךְ׃‬ But the Lord said, “Is it good that you should be infuriated?” is it good: adverbial use of the infinitive absolute, here translated as a noun clause.
Jonah 4:5 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֤א יוֹנָה֙ מִן־הָעִ֔יר וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב מִקֶּ֣דֶם לָעִ֑יר וַיַּעַשׂ֩ ל֨וֹ שָׁ֜ם סֻכָּ֗ה וַיֵּ֤שֶׁב תַּחְתֶּ֙יהָ֙ בַּצֵּ֔ל עַ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִרְאֶ֔ה מַה־יִּהְיֶ֖ה בָּעִֽיר׃‬ Then Jonah went out of the city and sat to the east of the city, and he made a booth for himself there, and he sat under it in the shade, until he should see what would happen in the city. to the east of: or in front of.
Jonah 4:6 ‫וַיְמַ֣ן יְהוָֽה־אֱ֠לֹהִים קִיקָי֞וֹן וַיַּ֣עַל ׀ מֵעַ֣ל לְיוֹנָ֗ה לִֽהְי֥וֹת צֵל֙ עַל־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ לְהַצִּ֥יל ל֖וֹ מֵרָֽעָת֑וֹ וַיִּשְׂמַ֥ח יוֹנָ֛ה עַל־הַקִּֽיקָי֖וֹן שִׂמְחָ֥ה גְדוֹלָֽה׃‬ And the Lord God appointed a castor oil plant, and he caused it to go up over Jonah, to be a shade over his head, to deliver him from his distress. And Jonah was very pleased about the castor oil plant. was very pleased ← rejoiced (with) great joy.
Jonah 4:7 ‫וַיְמַ֤ן הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ תּוֹלַ֔עַת בַּעֲל֥וֹת הַשַּׁ֖חַר לַֽמָּחֳרָ֑ת וַתַּ֥ךְ אֶת־הַקִּֽיקָי֖וֹן וַיִּיבָֽשׁ׃‬ But God appointed a worm at the rising of dawn on the next day, and it struck the castor oil plant, and it withered.
Jonah 4:8 ‫וַיְהִ֣י ׀ כִּזְרֹ֣חַ הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ וַיְמַ֨ן אֱלֹהִ֜ים ר֤וּחַ קָדִים֙ חֲרִישִׁ֔ית וַתַּ֥ךְ הַשֶּׁ֛מֶשׁ עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ יוֹנָ֖ה וַיִּתְעַלָּ֑ף וַיִּשְׁאַ֤ל אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ֙ לָמ֔וּת וַיֹּ֕אמֶר ט֥וֹב מוֹתִ֖י מֵחַיָּֽי׃‬ And it came to pass at sunrise that God appointed a sultry east wind, and the sun struck Jonah's head, and he became faint, and he asked in his heart to die, and he said, “It is better for me to die than to live.” sultry: AV differs (vehement).

in his heart ← his soul.

it is better for me to die than to live ← my death (is) better than my life.
Jonah 4:9 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־יוֹנָ֔ה הַהֵיטֵ֥ב חָרָֽה־לְךָ֖ עַל־הַקִּֽיקָי֑וֹן וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הֵיטֵ֥ב חָֽרָה־לִ֖י עַד־מָֽוֶת׃‬ But God said to Jonah, “Is it good that you should be infuriated about the castor oil plant?” And he said, “It is good that I should be infuriated, to the extent of wanting death.” is it good ... it is good: adverbial use of the infinitive absolute, here translated as noun clauses.
Jonah 4:10 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה אַתָּ֥ה חַ֙סְתָּ֙ עַל־הַקִּ֣יקָי֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־עָמַ֥לְתָּ בּ֖וֹ וְלֹ֣א גִדַּלְתּ֑וֹ שֶׁבִּן־לַ֥יְלָה הָיָ֖ה וּבִן־לַ֥יְלָה אָבָֽד׃‬ But the Lord said, “You pitied the castor oil plant, which you did not toil over and did not cultivate, which came in a night and perished in a night.
Jonah 4:11 ‫וַֽאֲנִי֙ לֹ֣א אָח֔וּס עַל־נִינְוֵ֖ה הָעִ֣יר הַגְּדוֹלָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶשׁ־בָּ֡הּ הַרְבֵּה֩ מִֽשְׁתֵּים־עֶשְׂרֵ֨ה רִבּ֜וֹ אָדָ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יָדַע֙ בֵּין־יְמִינ֣וֹ לִשְׂמֹאל֔וֹ וּבְהֵמָ֖ה רַבָּֽה׃‬ Should I not pity the great city of Nineveh in which there are more than one hundred and twenty thousand people, who do not know the difference between their right hand and their left, and also much cattle?”
Mic 1:1 ‫דְּבַר־יְהוָ֣ה ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיָ֗ה אֶל־מִיכָה֙ הַמֹּ֣רַשְׁתִּ֔י בִּימֵ֥י יוֹתָ֛ם אָחָ֥ז יְחִזְקִיָּ֖ה מַלְכֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה אֲשֶׁר־חָזָ֥ה עַל־שֹׁמְר֖וֹן וִירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ The word of the Lord which came to Micah the Morashtite in the days of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem. came ← became.

Morashtite: AV= Morasthite. See Jer 26:18.
Mic 1:2 ‫שִׁמְעוּ֙ עַמִּ֣ים כֻּלָּ֔ם הַקְשִׁ֖יבִי אֶ֣רֶץ וּמְלֹאָ֑הּ וִיהִי֩ אֲדֹנָ֨י יְהוִ֤ה בָּכֶם֙ לְעֵ֔ד אֲדֹנָ֖י מֵהֵיכַ֥ל קָדְשֽׁוֹ׃‬

Hear, all you people,

And hearken, O earth and your fulness,

And let my Lord the Lord be a witness against you

That is the Lord*

From his holy temple.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

all you people ... your fulness ← peoples, all of them ... its fulness. Unexpected grammatical third persons; see Obad 1:3.

his holy temple ← the temple of his holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Mic 1:3 ‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה יֹצֵ֣א מִמְּקוֹמ֑וֹ וְיָרַ֥ד וְדָרַ֖ךְ עַל־*במותי **בָּ֥מֳתֵי אָֽרֶץ׃‬

For look, the Lord is coming out of his place,

And he will descend and step

Onto the idolatrous raised sites of the earth.

the idolatrous raised sites: the ketiv can be regarded as the scriptio plena spelling of the qeré.
Mic 1:4 ‫וְנָמַ֤סּוּ הֶֽהָרִים֙ תַּחְתָּ֔יו וְהָעֲמָקִ֖ים יִתְבַּקָּ֑עוּ כַּדּוֹנַג֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י הָאֵ֔שׁ כְּמַ֖יִם מֻגָּרִ֥ים בְּמוֹרָֽד׃‬

Then the mountains will melt under him,

And the valleys will be split;

They will be like wax in front of a fire,

And like water pouring down a gully.

pouring ← being poured.
Mic 1:5 ‫בְּפֶ֤שַׁע יַֽעֲקֹב֙ כָּל־זֹ֔את וּבְחַטֹּ֖אות בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מִֽי־פֶ֣שַׁע יַעֲקֹ֗ב הֲלוֹא֙ שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן וּמִי֙ בָּמ֣וֹת יְהוּדָ֔ה הֲל֖וֹא יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

All this is for the transgression of Jacob,

And for the sins of the house of Israel.

What is the transgression of Jacob?

Is it not Samaria?

And what are the idolatrous raised sites of Judah?

Are they not in Jerusalem?

what (2x): perhaps where, but the word usually means who, or, less commonly, what.

Samaria: i.e. Samaria's idolatry.
Mic 1:6 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֥י שֹׁמְר֛וֹן לְעִ֥י הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְמַטָּ֣עֵי כָ֑רֶם וְהִגַּרְתִּ֤י לַגַּי֙ אֲבָנֶ֔יהָ וִיסֹדֶ֖יהָ אֲגַלֶּֽה׃‬

“And I will make Samaria a ruin of the countryside

– Vineyard plantation sites.

And I will pour her stones out into the valley,

And I will expose her foundations.

This verse and the following give direct speech by the Lord.
Mic 1:7 ‫וְכָל־פְּסִילֶ֣יהָ יֻכַּ֗תּוּ וְכָל־אֶתְנַנֶּ֙יהָ֙ יִשָּׂרְפ֣וּ בָאֵ֔שׁ וְכָל־עֲצַבֶּ֖יהָ אָשִׂ֣ים שְׁמָמָ֑ה כִּ֠י מֵאֶתְנַ֤ן זוֹנָה֙ קִבָּ֔צָה וְעַד־אֶתְנַ֥ן זוֹנָ֖ה יָשֽׁוּבוּ׃‬

And all her carved images will be beaten in pieces,

And all her wages of prostitution will be burnt in fire.

And I will make all her idols a desolation,

For she gathered them from the wages of prostitution,

And to the wages of prostitution they shall return.”

Mic 1:8 ‫עַל־זֹאת֙ אֶסְפְּדָ֣ה וְאֵילִ֔ילָה אֵילְכָ֥ה *שילל **שׁוֹלָ֖ל וְעָר֑וֹם אֶעֱשֶׂ֤ה מִסְפֵּד֙ כַּתַּנִּ֔ים וְאֵ֖בֶל כִּבְנ֥וֹת יַעֲנָֽה׃‬

For this I will mourn and howl;

I will walk as one who has been stripped and is naked.

I will undertake mourning like jackals,

And lamentation like ostriches.

stripped: the ketiv has to be regarded as an equivalent to the qeré.
Mic 1:9 ‫כִּ֥י אֲנוּשָׁ֖ה מַכּוֹתֶ֑יהָ כִּי־בָ֙אָה֙ עַד־יְהוּדָ֔ה נָגַ֛ע עַד־שַׁ֥עַר עַמִּ֖י עַד־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

For her wounds are incurable,

For this has come to Judah;

He has reached the gate of my people

– Jerusalem.

he: [CB], some unnamed foe.
Mic 1:10 ‫בְּגַת֙ אַל־תַּגִּ֔ידוּ בָּכ֖וֹ אַל־תִּבְכּ֑וּ בְּבֵ֣ית לְעַפְרָ֔ה עָפָ֖ר *התפלשתי **הִתְפַּלָּֽשִׁי׃‬

Do not relate this in Gath;

Do not weep at all.

In the house of Aphrah,

{Q: Roll} [K: You rolled] in the dust.

We take ketiv as an Aramaic form; as standard Hebrew I rolled in the dust.

do not weep at all: infinitive absolute.
Mic 1:11 ‫עִבְרִ֥י לָכֶ֛ם יוֹשֶׁ֥בֶת שָׁפִ֖יר עֶרְיָה־בֹ֑שֶׁת לֹ֤א יָֽצְאָה֙ יוֹשֶׁ֣בֶת צַֽאֲנָ֔ן מִסְפַּד֙ בֵּ֣ית הָאֵ֔צֶל יִקַּ֥ח מִכֶּ֖ם עֶמְדָּתֽוֹ׃‬

Transgress as you will,

O inhabitants of Shaphir,

In nakedness and shame.

The inhabitant of Zaanan did not come out

At the mourning of Beth-Ezel;

He will take his support away from you.

transgress: or cross over. Transgress in Hos 6:7. AV differs (pass ye away).

as you will ← for yourselves. Ironic.

inhabitants ← inhabitant.

Shaphir: AV= Saphir.
Mic 1:12 ‫כִּֽי־חָ֥לָֽה לְט֖וֹב יוֹשֶׁ֣בֶת מָר֑וֹת כִּֽי־יָ֤רַד רָע֙ מֵאֵ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה לְשַׁ֖עַר יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

For the inhabitants of Maroth waited for good times,

When bad times came down from the Lord,

At the gate of Jerusalem.

inhabitants ← inhabitant.

Maroth: “Bittertown”.
Mic 1:13 ‫רְתֹ֧ם הַמֶּרְכָּבָ֛ה לָרֶ֖כֶשׁ יוֹשֶׁ֣בֶת לָכִ֑ישׁ רֵאשִׁ֨ית חַטָּ֥את הִיא֙ לְבַת־צִיּ֔וֹן כִּי־בָ֥ךְ נִמְצְא֖וּ פִּשְׁעֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

Hitch the steed to the chariot,

O inhabitants of Lachish.

It is the beginning of sin for the daughter of Zion,

For the transgressions of Israel have been found in you.

steed to the chariot ← chariot to the steed.

inhabitants ← inhabitant.
Mic 1:14 ‫לָכֵן֙ תִּתְּנִ֣י שִׁלּוּחִ֔ים עַ֖ל מוֹרֶ֣שֶׁת גַּ֑ת בָּתֵּ֤י אַכְזִיב֙ לְאַכְזָ֔ב לְמַלְכֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

Therefore give a bill of divorce in Moresheth-Gath.

The houses of Achzib are deceit to the kings of Israel.

Achzib: “Deceittown”.
Mic 1:15 ‫עֹ֗ד הַיֹּרֵשׁ֙ אָ֣בִי לָ֔ךְ יוֹשֶׁ֖בֶת מָֽרֵשָׁ֑ה עַד־עֲדֻּלָּ֥ם יָב֖וֹא כְּב֥וֹד יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

I am still going to bring the dispossessor to you,

O inhabitants of Mareshah.

The glory of Israel will come to Adullam.

dispossessor: or heir. [CB] refers this to Assyria.

inhabitants ← inhabitant.

glory of Israel: [CB] refers this to the nobility of Israel, fleeing to a cave.
Mic 1:16 ‫קָרְחִ֣י וָגֹ֔זִּי עַל־בְּנֵ֖י תַּעֲנוּגָ֑יִךְ הַרְחִ֤בִי קָרְחָתֵךְ֙ כַּנֶּ֔שֶׁר כִּ֥י גָל֖וּ מִמֵּֽךְ׃ ס‬

Make yourself bald and shave yourself,

For the sake of your delightful sons.

Make your baldness wide like the eagle,

For they will be deported away from you.

shave ← shear.

your delightful sons ← the sons of your delight, a Hebraic genitive.
Mic 2:1 ‫ה֧וֹי חֹֽשְׁבֵי־אָ֛וֶן וּפֹ֥עֲלֵי רָ֖ע עַל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָ֑ם בְּא֤וֹר הַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ יַעֲשׂ֔וּהָ כִּ֥י יֶשׁ־לְאֵ֖ל יָדָֽם׃‬

Woe to those who devise vain things,

And those who engage in evil on their couches.

At morning light they perform it,

For it is in the power of their hand.

vain things ← vanity, but also iniquity.
Mic 2:2 ‫וְחָמְד֤וּ שָׂדוֹת֙ וְגָזָ֔לוּ וּבָתִּ֖ים וְנָשָׂ֑אוּ וְעָֽשְׁקוּ֙ גֶּ֣בֶר וּבֵית֔וֹ וְאִ֖ישׁ וְנַחֲלָתֽוֹ׃ פ‬

And they covet fields,

And they seize them,

And they covet houses,

And they expropriate them,

And they oppress a fellow and his household,

And a man and his inheritance.

expropriate ← take up, remove.

fellow ← man, warrior, husband.
Mic 2:3 ‫לָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה הִנְנִ֥י חֹשֵׁ֛ב עַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את רָעָ֑ה אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹֽא־תָמִ֨ישׁוּ מִשָּׁ֜ם צַוְּארֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם וְלֹ֤א תֵֽלְכוּ֙ רוֹמָ֔ה כִּ֛י עֵ֥ת רָעָ֖ה הִֽיא׃‬

Therefore this is what the Lord says:

“Look, I am devising evil on this family

A yoke from which you will not be able to move your necks –

And you will not walk haughtily,

For it will be a time of evil.

this is whatthus.

from which ← which from there.
Mic 2:4 ‫בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא יִשָּׂ֧א עֲלֵיכֶ֣ם מָשָׁ֗ל וְנָהָ֨ה נְהִ֤י נִֽהְיָה֙ אָמַר֙ שָׁד֣וֹד נְשַׁדֻּ֔נוּ חֵ֥לֶק עַמִּ֖י יָמִ֑יר אֵ֚יךְ יָמִ֣ישׁ לִ֔י לְשׁוֹבֵ֥ב שָׂדֵ֖ינוּ יְחַלֵּֽק׃‬

On that day a proverb will be uttered against you,

And a mournful lamentation will be delivered,

Which will say,

We have been completely plundered;

He has changed the portion of my people.

How he has removed what was mine,

By overturning our fields

And dividing them up.’ ”

will be uttered ... a mournful lamentation will be delivered ← one will take up ... one will lament a lamentation of lamenting. Avoidance of the passive.

we have been completely plundered: infinitive absolute.

by overturning: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Mic 2:5 ‫לָכֵן֙ לֹֽא־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לְךָ֔ מַשְׁלִ֥יךְ חֶ֖בֶל בְּגוֹרָ֑ל בִּקְהַ֖ל יְהוָֽה׃‬

Therefore you will not have anyone drawing a boundary by lot,

In the convocation of the Lord.

drawing a boundary ← casting a cord.
Mic 2:6 ‫אַל־תַּטִּ֖פוּ יַטִּיפ֑וּן לֹֽא־יַטִּ֣פוּ לָאֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א יִסַּ֖ג כְּלִמּֽוֹת׃‬

“Do not prophesy”, they prophesy.

So they do not prophesy to these people.

No-one withdraws from the shame he incurs.

they prophesy: AV differs (say they to them that prophesy).
Mic 2:7 ‫הֶאָמ֣וּר בֵּֽית־יַעֲקֹ֗ב הֲקָצַר֙ ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֔ה אִם־אֵ֖לֶּה מַעֲלָלָ֑יו הֲל֤וֹא דְבָרַ֨י יֵיטִ֔יבוּ עִ֖ם הַיָּשָׁ֥ר הוֹלֵֽךְ׃‬

“Are you called the house of Jacob?

Has the Lord become impatient?

Or are these things his works?

Are not my works good

With him who walks uprightly?

We take the sense as, House of Jacob, you have brought this trouble on yourself.
Mic 2:8 ‫וְאֶתְמ֗וּל עַמִּי֙ לְאוֹיֵ֣ב יְקוֹמֵ֔ם מִמּ֣וּל שַׂלְמָ֔ה אֶ֖דֶר תַּפְשִׁט֑וּן מֵעֹבְרִ֣ים בֶּ֔טַח שׁוּבֵ֖י מִלְחָמָֽה׃‬

And recently my people would rise as if against an enemy.

Encountering a garment,

You would strip off the mantle

From passers-by, confidently

– Those returning from battle.

encountering ← from opposite, perhaps for when standing opposite.

AV differs somewhat.

The sense is highway robbery of people enriched with spoils of war.
Mic 2:9 ‫נְשֵׁ֤י עַמִּי֙ תְּגָ֣רְשׁ֔וּן מִבֵּ֖ית תַּֽעֲנֻגֶ֑יהָ מֵעַל֙ עֹֽלָלֶ֔יהָ תִּקְח֥וּ הֲדָרִ֖י לְעוֹלָֽם׃‬

You drive out the women of my people,

Each from her pleasant home.

You have taken away my honour from her children age-abidingly.

her pleasant home ← the home of her pleasure.
Mic 2:10 ‫ק֣וּמוּ וּלְכ֔וּ כִּ֥י לֹא־זֹ֖את הַמְּנוּחָ֑ה בַּעֲב֥וּר טָמְאָ֛ה תְּחַבֵּ֖ל וְחֶ֥בֶל נִמְרָֽץ׃‬

Rise and go,

For this is not rest,

Because of uncleanness,

And it is destructive with a pernicious destruction.

rest ← the rest.
Mic 2:11 ‫לוּ־אִ֞ישׁ הֹלֵ֥ךְ ר֙וּחַ֙ וָשֶׁ֣קֶר כִּזֵּ֔ב אַטִּ֣ף לְךָ֔ לַיַּ֖יִן וְלַשֵּׁכָ֑ר וְהָיָ֥ה מַטִּ֖יף הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּֽה׃‬

If a man walks in a spirit of falsehood,

And he lies,

Saying, ‘I will prophesy to you of wine and strong drink’,

Then he will be accepted as a prophet of this people.

spirit of falsehood ← spirit and falsehood.
Mic 2:12 ‫אָסֹ֨ף אֶאֱסֹ֜ף יַעֲקֹ֣ב כֻּלָּ֗ךְ קַבֵּ֤ץ אֲקַבֵּץ֙ שְׁאֵרִ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יַ֥חַד אֲשִׂימֶ֖נּוּ כְּצֹ֣אן בָּצְרָ֑ה כְּעֵ֙דֶר֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַדָּֽבְר֔וֹ תְּהִימֶ֖נָה מֵאָדָֽם׃‬

I will certainly gather all of you, Jacob,

I will certainly collect the remainder of Israel

And put him together like the sheep of Bozrah,

Like a flock in the middle of its pasture.

The women will bustle with so many people.

I will certainly gather ... I will certainly collect: both infinitive absolute.
Mic 2:13 ‫עָלָ֤ה הַפֹּרֵץ֙ לִפְנֵיהֶ֔ם פָּֽרְצוּ֙ וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֔רוּ שַׁ֖עַר וַיֵּ֣צְאוּ ב֑וֹ וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ר מַלְכָּם֙ לִפְנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיהוָ֖ה בְּרֹאשָֽׁם׃ פ‬

The demolisher has gone out.

They break what is in front of them,

And they cross the gate and come out through it.

Their king crosses in front of them,

And the Lord is at their head.”

demolisher ← breaker-in, breach-maker.

gone out ← gone up, used of going out to war.

in front of them: AV differs in association of the word, as does MT (the breaker is come up before them).
Mic 3:1 ‫וָאֹמַ֗ר שִׁמְעוּ־נָא֙ רָאשֵׁ֣י יַעֲקֹ֔ב וּקְצִינֵ֖י בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל הֲל֣וֹא לָכֶ֔ם לָדַ֖עַת אֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּֽט׃‬

And I said,

“Hear, I beseech you, O heads of Jacob,

And leaders of the house of Israel.

Is it not incumbent upon you to know judgment?

Mic 3:2 ‫שֹׂ֥נְאֵי ט֖וֹב וְאֹ֣הֲבֵי *רעה **רָ֑ע גֹּזְלֵ֤י עוֹרָם֙ מֵֽעֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וּשְׁאֵרָ֖ם מֵעַ֥ל עַצְמוֹתָֽם׃‬

You are haters of good

And lovers of evil.

You flay their skin off them

And remove their flesh off their bones.”

evil: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.
Mic 3:3 ‫וַאֲשֶׁ֣ר אָכְלוּ֮ שְׁאֵ֣ר עַמִּי֒ וְעוֹרָם֙ מֵעֲלֵיהֶ֣ם הִפְשִׁ֔יטוּ וְאֶת־עַצְמֹֽתֵיהֶ֖ם פִּצֵּ֑חוּ וּפָרְשׂוּ֙ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּסִּ֔יר וּכְבָשָׂ֖ר בְּת֥וֹךְ קַלָּֽחַת׃‬

And what they eat is the flesh of my people,

And they flay their skin off them

And break their bones,

And they chop them up for cooking in a pot,

Or as meat for stewing in a cauldron.

for ← as.
Mic 3:4 ‫אָ֚ז יִזְעֲק֣וּ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א יַעֲנֶ֖ה אוֹתָ֑ם וְיַסְתֵּ֨ר פָּנָ֤יו מֵהֶם֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔יא כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הֵרֵ֖עוּ מַעַלְלֵיהֶֽם׃ פ‬

Then they will cry out to the Lord,

But he will not answer them,

And he will hide his face from them at that time,

According to how they have done wrong in their works.

Mic 3:5 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה עַל־הַנְּבִיאִ֖ים הַמַּתְעִ֣ים אֶת־עַמִּ֑י הַנֹּשְׁכִ֤ים בְּשִׁנֵּיהֶם֙ וְקָרְא֣וּ שָׁל֔וֹם וַאֲשֶׁר֙ לֹא־יִתֵּ֣ן עַל־פִּיהֶ֔ם וְקִדְּשׁ֥וּ עָלָ֖יו מִלְחָמָֽה׃‬

This is what the Lord says

Concerning the prophets who are leading my people astray,

Biting with their teeth,

And who call, “Peace”,

(And whoever does not deliver according to their speech,

They prepare a holy war against him):

this is whatthus.

speech ← mouth. AV differs in this clause.

prepare a holy war ← sanctify a war.
Mic 3:6 ‫לָכֵ֞ן לַ֤יְלָה לָכֶם֙ מֵֽחָז֔וֹן וְחָשְׁכָ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם מִקְּסֹ֑ם וּבָ֤אָה הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ עַל־הַנְּבִיאִ֔ים וְקָדַ֥ר עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם׃‬

“Therefore you will have a night blackout from visions,

And darkness from divining,

And the sun will set on the prophets,

And daylight will grow dim on them.

visions ← vision.
Mic 3:7 ‫וּבֹ֣שׁוּ הַחֹזִ֗ים וְחָֽפְרוּ֙ הַקֹּ֣סְמִ֔ים וְעָט֥וּ עַל־שָׂפָ֖ם כֻּלָּ֑ם כִּ֛י אֵ֥ין מַעֲנֵ֖ה אֱלֹהִֽים׃‬

And the seers will be ashamed,

And the diviners will blush,

And they will all cover their mouth,

For there will be no answer from God.”

mouth: a single word meaning the lower part of the face, or perhaps, as in Modern Hebrew, moustache.
Mic 3:8 ‫וְאוּלָ֗ם אָנֹכִ֞י מָלֵ֤אתִי כֹ֙חַ֙ אֶת־ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֔ה וּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּגְבוּרָ֑ה לְהַגִּ֤יד לְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ פִּשְׁע֔וֹ וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל חַטָּאתֽוֹ׃ ס‬

But truly, I am full of power

With the spirit of the Lord,

And of judgment and of courage

To tell Jacob of his transgression

And Israel of his sin.

Mic 3:9 ‫שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֣א זֹ֗את רָאשֵׁי֙ בֵּ֣ית יַעֲקֹ֔ב וּקְצִינֵ֖י בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל הַֽמֲתַעֲבִ֣ים מִשְׁפָּ֔ט וְאֵ֥ת כָּל־הַיְשָׁרָ֖ה יְעַקֵּֽשׁוּ׃‬

Hear this, I beseech you,

You heads of the house of Jacob,

And you leaders of the house of Israel,

Who exercise judgment abominably,

And pervert everything that is upright,

Mic 3:10 ‫בֹּנֶ֥ה צִיּ֖וֹן בְּדָמִ֑ים וִירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם בְּעַוְלָֽה׃‬

And you who build Zion with blood,

And Jerusalem with iniquity.

you: singular. One could supply he.
Mic 3:11 ‫רָאשֶׁ֣יהָ ׀ בְּשֹׁ֣חַד יִשְׁפֹּ֗טוּ וְכֹהֲנֶ֙יהָ֙ בִּמְחִ֣יר יוֹר֔וּ וּנְבִיאֶ֖יהָ בְּכֶ֣סֶף יִקְסֹ֑מוּ וְעַל־יְהוָה֙ יִשָּׁעֵ֣נוּ לֵאמֹ֔ר הֲל֤וֹא יְהוָה֙ בְּקִרְבֵּ֔נוּ לֹֽא־תָב֥וֹא עָלֵ֖ינוּ רָעָֽה׃‬

Its leaders judge by bribery,

And its priests teach for a fee,

And its prophets divine for money.

Yet they lean on the Lord, saying,

“Is not the Lord among us?

No evil shall come upon us.”

yet: adversative use of the vav.
Mic 3:12 ‫לָכֵן֙ בִּגְלַלְכֶ֔ם צִיּ֖וֹן שָׂדֶ֣ה תֵֽחָרֵ֑שׁ וִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ עִיִּ֣ין תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה וְהַ֥ר הַבַּ֖יִת לְבָמ֥וֹת יָֽעַר׃ פ‬

Therefore, on your account,

Zion will be ploughed to a field,

And Jerusalem will become ruins,

And the Temple Mount will become woodland heights.

ruins: in an Aramaic form.

Temple Mount ← mount of the house.
Mic 4:1 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בְּאַחֲרִ֣ית הַיָּמִ֗ים יִ֠הְיֶה הַ֣ר בֵּית־יְהוָ֤ה נָכוֹן֙ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ הֶהָרִ֔ים וְנִשָּׂ֥א ה֖וּא מִגְּבָע֑וֹת וְנָהֲר֥וּ עָלָ֖יו עַמִּֽים׃‬

And it will come to pass in the last days

That the mountain of the house of the Lord will be established

As the foremost of the mountains,

And it will be exalted above the hills,

And the various peoples will flow to it.

|| Isa 2:2.

as the foremost ← on the top.
Mic 4:2 ‫וְֽהָלְכ֞וּ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֗ים וְאָֽמְרוּ֙ לְכ֣וּ ׀ וְנַעֲלֶ֣ה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָ֗ה וְאֶל־בֵּית֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְיוֹרֵ֙נוּ֙ מִדְּרָכָ֔יו וְנֵלְכָ֖ה בְּאֹֽרְחֹתָ֑יו כִּ֤י מִצִּיּוֹן֙ תֵּצֵ֣א תוֹרָ֔ה וּדְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה מִירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

And many Gentile nations will go,

And they will say,

“Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord,

And to the house of the God of Jacob,

And he will instruct us concerning his ways,

And let us walk in his paths.”

For the law will go out from Zion,

And the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

|| Isa 2:3.
Mic 4:3 ‫וְשָׁפַ֗ט בֵּ֚ין עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים וְהוֹכִ֛יחַ לְגוֹיִ֥ם עֲצֻמִ֖ים עַד־רָח֑וֹק וְכִתְּת֨וּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶ֜ם לְאִתִּ֗ים וַחֲנִיתֹֽתֵיהֶם֙ לְמַזְמֵר֔וֹת לֹֽא־יִשְׂא֞וּ גּ֤וֹי אֶל־גּוֹי֙ חֶ֔רֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְד֥וּן ע֖וֹד מִלְחָמָֽה׃‬

And he will judge among many peoples,

And he will convict mighty nations,

However far away.

And they will beat their swords into ploughshares

And their spears into pruning shears.

Nation will not lift up the sword against nation,

And they will no longer learn warfare.

|| Isa 2:4.

convict: or reprove. Less judicial than judge; the sense is to demonstrate that someone is wrong.

however far away ← up to far away.
Mic 4:4 ‫וְיָשְׁב֗וּ אִ֣ישׁ תַּ֧חַת גַּפְנ֛וֹ וְתַ֥חַת תְּאֵנָת֖וֹ וְאֵ֣ין מַחֲרִ֑יד כִּי־פִ֛י יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת דִּבֵּֽר׃‬

And each man will sit under his vine

And under his fig tree.

And there will be no-one making them afraid,

For the mouth of the Lord of hosts has spoken.

Compare this verse with Lev 26:6, Job 11:19, Isa 17:2, Zeph 3:13, Ezek 34:28.
Mic 4:5 ‫כִּ֚י כָּל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים יֵלְכ֕וּ אִ֖ישׁ בְּשֵׁ֣ם אֱלֹהָ֑יו וַאֲנַ֗חְנוּ נֵלֵ֛ךְ בְּשֵׁם־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ לְעוֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד׃ פ‬

For all the various peoples will walk each in the name of his god,

But we will walk in the name of the Lord our God,

For the age and in perpetuity.

but: adversative use of the vav.
Mic 4:6 ‫בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה אֹֽסְפָה֙ הַצֹּ֣לֵעָ֔ה וְהַנִּדָּחָ֖ה אֲקַבֵּ֑צָה וַאֲשֶׁ֖ר הֲרֵעֹֽתִי׃‬

On that day, says the Lord,

I will gather the lame women,

And collect her who has been cast out,

And those I have afflicted.

lame women: feminine singular, but we take it as collective usage.
Mic 4:7 ‫וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י אֶת־הַצֹּֽלֵעָה֙ לִשְׁאֵרִ֔ית וְהַנַּהֲלָאָ֖ה לְג֣וֹי עָצ֑וּם וּמָלַ֨ךְ יְהוָ֤ה עֲלֵיהֶם֙ בְּהַ֣ר צִיּ֔וֹן מֵעַתָּ֖ה וְעַד־עוֹלָֽם׃ פ‬

And I will make the lame women a remnant,

And her who has been cast out a great nation,

And the Lord will reign over them,

On Mount Zion,

From that time and age-abidingly.

lame women: as in Mic 4:6.
Mic 4:8 ‫וְאַתָּ֣ה מִגְדַּל־עֵ֗דֶר עֹ֛פֶל בַּת־צִיּ֖וֹן עָדֶ֣יךָ תֵּאתֶ֑ה וּבָאָ֗ה הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה֙ הָרִ֣אשֹׁנָ֔ה מַמְלֶ֖כֶת לְבַ֥ת־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

And as for you, O tower of the flock,

Citadel of the daughter of Zion,

To you it will betake itself and come

– The first dominion,

The kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem.

tower of the flock: [CB] refers this to Bethlehem.

citadel: or, as a name, Ophel.

daughter: here perhaps in the sense of satellite town.
Mic 4:9 ‫עַתָּ֕ה לָ֥מָּה תָרִ֖יעִי רֵ֑עַ הֲמֶ֣לֶךְ אֵֽין־בָּ֗ךְ אִֽם־יוֹעֲצֵךְ֙ אָבָ֔ד כִּֽי־הֶחֱזִיקֵ֥ךְ חִ֖יל כַּיּוֹלֵדָֽה׃‬

Now why do you shout noisily?

Is there no king among you?

Or has your adviser ceased to exist?

For a writhing has seized you

Like a woman giving birth.

you: feminine singular, as used for cities.

shout noisily ← noise a noise.
Mic 4:10 ‫ח֧וּלִי וָגֹ֛חִי בַּת־צִיּ֖וֹן כַּיּֽוֹלֵדָ֑ה כִּֽי־עַתָּה֩ תֵצְאִ֨י מִקִּרְיָ֜ה וְשָׁכַ֣נְתְּ בַּשָּׂדֶ֗ה וּבָ֤את עַד־בָּבֶל֙ שָׁ֣ם תִּנָּצֵ֔לִי שָׁ֚ם יִגְאָלֵ֣ךְ יְהוָ֔ה מִכַּ֖ף אֹיְבָֽיִךְ׃‬

Writhe and go into labour,

O daughter of Zion,

Like a woman giving birth.

For now you will go out of the town,

And dwell in the countryside,

And you will go to Babylon,

But there you will be rescued;

There the Lord will redeem you

From the grip of your enemies.

grip ← hand.
Mic 4:11 ‫וְעַתָּ֛ה נֶאֶסְפ֥וּ עָלַ֖יִךְ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֑ים הָאֹמְרִ֣ים תֶּחֱנָ֔ף וְתַ֥חַז בְּצִיּ֖וֹן עֵינֵֽינוּ׃‬

And now, many nations will be gathered against you,

Saying, “Let her be profaned”,

And, “Let our eyes see Zion.”

let our eyes see Zion: discordant in number, but that is not uncommon in Hebrew. Otherwise, let her see our eyes in Zion.
Mic 4:12 ‫וְהֵ֗מָּה לֹ֤א יָֽדְעוּ֙ מַחְשְׁב֣וֹת יְהוָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א הֵבִ֖ינוּ עֲצָת֑וֹ כִּ֥י קִבְּצָ֖ם כֶּעָמִ֥יר גֹּֽרְנָה׃‬

But they do not know the thoughts of the Lord,

And they do not understand his counsel,

For he will gather them,

Like a sheaf taken to the threshing floor.

Mic 4:13 ‫ק֧וּמִי וָד֣וֹשִׁי בַת־צִיּ֗וֹן כִּֽי־קַרְנֵ֞ךְ אָשִׂ֤ים בַּרְזֶל֙ וּפַרְסֹתַ֙יִךְ֙ אָשִׂ֣ים נְחוּשָׁ֔ה וַהֲדִקּ֖וֹת עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים וְהַחֲרַמְתִּ֤י לַֽיהוָה֙ בִּצְעָ֔ם וְחֵילָ֖ם לַאֲד֥וֹן כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

“Rise and thresh,

O daughter of Zion,

For I will make your horn of iron,

And I will make your hooves of copper,

And you will grind many peoples small”,

And I will consecrate their unjust gain to the Lord,

And their wealth to the Lord of the whole earth.

I will consecrate: or, as an Aramaism, you will consecrate. But the previous verb in this verse, וַהֲדִקּוֹת, you will grind small, is regular Hebrew for the same grammatical person and tense as the proposed Aramaism.
Mic 4:14
Mic 5:1AV
‫עַתָּה֙ תִּתְגֹּדְדִ֣י בַת־גְּד֔וּד מָצ֖וֹר שָׂ֣ם עָלֵ֑ינוּ בַּשֵּׁ֙בֶט֙ יַכּ֣וּ עַֽל־הַלְּחִ֔י אֵ֖ת שֹׁפֵ֥ט יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬

Now gather in troops,

O daughter of the troop.

He has placed a siege against us.

They will strike the judge of Israel

With a rod against the cheek.

Mic 5:1
Mic 5:2AV
‫וְאַתָּ֞ה בֵּֽית־לֶ֣חֶם אֶפְרָ֗תָה צָעִיר֙ לִֽהְיוֹת֙ בְּאַלְפֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה מִמְּךָ֙ לִ֣י יֵצֵ֔א לִֽהְי֥וֹת מוֹשֵׁ֖ל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּמוֹצָאֹתָ֥יו מִקֶּ֖דֶם מִימֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם׃‬

“But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah,

Although you are small among the thousands of Judah,

From you he who is mine will come out,

To be a ruler in Israel,

Yet his goings are of age-old time.

Matt 2:6, John 7:42.

Bethlehem: see Gen 35:19.

yet: concessive use of the vav.

goings ← goings out.

time ← days.
Mic 5:2
Mic 5:3AV
‫לָכֵ֣ן יִתְּנֵ֔ם עַד־עֵ֥ת יוֹלֵדָ֖ה יָלָ֑דָה וְיֶ֣תֶר אֶחָ֔יו יְשׁוּב֖וּן עַל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

Therefore he will suffer them

Until the time when she who is giving birth

Has given birth,

Then the rest of his brothers will return to the sons of Israel.

Mic 5:3
Mic 5:4AV
‫וְעָמַ֗ד וְרָעָה֙ בְּעֹ֣ז יְהוָ֔ה בִּגְא֕וֹן שֵׁ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יו וְיָשָׁ֕בוּ כִּֽי־עַתָּ֥ה יִגְדַּ֖ל עַד־אַפְסֵי־אָֽרֶץ׃‬

And he will stand and tend them

In the strength of the Lord,

In the excellence of the name of the Lord his God,

And they will remain secure,

For then he will have become great up to the ends of the earth.

Mic 5:4
Mic 5:5AV
‫וְהָיָ֥ה זֶ֖ה שָׁל֑וֹם אַשּׁ֣וּר ׀ כִּֽי־יָב֣וֹא בְאַרְצֵ֗נוּ וְכִ֤י יִדְרֹךְ֙ בְּאַרְמְנֹתֵ֔ינוּ וַהֲקֵמֹ֤נוּ עָלָיו֙ שִׁבְעָ֣ה רֹעִ֔ים וּשְׁמֹנָ֖ה נְסִיכֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃‬

And this man will be peace.

When Assyria comes to our land,

And when he treads in our palaces,

We will raise up against him seven shepherds

And eight princely men.

princely men ← princes of men.
Mic 5:5
Mic 5:6AV
‫וְרָע֞וּ אֶת־אֶ֤רֶץ אַשּׁוּר֙ בַּחֶ֔רֶב וְאֶת־אֶ֥רֶץ נִמְרֹ֖ד בִּפְתָחֶ֑יהָ וְהִצִּיל֙ מֵֽאַשּׁ֔וּר כִּֽי־יָב֣וֹא בְאַרְצֵ֔נוּ וְכִ֥י יִדְרֹ֖ךְ בִּגְבוּלֵֽנוּ׃ ס‬

And they will rule the land of Assyria with the sword,

And the land of Nimrod at its gates.

And he will deliver us from Assyria,

When he comes into our land,

And when he steps into our territory.

rule: from root רָעָה, pasture, govern, or from root רָעַע, break, as in Jer 11:6. AV differs, taking the alternative, loosely, (waste).

territory ← border.
Mic 5:6
Mic 5:7AV
‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ שְׁאֵרִ֣ית יַעֲקֹ֗ב בְּקֶ֙רֶב֙ עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים כְּטַל֙ מֵאֵ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה כִּרְבִיבִ֖ים עֲלֵי־עֵ֑שֶׂב אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יְקַוֶּה֙ לְאִ֔ישׁ וְלֹ֥א יְיַחֵ֖ל לִבְנֵ֥י אָדָֽם׃‬

And the remainder of Jacob will be in the midst of many peoples,

Like dew from the Lord,

Like showers on the grass.

And he will not put hope in man,

Nor will he put expectation in the sons of Adam.

Mic 5:7
Mic 5:8AV
‫וְהָיָה֩ שְׁאֵרִ֨ית יַעֲקֹ֜ב בַּגּוֹיִ֗ם בְּקֶ֙רֶב֙ עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים כְּאַרְיֵה֙ בְּבַהֲמ֣וֹת יַ֔עַר כִּכְפִ֖יר בְּעֶדְרֵי צֹ֑אן אֲשֶׁ֧ר אִם עָבַ֛ר וְרָמַ֥ס וְטָרַ֖ף וְאֵ֥ין מַצִּֽיל׃‬

And the remainder of Jacob will be among the Gentiles,

In the midst of many peoples,

Like a lion among the beasts of the forest,

Like a young lion among the flocks of sheep,

Which, if it comes across them,

It tramples and tears them to pieces,

And there is no-one to deliver them.

Mic 5:8
Mic 5:9AV
‫תָּרֹ֥ם יָדְךָ֖ עַל־צָרֶ֑יךָ וְכָל־אֹיְבֶ֖יךָ יִכָּרֵֽתוּ׃ פ‬

Let your hand be raised against your adversaries,

And may all your enemies be cut off.

Mic 5:9
Mic 5:10AV
‫וְהָיָ֤ה בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י סוּסֶ֖יךָ מִקִּרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְהַאֲבַדְתִּ֖י מַרְכְּבֹתֶֽיךָ׃‬

And it will come to pass on that day,

Says the Lord,

That I will cut off your horses from your midst,

And I will destroy your chariots.

Mic 5:10
Mic 5:11AV
‫וְהִכְרַתִּ֖י עָרֵ֣י אַרְצֶ֑ךָ וְהָרַסְתִּ֖י כָּל־מִבְצָרֶֽיךָ׃‬

And I will cut off the cities of your land,

And I will demolish all your fortresses.

Mic 5:11
Mic 5:12AV
‫וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י כְשָׁפִ֖ים מִיָּדֶ֑ךָ וּֽמְעוֹנְנִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִֽהְיוּ־לָֽךְ׃‬

And I will cut off sorceries from your reach,

And you will have no diviners by clouds.

reach ← hand.
Mic 5:12
Mic 5:13AV
‫וְהִכְרַתִּ֧י פְסִילֶ֛יךָ וּמַצֵּבוֹתֶ֖יךָ מִקִּרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְלֹֽא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֥ה ע֖וֹד לְמַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדֶֽיךָ׃‬

And I will cut off your carved images,

And your pillars from your midst,

And you will no longer worship the works of your hands.

Mic 5:13
Mic 5:14AV
‫וְנָתַשְׁתִּ֥י אֲשֵׁירֶ֖יךָ מִקִּרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּ֖י עָרֶֽיךָ׃‬

And I will pull down your phallic parks from your precincts,

And I will destroy your cities.

Mic 5:14
Mic 5:15AV
‫וְעָשִׂ֜יתִי בְּאַ֧ף וּבְחֵמָ֛ה נָקָ֖ם אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א שָׁמֵֽעוּ׃ ס‬

And I will take vengeance in anger and in fury

On the Gentiles who have not listened.”

Mic 6:1 ‫שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֕א אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָ֖ה אֹמֵ֑ר ק֚וּם רִ֣יב אֶת־הֶהָרִ֔ים וְתִשְׁמַ֥עְנָה הַגְּבָע֖וֹת קוֹלֶֽךָ׃‬

Do listen to what the Lord is saying:

“Rise and contend with the mountains,

And let the hills hear your voice.

Mic 6:2 ‫שִׁמְע֤וּ הָרִים֙ אֶת־רִ֣יב יְהוָ֔ה וְהָאֵתָנִ֖ים מֹ֣סְדֵי אָ֑רֶץ כִּ֣י רִ֤יב לַֽיהוָה֙ עִם־עַמּ֔וֹ וְעִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יִתְוַכָּֽח׃‬

Hear, O mountains, the Lord's contention,

And you firm foundations of the earth,

For the Lord has a contention with his people,

And he will argue with Israel.

Mic 6:3 ‫עַמִּ֛י מֶה־עָשִׂ֥יתִי לְךָ֖ וּמָ֣ה הֶלְאֵתִ֑יךָ עֲנֵ֥ה בִּֽי׃‬

My people, what have I done to you?

And in what way have I wearied you?

Testify the case against me.

Mic 6:4 ‫כִּ֤י הֶעֱלִתִ֙יךָ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וּמִבֵּ֥ית עֲבָדִ֖ים פְּדִיתִ֑יךָ וָאֶשְׁלַ֣ח לְפָנֶ֔יךָ אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֖ה אַהֲרֹ֥ן וּמִרְיָֽם׃‬

For I brought you out of the land of Egypt,

And I redeemed you from a house of slavery,

When I sent Moses, Aaron and Miriam before you.

slavery ← slaves, or servants.
Mic 6:5 ‫עַמִּ֗י זְכָר־נָא֙ מַה־יָּעַ֗ץ בָּלָק֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מוֹאָ֔ב וּמֶה־עָנָ֥ה אֹת֖וֹ בִּלְעָ֣ם בֶּן־בְּע֑וֹר מִן־הַשִּׁטִּים֙ עַד־הַגִּלְגָּ֔ל לְמַ֕עַן דַּ֖עַת צִדְק֥וֹת יְהוָֽה׃‬

My people, do remember how Balak king of Moab took counsel,

And how Balaam the son of Beor answered him,

From Shittim to Gilgal,

In order to know the righteous ways of the Lord.”

Balaam: see Num 22:5.

Shittim ... Gilgal ← the Shittim ... the Gilgal.
Mic 6:6 ‫בַּמָּה֙ אֲקַדֵּ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה אִכַּ֖ף לֵאלֹהֵ֣י מָר֑וֹם הַאֲקַדְּמֶ֣נּוּ בְעוֹל֔וֹת בַּעֲגָלִ֖ים בְּנֵ֥י שָׁנָֽה׃‬

With what shall I come before the Lord,

And bow to God on high?

Shall I come before him with burnt offerings,

With one-year-old calves?

on high ← of height.
Mic 6:7 ‫הֲיִרְצֶ֤ה יְהוָה֙ בְּאַלְפֵ֣י אֵילִ֔ים בְּרִֽבְב֖וֹת נַֽחֲלֵי־שָׁ֑מֶן הַאֶתֵּ֤ן בְּכוֹרִי֙ פִּשְׁעִ֔י פְּרִ֥י בִטְנִ֖י חַטַּ֥את נַפְשִֽׁי׃‬

Is the Lord pleased with thousands of rams?

Or with tens of thousands of streams of oil?

Shall I give my firstborn for my transgression

– The fruit of my belly –

For my personal sins?

my personal sins ← the sins of my soul.
Mic 6:8 ‫הִגִּ֥יד לְךָ֛ אָדָ֖ם מַה־טּ֑וֹב וּמָֽה־יְהוָ֞ה דּוֹרֵ֣שׁ מִמְּךָ֗ כִּ֣י אִם־עֲשׂ֤וֹת מִשְׁפָּט֙ וְאַ֣הֲבַת חֶ֔סֶד וְהַצְנֵ֥עַ לֶ֖כֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ׃ פ‬

He has told you, O man,

What is good,

And what the Lord requires from you,

Which is rather to exercise justice,

And to love kindness,

And to walk humbly with your God.

Mic 6:9 ‫ק֤וֹל יְהוָה֙ לָעִ֣יר יִקְרָ֔א וְתוּשִׁיָּ֖ה יִרְאֶ֣ה שְׁמֶ֑ךָ שִׁמְע֥וּ מַטֶּ֖ה וּמִ֥י יְעָדָֽהּ׃‬

The voice of the Lord calls to the city,

And your name provides wisdom:

“Hear the rod of chastisement.

And who appointed the matter?

your name provides wisdom: AV differs, and it is discordant in gender (which can be acceptable). Our translation implies an example of a Hebrew “OVS” (object-verb-subject) sentence.
Mic 6:10 ‫ע֗וֹד הַאִשׁ֙ בֵּ֣ית רָשָׁ֔ע אֹצְר֖וֹת רֶ֑שַׁע וְאֵיפַ֥ת רָז֖וֹן זְעוּמָֽה׃‬

Are there still in the house of the wicked

Treasures obtained by wickedness?

And a short-measured ephah

Causing indignation?

ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.

causing indignation ← indignant (agreeing with ephah).
Mic 6:11 ‫הַאֶזְכֶּ֖ה בְּמֹ֣אזְנֵי רֶ֑שַׁע וּבְכִ֖יס אַבְנֵ֥י מִרְמָֽה׃‬

Will I be found pure with dishonest balances?

Or will I be found with the bag of false weights?

will I be found pure: AV differs (shall I count (them) pure), apparently taking the verb as piel or hiphil (possible by re-pointing). We see the questions ↴
Mic 6:12 ‫אֲשֶׁ֤ר עֲשִׁירֶ֙יהָ֙ מָלְא֣וּ חָמָ֔ס וְיֹשְׁבֶ֖יהָ דִּבְּרוּ־שָׁ֑קֶר וּלְשׁוֹנָ֖ם רְמִיָּ֥ה בְּפִיהֶֽם׃‬

For her rich men are full of violence,

And her inhabitants speak falsely,

And their tongue is deceitful in their mouth.

↳ as being for those addressed to consider (rather than Micah being introspective).

deceitful ← deceit.
Mic 6:13 ‫וְגַם־אֲנִ֖י הֶחֱלֵ֣יתִי הַכּוֹתֶ֑ךָ הַשְׁמֵ֖ם עַל־חַטֹּאתֶֽךָ׃‬

I will also afflict you,

By striking you and making you desolate

For your sins.

by striking: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Mic 6:14 ‫אַתָּ֤ה תֹאכַל֙ וְלֹ֣א תִשְׂבָּ֔ע וְיֶשְׁחֲךָ֖ בְּקִרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְתַסֵּג֙ וְלֹ֣א תַפְלִ֔יט וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר תְּפַלֵּ֖ט לַחֶ֥רֶב אֶתֵּֽן׃‬

You will eat,

But not be satisfied,

And you will have dissatisfaction inside you.

And should you take hold of something,

You will not carry it away safely.

And whoever would escape

I will give up to the sword.

AV differs in parts.
Mic 6:15 ‫אַתָּ֥ה תִזְרַ֖ע וְלֹ֣א תִקְצ֑וֹר אַתָּ֤ה תִדְרֹֽךְ־זַ֙יִת֙ וְלֹא־תָס֣וּךְ שֶׁ֔מֶן וְתִיר֖וֹשׁ וְלֹ֥א תִשְׁתֶּה־יָּֽיִן׃‬

You will sow,

But you will not reap.

You will tread the olive,

But you will not anoint yourself with its oil,

And you will prepare must,

But you will not drink the wine.

Mic 6:16 ‫וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּ֞ר חֻקּ֣וֹת עָמְרִ֗י וְכֹל֙ מַעֲשֵׂ֣ה בֵית־אַחְאָ֔ב וַתֵּלְכ֖וּ בְּמֹֽעֲצוֹתָ֑ם לְמַעַן֩ תִּתִּ֨י אֹתְךָ֜ לְשַׁמָּ֗ה וְיֹשְׁבֶ֙יהָ֙ לִשְׁרֵקָ֔ה וְחֶרְפַּ֥ת עַמִּ֖י תִּשָּֽׂאוּ׃ פ‬

So let a man beware

Of the statutes of Omri

And all the works of the house of Ahab

– For you have walked in their counsels –

Lest I make you a desolation,

And its inhabitants an object of jeering,

And they bear the reproach of my people.”

beware: AV differs (are kept); also in what follows.

lest ← in order that, but understand (otherwise, I would act) in order to.

jeering ← hissing.
Mic 7:1 ‫אַ֣לְלַי לִ֗י כִּ֤י הָיִ֙יתִי֙ כְּאָסְפֵּי־קַ֔יִץ כְּעֹלְלֹ֖ת בָּצִ֑יר אֵין־אֶשְׁכּ֣וֹל לֶאֱכ֔וֹל בִּכּוּרָ֖ה אִוְּתָ֥ה נַפְשִֽׁי׃‬

Alas for me,

For I am like those doing the summer ingathering and the vintage gleaning.

But there is no bunch of grapes to eat

Or early fruit which my being longs for.

being ← soul.
Mic 7:2 ‫אָבַ֤ד חָסִיד֙ מִן־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְיָשָׁ֥ר בָּאָדָ֖ם אָ֑יִן כֻּלָּם֙ לְדָמִ֣ים יֶאֱרֹ֔בוּ אִ֥ישׁ אֶת־אָחִ֖יהוּ יָצ֥וּדוּ חֵֽרֶם׃‬

The kind have disappeared from the earth,

And there is no-one upright among men;

They all lie in wait for blood,

And a man hunts his brother with a net.

disappeared ← perished.
Mic 7:3 ‫עַל־הָרַ֤ע כַּפַּ֙יִם֙ לְהֵיטִ֔יב הַשַּׂ֣ר שֹׁאֵ֔ל וְהַשֹּׁפֵ֖ט בַּשִׁלּ֑וּם וְהַגָּד֗וֹל דֹּבֵ֨ר הַוַּ֥ת נַפְשׁ֛וֹ ה֖וּא וַֽיְעַבְּתֽוּהָ׃‬

Their hands are intent on prospering through evil.

The prince asks for favours,

And the judge asks for a bribe,

And the important man speaks of his personal wishes,

And they pervert the case.

important ← great.

his personal wishes ← the lust of his soul.

the caseit.
Mic 7:4 ‫טוֹבָ֣ם כְּחֵ֔דֶק יָשָׁ֖ר מִמְּסוּכָ֑ה י֤וֹם מְצַפֶּ֙יךָ֙ פְּקֻדָּתְךָ֣ בָ֔אָה עַתָּ֥ה תִהְיֶ֖ה מְבוּכָתָֽם׃‬

Their goodness is like a briar,

Their uprightness is thornier than a thorn-hedge.

The day your watchmen are looking out for

The day of your visitation – is coming.

At that time they will be in confusion.

they will be in confusion ← their confusion will be.
Mic 7:5 ‫אַל־תַּאֲמִ֣ינוּ בְרֵ֔עַ אַֽל־תִּבְטְח֖וּ בְּאַלּ֑וּף מִשֹּׁכֶ֣בֶת חֵיקֶ֔ךָ שְׁמֹ֖ר פִּתְחֵי־פִֽיךָ׃‬

Do not put faith in a neighbour;

Do not put trust in the local leader

Any more than in her who lies in your bosom.

Guard the portals of your mouth.

AV differs somewhat.
Mic 7:6 ‫כִּֽי־בֵן֙ מְנַבֵּ֣ל אָ֔ב בַּ֚ת קָמָ֣ה בְאִמָּ֔הּ כַּלָּ֖ה בַּחֲמֹתָ֑הּ אֹיְבֵ֥י אִ֖ישׁ אַנְשֵׁ֥י בֵיתֽוֹ׃‬

For the son despises his father,

And the daughter rises up against her mother,

And the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.

A man's enemies are the men of his household.

Matt 10:35, Matt 10:36, Mark 13:12, Luke 12:53.

daughter-in-law: or bride.
Mic 7:7 ‫וַאֲנִי֙ בַּיהוָ֣ה אֲצַפֶּ֔ה אוֹחִ֖ילָה לֵאלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׁעִ֑י יִשְׁמָעֵ֖נִי אֱלֹהָֽי׃‬

But I will watch for the Lord;

I will wait for the God of my salvation.

My God will hear me.

Mic 7:8 ‫אַֽל־תִּשְׂמְחִ֤י אֹיַ֙בְתִּי֙ לִ֔י כִּ֥י נָפַ֖לְתִּי קָ֑מְתִּי כִּֽי־אֵשֵׁ֣ב בַּחֹ֔שֶׁךְ יְהוָ֖ה א֥וֹר לִֽי׃ ס‬

Do not rejoice,

You enemy of mine.

If I fall,

I will rise,

And if I sit in darkness,

The Lord is my light.

enemy: feminine singular.
Mic 7:9 ‫זַ֤עַף יְהוָה֙ אֶשָּׂ֔א כִּ֥י חָטָ֖אתִי ל֑וֹ עַד֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָרִ֤יב רִיבִי֙ וְעָשָׂ֣ה מִשְׁפָּטִ֔י יוֹצִיאֵ֣נִי לָא֔וֹר אֶרְאֶ֖ה בְּצִדְקָתֽוֹ׃‬

I will bear the anger of the Lord,

For I have sinned against him,

Until he pleads my case,

And he passes judgment concerning me.

He will bring me out into the light,

And I will see his righteousness.

passes judgment concerning me ← does my judgment.
Mic 7:10 ‫וְתֵרֶ֤א אֹיַ֙בְתִּי֙ וּתְכַסֶּ֣הָ בוּשָׁ֔ה הָאֹמְרָ֣ה אֵלַ֔י אַיּ֖וֹ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יִךְ עֵינַי֙ תִּרְאֶ֣ינָּה בָּ֔הּ עַתָּ֛ה תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לְמִרְמָ֖ס כְּטִ֥יט חוּצֽוֹת׃‬

Then my enemy will see it,

And shame will cover her

Who said to me,

“Where is the Lord your God?”

My eyes will see her.

Now she will be trodden down,

Like the mud of the out-fields.

enemy: feminine singular, as in Mic 7:8.

be trodden down ← be a trodden down thing.
Mic 7:11 ‫י֖וֹם לִבְנ֣וֹת גְּדֵרָ֑יִךְ י֥וֹם הַה֖וּא יִרְחַק־חֹֽק׃‬

It is a day of building your walls.

On that day,

The boundary will be pushed back.

boundary: AV differs somewhat (decree), both words being linked by the concept of something fixed.

pushed back ← made distant.
Mic 7:12 ‫י֥וֹם הוּא֙ וְעָדֶ֣יךָ יָב֔וֹא לְמִנִּ֥י אַשּׁ֖וּר וְעָרֵ֣י מָצ֑וֹר וּלְמִנִּ֤י מָצוֹר֙ וְעַד־נָהָ֔ר וְיָ֥ם מִיָּ֖ם וְהַ֥ר הָהָֽר׃‬

On that day,

He will come to you from Assyria,

And from fortified cities,

And from the fortification to the river,

And from sea to sea,

And from mountain to mountain.

Mic 7:13 ‫וְהָיְתָ֥ה הָאָ֛רֶץ לִשְׁמָמָ֖ה עַל־יֹֽשְׁבֶ֑יהָ מִפְּרִ֖י מַֽעַלְלֵיהֶֽם׃ ס‬

And the land shall be a desolation on its inhabitants

On account of the fruit of their works.

Mic 7:14 ‫רְעֵ֧ה עַמְּךָ֣ בְשִׁבְטֶ֗ךָ צֹ֚אן נַֽחֲלָתֶ֔ךָ שֹׁכְנִ֣י לְבָדָ֔ד יַ֖עַר בְּת֣וֹךְ כַּרְמֶ֑ל יִרְע֥וּ בָשָׁ֛ן וְגִלְעָ֖ד כִּימֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם׃‬

Feed your people with your sceptre

– The sheep of your inheritance –

Dwelling solitarily in the forest in the midst of Carmel.

Let them feed in Bashan and Gilead,

As in days of age-old time.

feed: or, metaphorically, govern.

Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
Mic 7:15 ‫כִּימֵ֥י צֵאתְךָ֖ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אַרְאֶ֖נּוּ נִפְלָאֽוֹת׃‬

As in the days when you came out of the land of Egypt,

I will show him wonders.

Mic 7:16 ‫יִרְא֤וּ גוֹיִם֙ וְיֵבֹ֔שׁוּ מִכֹּ֖ל גְּבֽוּרָתָ֑ם יָשִׂ֤ימוּ יָד֙ עַל־פֶּ֔ה אָזְנֵיהֶ֖ם תֶּחֱרַֽשְׁנָה׃‬

The Gentiles will see

And be ashamed of all their might.

They will put their hand to their mouth;

Their ears will be deaf.

Mic 7:17 ‫יְלַחֲכ֤וּ עָפָר֙ כַּנָּחָ֔שׁ כְּזֹחֲלֵ֣י אֶ֔רֶץ יִרְגְּז֖וּ מִמִּסְגְּרֹֽתֵיהֶ֑ם אֶל־יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֵ֙ינוּ֙ יִפְחָ֔דוּ וְיִֽרְא֖וּ מִמֶּֽךָּ׃‬

They will lick the dust like the snake;

Like the crawling things of the earth,

They will come trembling out of their confined spaces.

They will fear the Lord our God

And be afraid because of you.

Mic 7:18 ‫מִי־אֵ֣ל כָּמ֗וֹךָ נֹשֵׂ֤א עָוֺן֙ וְעֹבֵ֣ר עַל־פֶּ֔שַׁע לִשְׁאֵרִ֖ית נַחֲלָת֑וֹ לֹא־הֶחֱזִ֤יק לָעַד֙ אַפּ֔וֹ כִּֽי־חָפֵ֥ץ חֶ֖סֶד הֽוּא׃‬

Who is a God like you,

Forgiving iniquity and pardoning transgressions

For the remnant of his inheritance?

He will not retain his anger in perpetuity,

For he delights in kindness.

Mic 7:19 ‫יָשׁ֣וּב יְרַֽחֲמֵ֔נוּ יִכְבֹּ֖שׁ עֲוֺֽנֹתֵ֑ינוּ וְתַשְׁלִ֛יךְ בִּמְצֻל֥וֹת יָ֖ם כָּל־חַטֹּאותָֽם׃‬

He will again have mercy on us;

He will trample our iniquities underfoot.

And you will cast all their sins into the depths of the sea.

The change of grammatical person is not unusual in Hebrew.
Mic 7:20 ‫תִּתֵּ֤ן אֱמֶת֙ לְיַֽעֲקֹ֔ב חֶ֖סֶד לְאַבְרָהָ֑ם אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּ֥עְתָּ לַאֲבֹתֵ֖ינוּ מִ֥ימֵי קֶֽדֶם׃‬

You will impart truth to Jacob,

And kindness to Abraham,

Which you swore to our fathers

In days of old.

Nah 1:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֖א נִֽינְוֵ֑ה סֵ֧פֶר חֲז֛וֹן נַח֖וּם הָאֶלְקֹשִֽׁי׃‬ The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.
Nah 1:2 ‫אֵ֣ל קַנּ֤וֹא וְנֹקֵם֙ יְהוָ֔ה נֹקֵ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה וּבַ֣עַל חֵמָ֑ה נֹקֵ֤ם יְהוָה֙ לְצָרָ֔יו וְנוֹטֵ֥ר ה֖וּא לְאֹיְבָֽיו׃‬

God is jealous

And the Lord is vengeful.

The Lord is vengeful,

And he is a person of fury.

The Lord takes vengeance on his adversaries,

And he reserves judgment on his enemies.

a person of fury ← a possessor of fury.
Nah 1:3 ‫יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶ֤רֶךְ אַפַּ֙יִם֙ *וגדול־**וּגְדָל־כֹּ֔חַ וְנַקֵּ֖ה לֹ֣א יְנַקֶּ֑ה יְהוָ֗ה בְּסוּפָ֤ה וּבִשְׂעָרָה֙ דַּרְכּ֔וֹ וְעָנָ֖ן אֲבַ֥ק רַגְלָֽיו׃‬

The Lord is longsuffering and great in power,

And he will certainly not acquit the guilty.

The Lord's way is in a whirlwind and in a storm,

And the clouds are the fine dust of his feet.

great: the ketiv can be regarded as the scriptio plena spelling of the qeré.

he will certainly not acquit: infinitive absolute.

the clouds ← a cloud. Collective usage.
Nah 1:4 ‫גּוֹעֵ֤ר בַּיָּם֙ וַֽיַּבְּשֵׁ֔הוּ וְכָל־הַנְּהָר֖וֹת הֶֽחֱרִ֑יב אֻמְלַ֤ל בָּשָׁן֙ וְכַרְמֶ֔ל וּפֶ֥רַח לְבָנ֖וֹן אֻמְלָֽל׃‬

He rebukes the sea and makes it dry,

And he dries up all the rivers.

Bashan languishes, and Carmel too,

And the flower of Lebanon languishes as well.

languishes ... languishes: otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Nah 1:5 ‫הָרִים֙ רָעֲשׁ֣וּ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְהַגְּבָע֖וֹת הִתְמֹגָ֑גוּ וַתִּשָּׂ֤א הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ מִפָּנָ֔יו וְתֵבֵ֖ל וְכָל־יֹ֥שְׁבֵי בָֽהּ׃‬

Mountains tremble before him,

And hills melt,

And the land is upheaved in his presence,

As is the world and all its inhabitants.

upheaved: AV differs (burned).
Nah 1:6 ‫לִפְנֵ֤י זַעְמוֹ֙ מִ֣י יַֽעֲמ֔וֹד וּמִ֥י יָק֖וּם בַּחֲר֣וֹן אַפּ֑וֹ חֲמָתוֹ֙ נִתְּכָ֣ה כָאֵ֔שׁ וְהַצֻּרִ֖ים נִתְּצ֥וּ מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃‬

Who can stand before his indignation,

And who can endure the fury of his anger?

His wrath is poured out like fire,

And the rocks are demolished by him.

endure ← rise in.
Nah 1:7 ‫ט֣וֹב יְהוָ֔ה לְמָע֖וֹז בְּי֣וֹם צָרָ֑ה וְיֹדֵ֖עַ חֹ֥סֵי בֽוֹ׃‬

The Lord is good;

He is a stronghold on the day of adversity,

And he knows those

Who trust in him.

Nah 1:8 ‫וּבְשֶׁ֣טֶף עֹבֵ֔ר כָּלָ֖ה יַעֲשֶׂ֣ה מְקוֹמָ֑הּ וְאֹיְבָ֖יו יְרַדֶּף־חֹֽשֶׁךְ׃‬

And with a flood passing over,

He will make an end of its site;

Darkness will pursue his enemies.

its site ← her place, referring to Nineveh.

pursue: in a Hebrew “OVS” (object-verb-subject) sentence.

his enemies: i.e. the Lord's enemies.
Nah 1:9 ‫מַה־תְּחַשְּׁבוּן֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה כָּלָ֖ה ה֣וּא עֹשֶׂ֑ה לֹֽא־תָק֥וּם פַּעֲמַ֖יִם צָרָֽה׃‬

What do you imagine against the Lord?

He will make an end;

Adversity will not rise up a second time.

Nah 1:10 ‫כִּ֚י עַד־סִירִ֣ים סְבֻכִ֔ים וּכְסָבְאָ֖ם סְבוּאִ֑ים אֻ֨כְּל֔וּ כְּקַ֥שׁ יָבֵ֖שׁ מָלֵֽא׃‬

For the end will come to the entwined thorns,

And this will happen when they are drunk from their drinking bout.

They will be consumed like chaff fully dry.

Nah 1:11 ‫מִמֵּ֣ךְ יָצָ֔א חֹשֵׁ֥ב עַל־יְהוָ֖ה רָעָ֑ה יֹעֵ֖ץ בְּלִיָּֽעַל׃ ס‬

From you one will come out

Imagining evil against the Lord

– A worthless counsellor.

from you: i.e. from Nineveh.
Nah 1:12 ‫כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה אִם־שְׁלֵמִים֙ וְכֵ֣ן רַבִּ֔ים וְכֵ֥ן נָגֹ֖זּוּ וְעָבָ֑ר וְעִ֨נִּתִ֔ךְ לֹ֥א אֲעַנֵּ֖ךְ עֽוֹד׃‬

This is what the Lord says:

Even if they are in full number,

And ever so numerous,

Nevertheless, they will be cut down,

And the event will pass.

Although I have afflicted you,

I will not afflict you any more.

this is whatthus.

the event will pass: or he will pass (through).

although: concessive use of the vav. The reference is now to Judah. See [CB].
Nah 1:13 ‫וְעַתָּ֕ה אֶשְׁבֹּ֥ר מֹטֵ֖הוּ מֵֽעָלָ֑יִךְ וּמוֹסְרֹתַ֖יִךְ אֲנַתֵּֽק׃‬

And now I will break his yoke off you,

And I will undo your bonds.

yoke: the word normally means connecting pole, drawbar.
Nah 1:14 ‫וְצִוָּ֤ה עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ יְהוָ֔ה לֹֽא־יִזָּרַ֥ע מִשִּׁמְךָ֖ ע֑וֹד מִבֵּ֨ית אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ אַכְרִ֨ית פֶּ֧סֶל וּמַסֵּכָ֛ה אָשִׂ֥ים קִבְרֶ֖ךָ כִּ֥י קַלּֽוֹתָ׃ פ‬

And the Lord will give commandment concerning you;

No-one of your name will be propagated any more.

I will cut off the carved image and the cast image from the house of your gods;

I will appoint your grave,

For you are despised.

Nah 2:1
Nah 1:15AV
‫הִנֵּ֨ה עַל־הֶהָרִ֜ים רַגְלֵ֤י מְבַשֵּׂר֙ מַשְׁמִ֣יעַ שָׁל֔וֹם חָגִּ֧י יְהוּדָ֛ה חַגַּ֖יִךְ שַׁלְּמִ֣י נְדָרָ֑יִךְ כִּי֩ לֹ֨א יוֹסִ֥יף ע֛וֹד *לעבור־**לַֽעֲבָר־בָּ֥ךְ בְּלִיַּ֖עַל כֻּלֹּ֥ה נִכְרָֽת׃‬

Behold on the mountains

The feet of him who brings good tidings,

Who proclaims peace.

Celebrate your feasts, Judah,

And fulfil your vows,

For the worthless one will no longer pass through you;

He will have been completely cut off.

pass: the ketiv can be regarded as the scriptio plena spelling of the qeré.

behold on the mountains ... the feet of him who brings good tidings ... who proclaims peace: compare Isa 52:7 (quoted in Rom 10:15).
Nah 2:2
Nah 2:1AV
‫עָלָ֥ה מֵפִ֛יץ עַל־פָּנַ֖יִךְ נָצ֣וֹר מְצֻרָ֑ה צַפֵּה־דֶ֙רֶךְ֙ חַזֵּ֣ק מָתְנַ֔יִם אַמֵּ֥ץ כֹּ֖חַ מְאֹֽד׃‬

The scatterer has gone up in confrontation with you.

Guard the rampart,

Watch the highway,

Firm up your loins;

Build up your strength greatly.

gone up: used of going to battle. Compare 2 Sam 23:9.

in confrontation with you ← against your face.

guard: infinitive absolute in the role of an imperative.
Nah 2:3
Nah 2:2AV
‫כִּ֣י שָׁ֤ב יְהוָה֙ אֶת־גְּא֣וֹן יַעֲקֹ֔ב כִּגְא֖וֹן יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּ֤י בְקָקוּם֙ בֹּֽקְקִ֔ים וּזְמֹרֵיהֶ֖ם שִׁחֵֽתוּ׃‬

For the Lord will restore the splendour of Jacob

As the splendour of Israel,

For the emptiers have emptied them

And have brought ruin on their branches.

restore: AV differs (hath turned away). [AnLx] V gives lead / bring back.
Nah 2:4
Nah 2:3AV
‫מָגֵ֨ן גִּבֹּרֵ֜יהוּ מְאָדָּ֗ם אַנְשֵׁי־חַ֙יִל֙ מְתֻלָּעִ֔ים בְּאֵשׁ־פְּלָד֥וֹת הָרֶ֖כֶב בְּי֣וֹם הֲכִינ֑וֹ וְהַבְּרֹשִׁ֖ים הָרְעָֽלוּ׃‬

His warriors' shield is stained red,

The valiant men are dyed scarlet,

The chariots are with fiery steel

On the day which he has prepared,

And the cypresses are shaken by it.

valiant men ← men of valour, a Hebraic genitive.

dyed: others, clothed in, also possible.

fiery steel ← fire of steels. A reverse Hebraic genitive; compare Isa 49:8. As ↴
Nah 2:5
Nah 2:4AV
‫בַּֽחוּצוֹת֙ יִתְהוֹלְל֣וּ הָרֶ֔כֶב יִֽשְׁתַּקְשְׁק֖וּן בָּרְחֹב֑וֹת מַרְאֵיהֶן֙ כַּלַּפִּידִ֔ם כַּבְּרָקִ֖ים יְרוֹצֵֽצוּ׃‬

Chariots drive in a frenzy in the open places,

They run up and down the streets,

Their appearance is as flares;

They run swiftly like lightning flashes.

↳ a regular Hebraic genitive, steely fire.
Nah 2:6
Nah 2:5AV
‫יִזְכֹּר֙ אַדִּירָ֔יו יִכָּשְׁל֖וּ *בהלכותם **בַּהֲלִֽיכָתָ֑ם יְמַֽהֲרוּ֙ חֽוֹמָתָ֔הּ וְהֻכַ֖ן הַסֹּכֵֽךְ׃‬

He will remember his dignitaries;

They will stumble as they go.

They will return to its wall,

And the defence will be prepared.

as they go ← {K: in their goings} [Q: in their going].
Nah 2:7
Nah 2:6AV
‫שַׁעֲרֵ֥י הַנְּהָר֖וֹת נִפְתָּ֑חוּ וְהַֽהֵיכָ֖ל נָמֽוֹג׃‬

The sluices of the rivers will be opened,

And the palace will be dissolved.

Nah 2:8
Nah 2:7AV
‫וְהֻצַּ֖ב גֻּלְּתָ֣ה הֹֽעֲלָ֑תָה וְאַמְהֹתֶ֗יהָ מְנַֽהֲגוֹת֙ כְּק֣וֹל יוֹנִ֔ים מְתֹפְפֹ֖ת עַל־לִבְבֵהֶֽן׃‬

And it has been determined:

Nineveh will go into captivity,

She will be made to go up,

And her maidservants will lament like the sound of doves,

Beating their hearts.

it has been determined: AV differs (Huzzab), as a name.

she: [CB], standing for the queen or queen-mother, personifying the city.
Nah 2:9
Nah 2:8AV
‫וְנִינְוֵ֥ה כִבְרֵֽכַת־מַ֖יִם מִ֣ימֵי הִ֑יא וְהֵ֣מָּה נָסִ֔ים עִמְד֥וּ עֲמֹ֖דוּ וְאֵ֥ין מַפְנֶֽה׃‬

Now Nineveh has been like a pool of water

Since the days of its existence,

But they flee.

They will say, ‘Make a stand, make a stand!’

But there will be none turning back.

turning back: or, turning (them) back. This verb can be intransitive in hiphil.
Nah 2:10
Nah 2:9AV
‫בֹּ֥זּוּ כֶ֖סֶף בֹּ֣זּוּ זָהָ֑ב וְאֵ֥ין קֵ֙צֶה֙ לַתְּכוּנָ֔ה כָּבֹ֕ד מִכֹּ֖ל כְּלִ֥י חֶמְדָּֽה׃‬

‘Take silver as spoil;

Take gold as spoil’,

And there is no end to the store,

And abundance of every precious object.

precious ← desirable.
Nah 2:11
Nah 2:10AV
‫בּוּקָ֥ה וּמְבוּקָ֖ה וּמְבֻלָּקָ֑ה וְלֵ֨ב נָמֵ֜ס וּפִ֣ק בִּרְכַּ֗יִם וְחַלְחָלָה֙ בְּכָל־מָתְנַ֔יִם וּפְנֵ֥י כֻלָּ֖ם קִבְּצ֥וּ פָארֽוּר׃‬

It will be empty and emptied

And laid waste,

And its heart will melt,

And its knees will totter,

And it will be in trepidation in all its loins,

And all their faces will lose their shine.

will totter ← (will be) a tottering.

lose their shine: AV differs somewhat (gather darkness).
Nah 2:12
Nah 2:11AV
‫אַיֵּה֙ מְע֣וֹן אֲרָי֔וֹת וּמִרְעֶ֥ה ה֖וּא לַכְּפִרִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָלַךְ֩ אַרְיֵ֨ה לָבִ֥יא שָׁ֛ם גּ֥וּר אַרְיֵ֖ה וְאֵ֥ין מַחֲרִֽיד׃‬

Where is the den of the lions,

And the feeding ground of the young lions?

Where the lion goes,

The great lion is there,

And the lion's whelp,

And there is nothing to make them afraid.

to make them afraid ← making afraid.
Nah 2:13
Nah 2:12AV
‫אַרְיֵ֤ה טֹרֵף֙ בְּדֵ֣י גֹֽרוֹתָ֔יו וּמְחַנֵּ֖ק לְלִבְאֹתָ֑יו וַיְמַלֵּא־טֶ֣רֶף חֹרָ֔יו וּמְעֹֽנֹתָ֖יו טְרֵפָֽה׃‬

The lion tears in pieces enough for his whelps,

And crushes for his lionesses,

And fills his lairs with prey,

And his den with what has been preyed on.

crushes ← strangles.
Nah 2:14
Nah 2:13AV
‫הִנְנִ֣י אֵלַ֗יִךְ נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וְהִבְעַרְתִּ֤י בֶֽעָשָׁן֙ רִכְבָּ֔הּ וּכְפִירַ֖יִךְ תֹּ֣אכַל חָ֑רֶב וְהִכְרַתִּ֤י מֵאֶ֙רֶץ֙ טַרְפֵּ֔ךְ וְלֹֽא־יִשָּׁמַ֥ע ע֖וֹד ק֥וֹל מַלְאָכֵֽכֵה׃ ס‬

Look, I am against you,

Says the Lord of hosts,

And I will set its chariots on fire with smoke,

And the sword will devour your lion cubs,

And I will cut your prey off from the land,

And the voice of your messengers will no longer be heard.

Nah 3:1 ‫ה֖וֹי עִ֣יר דָּמִ֑ים כֻּלָּ֗הּ כַּ֤חַשׁ פֶּ֙רֶק֙ מְלֵאָ֔ה לֹ֥א יָמִ֖ישׁ טָֽרֶף׃‬

Alas for the City of Blood;

All of it is full of deceit and violence.

The predation does not stop.

the predation does not stop: AV differs somewhat (the prey departeth not).
Nah 3:2 ‫ק֣וֹל שׁ֔וֹט וְק֖וֹל רַ֣עַשׁ אוֹפָ֑ן וְס֣וּס דֹּהֵ֔ר וּמֶרְכָּבָ֖ה מְרַקֵּדָֽה׃‬

There will be the sound of the whip,

And the sound of the rattling of a wheel,

And of a prancing horse

And a jolting chariot.

Nah 3:3 ‫פָּרָ֣שׁ מַעֲלֶ֗ה וְלַ֤הַב חֶ֙רֶב֙ וּבְרַ֣ק חֲנִ֔ית וְרֹ֥ב חָלָ֖ל וְכֹ֣בֶד פָּ֑גֶר וְאֵ֥ין קֵ֙צֶה֙ לַגְּוִיָּ֔ה *יכשלו **וְכָשְׁל֖וּ בִּגְוִיָּתָֽם׃‬

The horseman raises both a glaring sword and a glittering spear,

And there are many casualties,

And an abundance of corpses,

And there is no end to dead bodies;

{K: They stumble} [Q: And they stumble] on their dead bodies.

they stumble: the ketiv could be niphal. No change in meaning.

abundance ← weight.
Nah 3:4 ‫מֵרֹב֙ זְנוּנֵ֣י זוֹנָ֔ה ט֥וֹבַת חֵ֖ן בַּעֲלַ֣ת כְּשָׁפִ֑ים הַמֹּכֶ֤רֶת גּוֹיִם֙ בִּזְנוּנֶ֔יהָ וּמִשְׁפָּח֖וֹת בִּכְשָׁפֶֽיהָ׃‬

Because of the great extent of prostitution by the prostitute,

And because the mistress of sorceries is in good favour,

Who sells nations through her prostitution,

And families through her sorceries,

Nah 3:5 ‫הִנְנִ֣י אֵלַ֗יִךְ נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וְגִלֵּיתִ֥י שׁוּלַ֖יִךְ עַל־פָּנָ֑יִךְ וְהַרְאֵיתִ֤י גוֹיִם֙ מַעְרֵ֔ךְ וּמַמְלָכ֖וֹת קְלוֹנֵֽךְ׃‬

Behold, I am against you,

Says the Lord of hosts,

And I will uncover your skirt in front of you,

And I will show nations your nakedness,

And kingdoms your shame.

Nah 3:6 ‫וְהִשְׁלַכְתִּ֥י עָלַ֛יִךְ שִׁקֻּצִ֖ים וְנִבַּלְתִּ֑יךְ וְשַׂמְתִּ֖יךְ כְּרֹֽאִי׃‬

And I will cast abominations on you,

And I will despise you,

And I will make a spectacle of you.

Nah 3:7 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה כָל־רֹאַ֙יִךְ֙ יִדּ֣וֹד מִמֵּ֔ךְ וְאָמַר֙ שָׁדְּדָ֣ה נִֽינְוֵ֔ה מִ֖י יָנ֣וּד לָ֑הּ מֵאַ֛יִן אֲבַקֵּ֥שׁ מְנַחֲמִ֖ים לָֽךְ׃‬

And it will come to pass

That all who see you

Will flee from you

And will say,

‘Nineveh has been laid waste;

Who will console her?’

From where can I seek comforters for you?

Nah 3:8 ‫הֲתֵֽיטְבִי֙ מִנֹּ֣א אָמ֔וֹן הַיֹּֽשְׁבָה֙ בַּיְאֹרִ֔ים מַ֖יִם סָבִ֣יב לָ֑הּ אֲשֶׁר־חֵ֣יל יָ֔ם מִיָּ֖ם חוֹמָתָֽהּ׃‬

Are you better than No-Amon,

Which is situated among the rivers,

With water round about it,

Whose fortification is the sea,

And whose wall consists of the sea?

No-Amon: i.e. Thebes, in upper Egypt, [LHG], [CB]. AV differs (populous No).

rivers: the Nile and its canals etc. Compare Ezek 31:4.
Nah 3:9 ‫כּ֥וּשׁ עָצְמָ֛ה וּמִצְרַ֖יִם וְאֵ֣ין קֵ֑צֶה פּ֣וּט וְלוּבִ֔ים הָי֖וּ בְּעֶזְרָתֵֽךְ׃‬

Ethiopia is your strength,

As is Egypt,

To which there is no end.

Put and Libya were among your allies.

your strength: AV differs, re-pointing with a mappiq (her strength).
Nah 3:10 ‫גַּם־הִ֗יא לַגֹּלָה֙ הָלְכָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔בִי גַּ֧ם עֹלָלֶ֛יהָ יְרֻטְּשׁ֖וּ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ כָּל־חוּצ֑וֹת וְעַל־נִכְבַּדֶּ֙יהָ֙ יַדּ֣וּ גוֹרָ֔ל וְכָל־גְּדוֹלֶ֖יהָ רֻתְּק֥וּ בַזִּקִּֽים׃‬

It will duly go into exile,

Into captivity,

And its children will be dashed to the ground at the head of all open spaces.

And they will cast lots for its honoured men,

And all its pre-eminent men will be bound in fetters.

duly ← also, but with wider scope.
Nah 3:11 ‫גַּם־אַ֣תְּ תִּשְׁכְּרִ֔י תְּהִ֖י נַֽעֲלָמָ֑ה גַּם־אַ֛תְּ תְּבַקְשִׁ֥י מָע֖וֹז מֵאוֹיֵֽב׃‬

You too will become drunk,

You will be hidden;

You too will seek a stronghold

Away from your enemy.

Nah 3:12 ‫כָּ֨ל־מִבְצָרַ֔יִךְ תְּאֵנִ֖ים עִם־בִּכּוּרִ֑ים אִם־יִנּ֕וֹעוּ וְנָפְל֖וּ עַל־פִּ֥י אוֹכֵֽל׃‬

All your fortifications will be like fig trees with firstfruits.

If they are shaken,

They fall to the mouth of the eater.

Nah 3:13 ‫הִנֵּ֨ה עַמֵּ֤ךְ נָשִׁים֙ בְּקִרְבֵּ֔ךְ לְאֹ֣יְבַ֔יִךְ פָּת֥וֹחַ נִפְתְּח֖וּ שַׁעֲרֵ֣י אַרְצֵ֑ךְ אָכְלָ֥ה אֵ֖שׁ בְּרִיחָֽיִך׃‬

Look, your people are women in your midst.

The gates of your land are completely open to your enemies;

Fire will consume your bars.

are completely open: infinitive absolute.
Nah 3:14 ‫מֵ֤י מָצוֹר֙ שַֽׁאֲבִי־לָ֔ךְ חַזְּקִ֖י מִבְצָרָ֑יִךְ בֹּ֧אִי בַטִּ֛יט וְרִמְסִ֥י בַחֹ֖מֶר הַחֲזִ֥יקִי מַלְבֵּֽן׃‬

Draw water for yourself ready for a siege,

Strengthen your fortifications,

Go to the mud,

And tread on the clay;

Renovate the brick-kiln.

Nah 3:15 ‫שָׁ֚ם תֹּאכְלֵ֣ךְ אֵ֔שׁ תַּכְרִיתֵ֣ךְ חֶ֔רֶב תֹּאכְלֵ֖ךְ כַּיָּ֑לֶק הִתְכַּבֵּ֣ד כַּיֶּ֔לֶק הִֽתְכַּבְּדִ֖י כָּאַרְבֶּֽה׃‬

There, fire will consume you,

The sword will cut you off;

It will consume you like the devouring locust.

Abound like the devouring locust,

Abound like the swarming locust!

Nah 3:16 ‫הִרְבֵּית֙ רֹֽכְלַ֔יִךְ מִכּוֹכְבֵ֖י הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם יֶ֥לֶק פָּשַׁ֖ט וַיָּעֹֽף׃‬

You have increased your number of merchants

More than the stars of heaven.

The devouring locust will strip you

And fly off.

Nah 3:17 ‫מִנְּזָרַ֙יִךְ֙ כָּֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה וְטַפְסְרַ֖יִךְ כְּג֣וֹב גֹּבָ֑י הַֽחוֹנִ֤ים בַּגְּדֵרוֹת֙ בְּי֣וֹם קָרָ֔ה שֶׁ֤מֶשׁ זָֽרְחָה֙ וְנוֹדַ֔ד וְלֹֽא־נוֹדַ֥ע מְקוֹמ֖וֹ אַיָּֽם׃‬

Your princes are like swarming locusts,

And your generals are like teeming locusts,

Which settle in walled places,

On a cold day,

But when the sun rises,

They flee,

And the place where they are is not known.

cold day ← day of cold, a Hebraic genitive.
Nah 3:18 ‫נָמ֤וּ רֹעֶ֙יךָ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר יִשְׁכְּנ֖וּ אַדִּירֶ֑יךָ נָפֹ֧שׁוּ עַמְּךָ֛ עַל־הֶהָרִ֖ים וְאֵ֥ין מְקַבֵּֽץ׃‬

Your shepherds slumber,

O king of Assyria;

Your dignitaries are at rest.

Your people have been scattered to the mountains,

And there is no-one to gather them.

to gather ← gathering.
Nah 3:19 ‫אֵין־כֵּהָ֣ה לְשִׁבְרֶ֔ךָ נַחְלָ֖ה מַכָּתֶ֑ךָ כֹּ֣ל ׀ שֹׁמְעֵ֣י שִׁמְעֲךָ֗ תָּ֤קְעוּ כַף֙ עָלֶ֔יךָ כִּ֗י עַל־מִ֛י לֹֽא־עָבְרָ֥ה רָעָתְךָ֖ תָּמִֽיד׃‬

There is no alleviation of your break-up;

The blow on you is grievous.

All who hear a report about you

Clap their hands over you,

For over whom has your wickedness not passed continually?”

Hab 1:1 ‫הַמַּשָׂא֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָזָ֔ה חֲבַקּ֖וּק הַנָּבִֽיא׃‬ The burden which Habakkuk the prophet saw. burden: i.e. burden of prophecy, a solemn prophetic declaration, as in Isa 13:1.
Hab 1:2 ‫עַד־אָ֧נָה יְהוָ֛ה שִׁוַּ֖עְתִּי וְלֹ֣א תִשְׁמָ֑ע אֶזְעַ֥ק אֵלֶ֛יךָ חָמָ֖ס וְלֹ֥א תוֹשִֽׁיעַ׃‬

How long, O Lord, will I cry out,

But you won't hear?

I shout out to you about violence,

But you don't save.

Hab 1:3 ‫לָ֣מָּה תַרְאֵ֤נִי אָ֙וֶן֙ וְעָמָ֣ל תַּבִּ֔יט וְשֹׁ֥ד וְחָמָ֖ס לְנֶגְדִּ֑י וַיְהִ֧י רִ֦יב וּמָד֖וֹן יִשָּֽׂא׃‬

Why do you show me iniquity,

And have me see toil?

Oppression and violence are facing me,

And there is contention,

And strife raises its head.

have me see: although hiphil, the verb is not normally causative, so typically meaning you see. But it is apparently causative here.
Hab 1:4 ‫עַל־כֵּן֙ תָּפ֣וּג תּוֹרָ֔ה וְלֹֽא־יֵצֵ֥א לָנֶ֖צַח מִשְׁפָּ֑ט כִּ֤י רָשָׁע֙ מַכְתִּ֣יר אֶת־הַצַּדִּ֔יק עַל־כֵּ֛ן יֵצֵ֥א מִשְׁפָּ֖ט מְעֻקָּֽל׃‬

This is how the law is inoperative,

And justice never takes place.

For the wicked surround the righteous,

Which is how a perverted justice takes place.

takes place (2x)goes out.

the wicked ... the righteous: singular, but we take such references as collective usage throughout the chapter.
Hab 1:5 ‫רְא֤וּ בַגּוֹיִם֙ וְֽהַבִּ֔יטוּ וְהִֽתַּמְּה֖וּ תְּמָ֑הוּ כִּי־פֹ֙עַל֙ פֹּעֵ֣ל בִּֽימֵיכֶ֔ם לֹ֥א תַאֲמִ֖ינוּ כִּ֥י יְסֻפָּֽר׃‬

“Look among the Gentiles and see,

And be amazingly amazed.

For there is one carrying out a work in your days

Which you will not believe

When it is told you.

Acts 13:41.
Hab 1:6 ‫כִּֽי־הִנְנִ֤י מֵקִים֙ אֶת־הַכַּשְׂדִּ֔ים הַגּ֖וֹי הַמַּ֣ר וְהַנִּמְהָ֑ר הַֽהוֹלֵךְ֙ לְמֶרְחֲבֵי־אֶ֔רֶץ לָרֶ֖שֶׁת מִשְׁכָּנ֥וֹת לֹּא־לֽוֹ׃‬

For I am about to rouse the Chaldeans

– The bitter and hasty nation,

Who go to the wide outposts of the earth

In order to inherit habitable territory

Which is not theirs.

I am about to ← behold me.

habitable territory ← tabernacles; compare Ex 25:9.
Hab 1:7 ‫אָיֹ֥ם וְנוֹרָ֖א ה֑וּא מִמֶּ֕נּוּ מִשְׁפָּט֥וֹ וּשְׂאֵת֖וֹ יֵצֵֽא׃‬

They are terrible and fearful.

Their own concept of justice and dignity applies.

applies ← goes out.
Hab 1:8 ‫וְקַלּ֨וּ מִנְּמֵרִ֜ים סוּסָ֗יו וְחַדּוּ֙ מִזְּאֵ֣בֵי עֶ֔רֶב וּפָ֖שׁוּ פָּֽרָשָׁ֑יו וּפָֽרָשָׁיו֙ מֵרָח֣וֹק יָבֹ֔אוּ יָעֻ֕פוּ כְּנֶ֖שֶׁר חָ֥שׁ לֶאֱכֽוֹל׃‬

And their horses are swifter than leopards,

And they are more fierce than the wolves of the evening.

Their horsemen spread out,

And their horsemen come from afar,

And they fly like an eagle that hastens to eat.

horsemen ... horsemen: otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Hab 1:9 ‫כֻּלֹּה֙ לְחָמָ֣ס יָב֔וֹא מְגַמַּ֥ת פְּנֵיהֶ֖ם קָדִ֑ימָה וַיֶּאֱסֹ֥ף כַּח֖וֹל שֶֽׁבִי׃‬

They all come for violence;

The objective of their mission is to advance,

And they gather captives like sand.

mission ← face, but also used of intention, as in set one's face.

is to advance ← (is) forwards. AV differs (as the east wind).
Hab 1:10 ‫וְהוּא֙ בַּמְּלָכִ֣ים יִתְקַלָּ֔ס וְרֹזְנִ֖ים מִשְׂחָ֣ק ל֑וֹ ה֚וּא לְכָל־מִבְצָ֣ר יִשְׂחָ֔ק וַיִּצְבֹּ֥ר עָפָ֖ר וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ׃‬

They also mock kings,

And princes are objects of derision to them.

They laugh at every fortification;

They heap up mounds of ground

And capture it.

ground ← dust.
Hab 1:11 ‫אָ֣ז חָלַ֥ף ר֛וּחַ וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֖ר וְאָשֵׁ֑ם ז֥וּ כֹח֖וֹ לֵאלֹהֽוֹ׃‬

But then his attitude will change;

When he is in transgression,

He will realize his guilt

He who attributes this power of his to his god.”

realize his guilt ← be guilty, which is also possible. AV differs (offend). Perhaps a future reference to Dan 4:27 (Dan 4:30AV) and the verses following.
Hab 1:12 ‫הֲל֧וֹא אַתָּ֣ה מִקֶּ֗דֶם יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהַ֛י קְדֹשִׁ֖י לֹ֣א נָמ֑וּת יְהוָה֙ לְמִשְׁפָּ֣ט שַׂמְתּ֔וֹ וְצ֖וּר לְהוֹכִ֥יחַ יְסַדְתּֽוֹ׃‬

Are you not of old, O Lord,

My God, my holy {P: one} [M: one?]

{P: – You who do not die?} [M: We will not die.]

O Lord, you have appointed them to judgment,

And you, the rock, have destined them to condemnation.

An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB] App. 33. P= תָמוּת. AV differs.

them (2x)him.

condemnation: or rebuke.
Hab 1:13 ‫טְה֤וֹר עֵינַ֙יִם֙ מֵרְא֣וֹת רָ֔ע וְהַבִּ֥יט אֶל־עָמָ֖ל לֹ֣א תוּכָ֑ל לָ֤מָּה תַבִּיט֙ בּֽוֹגְדִ֔ים תַּחֲרִ֕ישׁ בְּבַלַּ֥ע רָשָׁ֖ע צַדִּ֥יק מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃‬

You are too pure of eyes to see evil,

And you are not able to look on injustice.

Why do you look on traitors and remain silent?

– On the wicked man swallowing up someone more righteous than he?

injustice: the word more commonly means toil.
Hab 1:14 ‫וַתַּעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֖ם כִּדְגֵ֣י הַיָּ֑ם כְּרֶ֖מֶשׂ לֹא־מֹשֵׁ֥ל בּֽוֹ׃‬

And you make man like the fish of the sea,

Like the reptiles,

Which have no ruler over them.

Hab 1:15 ‫כֻּלֹּה֙ בְּחַכָּ֣ה הֵֽעֲלָ֔ה יְגֹרֵ֣הוּ בְחֶרְמ֔וֹ וְיַאַסְפֵ֖הוּ בְּמִכְמַרְתּ֑וֹ עַל־כֵּ֖ן יִשְׂמַ֥ח וְיָגִֽיל׃‬

They lift everyone with a hook,

And they drag them away in their net,

And they gather them in their dragnet,

Which is why they rejoice and exult.

Hab 1:16 ‫עַל־כֵּן֙ יְזַבֵּ֣חַ לְחֶרְמ֔וֹ וִֽיקַטֵּ֖ר לְמִכְמַרְתּ֑וֹ כִּ֤י בָהֵ֙מָּה֙ שָׁמֵ֣ן חֶלְק֔וֹ וּמַאֲכָל֖וֹ בְּרִאָֽה׃‬

That is why they sacrifice to their net,

And burn incense to their dragnet,

For by these things their portion is fat,

And their food rich.

Add to this verse, or so they think.
Hab 1:17 ‫הַ֥עַל כֵּ֖ן יָרִ֣יק חֶרְמ֑וֹ וְתָמִ֛יד לַהֲרֹ֥ג גּוֹיִ֖ם לֹ֥א יַחְמֽוֹל׃ ס‬

Will they therefore empty their net?

Indeed they will not spare their continual destruction of nations.

destruction ← killing. Gerundial use of the infinitive.
Hab 2:1 ‫עַל־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֣י אֶעֱמֹ֔דָה וְאֶֽתְיַצְּבָ֖ה עַל־מָצ֑וֹר וַאֲצַפֶּ֗ה לִרְאוֹת֙ מַה־יְדַבֶּר־בִּ֔י וּמָ֥ה אָשִׁ֖יב עַל־תּוֹכַחְתִּֽי׃‬

I will stand at my watch,

And position myself at the bulwark,

And I will watch to see what he says to me,

And how I answer his rebuke of me.

his rebuke of me ← my rebuke, an objective genitive.
Hab 2:2 ‫וַיַּעֲנֵ֤נִי יְהוָה֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר כְּת֣וֹב חָז֔וֹן וּבָאֵ֖ר עַל־הַלֻּח֑וֹת לְמַ֥עַן יָר֖וּץ ק֥וֹרֵא בֽוֹ׃‬

And the Lord answered me and said,

“Write the vision

And engrave it on tablets,

So that he who reads it

May run.

run: traditionally taken to mean (read) fluently, but [CB], run as the messenger (with the tablets).
Hab 2:3 ‫כִּ֣י ע֤וֹד חָזוֹן֙ לַמּוֹעֵ֔ד וְיָפֵ֥חַ לַקֵּ֖ץ וְלֹ֣א יְכַזֵּ֑ב אִם־יִתְמַהְמָהּ֙ חַכֵּה־ל֔וֹ כִּֽי־בֹ֥א יָבֹ֖א לֹ֥א יְאַחֵֽר׃‬

For there is still a vision for the appointed time,

And he will inspire it for the end time,

And he will not lie.

If it delays, wait for it,

For it will certainly come;

It will not linger.

Heb 10:37.

inspire ← breathe out.

it will certainly come: infinitive absolute.
Hab 2:4 ‫הִנֵּ֣ה עֻפְּלָ֔ה לֹא־יָשְׁרָ֥ה נַפְשׁ֖וֹ בּ֑וֹ וְצַדִּ֖יק בֶּאֱמוּנָת֥וֹ יִחְיֶֽה׃‬

Behold someone whose mind in him is puffed up;

It is not upright,

But the just shall live by his faith.

Rom 1:17, Gal 3:11, Heb 10:38.

mind ← soul.
Hab 2:5 ‫וְאַף֙ כִּֽי־הַיַּ֣יִן בּוֹגֵ֔ד גֶּ֥בֶר יָהִ֖יר וְלֹ֣א יִנְוֶ֑ה אֲשֶׁר֩ הִרְחִ֨יב כִּשְׁא֜וֹל נַפְשׁ֗וֹ וְה֤וּא כַמָּ֙וֶת֙ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׂבָּ֔ע וַיֶּאֱסֹ֤ף אֵלָיו֙ כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וַיִּקְבֹּ֥ץ אֵלָ֖יו כָּל־הָעַמִּֽים׃‬

And furthermore, wine deals treacherously,

Making a man proud,

And not dwelling quietly

One who increases his appetite like the grave,

And who, like death, cannot be satisfied,

Who gathers to himself all the nations,

And collects to himself all the peoples.

wine deals treacherously: AV differs (because he transgresseth by wine).

appetite ← soul.
Hab 2:6 ‫הֲלוֹא־אֵ֣לֶּה כֻלָּ֗ם עָלָיו֙ מָשָׁ֣ל יִשָּׂ֔אוּ וּמְלִיצָ֖ה חִיד֣וֹת ל֑וֹ וְיֹאמַ֗ר ה֚וֹי הַמַּרְבֶּ֣ה לֹּא־ל֔וֹ עַד־מָתַ֕י וּמַכְבִּ֥יד עָלָ֖יו עַבְטִֽיט׃‬

Will not all these utter a proverb against him,

So that he is an object of satire and riddles?

And say, ‘Woe to him who increases what is not his!

How long can he continue to weigh himself down with accumulated debts?’

AV differs in several respects.
Hab 2:7 ‫הֲל֣וֹא פֶ֗תַע יָק֙וּמוּ֙ נֹשְׁכֶ֔יךָ וְיִקְצ֖וּ מְזַעְזְעֶ֑יךָ וְהָיִ֥יתָ לִמְשִׁסּ֖וֹת לָֽמוֹ׃‬

Will not your creditors suddenly rise up,

And will not those who agitate you awaken?

And you will be a prey to them.

your creditors ← your biters, an objective genitive.
Hab 2:8 ‫כִּֽי אַתָּ֤ה שַׁלּ֙וֹתָ֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים יְשָׁלּ֖וּךָ כָּל־יֶ֣תֶר עַמִּ֑ים מִדְּמֵ֤י אָדָם֙ וַחֲמַס־אֶ֔רֶץ קִרְיָ֖ה וְכָל־יֹ֥שְׁבֵי בָֽהּ׃ פ‬

Since you have plundered many nations,

The whole remainder of nations will plunder you,

Because of the bloodshed of man

And the violence in the land,

In the town,

And among all those inhabiting it.

Hab 2:9 ‫ה֗וֹי בֹּצֵ֛עַ בֶּ֥צַע רָ֖ע לְבֵית֑וֹ לָשׂ֤וּם בַּמָּרוֹם֙ קִנּ֔וֹ לְהִנָּצֵ֖ל מִכַּף־רָֽע׃‬

Woe to him who makes wicked unjust gain for his household,

To place his nest on high,

In order to be delivered from an evil hand.

makes ... unjust gain ← unjustly gains ... unjust gain.

evil hand ← hand of evil, a Hebraic genitive.
Hab 2:10 ‫יָעַ֥צְתָּ בֹּ֖שֶׁת לְבֵיתֶ֑ךָ קְצוֹת־עַמִּ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים וְחוֹטֵ֥א נַפְשֶֽׁךָ׃‬

You have counselled a shameful course of action to your house

– The cutting off of many nations,

So sinning against yourself.

yourself ← your soul.
Hab 2:11 ‫כִּי־אֶ֖בֶן מִקִּ֣יר תִּזְעָ֑ק וְכָפִ֖יס מֵעֵ֥ץ יַעֲנֶֽנָּה׃ פ‬

For a stone will cry out from the wall,

And a rafter of wood will answer it.

Hab 2:12 ‫ה֛וֹי בֹּנֶ֥ה עִ֖יר בְּדָמִ֑ים וְכוֹנֵ֥ן קִרְיָ֖ה בְּעַוְלָֽה׃‬

Woe to him who builds a wall by bloodshed

And establishes a town by iniquity.

Hab 2:13 ‫הֲל֣וֹא הִנֵּ֔ה מֵאֵ֖ת יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת וְיִֽיגְע֤וּ עַמִּים֙ בְּדֵי־אֵ֔שׁ וּלְאֻמִּ֖ים בְּדֵי־רִ֥יק יִעָֽפוּ׃‬

Look, is it not of the Lord of hosts

That the nations tire themselves for things that are fit for fire,

And the various peoples weary themselves for things that are vain.

things that are fit for fire: AV differs (in the fire).
Hab 2:14 ‫כִּ֚י תִּמָּלֵ֣א הָאָ֔רֶץ לָדַ֖עַת אֶת־כְּב֣וֹד יְהוָ֑ה כַּמַּ֖יִם יְכַסּ֥וּ עַל־יָֽם׃ ס‬

For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord,

As the waters cover the sea.

|| Isa 11:9.

with the knowledge of ← to know.
Hab 2:15 ‫ה֚וֹי מַשְׁקֵ֣ה רֵעֵ֔הוּ מְסַפֵּ֥חַ חֲמָתְךָ֖ וְאַ֣ף שַׁכֵּ֑ר לְמַ֥עַן הַבִּ֖יט עַל־מְעוֹרֵיהֶֽם׃‬

Woe to him who gives his neighbour drink,

You who pour out your wrath,

And also make drunk,

In order to see their nakedness.

your wrath: AV differs (thy bottle).
Hab 2:16 ‫שָׂבַ֤עְתָּ קָלוֹן֙ מִכָּב֔וֹד שְׁתֵ֥ה גַם־אַ֖תָּה וְהֵֽעָרֵ֑ל תִּסּ֣וֹב עָלֶ֗יךָ כּ֚וֹס יְמִ֣ין יְהוָ֔ה וְקִיקָל֖וֹן עַל־כְּבוֹדֶֽךָ׃‬

You are saturated with shame rather than glory.

You too must drink and show yourself uncircumcised.

The cup of the right hand of the Lord will hem you in,

And utter ignominy will come over your honour.

you too must drink: satirical.
Hab 2:17 ‫כִּ֣י חֲמַ֤ס לְבָנוֹן֙ יְכַסֶּ֔ךָּ וְשֹׁ֥ד בְּהֵמ֖וֹת יְחִיתַ֑ן מִדְּמֵ֤י אָדָם֙ וַחֲמַס־אֶ֔רֶץ קִרְיָ֖ה וְכָל־יֹ֥שְׁבֵי בָֽהּ׃ ס‬

For the violence of Lebanon will cover you,

And the destruction by beasts will terrify them,

Because of the bloodshed of man

And the violence of the land,

In a town and on all its inhabitants.

destruction by beasts ← destruction of beasts. Wider use of the construct state. Metaphorically extortion by beastly people.
Hab 2:18 ‫מָֽה־הוֹעִ֣יל פֶּ֗סֶל כִּ֤י פְסָלוֹ֙ יֹֽצְר֔וֹ מַסֵּכָ֖ה וּמ֣וֹרֶה שָּׁ֑קֶר כִּ֣י בָטַ֞ח יֹצֵ֤ר יִצְרוֹ֙ עָלָ֔יו לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת אֱלִילִ֥ים אִלְּמִֽים׃ ס‬

In what way is a carved image profitable?

For the fashioner of it carved it;

Or a cast image, or a teacher of falsehood?

For the artisan trusts his artefact as benefiting him,

And he is occupied making mute idols.

Hab 2:19 ‫ה֣וֹי אֹמֵ֤ר לָעֵץ֙ הָקִ֔יצָה ע֖וּרִי לְאֶ֣בֶן דּוּמָ֑ם ה֣וּא יוֹרֶ֔ה הִנֵּה־ה֗וּא תָּפוּשׂ֙ זָהָ֣ב וָכֶ֔סֶף וְכָל־ר֖וּחַ אֵ֥ין בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ׃‬

Woe to him who says to a piece of wood,


And to mute stone,


This is his teacher!

Look, it is set in gold and silver,

And there isn't any spirit inside it.”

mute stone ← stone of muteness, a Hebraic genitive.

any ← all.
Hab 2:20 ‫וַֽיהוָ֖ה בְּהֵיכַ֣ל קָדְשׁ֑וֹ הַ֥ס מִפָּנָ֖יו כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃ פ‬

But the Lord is in his holy temple.

Be silent in his presence,

All the earth.

his holy temple ← the temple of his holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Hab 3:1 ‫תְּפִלָּ֖ה לַחֲבַקּ֣וּק הַנָּבִ֑יא עַ֖ל שִׁגְיֹנֽוֹת׃‬ A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet concerning pre-eminence. pre-eminence: from root שָׁגָהII [Ges-HCL], but not in this sense in [AnLx], [BDB]. AV differs (Shigionoth); [CB]= crying aloud, from root שָׁאַג. Meaning not certain.
Hab 3:2 ‫יְהוָ֗ה שָׁמַ֣עְתִּי שִׁמְעֲךָ֮ יָרֵאתִי֒ יְהוָ֗ה פָּֽעָלְךָ֙ בְּקֶ֤רֶב שָׁנִים֙ חַיֵּ֔יהוּ בְּקֶ֥רֶב שָׁנִ֖ים תּוֹדִ֑יעַ בְּרֹ֖גֶז רַחֵ֥ם תִּזְכּֽוֹר׃‬

Lord, I have heard your report;

I have feared, O Lord, your work.

Revive it in the course of years

– In the course of years make it known.

In raging,

Remember to be merciful.

course (2x)midst.
Hab 3:3 ‫אֱל֙וֹהַ֙ מִתֵּימָ֣ן יָב֔וֹא וְקָד֥וֹשׁ מֵֽהַר־פָּארָ֖ן סֶ֑לָה כִּסָּ֤ה שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ הוֹד֔וֹ וּתְהִלָּת֖וֹ מָלְאָ֥ה הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

May God come from Teman,

And the holy one from Mount Paran.


His glory covers the heavens,

And his praise fills the earth.

The verbs here and following could be taken in other tenses than ours.

Selah: [AnLx] and [BDB] prefer raise (the voice); [Ges-HCL] prefers rest, silence. [AnLx] and [Ges-HCL] also offer the alternative.
Hab 3:4 ‫וְנֹ֙גַהּ֙ כָּא֣וֹר תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה קַרְנַ֥יִם מִיָּד֖וֹ ל֑וֹ וְשָׁ֖ם חֶבְי֥וֹן עֻזֹּֽה׃‬

And his splendour is as a light;

He has beams of light emanating from his hand,

Where his power is concealed.

concealed ← concealment.
Hab 3:5 ‫לְפָנָ֖יו יֵ֣לֶךְ דָּ֑בֶר וְיֵצֵ֥א רֶ֖שֶׁף לְרַגְלָֽיו׃‬

Pestilence goes before him,

And lightning emanates at his feet.

Hab 3:6 ‫עָמַ֣ד ׀ וַיְמֹ֣דֶד אֶ֗רֶץ רָאָה֙ וַיַּתֵּ֣ר גּוֹיִ֔ם וַיִּתְפֹּֽצְצוּ֙ הַרְרֵי־עַ֔ד שַׁח֖וּ גִּבְע֣וֹת עוֹלָ֑ם הֲלִיכ֥וֹת עוֹלָ֖ם לֽוֹ׃‬

He stood and measured out the earth;

He looked and shook up the nations,

And the perpetual mountains were scattered,

And age-abiding hills were brought low.

His ways are age-abiding.

shook up ← loosened.
Hab 3:7 ‫תַּ֣חַת אָ֔וֶן רָאִ֖יתִי אָהֳלֵ֣י כוּשָׁ֑ן יִרְגְּז֕וּן יְרִיע֖וֹת אֶ֥רֶץ מִדְיָֽן׃ ס‬

I saw the tents of Cushan in adversity,

And the awnings of the land of Midian shake.

Hab 3:8 ‫הֲבִנְהָרִים֙ חָרָ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה אִ֤ם בַּנְּהָרִים֙ אַפֶּ֔ךָ אִם־בַּיָּ֖ם עֶבְרָתֶ֑ךָ כִּ֤י תִרְכַּב֙ עַל־סוּסֶ֔יךָ מַרְכְּבֹתֶ֖יךָ יְשׁוּעָֽה׃‬

Was the Lord furious with the rivers?

Or was your anger with the rivers?

Or was your wrath with the sea?

For you will ride on your horses,

Drawing your chariots of salvation.

rivers ... rivers: otiose, but see Gen 12:5. English could use rivers ... waterways.
Hab 3:9 ‫עֶרְיָ֤ה תֵעוֹר֙ קַשְׁתֶּ֔ךָ שְׁבֻע֥וֹת מַטּ֖וֹת אֹ֣מֶר סֶ֑לָה נְהָר֖וֹת תְּבַקַּע־אָֽרֶץ׃‬

Your bow will be made completely bare,

According to the oaths made to the tribes

Your declaration to them.


You divide the earth with rivers.

will be made completely bare ← will be bared bare. Perhaps because all arrows (i.e. judgments) will be used up, rather than just the unsheathing.
Hab 3:10 ‫רָא֤וּךָ יָחִ֙ילוּ֙ הָרִ֔ים זֶ֥רֶם מַ֖יִם עָבָ֑ר נָתַ֤ן תְּהוֹם֙ קוֹל֔וֹ ר֖וֹם יָדֵ֥יהוּ נָשָֽׂא׃‬

The mountains saw you,

And they writhed.

A watery downpour brought overflow,

The deep sounded its voice;

It lifted its hands up high.

watery downpour ← downpour of water, a Hebraic genitive.
Hab 3:11 ‫שֶׁ֥מֶשׁ יָרֵ֖חַ עָ֣מַד זְבֻ֑לָה לְא֤וֹר חִצֶּ֙יךָ֙ יְהַלֵּ֔כוּ לְנֹ֖גַהּ בְּרַ֥ק חֲנִיתֶֽךָ׃‬

The sun and moon stood still in their residence;

At the light of your arrows they proceed

– At the brightness of the glittering of your spear.

Hab 3:12 ‫בְּזַ֖עַם תִּצְעַד־אָ֑רֶץ בְּאַ֖ף תָּד֥וּשׁ גּוֹיִֽם׃‬

In indignation you step through the earth;

In anger you tread on nations.

Hab 3:13 ‫יָצָ֙אתָ֙ לְיֵ֣שַׁע עַמֶּ֔ךָ לְיֵ֖שַׁע אֶת־מְשִׁיחֶ֑ךָ מָחַ֤צְתָּ רֹּאשׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית רָשָׁ֔ע עָר֛וֹת יְס֥וֹד עַד־צַוָּ֖אר סֶֽלָה׃ פ‬

You have gone out for the salvation of your people,

For the salvation of your anointed nation;

You have shattered the head in the house of the wicked

In making it bare from the foundation to the neck.


of your anointed nation: or of your messiah, or with your messiah.

in making it bare: gerundial use of the infinitive.
Hab 3:14 ‫נָקַ֤בְתָּ בְמַטָּיו֙ רֹ֣אשׁ *פרזו **פְּרָזָ֔יו יִסְעֲר֖וּ לַהֲפִיצֵ֑נִי עֲלִ֣יצֻתָ֔ם כְּמוֹ־לֶאֱכֹ֥ל עָנִ֖י בַּמִּסְתָּֽר׃‬

You have bored through the head of their {K: ruler} [Q: rulers] with his sceptres.

They rage like a storm in order to scatter me;

Their exultation is as if to consume the poor in secret.

ruler (ketiv) ... rulers (qeré): AV differs (villages).
Hab 3:15 ‫דָּרַ֥כְתָּ בַיָּ֖ם סוּסֶ֑יךָ חֹ֖מֶר מַ֥יִם רַבִּֽים׃‬

You made your way through the sea with your horses,

Through great foaming water.

Hab 3:16 ‫שָׁמַ֣עְתִּי ׀ וַתִּרְגַּ֣ז בִּטְנִ֗י לְקוֹל֙ צָלֲל֣וּ שְׂפָתַ֔י יָב֥וֹא רָקָ֛ב בַּעֲצָמַ֖י וְתַחְתַּ֣י אֶרְגָּ֑ז אֲשֶׁ֤ר אָנ֙וּחַ֙ לְי֣וֹם צָרָ֔ה לַעֲל֖וֹת לְעַ֥ם יְגוּדֶֽנּוּ׃‬

I heard it,

And my stomach trembled;

At the sound, my lips quivered.

A loathsome feeling comes on my bones,

And I shake on the spot,

Wishing that I may rest on the day of adversity.

At the advance towards the people,

He will attack them.

loathsome ← rotten.

on the spot ← under me.

advance ← coming up.
Hab 3:17 ‫כִּֽי־תְאֵנָ֣ה לֹֽא־תִפְרָ֗ח וְאֵ֤ין יְבוּל֙ בַּגְּפָנִ֔ים כִּחֵשׁ֙ מַעֲשֵׂה־זַ֔יִת וּשְׁדֵמ֖וֹת לֹא־עָ֣שָׂה אֹ֑כֶל גָּזַ֤ר מִמִּכְלָה֙ צֹ֔אן וְאֵ֥ין בָּקָ֖ר בָּרְפָתִֽים׃‬

For a fig tree will not blossom,

And there will be no produce on the vines,

And the crop of the olive tree will fail,

And the cornfields will not yield food,

And the sheep will be cut off from the fold,

And there will be no cattle in the stalls.

cornfields: or blighted corn.
Hab 3:18 ‫וַאֲנִ֖י בַּיהוָ֣ה אֶעְל֑וֹזָה אָגִ֖ילָה בֵּאלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׁעִֽי׃‬

But I will exult in the Lord;

I will rejoice in the God of my salvation.

but: adversative use of the vav.
Hab 3:19 ‫יְהוִ֤הּ אֲדֹנָי֙ חֵילִ֔י וַיָּ֤שֶׂם רַגְלַי֙ כָּֽאַיָּל֔וֹת וְעַ֥ל בָּמוֹתַ֖י יַדְרִכֵ֑נִי לַמְנַצֵּ֖חַ בִּנְגִינוֹתָֽי׃‬

The Lord my Lord is my strength,

And he makes my feet like those of the deer,

And he makes me walk on my raised sites.

To the choirmaster,

For accompaniment by my stringed instruments.

the Lord my Lord: usually in the opposite order.

to the choirmaster: see Ps 4:1.
Zeph 1:1 ‫דְּבַר־יְהוָ֣ה ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיָ֗ה אֶל־צְפַנְיָה֙ בֶּן־כּוּשִׁ֣י בֶן־גְּדַלְיָ֔ה בֶּן־אֲמַרְיָ֖ה בֶּן־חִזְקִיָּ֑ה בִּימֵ֛י יֹאשִׁיָּ֥הוּ בֶן־אָמ֖וֹן מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה׃‬ The word of the Lord which came to Zephaniah, the son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah, the son of Amariah, the son of Hezekiah, in the days of Josiah, the son of Amon, the king of Judah. came ← became.

Hezekiah: MT and AV here = Hizkiah, but this is the same name as for King Hezekiah (2 Ki 16:20), and we show the equivalence to the traditional English name.

Josiah ← Joshiahu, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.
Zeph 1:2 ‫אָסֹ֨ף אָסֵ֜ף כֹּ֗ל מֵעַ֛ל פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָ֖ה נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

I will certainly gather everything up

From the face of the earth,

Says the Lord.

I will certainly gather everything up: from אָסַף, gather, and סוּף end, evidently perceived as cognate. The former is an infinitive absolute.

earth ← ground.
Zeph 1:3 ‫אָסֵ֨ף אָדָ֜ם וּבְהֵמָ֗ה אָסֵ֤ף עוֹף־הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וּדְגֵ֣י הַיָּ֔ם וְהַמַּכְשֵׁל֖וֹת אֶת־הָרְשָׁעִ֑ים וְהִכְרַתִּ֣י אֶת־הָאָדָ֗ם מֵעַ֛ל פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָ֖ה נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬

I will gather up man and cattle;

I will gather up the birds of the sky

And the fish of the sea,

And the causes of offence

– The wicked.

So I will cut off man from the face of the earth,

Says the Lord.

earth ← ground.
Zeph 1:4 ‫וְנָטִ֤יתִי יָדִי֙ עַל־יְהוּדָ֔ה וְעַ֖ל כָּל־יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְהִכְרַתִּ֞י מִן־הַמָּק֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ אֶת־שְׁאָ֣ר הַבַּ֔עַל אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם הַכְּמָרִ֖ים עִם־הַכֹּהֲנִֽים׃‬

And I will stretch my hand out over Judah,

And over all the inhabitants of Jerusalem,

And I will cut off the residue of Baal from this place

– The name of the idolatrous priests,

With the apostate Levitical priests,

Zeph 1:5 ‫וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִ֥ים עַל־הַגַּגּ֖וֹת לִצְבָ֣א הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְאֶת־הַמִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוִים֙ הַנִּשְׁבָּעִ֣ים לַֽיהוָ֔ה וְהַנִּשְׁבָּעִ֖ים בְּמַלְכָּֽם׃‬

And the worshippers of the host of heaven on the rooftops,

And the worshippers who swear to the Lord,

And those swearing by Malcam,

Malcam: AV= Malcham, but we show the hard kaph (and closed syllable), as AV sometimes does with names elsewhere. The consonantal spelling is as in Milcom (1 Ki 11:5, 1 Ki 11:33, 2 Ki 23:13).
Zeph 1:6 ‫וְאֶת־הַנְּסוֹגִ֖ים מֵאַחֲרֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה וַאֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־בִקְשׁ֥וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א דְרָשֻֽׁהוּ׃‬

And those who apostatize from the Lord

And those who have not sought the Lord

And have not inquired of him.

from ← from after.
Zeph 1:7 ‫הַ֕ס מִפְּנֵ֖י אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה כִּ֤י קָרוֹב֙ י֣וֹם יְהוָ֔ה כִּֽי־הֵכִ֧ין יְהוָ֛ה זֶ֖בַח הִקְדִּ֥ישׁ קְרֻאָֽיו׃‬

Be silent before the Lord, the Lord,

For the day of the Lord is near,

For the Lord has prepared a sacrifice;

He has sanctified those he has invited.

Rev 1:10.
Zeph 1:8 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה בְּיוֹם֙ זֶ֣בַח יְהוָ֔ה וּפָקַדְתִּ֥י עַל־הַשָּׂרִ֖ים וְעַל־בְּנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְעַ֥ל כָּל־הַלֹּבְשִׁ֖ים מַלְבּ֥וּשׁ נָכְרִֽי׃‬

And it will come to pass on the day of the Lord's sacrifice

That I will visit the officials,

And the sons of the king,

And all those who are clothed in foreign clothing.

visit: i.e., here, punish.
Zeph 1:9 ‫וּפָקַדְתִּ֗י עַ֧ל כָּל־הַדּוֹלֵ֛ג עַל־הַמִּפְתָּ֖ן בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא הַֽמְמַלְאִ֛ים בֵּ֥ית אֲדֹנֵיהֶ֖ם חָמָ֥ס וּמִרְמָֽה׃ ס‬

And I will visit all those who leap over the threshold,

On that day,

Who fill their masters' houses with violence and deceit.

those who leap over the threshold ← him who leaps over the threshold, i.e. breaks in.
Zeph 1:10 ‫וְהָיָה֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה ק֤וֹל צְעָקָה֙ מִשַּׁ֣עַר הַדָּגִ֔ים וִֽילָלָ֖ה מִן־הַמִּשְׁנֶ֑ה וְשֶׁ֥בֶר גָּד֖וֹל מֵהַגְּבָעֽוֹת׃‬

And on that day,

Says the Lord,

There will be the sound of crying out from the Fish Gate,

And howling from the Second Gate,

And a great crash from the hills.

Zeph 1:11 ‫הֵילִ֖ילוּ יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הַמַּכְתֵּ֑שׁ כִּ֤י נִדְמָה֙ כָּל־עַ֣ם כְּנַ֔עַן נִכְרְת֖וּ כָּל־נְטִ֥ילֵי כָֽסֶף׃‬

Howl, you inhabitants of Maktesh,

For all the merchant people have been silenced,

And all those who are laden with silver have been cut off.

Zeph 1:12 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔יא אֲחַפֵּ֥שׂ אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם בַּנֵּר֑וֹת וּפָקַדְתִּ֣י עַל־הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים הַקֹּֽפְאִים֙ עַל־שִׁמְרֵיהֶ֔ם הָאֹֽמְרִים֙ בִּלְבָבָ֔ם לֹֽא־יֵיטִ֥יב יְהוָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א יָרֵֽעַ׃‬

And it will come to pass at that time

That I will seek Jerusalem with lamps,

And I will visit the men

Who rest coolly indifferent on their oars,

Who say in their heart,

‘The Lord will not do good or bad.’

visit: see Zeph 1:8.

rest coolly indifferent on their oars ← congeal on their lees, but we use the common English idiom. A similar idiom is rest on their laurels. The expression settle on their lees is from the AV and is not in common use.
Zeph 1:13 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה חֵילָם֙ לִמְשִׁסָּ֔ה וּבָתֵּיהֶ֖ם לִשְׁמָמָ֑ה וּבָנ֤וּ בָתִּים֙ וְלֹ֣א יֵשֵׁ֔בוּ וְנָטְע֣וּ כְרָמִ֔ים וְלֹ֥א יִשְׁתּ֖וּ אֶת־יֵינָֽם׃‬

And their wealth will become a prey,

And their houses a desolation.

And they will build houses,

But not inhabit them,

And plant vineyards,

But not drink their wine.

Zeph 1:14 ‫קָר֤וֹב יוֹם־יְהוָה֙ הַגָּד֔וֹל קָר֖וֹב וּמַהֵ֣ר מְאֹ֑ד ק֚וֹל י֣וֹם יְהוָ֔ה מַ֥ר צֹרֵ֖חַ שָׁ֥ם גִּבּֽוֹר׃‬

The great day of the Lord is near,

It is near,

And it is very hasty.

At the sound of the day of the Lord,

The warrior will shout out there bitterly.

Rev 1:10.
Zeph 1:15 ‫י֥וֹם עֶבְרָ֖ה הַיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא י֧וֹם צָרָ֣ה וּמְצוּקָ֗ה י֤וֹם שֹׁאָה֙ וּמְשׁוֹאָ֔ה י֥וֹם חֹ֙שֶׁךְ֙ וַאֲפֵלָ֔ה י֥וֹם עָנָ֖ן וַעֲרָפֶֽל׃‬

That day is a day of wrath,

A day of distress and anguish,

A day of annihilation and obliteration,

A day of darkness and obscurity,

A day of cloud and gloom,

Zeph 1:16 ‫י֥וֹם שׁוֹפָ֖ר וּתְרוּעָ֑ה עַ֚ל הֶעָרִ֣ים הַבְּצֻר֔וֹת וְעַ֖ל הַפִּנּ֥וֹת הַגְּבֹהֽוֹת׃‬

A day of the ramshorn and alarm,

At the fortified cities,

And at the high corner towers.

Zeph 1:17 ‫וַהֲצֵרֹ֣תִי לָאָדָ֗ם וְהָֽלְכוּ֙ כַּֽעִוְרִ֔ים כִּ֥י לַֽיהוָ֖ה חָטָ֑אוּ וְשֻׁפַּ֤ךְ דָּמָם֙ כֶּֽעָפָ֔ר וּלְחֻמָ֖ם כַּגְּלָלִֽים׃‬

And I will oppress man,

And they will walk as the blind,

For they have sinned against the Lord,

And their blood will be poured out like dust,

And their flesh like dung.

flesh: or bowels [BDB], but not [AnLx], [ST], [Ges-HCL].
Zeph 1:18 ‫גַּם־כַּסְפָּ֨ם גַּם־זְהָבָ֜ם לֹֽא־יוּכַ֣ל לְהַצִּילָ֗ם בְּיוֹם֙ עֶבְרַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה וּבְאֵשׁ֙ קִנְאָת֔וֹ תֵּאָכֵ֖ל כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּֽי־כָלָ֤ה אַךְ־נִבְהָלָה֙ יַֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה אֵ֥ת כָּל־יֹשְׁבֵ֖י הָאָֽרֶץ׃ ס‬

Neither their silver nor their gold will be able to save them,

On the day of the Lord's wrath,

And all the earth will be consumed in his jealous fire,

For he will make an end

– A most terrifying one –

Of all the inhabitants of the earth.

their silver nor their gold (etc.): compare Ezek 7:19.

his jealous fire ← the fire of his jealousy, a Hebraic genitive.

of all the inhabitants ← with all the inhabitants.
Zeph 2:1 ‫הִֽתְקוֹשְׁשׁ֖וּ וָק֑וֹשּׁוּ הַגּ֖וֹי לֹ֥א נִכְסָֽף׃‬

Assemble yourselves, and gather,

O undesirable nation.

Zeph 2:2 ‫בְּטֶ֙רֶם֙ לֶ֣דֶת חֹ֔ק כְּמֹ֖ץ עָ֣בַר י֑וֹם בְּטֶ֣רֶם ׀ לֹא־יָב֣וֹא עֲלֵיכֶ֗ם חֲרוֹן֙ אַף־יְהוָ֔ה בְּטֶ֙רֶם֙ לֹא־יָב֣וֹא עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם י֖וֹם אַף־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Before the issuing of the statute,

The days will pass like chaff,

Until the day of the fury of the Lord's anger comes on you,

Until the day of the Lord's anger comes on you.

issuing of ← giving birth to.

days ← day.
Zeph 2:3 ‫בַּקְּשׁ֤וּ אֶת־יְהוָה֙ כָּל־עַנְוֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִשְׁפָּט֖וֹ פָּעָ֑לוּ בַּקְּשׁוּ־צֶ֙דֶק֙ בַּקְּשׁ֣וּ עֲנָוָ֔ה אוּלַי֙ תִּסָּ֣תְר֔וּ בְּי֖וֹם אַף־יְהוָֽה׃‬

Seek the Lord, all you meek of the earth,

Who have acted in accordance with his justice.

Seek righteousness,

Seek meekness;

Perhaps you will be hidden

On the day of the Lord's anger.

Zeph 2:4 ‫כִּ֤י עַזָּה֙ עֲזוּבָ֣ה תִֽהְיֶ֔ה וְאַשְׁקְל֖וֹן לִשְׁמָמָ֑ה אַשְׁדּ֗וֹד בַּֽצָּהֳרַ֙יִם֙ יְגָ֣רְשׁ֔וּהָ וְעֶקְר֖וֹן תֵּעָקֵֽר׃ ס‬

For Gaza will be forsaken,

And Ashkelon will be a desolation.

They will drive out Ashdod at midday,

And Ekron will be eradicated.

Zeph 2:5 ‫ה֗וֹי יֹֽשְׁבֵ֛י חֶ֥בֶל הַיָּ֖ם גּ֣וֹי כְּרֵתִ֑ים דְּבַר־יְהוָ֣ה עֲלֵיכֶ֗ם כְּנַ֙עַן֙ אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְהַאֲבַדְתִּ֖יךְ מֵאֵ֥ין יוֹשֵֽׁב׃‬

Woe to the inhabitants of the tract by the sea

– The nation of Cherethites!

The word of the Lord is against you, Canaan,

Land of the Philistines,

And I will destroy you

Without leaving an inhabitant.

Zeph 2:6 ‫וְֽהָיְתָ֞ה חֶ֣בֶל הַיָּ֗ם נְוֺ֛ת כְּרֹ֥ת רֹעִ֖ים וְגִדְר֥וֹת צֹֽאן׃‬

And the tract by the sea will be dwelling places,

And wells, for shepherds,

And walled folds for sheep.

wells: not the usual word. AV differs (cottages); [CB]= pens. The root meaning is to dig.
Zeph 2:7 ‫וְהָ֣יָה חֶ֗בֶל לִשְׁאֵרִ֛ית בֵּ֥ית יְהוּדָ֖ה עֲלֵיהֶ֣ם יִרְע֑וּן בְּבָתֵּ֣י אַשְׁקְל֗וֹן בָּעֶ֙רֶב֙ יִרְבָּצ֔וּן כִּ֧י יִפְקְדֵ֛ם יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֖ם וְשָׁ֥ב *שבותם **שְׁבִיתָֽם׃‬

And the tract will be for the remnant of the house of Judah.

They will feed on it;

They will lie down in the houses of Ashkelon in the evening,

For the Lord their God will visit them

And reverse their captivity.

their captivity: the ketiv can be regarded as a variant form of the qeré. A vav / yod issue.

feed on it ← feed on them.
Zeph 2:8 ‫שָׁמַ֙עְתִּי֙ חֶרְפַּ֣ת מוֹאָ֔ב וְגִדּוּפֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֑וֹן אֲשֶׁ֤ר חֵֽרְפוּ֙ אֶת־עַמִּ֔י וַיַּגְדִּ֖ילוּ עַל־גְּבוּלָֽם׃‬

I have heard the reproach of Moab,

And the vilifications of the sons of Ammon,

Who reproach my people,

And who make themselves great on their territory.

reproach of Moab: a subjective genitive (Moab reproaches), as is seen from the rest of the verse.

on: AV differs (against).

territory ← border.
Zeph 2:9 ‫לָכֵ֣ן חַי־אָ֡נִי נְאֻם֩ יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כִּֽי־מוֹאָ֞ב כִּסְדֹ֤ם תִּֽהְיֶה֙ וּבְנֵ֤י עַמּוֹן֙ כַּֽעֲמֹרָ֔ה מִמְשַׁ֥ק חָר֛וּל וּמִכְרֵה־מֶ֥לַח וּשְׁמָמָ֖ה עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם שְׁאֵרִ֤ית עַמִּי֙ יְבָזּ֔וּם וְיֶ֥תֶר *גוי **גּוֹיִ֖י יִנְחָלֽוּם׃‬

Therefore, as I live,

Says the Lord of hosts

– The God of Israel –

Moab will be like Sodom,

And the sons of Ammon like Gomorrah:

A domain of nettles and a pit of salt,

And an age-abiding desolation.

The remnant of my people will take them as spoil,

And the remainder of my nation will inherit them.

my nation: the ketiv could be regarded a variant form of the qeré.

Moab: preceded by the conjunction כִּי, which we take as merely affirming the direct speech, as is sometimes the case with ὅτι in the New Testament, e.g. Mark 7:20.
Zeph 2:10 ‫זֹ֥את לָהֶ֖ם תַּ֣חַת גְּאוֹנָ֑ם כִּ֤י חֵֽרְפוּ֙ וַיַּגְדִּ֔לוּ עַל־עַ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬

This is what they will have in place of their pride,

For they reproached and acted proudly

Against the people of the Lord of hosts.

Zeph 2:11 ‫נוֹרָ֤א יְהוָה֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם כִּ֣י רָזָ֔ה אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ וְיִשְׁתַּֽחֲווּ־לוֹ֙ אִ֣ישׁ מִמְּקוֹמ֔וֹ כֹּ֖ל אִיֵּ֥י הַגּוֹיִֽם׃‬

The Lord will be terrible to them,

For he will cause all the gods of the land to waste away.

And they will worship him,

Each man in his place,

Over all the coastlands of the Gentiles.

Zeph 2:12 ‫גַּם־אַתֶּ֣ם כּוּשִׁ֔ים חַֽלְלֵ֥י חַרְבִּ֖י הֵֽמָּה׃‬

You Ethiopians too,

They are those to be struck by my sword.

Zeph 2:13 ‫וְיֵ֤ט יָדוֹ֙ עַל־צָפ֔וֹן וִֽיאַבֵּ֖ד אֶת־אַשּׁ֑וּר וְיָשֵׂ֤ם אֶת־נִֽינְוֵה֙ לִשְׁמָמָ֔ה צִיָּ֖ה כַּמִּדְבָּֽר׃‬

He will stretch his hand out to the north

And will destroy Assyria,

And he will make Nineveh a desolation

– A dry land like the desert.

Zeph 2:14 ‫וְרָבְצ֨וּ בְתוֹכָ֤הּ עֲדָרִים֙ כָּל־חַיְתוֹ־ג֔וֹי גַּם־קָאַת֙ גַּם־קִפֹּ֔ד בְּכַפְתֹּרֶ֖יהָ יָלִ֑ינוּ ק֠וֹל יְשׁוֹרֵ֤ר בַּֽחַלּוֹן֙ חֹ֣רֶב בַּסַּ֔ף כִּ֥י אַרְזָ֖ה עֵרָֽה׃‬

And the flocks will lie in its midst

– All the Gentiles' animals.

Also the pelican and the hedgehog will lodge in the capitals of the fallen columns,

And there will be the sound of a bird singing from the window.

There will be desolation at the threshold,

For he will expose the cedar panelling.

Zeph 2:15 ‫זֹ֠את הָעִ֤יר הָעַלִּיזָה֙ הַיּוֹשֶׁ֣בֶת לָבֶ֔טַח הָאֹֽמְרָה֙ בִּלְבָבָ֔הּ אֲנִ֖י וְאַפְסִ֣י ע֑וֹד אֵ֣יךְ ׀ הָיְתָ֣ה לְשַׁמָּ֗ה מַרְבֵּץ֙ לַֽחַיָּ֔ה כֹּ֚ל עוֹבֵ֣ר עָלֶ֔יהָ יִשְׁרֹ֖ק יָנִ֥יעַ יָדֽוֹ׃ ס‬

This is the joyful city,

Dwelling in supposed security,

Saying in its heart,

‘I am and there is none besides me.’

How it has become a desolation

– A place for animals to lie down in.

Everyone passing through it will hiss at it,

And wave it aside with the hand.

Compare the verse with Isa 47:8.
Zeph 3:1 ‫ה֥וֹי מֹרְאָ֖ה וְנִגְאָלָ֑ה הָעִ֖יר הַיּוֹנָֽה׃‬

Woe to the rebellious and polluted and oppressing city.

city: i.e., [CB], Jerusalem.
Zeph 3:2 ‫לֹ֤א שָֽׁמְעָה֙ בְּק֔וֹל לֹ֥א לָקְחָ֖ה מוּסָ֑ר בַּֽיהוָה֙ לֹ֣א בָטָ֔חָה אֶל־אֱלֹהֶ֖יהָ לֹ֥א קָרֵֽבָה׃‬

It did not listen to the voice,

It did not accept correction,

It did not trust in the Lord;

It did not draw near to its God.

Zeph 3:3 ‫שָׂרֶ֣יהָ בְקִרְבָּ֔הּ אֲרָי֖וֹת שֹֽׁאֲגִ֑ים שֹׁפְטֶ֙יהָ֙ זְאֵ֣בֵי עֶ֔רֶב לֹ֥א גָרְמ֖וּ לַבֹּֽקֶר׃‬

Its officials in its society are roaring lions,

Its judges are evening wolves;

They leave nothing to gnaw in the morning.

society ← midst.

they leave nothing to gnaw ← they shall not gnaw.
Zeph 3:4 ‫נְבִיאֶ֙יהָ֙ פֹּֽחֲזִ֔ים אַנְשֵׁ֖י בֹּֽגְד֑וֹת כֹּהֲנֶ֙יהָ֙ חִלְּלוּ־קֹ֔דֶשׁ חָמְס֖וּ תּוֹרָֽה׃‬

Its prophets are acting recklessly;

They are treacherous men.

Its priests have profaned the holy place;

They have done violence to the law.

recklessly: or proudly.
Zeph 3:5 ‫יְהוָ֤ה צַדִּיק֙ בְּקִרְבָּ֔הּ לֹ֥א יַעֲשֶׂ֖ה עַוְלָ֑ה בַּבֹּ֨קֶר בַּבֹּ֜קֶר מִשְׁפָּט֨וֹ יִתֵּ֤ן לָאוֹר֙ לֹ֣א נֶעְדָּ֔ר וְלֹֽא־יוֹדֵ֥עַ עַוָּ֖ל בֹּֽשֶׁת׃‬

But the righteous Lord is in its midst;

He does not act iniquitously.

Each morning he gives his judgment as a light.

It is not lacking.

But the unjust knows no shame.

act iniquitously ← do iniquity.

it is not lacking: AV differs (he faileth not).
Zeph 3:6 ‫הִכְרַ֣תִּי גוֹיִ֗ם נָשַׁ֙מּוּ֙ פִּנּוֹתָ֔ם הֶחֱרַ֥בְתִּי חֽוּצוֹתָ֖ם מִבְּלִ֣י עוֹבֵ֑ר נִצְדּ֧וּ עָרֵיהֶ֛ם מִבְּלִי־אִ֖ישׁ מֵאֵ֥ין יוֹשֵֽׁב׃‬

I have cut off nations;

Their cornerstones have been made desolate.

I have laid their streets waste,

So that there is no-one passing by.

Their cities have been made desolate,

So that there is no man

– No inhabitant – in them.

Zeph 3:7 ‫אָמַ֜רְתִּי אַךְ־תִּירְאִ֤י אוֹתִי֙ תִּקְחִ֣י מוּסָ֔ר וְלֹֽא־יִכָּרֵ֣ת מְעוֹנָ֔הּ כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־פָּקַ֖דְתִּי עָלֶ֑יהָ אָכֵן֙ הִשְׁכִּ֣ימוּ הִשְׁחִ֔יתוּ כֹּ֖ל עֲלִילוֹתָֽם׃‬

I said, ‘Surely you will fear me,

And take correction,

And its dwelling will not be cut off’,

Considering every way in which I had visited it.

But truly, they rose early

And caused ruin in all their works.

dwelling: standing for Jerusalem's status as a place in which to dwell.
Zeph 3:8 ‫לָכֵ֤ן חַכּוּ־לִי֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה לְי֖וֹם קוּמִ֣י לְעַ֑ד כִּ֣י מִשְׁפָּטִי֩ לֶאֱסֹ֨ף גּוֹיִ֜ם לְקָבְצִ֣י מַמְלָכ֗וֹת לִשְׁפֹּ֨ךְ עֲלֵיהֶ֤ם זַעְמִי֙ כֹּ֚ל חֲר֣וֹן אַפִּ֔י כִּ֚י בְּאֵ֣שׁ קִנְאָתִ֔י תֵּאָכֵ֖ל כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬

Therefore wait for me,

Says the Lord,

Wait for the day of me rising for the raid,

For my judgment is to gather nations,

For me to collect kingdoms,

To pour out over them my indignation

– All the fury of my anger.

For in the fire of my jealousy

All the earth will be consumed.

This verse contains all twenty-two Hebrew letters, including the five final forms.
Zeph 3:9 ‫כִּֽי־אָ֛ז אֶהְפֹּ֥ךְ אֶל־עַמִּ֖ים שָׂפָ֣ה בְרוּרָ֑ה לִקְרֹ֤א כֻלָּם֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה לְעָבְד֖וֹ שְׁכֶ֥ם אֶחָֽד׃‬

For then I will bring change to the people

– A pure lip –

That they may all call on the name of the Lord,

To serve him standing shoulder to shoulder.

lip: probably referring to things said, as in Isa 6:5, but perhaps language.

standing shoulder to shoulder ← (as) one shoulder.
Zeph 3:10 ‫מֵעֵ֖בֶר לְנַֽהֲרֵי־כ֑וּשׁ עֲתָרַי֙ בַּת־פוּצַ֔י יוֹבִל֖וּן מִנְחָתִֽי׃‬

Beyond the rivers of Ethiopia,

Those who entreat me

She who is in my diaspora –

Will bring my offering.

she ← the daughter, standing for Israel, followed by a plural verb.
Zeph 3:11 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא לֹ֤א תֵב֙וֹשִׁי֙ מִכֹּ֣ל עֲלִילֹתַ֔יִךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר פָּשַׁ֖עַתְּ בִּ֑י כִּי־אָ֣ז ׀ אָסִ֣יר מִקִּרְבֵּ֗ךְ עַלִּיזֵי֙ גַּאֲוָתֵ֔ךְ וְלֹֽא־תוֹסִ֧פִי לְגָבְהָ֛ה ע֖וֹד בְּהַ֥ר קָדְשִֽׁי׃‬

On that day, you will not be ashamed of any of your works

With which you transgressed against me,

For then I will have removed from your midst

Those rejoicing in your pride,

And you will no longer be haughty on my holy mountain.

any ← all.
Zeph 3:12 ‫וְהִשְׁאַרְתִּ֣י בְקִרְבֵּ֔ךְ עַ֥ם עָנִ֖י וָדָ֑ל וְחָס֖וּ בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהוָֽה׃‬

And I will leave in your midst an afflicted and poor people,

And they will trust in the name of the Lord.

Zeph 3:13 ‫שְׁאֵרִ֨ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל לֹֽא־יַעֲשׂ֤וּ עַוְלָה֙ וְלֹא־יְדַבְּר֣וּ כָזָ֔ב וְלֹֽא־יִמָּצֵ֥א בְּפִיהֶ֖ם לְשׁ֣וֹן תַּרְמִ֑ית כִּֽי־הֵ֛מָּה יִרְע֥וּ וְרָבְצ֖וּ וְאֵ֥ין מַחֲרִֽיד׃ ס‬

The remnant of Israel will not commit iniquity

And will not speak lies,

And there will not be found in their mouth a deceitful tongue,

For they will pasture and lie down,

And there will be no-one to make them afraid.

Rev 14:5.

a deceitful tongue ← a tongue of deceit, a Hebraic genitive.

to make them afraid ← making them afraid.

Compare this verse with Lev 26:6, Job 11:19, Isa 17:2, Mic 4:4, Ezek 34:28.
Zeph 3:14 ‫רָנִּי֙ בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן הָרִ֖יעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל שִׂמְחִ֤י וְעָלְזִי֙ בְּכָל־לֵ֔ב בַּ֖ת יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬

Sing for joy, O daughter of Zion,

Shout aloud, Israel,

Be glad and exult with all your heart,

O daughter of Jerusalem.

Zeph 3:15 ‫הֵסִ֤יר יְהוָה֙ מִשְׁפָּטַ֔יִךְ פִּנָּ֖ה אֹֽיְבֵ֑ךְ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל ׀ יְהוָה֙ בְּקִרְבֵּ֔ךְ לֹא־תִֽירְאִ֥י רָ֖ע עֽוֹד׃‬

The Lord has taken away the judgments against you;

He has removed your enemy.

The king of Israel – the Lordis in your midst,

And you will fear evil no more.

the judgments against you ← your judgments, an objective genitive.

fear: AV differs (see). The identical word occurs in Zeph 3:16, where AV= fear.
Zeph 3:16 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יֵאָמֵ֥ר לִירֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם אַל־תִּירָ֑אִי צִיּ֖וֹן אַל־יִרְפּ֥וּ יָדָֽיִךְ׃‬

On that day, it will be said to Jerusalem,

‘Do not fear’,

And to Zion,

‘Don't let your hands droop.’

Zeph 3:17 ‫יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהַ֛יִךְ בְּקִרְבֵּ֖ך גִּבּ֣וֹר יוֹשִׁ֑יעַ יָשִׂ֨ישׂ עָלַ֜יִךְ בְּשִׂמְחָ֗ה יַחֲרִישׁ֙ בְּאַ֣הֲבָת֔וֹ יָגִ֥יל עָלַ֖יִךְ בְּרִנָּֽה׃‬

The Lord your God is in your midst,

A mighty one who will save.

He will rejoice over you with gladness,

He will be quiet in his love;

He will exult over you with singing.

Zeph 3:18 ‫נוּגֵ֧י מִמּוֹעֵ֛ד אָסַ֖פְתִּי מִמֵּ֣ךְ הָי֑וּ מַשְׂאֵ֥ת עָלֶ֖יהָ חֶרְפָּֽה׃‬

I will gather those grieved

By the cessation of the festival.

They were your inhabitants;

The burden upon her was a reproach.

Zeph 3:19 ‫הִנְנִ֥י עֹשֶׂ֛ה אֶת־כָּל־מְעַנַּ֖יִךְ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֑יא וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּ֣י אֶת־הַצֹּלֵעָ֗ה וְהַנִּדָּחָה֙ אֲקַבֵּ֔ץ וְשַׂמְתִּים֙ לִתְהִלָּ֣ה וּלְשֵׁ֔ם בְּכָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ בָּשְׁתָּֽם׃‬

I will deal with all your oppressors at that time,

And I will save her who is limping.

I will gather her who has been cast out,

And make them a recipient of praise and renown

In all the land where their shame was.

I will ← behold me, with the sense of I am about to, but here with a more future reference.
Zeph 3:20 ‫בָּעֵ֤ת הַהִיא֙ אָבִ֣יא אֶתְכֶ֔ם וּבָעֵ֖ת קַבְּצִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־אֶתֵּ֨ן אֶתְכֶ֜ם לְשֵׁ֣ם וְלִתְהִלָּ֗ה בְּכֹל֙ עַמֵּ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ בְּשׁוּבִ֧י אֶת־שְׁבוּתֵיכֶ֛ם לְעֵינֵיכֶ֖ם אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬

At that time I will bring you home,

At the time when I gather you,

For I will give you renown and praise

Among all the various peoples of the earth,

When I reverse your captivity in front of your eyes,

Says the Lord.”

Hagg 1:1 ‫בִּשְׁנַ֤ת שְׁתַּ֙יִם֙ לְדָרְיָ֣וֶשׁ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ בַּחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשִּׁשִּׁ֔י בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָ֖ד לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ הָיָ֨ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֜ה בְּיַד־חַגַּ֣י הַנָּבִ֗יא אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶ֤ל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל֙ פַּחַ֣ת יְהוּדָ֔ה וְאֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֧עַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָ֛ק הַכֹּהֵ֥ן הַגָּד֖וֹל לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came through the intermediacy of Haggai the prophet, with a prophecy for Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, the governor of Judah, and for Joshua the son of Jozadak, the high priest, and it said, came ← became.

intermediacy ← hand.

Jozadak: AV= Josedech, deviating from its normal transliteration of qamets, tsadé and qoph.
Hagg 1:2 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֛ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֵאמֹ֑ר הָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ אָֽמְר֔וּ לֹ֥א עֶת־בֹּ֛א עֶת־בֵּ֥ית יְהוָ֖ה לְהִבָּנֽוֹת׃ פ‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘This people has said, «The time has not come, the time for the house of the Lord to be built.» ’ ” this is whatthus.
Hagg 1:3 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה בְּיַד־חַגַּ֥י הַנָּבִ֖יא לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord came through the intermediacy of Haggai the prophet and said, came ← became.

intermediacy ← hand.
Hagg 1:4 ‫הַעֵ֤ת לָכֶם֙ אַתֶּ֔ם לָשֶׁ֖בֶת בְּבָתֵּיכֶ֣ם סְפוּנִ֑ים וְהַבַּ֥יִת הַזֶּ֖ה חָרֵֽב׃‬ Is it the time for you to dwell in your panelled houses, while this house is lying desolate? for you ← for you, you, emphasizing the contrast in the verse.
Hagg 1:5 ‫וְעַתָּ֕ה כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת שִׂ֥ימוּ לְבַבְכֶ֖ם עַל־דַּרְכֵיכֶֽם׃‬ So now, this is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘Consider your ways. this is whatthus.
Hagg 1:6 ‫זְרַעְתֶּ֨ם הַרְבֵּ֜ה וְהָבֵ֣א מְעָ֗ט אָכ֤וֹל וְאֵין־לְשָׂבְעָה֙ שָׁת֣וֹ וְאֵין־לְשָׁכְרָ֔ה לָב֖וֹשׁ וְאֵין־לְחֹ֣ם ל֑וֹ וְהַ֨מִּשְׂתַּכֵּ֔ר מִשְׂתַּכֵּ֖ר אֶל־צְר֥וֹר נָקֽוּב׃ פ‬

You have sown much,

But brought little in;


But not to satisfaction;


But not to the full;

Clothed yourselves,

But not enough to warm yourselves.

And the hired man hires himself out

For wages going into a purse with holes.’

brought ... eaten ... drunk ... clothed yourselves: cases of the infinitive absolute in the role of finite verbs.

to warm yourselves ← to warm oneself.

with holes ← perforated.
Hagg 1:7 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת שִׂ֥ימוּ לְבַבְכֶ֖ם עַל־דַּרְכֵיכֶֽם׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘Consider your ways. this is whatthus.
Hagg 1:8 ‫עֲל֥וּ הָהָ֛ר וַהֲבֵאתֶ֥ם עֵ֖ץ וּבְנ֣וּ הַבָּ֑יִת וְאֶרְצֶה־בּ֥וֹ *ואכבד **וְאֶכָּבְדָ֖ה אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃‬ Go up to the mountain and bring wood, and build the house, and I will accept it. And {K: I will be honoured} [Q: let me be honoured] by it, says the Lord.
Hagg 1:9 ‫פָּנֹ֤ה אֶל־הַרְבֵּה֙ וְהִנֵּ֣ה לִמְעָ֔ט וַהֲבֵאתֶ֥ם הַבַּ֖יִת וְנָפַ֣חְתִּי ב֑וֹ יַ֣עַן מֶ֗ה נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת יַ֗עַן בֵּיתִי֙ אֲשֶׁר־ה֣וּא חָרֵ֔ב וְאַתֶּ֥ם רָצִ֖ים אִ֥ישׁ לְבֵיתֽוֹ׃‬ You turned your attention to much gain, but look, it came to little, and when you brought it home, I blew on it. Why? says the Lord of hosts. Because of my house, in that it is desolate, but you run, each man to his own house. you turned your attention: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.

blew on it: perhaps, with LXX, meaning blew it away.
Hagg 1:10 ‫עַל־כֵּ֣ן עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם כָּלְא֥וּ שָמַ֖יִם מִטָּ֑ל וְהָאָ֖רֶץ כָּלְאָ֥ה יְבוּלָֽהּ׃‬ That is why heaven is shut on you, so that there is no dew, and the land has held back its produce. so that there is no dew ← from dew.
Hagg 1:11 ‫וָאֶקְרָ֨א חֹ֜רֶב עַל־הָאָ֣רֶץ וְעַל־הֶהָרִ֗ים וְעַל־הַדָּגָן֙ וְעַל־הַתִּיר֣וֹשׁ וְעַל־הַיִּצְהָ֔ר וְעַ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תּוֹצִ֖יא הָאֲדָמָ֑ה וְעַל־הָֽאָדָם֙ וְעַל־הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה וְעַ֖ל כָּל־יְגִ֥יעַ כַּפָּֽיִם׃ ס‬ For I called a drought on the land and on the mountains, and on the corn, and on the new wine, and on the new oil, and on that which the ground produces, and on man and on the cattle, and on all manual toil.’ ” for: causal use of the vav.
Hagg 1:12 ‫וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע זְרֻבָּבֶ֣ל ׀ בֶּֽן־שַׁלְתִּיאֵ֡ל וִיהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָק֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן הַגָּד֜וֹל וְכֹ֣ל ׀ שְׁאֵרִ֣ית הָעָ֗ם בְּקוֹל֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֔ם וְעַל־דִּבְרֵי֙ חַגַּ֣י הַנָּבִ֔יא כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר שְׁלָח֖וֹ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּֽירְא֥וּ הָעָ֖ם מִפְּנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬ Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Joshua the son of Jozadak, the high priest, and all the remainder of the people, heeded the Lord their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, according as the Lord their God sent him, and the people feared the Lord. Jozadak: see Hagg 1:1.

heeded ← heard the voice.

feared the Lordfeared before the Lord.
Hagg 1:13 ‫וַ֠יֹּאמֶר חַגַּ֞י מַלְאַ֧ךְ יְהוָ֛ה בְּמַלְאֲכ֥וּת יְהוָ֖ה לָעָ֣ם לֵאמֹ֑ר אֲנִ֥י אִתְּכֶ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬ And Haggai the Lord's messenger spoke with the Lord's message to the people and said, “I am with you, says the Lord.”
Hagg 1:14 ‫וַיָּ֣עַר יְהוָ֡ה אֶת־רוּחַ֩ זְרֻבָּבֶ֨ל בֶּן־שַׁלְתִּיאֵ֜ל פַּחַ֣ת יְהוּדָ֗ה וְאֶת־ר֙וּחַ֙ יְהוֹשֻׁ֤עַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָק֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֔וֹל וְֽאֶת־ר֔וּחַ כֹּ֖ל שְׁאֵרִ֣ית הָעָ֑ם וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ וַיַּעֲשׂ֣וּ מְלָאכָ֔ה בְּבֵית־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽם׃ פ‬ And the Lord roused the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, the governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Jozadak, the high priest, and the spirit of all the remainder of the people, and they came, and they carried out the work in the house of the Lord of hosts their God, Shealtiel ← Shaltiel here, but not in Hagg 1:1.

Jozadak: see Hagg 1:1.
Hagg 1:15 ‫בְּי֨וֹם עֶשְׂרִ֧ים וְאַרְבָּעָ֛ה לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ בַּשִּׁשִּׁ֑י בִּשְׁנַ֥ת שְׁתַּ֖יִם לְדָרְיָ֥וֶשׁ הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ on the twenty-fourth day of the month, in the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king.
Hagg 2:1 ‫בַּשְּׁבִיעִ֕י בְּעֶשְׂרִ֥ים וְאֶחָ֖ד לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ הָיָה֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה בְּיַד־חַגַּ֥י הַנָּבִ֖יא לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ In the seventh month, on the twenty-first day of the month, the word of the Lord came through the intermediacy of Haggai the prophet and said, came ← became.

intermediacy ← hand.
Hagg 2:2 ‫אֱמָר־נָ֗א אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶ֤ל בֶּן־שַׁלְתִּיאֵל֙ פַּחַ֣ת יְהוּדָ֔ה וְאֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֥עַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָ֖ק הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֑וֹל וְאֶל־שְׁאֵרִ֥ית הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ “Please speak to Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, the governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jozadak, the high priest, and the remainder of the people, and say, Shealtiel ← Shaltiel, as in Hagg 1:14, but not Hagg 1:1.

Jozadak: see Hagg 1:1.
Hagg 2:3 ‫מִ֤י בָכֶם֙ הַנִּשְׁאָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֤ר רָאָה֙ אֶת־הַבַּ֣יִת הַזֶּ֔ה בִּכְבוֹד֖וֹ הָרִאשׁ֑וֹן וּמָ֨ה אַתֶּ֜ם רֹאִ֤ים אֹתוֹ֙ עַ֔תָּה הֲל֥וֹא כָמֹ֛הוּ כְּאַ֖יִן בְּעֵינֵיכֶֽם׃‬ ‘Who is there remaining among you who has seen this house in its former glory? And how do you see it now? Is it not in your sight nothing compared to what it was?
Hagg 2:4 ‫וְעַתָּ֣ה חֲזַ֣ק זְרֻבָּבֶ֣ל ׀ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֡ה וַחֲזַ֣ק יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָק֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן הַגָּד֜וֹל וַחֲזַ֨ק כָּל־עַ֥ם הָאָ֛רֶץ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֖ה וַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י אִתְּכֶ֔ם נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ So now, be strong, Zerubbabel, says the Lord, and be strong Joshua, son of Jozadak, high priest, and be strong all of you people of the land, says the Lord, and start work, for I am with you, says the Lord of hosts. Jozadak: see Hagg 1:1.
Hagg 2:5 ‫אֶֽת־הַדָּבָ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־כָּרַ֤תִּי אִתְּכֶם֙ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֣ם מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם וְרוּחִ֖י עֹמֶ֣דֶת בְּתוֹכְכֶ֑ם אַל־תִּירָֽאוּ׃ ס‬ I uphold the word which I covenanted with you when you came out of Egypt, and my spirit remains in your midst; do not fear.
Hagg 2:6 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת ע֥וֹד אַחַ֖ת מְעַ֣ט הִ֑יא וַאֲנִ֗י מַרְעִישׁ֙ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם וְאֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאֶת־הַיָּ֖ם וְאֶת־הֶחָרָבָֽה׃‬ For this is what the Lord of hosts says: «Just once more, and it will be in a little while, and I will shake heaven and the earth, both the sea and the dry land, Heb 12:26, Heb 12:27.

this is whatthus.
Hagg 2:7 ‫וְהִרְעַשְׁתִּי֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וּבָ֖אוּ חֶמְדַּ֣ת כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וּמִלֵּאתִ֞י אֶת־הַבַּ֤יִת הַזֶּה֙ כָּב֔וֹד אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ and I will shake all the nations. Then the desire of all the nations will come, and I will fill this house with glory, says the Lord of hosts. Heb 10:37. By implication, the subject of to come is one who is expected.

desire of all the nations: see note in [CB]. For other examples of a discordant plural verb, see the Hebrew of Ps 140:10 (Ps 140:9AV) ketiv, Jer 2:34, Jer 46:9.
Hagg 2:8 ‫לִ֥י הַכֶּ֖סֶף וְלִ֣י הַזָּהָ֑ב נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ The silver is mine and the gold is mine, says the Lord of hosts.
Hagg 2:9 ‫גָּד֣וֹל יִֽהְיֶ֡ה כְּבוֹד֩ הַבַּ֨יִת הַזֶּ֤ה הָאַֽחֲרוֹן֙ מִן־הָ֣רִאשׁ֔וֹן אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת וּבַמָּק֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ אֶתֵּ֣ן שָׁל֔וֹם נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ פ‬ The glory of this latter house will be greater than that of the first, says the Lord of hosts, and I will give peace in this place, says the Lord of hosts.» ’ ”
Hagg 2:10 ‫בְּעֶשְׂרִ֤ים וְאַרְבָּעָה֙ לַתְּשִׁיעִ֔י בִּשְׁנַ֥ת שְׁתַּ֖יִם לְדָרְיָ֑וֶשׁ הָיָה֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־חַגַּ֥י הַנָּבִ֖יא לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ On the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Haggai the prophet and said, came ← became.
Hagg 2:11 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת שְׁאַל־נָ֧א אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִ֛ים תּוֹרָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘Please ask the priests about the law, and say, this is whatthus.
Hagg 2:12 ‫הֵ֣ן ׀ יִשָּׂא־אִ֨ישׁ בְּשַׂר־קֹ֜דֶשׁ בִּכְנַ֣ף בִּגְד֗וֹ וְנָגַ֣ע בִּ֠כְנָפוֹ אֶל־הַלֶּ֨חֶם וְאֶל־הַנָּזִ֜יד וְאֶל־הַיַּ֧יִן וְאֶל־שֶׁ֛מֶן וְאֶל־כָּל־מַאֲכָ֖ל הֲיִקְדָּ֑שׁ וַיַּעֲנ֧וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֛ים וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ לֹֽא׃‬ «If a man carries holy meat in the fold of his garment, and it touches in his fold bread, or boiled food, or wine or oil or any food, is it still holy?» ’ ” And the priests answered and said, “No.” any ← all.

is it still holy?: or, as AV, does it (i.e. the bread etc.) become holy?, so AV differs. But the application in Hagg 2:14 is of becoming unclean, not of a pretension of becoming holy.
Hagg 2:13 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חַגַּ֔י אִם־יִגַּ֧ע טְמֵא־נֶ֛פֶשׁ בְּכָל־אֵ֖לֶּה הֲיִטְמָ֑א וַיַּעֲנ֧וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֛ים וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ יִטְמָֽא׃‬ Then Haggai said, “If a man who is unclean touches any of these, does it become unclean?” And the priests answered and said, “It becomes unclean.” unclean ← unclean of soul; see Lev 22:4.

any ← all.
Hagg 2:14 ‫וַיַּ֨עַן חַגַּ֜י וַיֹּ֗אמֶר כֵּ֣ן הָֽעָם־הַ֠זֶּה וְכֵן־הַגּ֨וֹי הַזֶּ֤ה לְפָנַי֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וְכֵ֖ן כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂ֣ה יְדֵיהֶ֑ם וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר יַקְרִ֛יבוּ שָׁ֖ם טָמֵ֥א הֽוּא׃‬ Then Haggai reacted and said, “So it is with this people, and so it is with this nation, before me, says the Lord, and so is all the work of their hands. And that which they offer there is unclean. reacted ← answered, but no question asked. Compare Gen 18:27.
Hagg 2:15 ‫וְעַתָּה֙ שִֽׂימוּ־נָ֣א לְבַבְכֶ֔ם מִן־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה וָמָ֑עְלָה מִטֶּ֧רֶם שֽׂוּם־אֶ֛בֶן אֶל־אֶ֖בֶן בְּהֵיכַ֥ל יְהוָֽה׃‬ So now, please consider from this day on, how from before a stone was put on a stone in the Lord's temple, consider ← set your heart.
Hagg 2:16 ‫מִֽהְיוֹתָ֥ם בָּא֙ אֶל־עֲרֵמַ֣ת עֶשְׂרִ֔ים וְהָיְתָ֖ה עֲשָׂרָ֑ה בָּ֣א אֶל־הַיֶּ֗קֶב לַחְשֹׂף֙ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים פּוּרָ֔ה וְהָיְתָ֖ה עֶשְׂרִֽים׃‬ that ever since they came into existence, if anyone came to a heap of twenty measures of grain, it turned out to be ten. If he came to the wine vat to draw off fifty measures from the wine press, it turned out to contain twenty. since they came into existence ← since their existing.

turned out to be ... turned out to contain ← became ... became.
Hagg 2:17 ‫הִכֵּ֨יתִי אֶתְכֶ֜ם בַּשִּׁדָּפ֤וֹן וּבַיֵּֽרָקוֹן֙ וּבַבָּרָ֔ד אֵ֖ת כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂ֣ה יְדֵיכֶ֑ם וְאֵין־אֶתְכֶ֥ם אֵלַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬ I have struck you with blight and mildew and with hail, on all the work of your hands, but you have not come to me, says the Lord.
Hagg 2:18 ‫שִׂימוּ־נָ֣א לְבַבְכֶ֔ם מִן־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה וָמָ֑עְלָה מִיּוֹם֩ עֶשְׂרִ֨ים וְאַרְבָּעָ֜ה לַתְּשִׁיעִ֗י לְמִן־הַיּ֛וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יֻסַּ֥ד הֵֽיכַל־יְהוָ֖ה שִׂ֥ימוּ לְבַבְכֶֽם׃‬ Just consider from this day on, from the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month, from the day when the temple of the Lord was founded. Consider it.
Hagg 2:19 ‫הַע֤וֹד הַזֶּ֙רַע֙ בַּמְּגוּרָ֔ה וְעַד־הַגֶּ֨פֶן וְהַתְּאֵנָ֧ה וְהָרִמּ֛וֹן וְעֵ֥ץ הַזַּ֖יִת לֹ֣א נָשָׂ֑א מִן־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה אֲבָרֵֽךְ׃ ס‬ Is there still any seed in the granary? And also the vine and the fig tree and the pomegranate and the olive tree have not borne fruit. But from this day, I will bless.” and also ← and up to. We would prefer to re-point as וְעֺד, and still, as AV actually does (yet). So AV differs.
Hagg 2:20 ‫וַיְהִ֨י דְבַר־יְהוָ֤ה ׀ שֵׁנִית֙ אֶל־חַגַּ֔י בְּעֶשְׂרִ֧ים וְאַרְבָּעָ֛ה לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord came a second time to Haggai, on the twenty-fourth day of the month and said,
Hagg 2:21 ‫אֱמֹ֕ר אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶ֥ל פַּֽחַת־יְהוּדָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר אֲנִ֣י מַרְעִ֔ישׁ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ “Speak to Zerubbabel the governor of Judah, and say, ‘I will shake heaven and the earth.
Hagg 2:22 ‫וְהָֽפַכְתִּי֙ כִּסֵּ֣א מַמְלָכ֔וֹת וְהִ֨שְׁמַדְתִּ֔י חֹ֖זֶק מַמְלְכ֣וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְהָפַכְתִּ֤י מֶרְכָּבָה֙ וְרֹ֣כְבֶ֔יהָ וְיָרְד֤וּ סוּסִים֙ וְרֹ֣כְבֵיהֶ֔ם אִ֖ישׁ בְּחֶ֥רֶב אָחִֽיו׃‬ And I will overturn the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations, and I will overturn the chariot fleet and its riders, and horses and their riders will fall, each one by his brother's sword. fall ← come down, perhaps with connotations of to the grave.
Hagg 2:23 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֣וּא נְאֻם־יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֡וֹת אֶ֠קָּחֲךָ זְרֻבָּבֶ֨ל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵ֤ל עַבְדִּי֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וְשַׂמְתִּ֖יךָ כַּֽחוֹתָ֑ם כִּֽי־בְךָ֣ בָחַ֔רְתִּי נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ On that day, says the Lord of hosts, I will take you, Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, my servant, says the Lord, and I will make you like a seal, for I have chosen you, says the Lord of hosts.’ ”
Zech 1:1 ‫בַּחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשְּׁמִינִ֔י בִּשְׁנַ֥ת שְׁתַּ֖יִם לְדָרְיָ֑וֶשׁ הָיָ֣ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה אֶל־זְכַרְיָה֙ בֶּן־בֶּ֣רֶכְיָ֔ה בֶּן־עִדּ֥וֹ הַנָּבִ֖יא לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet and said, came ← became.
Zech 1:2 ‫קָצַ֧ף יְהוָ֛ה עַל־אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם קָֽצֶף׃‬ “The Lord is very angry with your fathers, very angry ← angry (with) an anger.
Zech 1:3 ‫וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֗ם כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת שׁ֣וּבוּ אֵלַ֔י נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת וְאָשׁ֣וּב אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ so you will say to them, ‘This is what the Lord of hosts says: «Return to me, says the Lord of hosts, and I will return to you, says the Lord of hosts. this is whatthus.
Zech 1:4 ‫אַל־תִּהְי֣וּ כַאֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֡ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָרְאֽוּ־אֲלֵיהֶם֩ הַנְּבִיאִ֨ים הָרִֽאשֹׁנִ֜ים לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת שׁ֤וּבוּ נָא֙ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶ֣ם הָרָעִ֔ים *ומעליליכם **וּמַֽעֲלְלֵיכֶ֖ם הָֽרָעִ֑ים וְלֹ֥א שָׁמְע֛וּ וְלֹֽא־הִקְשִׁ֥יבוּ אֵלַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬ Do not be like your fathers to whom the first prophets called and said, ‹This is what the Lord of hosts says: "Return now from your wicked ways and your wicked works" ›, but who did not heed it and who did not hearken to me, says the Lord. works: the ketiv can be regarded as a variant form of the qeré.

this is whatthus.
Zech 1:5 ‫אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם אַיֵּה־הֵ֑ם וְהַ֨נְּבִאִ֔ים הַלְעוֹלָ֖ם יִֽחְיֽוּ׃‬ Where are your fathers? And do the prophets live age-abidingly?
Zech 1:6 ‫אַ֣ךְ ׀ דְּבָרַ֣י וְחֻקַּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר צִוִּ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־עֲבָדַ֣י הַנְּבִיאִ֔ים הֲל֥וֹא הִשִּׂ֖יגוּ אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֑ם וַיָּשׁ֣וּבוּ וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר זָמַ֜ם יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת לָ֔נוּ כִּדְרָכֵ֙ינוּ֙ וּכְמַ֣עֲלָלֵ֔ינוּ כֵּ֖ן עָשָׂ֥ה אִתָּֽנוּ׃ ס‬ But regarding my words and my statutes with which I commanded my servants the prophets, have they not overtaken your fathers? Then they repented and said, ‹According to how the Lord of hosts purposed to deal with us, according to our ways and our deeds, so he has dealt with us.› » ’ ” repented ← returned, often with the sense of to God.
Zech 1:7 ‫בְּיוֹם֩ עֶשְׂרִ֨ים וְאַרְבָּעָ֜ה לְעַשְׁתֵּֽי־עָשָׂ֥ר חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ שְׁבָ֔ט בִּשְׁנַ֥ת שְׁתַּ֖יִם לְדָרְיָ֑וֶשׁ הָיָ֣ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה אֶל־זְכַרְיָה֙ בֶּן־בֶּ֣רֶכְיָ֔הוּ בֶּן־עִדּ֥וֹא הַנָּבִ֖יא לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ On the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month, that is the month of Shvat, in the second year of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, as follows: Shvat: AV= Sebat, but we use the modern name.

came ← became.

as follows ← saying, but a description rather than new direct speech follows.
Zech 1:8 ‫רָאִ֣יתִי ׀ הַלַּ֗יְלָה וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ֙ רֹכֵב֙ עַל־ס֣וּס אָדֹ֔ם וְה֣וּא עֹמֵ֔ד בֵּ֥ין הַהֲדַסִּ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמְּצֻלָ֑ה וְאַחֲרָיו֙ סוּסִ֣ים אֲדֻמִּ֔ים שְׂרֻקִּ֖ים וּלְבָנִֽים׃‬ I saw a vision at night, and there was a man riding on a red horse, who stood between the myrtles which were in the deep vale, and after him came red horses, bay ones, and white ones. deep vale: from root צוּל, perhaps meaning deep (sea). Re-pointed מְצֻלָּה, from צָלַל, it would read shade.

there wasbehold.

bay: AV differs (speckled).
Zech 1:9 ‫וָאֹמַ֖ר מָה־אֵ֣לֶּה אֲדֹנִ֑י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י הַמַּלְאָךְ֙ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֔י אֲנִ֥י אַרְאֶ֖ךָּ מָה־הֵ֥מָּה אֵֽלֶּה׃‬ And I said, “What are these, my Lord?” And the angel speaking to me said to me, “I will show you what these are.” my Lord: at this stage, Zechariah is addressing the Lord, whose word had just come to him (Zech 1:7). So a capital L. The fact that an angel interposes does not detract from this.
Zech 1:10 ‫וַיַּ֗עַן הָאִ֛ישׁ הָעֹמֵ֥ד בֵּין־הַהַדַסִּ֖ים וַיֹּאמַ֑ר אֵ֚לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁלַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה לְהִתְהַלֵּ֖ךְ בָּאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And the man standing between the myrtles answered and said, “These are what the Lord has sent, to walk up and down on the earth.”
Zech 1:11 ‫וַֽיַּעֲנ֞וּ אֶת־מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֗ה הָֽעֹמֵד֙ בֵּ֣ין הַהֲדַסִּ֔ים וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ הִתְהַלַּ֣כְנוּ בָאָ֑רֶץ וְהִנֵּ֥ה כָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ יֹשֶׁ֥בֶת וְשֹׁקָֽטֶת׃‬ And they answered the angel of the Lord, who was standing between the myrtles, and they said, “We have walked up and down the earth, and what we saw was that the whole earth was dwelling undisturbed and was quiet.” what we saw wasbehold.
Zech 1:12 ‫וַיַּ֣עַן מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה֮ וַיֹּאמַר֒ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת עַד־מָתַ֗י אַתָּה֙ לֹֽא־תְרַחֵ֣ם אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת עָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר זָעַ֔מְתָּה זֶ֖ה שִׁבְעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה׃‬ And the angel of the Lord replied and said, “O Lord of hosts, how long will you not have compassion on Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, over which you have been indignant for seventy years now?”
Zech 1:13 ‫וַיַּ֣עַן יְהוָ֗ה אֶת־הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י דְּבָרִ֣ים טוֹבִ֑ים דְּבָרִ֖ים נִחֻמִֽים׃‬ And the Lord answered the angel speaking to me, with good words, comforting words.
Zech 1:14 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י הַמַּלְאָךְ֙ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֔י קְרָ֣א לֵאמֹ֔ר כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת קִנֵּ֧אתִי לִירוּשָׁלִַ֛ם וּלְצִיּ֖וֹן קִנְאָ֥ה גְדוֹלָֽה׃‬ And the angel speaking to me said, “Call out and say, ‘This is what the Lord of hosts says:

«I am jealous for Jerusalem and Zion with a great jealousy.

this is whatthus.
Zech 1:15 ‫וְקֶ֤צֶף גָּדוֹל֙ אֲנִ֣י קֹצֵ֔ף עַל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם הַשַּֽׁאֲנַנִּ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִי֙ קָצַ֣פְתִּי מְּעָ֔ט וְהֵ֖מָּה עָזְר֥וּ לְרָעָֽה׃‬

And I am angry with a great anger,

With the nations which are at ease,

For I was a little angry,

But they have exacerbated the evil.»

exacerbated ← helped.
Zech 1:16 ‫לָכֵ֞ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה שַׁ֤בְתִּי לִירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ בְּֽרַחֲמִ֔ים בֵּיתִי֙ יִבָּ֣נֶה בָּ֔הּ נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת *וקוה **וְקָ֥ו יִנָּטֶ֖ה עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ Therefore this is what the Lord says:

«I will return to Jerusalem with compassion;

My house will be built in it,

Says the Lord of hosts,

And a cord will be stretched out over Jerusalem.» ’

cord: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning.

this is whatthus.
Zech 1:17 ‫ע֣וֹד ׀ קְרָ֣א לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת ע֛וֹד תְּפוּצֶ֥ינָה עָרַ֖י מִטּ֑וֹב וְנִחַ֨ם יְהוָ֥ה עוֹד֙ אֶת־צִיּ֔וֹן וּבָחַ֥ר ע֖וֹד בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ ס‬ Call out again and say, ‘This is what the Lord of hosts says:

«My cities will yet overflow with goodness,

And the Lord will yet have mercy on Zion,

And he will yet choose Jerusalem.» ’ ”

this is whatthus.

the Lord will yet have mercy on Zion ... and he will yet choose Jerusalem: compare Isa 14:1, Isa 51:3.
Zech 2:1
Zech 1:18AV
‫וָאֶשָּׂ֥א אֶת־עֵינַ֖י וָאֵ֑רֶא וְהִנֵּ֖ה אַרְבַּ֥ע קְרָנֽוֹת׃‬ Then I lifted up my eyes and looked, and what I saw was four horns. what I saw wasbehold.
Zech 2:2
Zech 1:19AV
‫וָאֹמַ֗ר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י מָה־אֵ֑לֶּה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י אֵ֤לֶּה הַקְּרָנוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר זֵר֣וּ אֶת־יְהוּדָ֔ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִירוּשָׁלָֽם׃ ס‬ And I said to the angel who was speaking to me, “What are these?” And he said to me, “These are the horns which scattered Judah, Israel and Jerusalem.”
Zech 2:3
Zech 1:20AV
‫וַיַּרְאֵ֣נִי יְהוָ֔ה אַרְבָּעָ֖ה חָרָשִֽׁים׃‬ And the Lord showed me four craftsmen.
Zech 2:4
Zech 1:21AV
‫וָאֹמַ֕ר מָ֛ה אֵ֥לֶּה בָאִ֖ים לַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לֵאמֹ֗ר אֵ֣לֶּה הַקְּרָנ֞וֹת אֲשֶׁר־זֵ֣רוּ אֶת־יְהוּדָ֗ה כְּפִי־אִישׁ֙ לֹא־נָשָׂ֣א רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ אֵ֙לֶּה֙ לְהַחֲרִ֣יד אֹתָ֔ם לְיַדּ֞וֹת אֶת־קַרְנ֣וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֗ם הַנֹּשְׂאִ֥ים קֶ֛רֶן אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ יְהוּדָ֖ה לְזָרוֹתָֽהּ׃ ס‬ And I said, “What are these coming to do?” And he spoke and said, “Those are the horns which scattered Judah, so that no man could lift his head, but these have come to terrify them, to throw out the horns of the Gentiles who are lifting up a horn against the land of Judah, to scatter it.”
Zech 2:5
Zech 2:1AV
‫וָאֶשָּׂ֥א עֵינַ֛י וָאֵ֖רֶא וְהִנֵּה־אִ֑ישׁ וּבְיָד֖וֹ חֶ֥בֶל מִדָּֽה׃‬ And I lifted up my eyes and looked, and what I saw was a man, and in his hand was a measuring cord. Rev 21:15.

what I saw wasbehold.
Zech 2:6
Zech 2:2AV
‫וָאֹמַ֕ר אָ֖נָה אַתָּ֣ה הֹלֵ֑ךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֗י לָמֹד֙ אֶת־יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם לִרְא֥וֹת כַּמָּֽה־רָחְבָּ֖הּ וְכַמָּ֥ה אָרְכָּֽהּ׃‬ And I said, “Where are you going?” And he said to me, “To measure Jerusalem, to see what its width is and what its length is.”
Zech 2:7
Zech 2:3AV
‫וְהִנֵּ֗ה הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י יֹצֵ֑א וּמַלְאָ֣ךְ אַחֵ֔ר יֹצֵ֖א לִקְרָאתֽוֹ׃‬ Then what I saw was the angel who had been speaking to me going out, and another angel coming out to meet him. what I saw wasbehold.
Zech 2:8
Zech 2:4AV
‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔ו רֻ֗ץ דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־הַנַּ֥עַר הַלָּ֖ז לֵאמֹ֑ר פְּרָזוֹת֙ תֵּשֵׁ֣ב יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם מֵרֹ֥ב אָדָ֛ם וּבְהֵמָ֖ה בְּתוֹכָֽהּ׃‬ And he said to him, “Run, speak to this young man and say, ‘Jerusalem will be inhabited as open villages, because of the large number of men and cattle inside it.
Zech 2:9
Zech 2:5AV
‫וַאֲנִ֤י אֶֽהְיֶה־לָּהּ֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה ח֥וֹמַת אֵ֖שׁ סָבִ֑יב וּלְכָב֖וֹד אֶֽהְיֶ֥ה בְתוֹכָֽהּ׃ פ‬ And I will be to it a wall of fire round about, says the Lord, and I will be there for glory in its precincts. in its precincts ← in its midst.
Zech 2:10
Zech 2:6AV
‫ה֣וֹי ה֗וֹי וְנֻ֛סוּ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ צָפ֖וֹן נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה כִּ֠י כְּאַרְבַּ֞ע רוּח֧וֹת הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם פֵּרַ֥שְׂתִּי אֶתְכֶ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬ Hey, hey! Now flee from the northern land, says the Lord, for I am the one who scattered you like the four winds of heaven, says the Lord.
Zech 2:11
Zech 2:7AV
‫ה֥וֹי צִיּ֖וֹן הִמָּלְטִ֑י יוֹשֶׁ֖בֶת בַּת־בָּבֶֽל׃ ס‬ Hey, Zion, make your escape, you who dwell as a dependency of Babylon. dependency ← daughter.
Zech 2:12
Zech 2:8AV
‫כִּ֣י כֹ֣ה אָמַר֮ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאוֹת֒ אַחַ֣ר כָּב֔וֹד שְׁלָחַ֕נִי אֶל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם הַשֹּׁלְלִ֣ים אֶתְכֶ֑ם כִּ֚י הַנֹּגֵ֣עַ בָּכֶ֔ם נֹגֵ֖עַ בְּבָבַ֥ת עֵינֽוֹ׃‬ For this is what the Lord of hosts says: «He has sent me after glory, to the Gentiles who spoil you, for he who touches you, touches the apple of {P: my eye} [M: his eye]. An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB] App. 33. P= עֵינִי. AV differs.

this is whatthus.

he has sent me: i.e. the Lord has sent Zechariah, as if ↴
Zech 2:13
Zech 2:9AV
‫כִּ֠י הִנְנִ֨י מֵנִ֤יף אֶת־יָדִי֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וְהָי֥וּ שָׁלָ֖ל לְעַבְדֵיהֶ֑ם וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּֽי־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁלָחָֽנִי׃ ס‬ For I am about to wave my hand at them, and they will become a spoil to their servants, and you will know that the Lord of hosts has sent me. ↳ indirect speech (that he has sent me), but we conjoin it with the direct speech of the rest of the sentence.

I am about to ← behold me.
Zech 2:14
Zech 2:10AV
‫רָנִּ֥י וְשִׂמְחִ֖י בַּת־צִיּ֑וֹן כִּ֧י הִנְנִי־בָ֛א וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֥י בְתוֹכֵ֖ךְ נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃‬ Shout for joy and rejoice, daughter of Zion, for behold, I am coming, and I will dwell in your midst, says the Lord.
Zech 2:15
Zech 2:11AV
‫וְנִלְווּ֩ גוֹיִ֨ם רַבִּ֤ים אֶל־יְהוָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וְהָ֥יוּ לִ֖י לְעָ֑ם וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֣י בְתוֹכֵ֔ךְ וְיָדַ֕עַתְּ כִּי־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁלָחַ֥נִי אֵלָֽיִךְ׃‬ And many nations will be joined to the Lord on that day, and they will be a people to me, and I will dwell in your midst, and you will know that the Lord of hosts has sent me to you.
Zech 2:16
Zech 2:12AV
‫וְנָחַ֨ל יְהוָ֤ה אֶת־יְהוּדָה֙ חֶלְק֔וֹ עַ֖ל אַדְמַ֣ת הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ וּבָחַ֥ר ע֖וֹד בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ And the Lord will inherit Judah his portion, on holy ground, and he will still choose Jerusalem.
Zech 2:17
Zech 2:13AV
‫הַ֥ס כָּל־בָּשָׂ֖ר מִפְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה כִּ֥י נֵע֖וֹר מִמְּע֥וֹן קָדְשֽׁוֹ׃ ס‬ Be silent, all flesh, before the Lord, for he has been roused from his holy dwelling place.» ’ ” his holy dwelling place ← the dwelling place of his holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Zech 3:1 ‫וַיַּרְאֵ֗נִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֔וֹל עֹמֵ֕ד לִפְנֵ֖י מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֑ה וְהַשָּׂטָ֛ן עֹמֵ֥ד עַל־יְמִינ֖וֹ לְשִׂטְנֽוֹ׃‬ And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan was standing on his right hand side to oppose him.
Zech 3:2 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָ֗ן יִגְעַ֨ר יְהוָ֤ה בְּךָ֙ הַשָּׂטָ֔ן וְיִגְעַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ בְּךָ֔ הַבֹּחֵ֖ר בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הֲל֧וֹא זֶ֦ה א֖וּד מֻצָּ֥ל מֵאֵֽשׁ׃‬ And the Lord said to Satan, “May the Lord rebuke you, Satan, may the Lord, who chooses Jerusalem, rebuke you. Isn't this man a firebrand rescued from the fire?” this man: Joshua the high priest, but representing the people, having suffered much, but saved from utter destruction. See [DB-VPZ] pp.94-95.
Zech 3:3 ‫וִיהוֹשֻׁ֕עַ הָיָ֥ה לָבֻ֖שׁ בְּגָדִ֣ים צוֹאִ֑ים וְעֹמֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י הַמַּלְאָֽךְ׃‬ Now Joshua was clothed in filthy garments, and he was standing before the angel.
Zech 3:4 ‫וַיַּ֣עַן וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֶל־הָעֹמְדִ֤ים לְפָנָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הָסִ֛ירוּ הַבְּגָדִ֥ים הַצֹּאִ֖ים מֵעָלָ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו רְאֵ֨ה הֶעֱבַ֤רְתִּי מֵעָלֶ֙יךָ֙ עֲוֺנֶ֔ךָ וְהַלְבֵּ֥שׁ אֹתְךָ֖ מַחֲלָצֽוֹת׃‬ And the angel reacted and spoke to those standing before him and said, “Take the filthy clothes off him.” And he said to Joshua, “Look, I have remitted your iniquity, and I have clothed you in costly dress.” reacted ← answered, but no question asked. See Gen 18:27.

remitted ← transferred from you.

I have clothed: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.
Zech 3:5 ‫וָאֹמַ֕ר יָשִׂ֛ימוּ צָנִ֥יף טָה֖וֹר עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וַיָּשִׂימוּ֩ הַצָּנִ֨יף הַטָּה֜וֹר עַל־רֹאשׁ֗וֹ וַיַּלְבִּשֻׁ֙הוּ֙ בְּגָדִ֔ים וּמַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהוָ֖ה עֹמֵֽד׃‬ Then I said, “Put a clean turban on his head.” And they put a clean turban on his head and clothed him in garments, while the angel of the Lord stood by. put ← let them put, or, more literally, they will put.
Zech 3:6 ‫וַיָּ֙עַד֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֔ה בִּיהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ Then the angel of the Lord testified to Joshua and said,
Zech 3:7 ‫כֹּה־אָמַ֞ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת אִם־בִּדְרָכַ֤י תֵּלֵךְ֙ וְאִ֣ם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֣י תִשְׁמֹ֔ר וְגַם־אַתָּה֙ תָּדִ֣ין אֶת־בֵּיתִ֔י וְגַ֖ם תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר אֶת־חֲצֵרָ֑י וְנָתַתִּ֤י לְךָ֙ מַהְלְכִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָעֹמְדִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘If you walk in my paths, and if you keep my charge, then you too will govern my house, and you will guard my courts, and I will give you right of way between these who are standing by. this is whatthus.

right of way ← ways / journeys.
Zech 3:8 ‫שְֽׁמַֽע־נָ֞א יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ ׀ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֗וֹל אַתָּה֙ וְרֵעֶ֙יךָ֙ הַיֹּשְׁבִ֣ים לְפָנֶ֔יךָ כִּֽי־אַנְשֵׁ֥י מוֹפֵ֖ת הֵ֑מָּה כִּֽי־הִנְנִ֥י מֵבִ֛יא אֶת־עַבְדִּ֖י צֶֽמַח׃‬ Now listen, Joshua the high priest, you and your colleagues sitting before you, for they are significant men. For I am about to bring in my servant the Branch. significant men ← men of sign, a Hebraic genitive.

I am about to ← behold me.
Zech 3:9 ‫כִּ֣י ׀ הִנֵּ֣ה הָאֶ֗בֶן אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָתַ֙תִּי֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ עַל־אֶ֥בֶן אַחַ֖ת שִׁבְעָ֣ה עֵינָ֑יִם הִנְנִ֧י מְפַתֵּ֣חַ פִּתֻּחָ֗הּ נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וּמַשְׁתִּ֛י אֶת־עֲוֺ֥ן הָאָֽרֶץ־הַהִ֖יא בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָֽד׃‬ For here is the stone which I have put before Joshua. There will be seven eyes on one stone. I am about to incise its engraving, says the Lord of hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of this land in one day. Rev 5:6.

here isbehold.

I am about to ← behold me.

this land ← that land.
Zech 3:10 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת תִּקְרְא֖וּ אִ֣ישׁ לְרֵעֵ֑הוּ אֶל־תַּ֥חַת גֶּ֖פֶן וְאֶל־תַּ֥חַת תְּאֵנָֽה׃‬ On that day, says the Lord of hosts, each of you will call to his neighbour, under the vine and under the fig tree.’ ”
Zech 4:1 ‫וַיָּ֕שָׁב הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֑י וַיְעִירֵ֕נִי כְּאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יֵע֥וֹר מִשְּׁנָתֽוֹ׃‬ And the angel who was speaking to me came back and woke me up, as a man who is woken from his sleep.
Zech 4:2 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י מָ֥ה אַתָּ֖ה רֹאֶ֑ה *ויאמר **וָאֹמַ֡ר רָאִ֣יתִי ׀ וְהִנֵּ֣ה מְנוֹרַת֩ זָהָ֨ב כֻּלָּ֜הּ וְגֻלָּ֣הּ עַל־רֹאשָׁ֗הּ וְשִׁבְעָ֤ה נֵרֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ עָלֶ֔יהָ שִׁבְעָ֤ה וְשִׁבְעָה֙ מֽוּצָק֔וֹת לַנֵּר֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־רֹאשָֽׁהּ׃‬ And he said to me, “What do you see?” And {Q: I said,} [K: he said,] “I looked, and what I saw was a lampstand, all of gold, with its bowl above it, with its seven lamps on it, and seven pipes for the seven lamps which were above it. what I saw wasbehold.

seven pipes for the seven lamps ← seven and seven pipes for the lamps.

above it (2x)on its head.
Zech 4:3 ‫וּשְׁנַ֥יִם זֵיתִ֖ים עָלֶ֑יהָ אֶחָד֙ מִימִ֣ין הַגֻּלָּ֔ה וְאֶחָ֖ד עַל־שְׂמֹאלָֽהּ׃‬ And there were two olive trees on it – one to the right of the bowl and one to its left.” Rev 11:4.
Zech 4:4 ‫וָאַ֙עַן֙ וָֽאֹמַ֔ר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּ֖י לֵאמֹ֑ר מָה־אֵ֖לֶּה אֲדֹנִֽי׃‬ Then I inquired and spoke to the angel who was speaking to me, and I said, “What are these, my lord?” inquired ← asked, but no question asked; rather, one is raised. Compare Gen 18:27.
Zech 4:5 ‫וַ֠יַּעַן הַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֥ר בִּי֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י הֲל֥וֹא יָדַ֖עְתָּ מָה־הֵ֣מָּה אֵ֑לֶּה וָאֹמַ֖ר לֹ֥א אֲדֹנִֽי׃‬ And the angel who was speaking to me answered and said to me, “Do you not know what these are?” And I answered, “No, my lord.”
Zech 4:6 ‫וַיַּ֜עַן וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלַי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר זֶ֚ה דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹ֤א בְחַ֙יִל֙ וְלֹ֣א בְכֹ֔חַ כִּ֣י אִם־בְּרוּחִ֔י אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ And he answered and spoke to me and said, “This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel. ‘It is not by force and not by strength, but by my spirit, says the Lord of hosts. to Zerubbabel: followed by לֵאמֺר, to say, which merely re-affirms that direct speech follows.
Zech 4:7 ‫מִֽי־אַתָּ֧ה הַֽר־הַגָּד֛וֹל לִפְנֵ֥י זְרֻבָּבֶ֖ל לְמִישֹׁ֑ר וְהוֹצִיא֙ אֶת־הָאֶ֣בֶן הָרֹאשָׁ֔ה תְּשֻׁא֕וֹת חֵ֥ן חֵ֖ן לָֽהּ׃ פ‬ Who are you, you great mountain? Before Zerubbabel, you become a plain, and he will bring out the head-stone. There will be shoutings of «Grace, grace» to it.’ ”
Zech 4:8 ‫וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord came to me and said, came ← became.
Zech 4:9 ‫יְדֵ֣י זְרֻבָּבֶ֗ל יִסְּד֛וּ הַבַּ֥יִת הַזֶּ֖ה וְיָדָ֣יו תְּבַצַּ֑עְנָה וְיָ֣דַעְתָּ֔ כִּֽי־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁלָחַ֥נִי אֲלֵיכֶֽם׃‬ “The hands of Zerubbabel founded this house, and his hands will complete it, and you will know that the Lord of hosts sent me to you.
Zech 4:10 ‫כִּ֣י מִ֣י בַז֮ לְי֣וֹם קְטַנּוֹת֒ וְשָׂמְח֗וּ וְרָא֞וּ אֶת־הָאֶ֧בֶן הַבְּדִ֛יל בְּיַ֥ד זְרֻבָּבֶ֖ל שִׁבְעָה־אֵ֑לֶּה עֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה הֵ֥מָּה מְשׁוֹטְטִ֖ים בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ For who despises the day of small matters? For they will rejoice and see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel. These seven are the eyes of the Lord, scrutinizing the whole world.” Rev 5:6.

small matters: the start of building did not seem impressive.

the eyes of the Lord (etc.): compare Prov 15:3 and 2 Chr 16:9.
Zech 4:11 ‫וָאַ֖עַן וָאֹמַ֣ר אֵלָ֑יו מַה־שְּׁנֵ֤י הַזֵּיתִים֙ הָאֵ֔לֶה עַל־יְמִ֥ין הַמְּנוֹרָ֖ה וְעַל־שְׂמֹאולָֽהּ׃‬ Then I inquired and said to him, “What are these two olive trees to the right of the lampstand, and to its left?” inquired: see Zech 4:4.
Zech 4:12 ‫וָאַ֣עַן שֵׁנִ֔ית וָאֹמַ֖ר אֵלָ֑יו מַה־שְׁתֵּ֞י שִׁבֲּלֵ֣י הַזֵּיתִ֗ים אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּיַ֗ד שְׁנֵי֙ צַנְתְּר֣וֹת הַזָּהָ֔ב הַֽמְרִיקִ֥ים מֵעֲלֵיהֶ֖ם הַזָּהָֽב׃‬ And I inquired a second time and said to him, “What are the two branches of the olive trees, which by means of two golden tubes empty the golden bowl above them?” inquired: see Zech 4:4.

means ← the hand.
Zech 4:13 ‫וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלַי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הֲל֥וֹא יָדַ֖עְתָּ מָה־אֵ֑לֶּה וָאֹמַ֖ר לֹ֥א אֲדֹנִֽי׃‬ Then he spoke to me and said, “Do you not know what these are?” And I said, “No, my Lord.” my Lord: Zechariah is addressing the Lord, whose word had directly come to him (Zech 4:8). There is no angel in this portion. Compare Zech 1:9. So a capital L. The Lord is ↴
Zech 4:14 ‫וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֵ֖לֶּה שְׁנֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־הַיִּצְהָ֑ר הָעֹמְדִ֖ים עַל־אֲד֥וֹן כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And he said, “These are the two anointed ones who stand by the Lord of all the earth.” ↳ explicitly Zechariah's interlocutor in Zech 5:4, and probably in the intervening exchanges.

anointed ones ← sons of new oil.
Zech 5:1 ‫וָאָשׁ֕וּב וָאֶשָּׂ֥א עֵינַ֖י וָֽאֶרְאֶ֑ה וְהִנֵּ֖ה מְגִלָּ֥ה עָפָֽה׃‬ Then I lifted up my eyes again and looked, and what I saw was a flying scroll. what I saw wasbehold.
Zech 5:2 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י מָ֥ה אַתָּ֖ה רֹאֶ֑ה וָאֹמַ֗ר אֲנִ֤י רֹאֶה֙ מְגִלָּ֣ה עָפָ֔ה אָרְכָּהּ֙ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים בָּֽאַמָּ֔ה וְרָחְבָּ֖הּ עֶ֥שֶׂר בָּאַמָּֽה׃‬ And he said to me, “What do you see?” And I said, “I see a flying scroll. Its length is twenty cubits, and its width is ten cubits.” cubit (2x): about 18 inches or 45 cm.
Zech 5:3 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י זֹ֚את הָֽאָלָ֔ה הַיּוֹצֵ֖את עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּ֣י כָל־הַגֹּנֵ֗ב מִזֶּה֙ כָּמ֣וֹהָ נִקָּ֔ה וְכָל־הַנִּ֨שְׁבָּ֔ע מִזֶּ֖ה כָּמ֥וֹהָ נִקָּֽה׃‬ And he said to me, “This is the curse which is going out over the face of the whole earth. For everyone who steals, as in the prohibition of one side, is being acquitted, and everyone who swears, as in the prohibition of the other side, is being acquitted. is being acquitted (2x): as [AnLx], [CB]; [DB-VPZ] has shall be cleansed away. AV differs (shall be cut off). With the scroll, the Lord is objecting to the acquittals.
Zech 5:4 ‫הוֹצֵאתִ֗יהָ נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וּבָ֙אָה֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַגַּנָּ֔ב וְאֶל־בֵּ֛ית הַנִּשְׁבָּ֥ע בִּשְׁמִ֖י לַשָּׁ֑קֶר וְלָ֙נֶה֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ בֵּית֔וֹ וְכִלַּ֖תּוּ וְאֶת־עֵצָ֥יו וְאֶת־אֲבָנָֽיו׃‬ I will send it out, says the Lord of hosts, and it will go to the house of the thief, and the house of the one who swears by my name falsely, and it will lodge inside his house, and it will consume it, both its timbers and its stones.”
Zech 5:5 ‫וַיֵּצֵ֕א הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֑י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י שָׂ֣א נָ֤א עֵינֶ֙יךָ֙ וּרְאֵ֔ה מָ֖ה הַיּוֹצֵ֥את הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ And the angel who was speaking to me came up and said to me, “Lift up your eyes and see what this is that is setting out.” came up ← came out.
Zech 5:6 ‫וָאֹמַ֖ר מַה־הִ֑יא וַיֹּ֗אמֶר זֹ֤את הָֽאֵיפָה֙ הַיּוֹצֵ֔את וַיֹּ֕אמֶר זֹ֥את עֵינָ֖ם בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And I said, “What is it?” And he said, “This is the ephah which is setting out.” And he said, “This is their appearance all over the earth.” ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres. Symbolizing trade or commerce [DB-VPZ].

appearance ← eye.
Zech 5:7 ‫וְהִנֵּ֛ה כִּכַּ֥ר עֹפֶ֖רֶת נִשֵּׂ֑את וְזֹאת֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה אַחַ֔ת יוֹשֶׁ֖בֶת בְּת֥וֹךְ הָאֵיפָֽה׃‬ And what I saw was a talent of lead being lifted up. And this is a woman sitting inside the ephah. what I saw wasbehold.

talent: see Ex 25:39.

a woman ← one woman.

ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.
Zech 5:8 ‫וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ זֹ֣את הָרִשְׁעָ֔ה וַיַּשְׁלֵ֥ךְ אֹתָ֖הּ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ הָֽאֵיפָ֑ה וַיַּשְׁלֵ֛ךְ אֶת־אֶ֥בֶן הָעֹפֶ֖רֶת אֶל־פִּֽיהָ׃ ס‬ And he said, “This is wickedness.” And he cast her into the ephah, and he cast the block of lead over its opening. ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.
Zech 5:9 ‫וָאֶשָּׂ֨א עֵינַ֜י וָאֵ֗רֶא וְהִנֵּה֩ שְׁתַּ֨יִם נָשִׁ֤ים יֽוֹצְאוֹת֙ וְר֣וּחַ בְּכַנְפֵיהֶ֔ם וְלָהֵ֥נָּה כְנָפַ֖יִם כְּכַנְפֵ֣י הַחֲסִידָ֑ה וַתִּשֶּׂ֙אנָה֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֵיפָ֔ה בֵּ֥ין הָאָ֖רֶץ וּבֵ֥ין הַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃‬ Then I lifted up my eyes and looked, and what I saw was two women coming out, and there was wind in their wings, for they had wings like the wings of a stork, and they lifted up the ephah between the earth and the sky. what I saw wasbehold.

ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.

the sky: or heaven.
Zech 5:10 ‫וָאֹמַ֕ר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֑י אָ֛נָה הֵ֥מָּה מֽוֹלִכ֖וֹת אֶת־הָאֵיפָֽה׃‬ And I said to the angel who was speaking to me, “Where are they taking the ephah to?” ephah: about 6 imperial gallons or 27 litres.
Zech 5:11 ‫וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י לִבְנֽוֹת־לָ֥הֿ בַ֖יִת בְּאֶ֣רֶץ שִׁנְעָ֑ר וְהוּכַ֛ן וְהֻנִּ֥יחָה שָּׁ֖ם עַל־מְכֻנָתָֽהּ׃ ס‬ And he said to me, “To build for her a house in the land of Shinar. It will be established and set down there on its base.” Shinar: i.e. Babylonia [CB], [DB-VPZ].
Zech 6:1 ‫וָאָשֻׁ֗ב וָאֶשָּׂ֤א עֵינַי֙ וָֽאֶרְאֶ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֨ה אַרְבַּ֤ע מַרְכָּבוֹת֙ יֹֽצְא֔וֹת מִבֵּ֖ין שְׁנֵ֣י הֶֽהָרִ֑ים וְהֶהָרִ֖ים הָרֵ֥י נְחֹֽשֶׁת׃‬ And I lifted up my eyes again and looked, and what I saw was four chariots coming out between two mountains, and the mountains were mountains of copper. what I saw wasbehold.
Zech 6:2 ‫בַּמֶּרְכָּבָ֥ה הָרִֽאשֹׁנָ֖ה סוּסִ֣ים אֲדֻמִּ֑ים וּבַמֶּרְכָּבָ֥ה הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית סוּסִ֥ים שְׁחֹרִֽים׃‬ In the first chariot were red horses, and in the second chariot were black horses. in (2x): i.e. in the harness of, so the chariots were drawn by the various horses. Similarly in the next verse.
Zech 6:3 ‫וּבַמֶּרְכָּבָ֥ה הַשְּׁלִשִׁ֖ית סוּסִ֣ים לְבָנִ֑ים וּבַמֶּרְכָּבָה֙ הָרְבִעִ֔ית סוּסִ֥ים בְּרֻדִּ֖ים אֲמֻצִּֽים׃‬ And in the third chariot were white horses, and in the fourth chariot were vigorous dappled horses. vigorous dappled horses: AV differs (grisled and bay). It is the “and” that makes a substantive difference, if it then refers to two groups of horses. See Zech 6:6 and Zech 6:7.
Zech 6:4 ‫וָאַ֙עַן֙ וָֽאֹמַ֔ר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ הַדֹּבֵ֣ר בִּ֑י מָה־אֵ֖לֶּה אֲדֹנִֽי׃‬ Then I inquired and said to the angel who was speaking to me, “What are these, my lord?” inquired: see Zech 4:4.
Zech 6:5 ‫וַיַּ֥עַן הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֑י אֵ֗לֶּה אַרְבַּע֙ רֻח֣וֹת הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם יוֹצְא֕וֹת מֵֽהִתְיַצֵּ֖ב עַל־אֲד֥וֹן כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And the angel answered and said to me, “These are the four spirits of heaven, going out from standing by the Lord of all the earth.
Zech 6:6 ‫אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֞הּ הַסּוּסִ֣ים הַשְּׁחֹרִ֗ים יֹֽצְאִים֙ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ צָפ֔וֹן וְהַלְּבָנִ֔ים יָצְא֖וּ אֶל־אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם וְהַ֨בְּרֻדִּ֔ים יָצְא֖וּ אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ הַתֵּימָֽן׃‬ The black horses in it are going out to the land of the north, and the white ones are going out after them, and the dappled ones are going out to the land of Teman. Teman: i.e.the south.
Zech 6:7 ‫וְהָאֲמֻצִּ֣ים יָצְא֗וּ וַיְבַקְשׁוּ֙ לָלֶ֙כֶת֙ לְהִתְהַלֵּ֣ך בָּאָ֔רֶץ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לְכ֖וּ הִתְהַלְּכ֣וּ בָאָ֑רֶץ וַתִּתְהַלַּ֖כְנָה בָּאָֽרֶץ׃‬ Then when the vigorous ones went out, they asked to go and patrol the earth.” And he said, “Go and patrol the earth.” So they patrolled the earth. they: feminine, so agreeing with the chariots rather than the horses.
Zech 6:8 ‫וַיַּזְעֵ֣ק אֹתִ֔י וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר אֵלַ֖י לֵאמֹ֑ר רְאֵ֗ה הַיּֽוֹצְאִים֙ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ צָפ֔וֹן הֵנִ֥יחוּ אֶת־רוּחִ֖י בְּאֶ֥רֶץ צָפֽוֹן׃ ס‬ And he cried out to me and spoke to me and said, “See those which are going out to the land of the north; they have set my spirit down in the land of the north. those which are going out: masculine, so agreeing with the horses.
Zech 6:9 ‫וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord came to me and said, came ← became.
Zech 6:10 ‫לָק֙וֹחַ֙ מֵאֵ֣ת הַגּוֹלָ֔ה מֵחֶלְדַּ֕י וּמֵאֵ֥ת טוֹבִיָּ֖ה וּמֵאֵ֣ת יְדַֽעְיָ֑ה וּבָאתָ֤ אַתָּה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וּבָ֗אתָ בֵּ֚ית יֹאשִׁיָּ֣ה בֶן־צְפַנְיָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֖אוּ מִבָּבֶֽל׃‬ Take some of the deportees: those of Heldai, those of Tobiah, and those of Jedaiah, and go on that day, and go to the house of Josiah the son of Zephaniah, with those who came from Babylon. take: infinitive absolute in the role of an imperative.

Tobiah: AV= Tobijah here, but the more frequent Tobiah in Ezra and Nehemiah.

Josiah ← Joshiah, but we retain the AV / traditional English name.
Zech 6:11 ‫וְלָקַחְתָּ֥ כֶֽסֶף־וְזָהָ֖ב וְעָשִׂ֣יתָ עֲטָר֑וֹת וְשַׂמְתָּ֗ בְּרֹ֛אשׁ יְהוֹשֻׁ֥עַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָ֖ק הַכֹּהֵ֥ן הַגָּדֽוֹל׃‬ And take silver and gold, and make crowns, and put them on the head of Joshua the son of Jozadak, the high priest. Jozadak: see Hagg 1:1.
Zech 6:12 ‫וְאָמַרְתָּ֤ אֵלָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֛ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּה־אִ֞ישׁ צֶ֤מַח שְׁמוֹ֙ וּמִתַּחְתָּ֣יו יִצְמָ֔ח וּבָנָ֖ה אֶת־הֵיכַ֥ל יְהוָֽהּ׃‬ And speak to him, and say, ‘This is what the Lord of hosts says: «Behold the man – The Branch is his name – and under his protection he will grow up, and he will build the house of the Lord. this is whatthus.

says ← says ... saying.

under his protectionfrom under him. AV differs (out of his place). [DB-VPZ] renders from His own root (or stock).
Zech 6:13 ‫וְ֠הוּא יִבְנֶ֞ה אֶת־הֵיכַ֤ל יְהוָה֙ וְהֽוּא־יִשָּׂ֣א ה֔וֹד וְיָשַׁ֥ב וּמָשַׁ֖ל עַל־כִּסְא֑וֹ וְהָיָ֤ה כֹהֵן֙ עַל־כִּסְא֔וֹ וַעֲצַ֣ת שָׁל֔וֹם תִּהְיֶ֖ה בֵּ֥ין שְׁנֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And he will build the temple of the Lord, and he will bear majesty, and he will sit and rule on his throne, and he will be a priest on his throne, and there will be the counsel of peace between the two offices. offices: king and priest, which can only both be fulfilled by the Messiah.
Zech 6:14 ‫וְהָעֲטָרֹ֗ת תִּֽהְיֶה֙ לְחֵ֙לֶם֙ וּלְטוֹבִיָּ֣ה וְלִידַֽעְיָ֔ה וּלְחֵ֖ן בֶּן־צְפַנְיָ֑ה לְזִכָּר֖וֹן בְּהֵיכַ֥ל יְהוָֽה׃‬ And Helem and Tobiah and Jedaiah will have the crowns, as will Hen the son of Zephaniah, as a memorial in the temple of the Lord. Tobiah: AV= Tobijah here, but the more frequent Tobiah in Ezra and Nehemiah.

as will Hen: or for the grace of, as in [DB-VPZ] p.203, but not MT punctuation.
Zech 6:15 ‫וּרְחוֹקִ֣ים ׀ יָבֹ֗אוּ וּבָנוּ֙ בְּהֵיכַ֣ל יְהוָ֔ה וִידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּֽי־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וְהָיָה֙ אִם־שָׁמ֣וֹעַ תִּשְׁמְע֔וּן בְּק֖וֹל יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃ ס‬ And people from far away will come and build in the temple of the Lord, and you will know that the Lord of hosts sent me to you. And it will come to pass if you make a point of heeding the Lord your God.» ’ ” make a point of heeding: infinitive absolute.
Zech 7:1 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ בִּשְׁנַ֣ת אַרְבַּ֔ע לְדָרְיָ֖וֶשׁ הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ הָיָ֨ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־זְכַרְיָ֗ה בְּאַרְבָּעָ֛ה לַחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַתְּשִׁעִ֖י בְּכִסְלֵֽו׃‬ And it came to pass in the fourth year of Darius the king that the word of the Lord came to Zechariah on the fourth day of the ninth month, that is Kislev. came ← became.

Kislev: AV= Chisleu, but we use the modern English name.
Zech 7:2 ‫וַיִּשְׁלַח֙ בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל שַׂר־אֶ֕צֶר וְרֶ֥גֶם מֶ֖לֶךְ וַֽאֲנָשָׁ֑יו לְחַלּ֖וֹת אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃‬ And Sar-Ezer and Regem-Melech and his men sent envoys to Beth-El to entreat the Lord, Sar-Ezer: AV= Sherezer.

sent ... to Beth-El: AV differs. The subject of sent could be (1) Beth-El (but towns are usually feminine); (2) Sar-Ezer, ours ↴

entreat: see Jer 26:19.
Zech 7:3 ‫לֵאמֹ֗ר אֶל־הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ לְבֵית־יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וְאֶל־הַנְּבִיאִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר הַֽאֶבְכֶּה֙ בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַחֲמִשִׁ֔י הִנָּזֵ֕ר כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔יתִי זֶ֖ה כַּמֶּ֥ה שָׁנִֽים׃ פ‬ to say to the priests who were at the house of the Lord of hosts and to the prophets, “Shall I weep in the fifth month, separating myself, as I have done for so many years now?” ↳ and [CB]; (3) they, AV, which also renders Beth-El as the house of God.

say ← to say ... to say.
Zech 7:4 ‫וַיְהִ֛י דְּבַר־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord of hosts came to me and said, came ← became.
Zech 7:5 ‫אֱמֹר֙ אֶל־כָּל־עַ֣ם הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר כִּֽי־צַמְתֶּ֨ם וְסָפ֜וֹד בַּחֲמִישִׁ֣י וּבַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י וְזֶה֙ שִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה הֲצ֥וֹם צַמְתֻּ֖נִי אָֽנִי׃‬ “Speak to all the people of the land and to the priests, and say, ‘When you fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh month for the last seventy years, did you really fast for me? mourned: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.

did you really fast: infinitive absolute.

for me: with an emphatic pronoun.
Zech 7:6 ‫וְכִ֥י תֹאכְל֖וּ וְכִ֣י תִשְׁתּ֑וּ הֲל֤וֹא אַתֶּם֙ הָאֹ֣כְלִ֔ים וְאַתֶּ֖ם הַשֹּׁתִֽים׃‬ And when you ate and when you drank, were you not eating for yourselves and drinking for yourselves?
Zech 7:7 ‫הֲל֣וֹא אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר קָרָ֤א יְהוָה֙ בְּיַד֙ הַנְּבִיאִ֣ים הָרִֽאשֹׁנִ֔ים בִּהְי֤וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ יֹשֶׁ֣בֶת וּשְׁלֵוָ֔ה וְעָרֶ֖יהָ סְבִיבֹתֶ֑יהָ וְהַנֶּ֥גֶב וְהַשְּׁפֵלָ֖ה יֹשֵֽׁב׃ פ‬ Have you not considered the words which the Lord proclaimed through the intermediacy of the former prophets when Jerusalem was inhabited and prosperous, and her cities around her and the south and the plain were also inhabited?’ ” intermediacy ← hand.
Zech 7:8 ‫וַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־זְכַרְיָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord came to Zechariah and said, came ← became.
Zech 7:9 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֛ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֵאמֹ֑ר מִשְׁפַּ֤ט אֱמֶת֙ שְׁפֹ֔טוּ וְחֶ֣סֶד וְרַֽחֲמִ֔ים עֲשׂ֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ אֶת־אָחִֽיו׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘Judge with true justice and show kindness and compassion, each man to his brother. this is whatthus.

says ← says ... to say.

true justice ← justice of truth, a Hebraic genitive.
Zech 7:10 ‫וְאַלְמָנָ֧ה וְיָת֛וֹם גֵּ֥ר וְעָנִ֖י אַֽל־תַּעֲשֹׁ֑קוּ וְרָעַת֙ אִ֣ישׁ אָחִ֔יו אַֽל־תַּחְשְׁב֖וּ בִּלְבַבְכֶֽם׃‬ Do not oppress the widow or the orphan, the foreigner or the poor, and do not devise wickedness in your hearts, one against his brother.’ ” hearts ← heart.
Zech 7:11 ‫וַיְמָאֲנ֣וּ לְהַקְשִׁ֔יב וַיִּתְּנ֥וּ כָתֵ֖ף סֹרָ֑רֶת וְאָזְנֵיהֶ֖ם הִכְבִּ֥ידוּ מִשְּׁמֽוֹעַ׃‬ But they refused to listen, and they gave a rebellious shoulder, and they made their ears too dull to hear.
Zech 7:12 ‫וְלִבָּ֞ם שָׂ֣מוּ שָׁמִ֗יר מִ֠שְּׁמוֹעַ אֶת־הַתּוֹרָ֤ה וְאֶת־הַדְּבָרִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר שָׁלַ֜ח יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ בְּרוּח֔וֹ בְּיַ֖ד הַנְּבִיאִ֣ים הָרִֽאשֹׁנִ֑ים וַֽיְהִי֙ קֶ֣צֶף גָּד֔וֹל מֵאֵ֖ת יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ And they made their hearts as hard as diamond, preventing them from hearing the law and the words which the Lord of hosts sent by his spirit, through the intermediacy of the former prophets, and there came great anger from the Lord of hosts. hearts ← heart.

diamond: as [AnLx]. AV= adamant stone, [BDB]= flint etc.

intermediacy ← hand.

came ← became.
Zech 7:13 ‫וַיְהִ֥י כַאֲשֶׁר־קָרָ֖א וְלֹ֣א שָׁמֵ֑עוּ כֵּ֤ן יִקְרְאוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א אֶשְׁמָ֔ע אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ “And it has come to pass, that just as he cried out, and they did not listen, so they will cry out, and I will not listen, says the Lord of hosts.
Zech 7:14 ‫וְאֵ֣סָעֲרֵ֗ם עַ֤ל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־יְדָע֔וּם וְהָאָ֙רֶץ֙ נָשַׁ֣מָּה אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֔ם מֵֽעֹבֵ֖ר וּמִשָּׁ֑ב וַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ אֶֽרֶץ־חֶמְדָּ֖ה לְשַׁמָּֽה׃ פ‬ So I have driven them like a storm into all nations which they did not know of, and the land has become waste after them, so that there was no-one passing through or returning, and they made the pleasant land a desolation.” pleasant land ← land of pleasantness, a Hebraic genitive.
Zech 8:1 ‫וַיְהִ֛י דְּבַר־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord of hosts came and said, came ← became.
Zech 8:2 ‫כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת קִנֵּ֥אתִי לְצִיּ֖וֹן קִנְאָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה וְחֵמָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה קִנֵּ֥אתִי לָֽהּ׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says:

‘I am jealous for Zion with a great jealousy,

And with great fury I am jealous for her.’

this is whatthus.
Zech 8:3 ‫כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה שַׁ֚בְתִּי אֶל־צִיּ֔וֹן וְשָׁכַנְתִּ֖י בְּת֣וֹךְ יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְנִקְרְאָ֤ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ עִ֣יר־הָֽאֱמֶ֔ת וְהַר־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת הַ֥ר הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ׃ ס‬ This is what the Lord says: ‘I will return to Zion, and I will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem, and Jerusalem will be called the City of Truth, and the mountain of the Lord of hosts, the Holy Mountain.’ this is whatthus.

Holy Mountain ← Mountain of Holiness, a Hebraic genitive.
Zech 8:4 ‫כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת עֹ֤ד יֵֽשְׁבוּ֙ זְקֵנִ֣ים וּזְקֵנ֔וֹת בִּרְחֹב֖וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְאִ֧ישׁ מִשְׁעַנְתּ֛וֹ בְּיָד֖וֹ מֵרֹ֥ב יָמִֽים׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘Elderly men and women will yet dwell in the streets of Jerusalem, each with his staff in his hand because of their advanced age. this is whatthus.

advanced age ← abundance of days.
Zech 8:5 ‫וּרְחֹב֤וֹת הָעִיר֙ יִמָּ֣לְא֔וּ יְלָדִ֖ים וִֽילָד֑וֹת מְשַׂחֲקִ֖ים בִּרְחֹֽבֹתֶֽיהָ׃ ס‬ And the streets of the city will be full of boys and girls playing in its streets.’
Zech 8:6 ‫כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת כִּ֣י יִפָּלֵ֗א בְּעֵינֵי֙ שְׁאֵרִית֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה בַּיָּמִ֖ים הָהֵ֑ם גַּם־בְּעֵינַי֙ יִפָּלֵ֔א נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ פ‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘If it is marvellous in the sight of the remnant of this people, in those days, will it also be marvellous in my sight? says the Lord of hosts.’ this is whatthus.
Zech 8:7 ‫כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת הִנְנִ֥י מוֹשִׁ֛יעַ אֶת־עַמִּ֖י מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִזְרָ֑ח וּמֵאֶ֖רֶץ מְב֥וֹא הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘I am about to save my people from the land of the east and from the land of the west. this is whatthus.

I am about to ← behold me.

east ... west ← rising ... setting of the sun, standing for all parts of the earth [DB-VPZ].
Zech 8:8 ‫וְהֵבֵאתִ֣י אֹתָ֔ם וְשָׁכְנ֖וּ בְּת֣וֹךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְהָיוּ־לִ֣י לְעָ֗ם וַֽאֲנִי֙ אֶהְיֶ֤ה לָהֶם֙ לֵֽאלֹהִ֔ים בֶּאֱמֶ֖ת וּבִצְדָקָֽה׃ ס‬ And I will bring them, and they will dwell in the precincts of Jerusalem, and they will be a people to me, and I will be God to them, in truth and righteousness.’ 2 Cor 6:16, Rev 21:7.

precincts ← midst.
Zech 8:9 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַר֮ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאוֹת֒ תֶּחֱזַ֣קְנָה יְדֵיכֶ֔ם הַשֹּֽׁמְעִים֙ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֵ֖ת הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה מִפִּי֙ הַנְּבִיאִ֔ים אֲ֠שֶׁר בְּי֞וֹם יֻסַּ֨ד בֵּית־יְהוָ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת הַהֵיכָ֖ל לְהִבָּנֽוֹת׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘May you be of good courage, you who hear in these days these words from the mouth of the prophets who were present on the day when the house of the Lord of hosts was founded, when the temple was to be built. this is whatthus.

you be of good courage ← your hands be strengthened.
Zech 8:10 ‫כִּ֗י לִפְנֵי֙ הַיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם שְׂכַ֤ר הָֽאָדָם֙ לֹ֣א נִֽהְיָ֔ה וּשְׂכַ֥ר הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה אֵינֶ֑נָּה וְלַיּוֹצֵ֨א וְלַבָּ֤א אֵין־שָׁלוֹם֙ מִן־הַצָּ֔ר וַאֲשַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־כָּל־הָאָדָ֖ם אִ֥ישׁ בְּרֵעֵֽהוּ׃‬ For before those days, a man had no wages, and there were no wages for keeping cattle, and there was no peace for him who went about his business, because of affliction. And I sent every man against his neighbour. keeping cattle: or (working with) farm animals.

went about his business ← went out and came in.

every man ← every man each.
Zech 8:11 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה לֹ֣א כַיָּמִ֤ים הָרִֽאשֹׁנִים֙ אֲנִ֔י לִשְׁאֵרִ֖ית הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ But now, I will not be as in the former days to the remnant of this people, says the Lord of hosts.
Zech 8:12 ‫כִּֽי־זֶ֣רַע הַשָּׁל֗וֹם הַגֶּ֜פֶן תִּתֵּ֤ן פִּרְיָהּ֙ וְהָאָ֙רֶץ֙ תִּתֵּ֣ן אֶת־יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְהַשָּׁמַ֖יִם יִתְּנ֣וּ טַלָּ֑ם וְהִנְחַלְתִּ֗י אֶת־שְׁאֵרִ֛ית הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּ֖ה אֶת־כָּל־אֵֽלֶּה׃‬ For it will be a seed enjoying peace. The vine will yield its fruit, and the land will yield its produce, and the heavens will give their dew. And I will give all these things as a possession to the remnant of this people.
Zech 8:13 ‫וְהָיָ֡ה כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ הֱיִיתֶ֨ם קְלָלָ֜ה בַּגּוֹיִ֗ם בֵּ֤ית יְהוּדָה֙ וּבֵ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כֵּ֚ן אוֹשִׁ֣יעַ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וִהְיִיתֶ֖ם בְּרָכָ֑ה אַל־תִּירָ֖אוּ תֶּחֱזַ֥קְנָה יְדֵיכֶֽם׃ ס‬ And it will come to pass, that just as you were an object of cursing among the Gentiles, O house of Judah and house of Israel, so I will save you, and you will be a blessing. Do not fear; be of good courage.’ be of good courage ← strengthen your hands.
Zech 8:14 ‫כִּ֣י כֹ֣ה אָמַר֮ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאוֹת֒ כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר זָמַמְ֜תִּי לְהָרַ֣ע לָכֶ֗ם בְּהַקְצִ֤יף אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ אֹתִ֔י אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת וְלֹ֖א נִחָֽמְתִּי׃‬ For this is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘Just as I purposed to bring harm to you when your fathers provoked me to anger, says the Lord of hosts, and I did not repent, this is whatthus.
Zech 8:15 ‫כֵּ֣ן שַׁ֤בְתִּי זָמַ֙מְתִּי֙ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה לְהֵיטִ֥יב אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וְאֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֑ה אַל־תִּירָֽאוּ׃‬ so I have again purposed in these days to do good to Jerusalem and to the house of Judah; do not fear.
Zech 8:16 ‫אֵ֥לֶּה הַדְּבָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּֽעֲשׂ֑וּ דַּבְּר֤וּ אֱמֶת֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ אֱמֶת֙ וּמִשְׁפַּ֣ט שָׁל֔וֹם שִׁפְט֖וּ בְּשַׁעֲרֵיכֶֽם׃‬ These are the things which you are to do: speak the truth, each one with his neighbour, and judge in your courts with truth and sound judgment. Eph 4:25.

courts ← gates.

sound ← of peace, but with wider scope.
Zech 8:17 ‫וְאִ֣ישׁ ׀ אֶת־רָעַ֣ת רֵעֵ֗הוּ אַֽל־תַּחְשְׁבוּ֙ בִּלְבַבְכֶ֔ם וּשְׁבֻ֥עַת שֶׁ֖קֶר אַֽל־תֶּאֱהָ֑בוּ כִּ֧י אֶת־כָּל־אֵ֛לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׂנֵ֖אתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ And don't let any of you plot harm in your hearts against his neighbour, and do not love a false oath, for all these things are what I hate, says the Lord.’ ” hearts ← heart.
Zech 8:18 ‫וַיְהִ֛י דְּבַר־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר׃‬ And the word of the Lord of hosts came to me and said, came ← became.
Zech 8:19 ‫כֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת צ֣וֹם הָרְבִיעִ֡י וְצ֣וֹם הַחֲמִישִׁי֩ וְצ֨וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֜י וְצ֣וֹם הָעֲשִׂירִ֗י יִהְיֶ֤ה לְבֵית־יְהוּדָה֙ לְשָׂשׂ֣וֹן וּלְשִׂמְחָ֔ה וּֽלְמֹעֲדִ֖ים טוֹבִ֑ים וְהָאֱמֶ֥ת וְהַשָּׁל֖וֹם אֱהָֽבוּ׃ פ‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth will be to the house of Judah for rejoicing, and for gladness, and for good festival times, so love truth and peace.’ this is whatthus.
Zech 8:20 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת עֹ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָבֹ֣אוּ עַמִּ֔ים וְיֹשְׁבֵ֖י עָרִ֥ים רַבּֽוֹת׃‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘It will yet be that various peoples will come, and inhabitants of many cities, this is whatthus.
Zech 8:21 ‫וְֽהָלְכ֡וּ יֹשְׁבֵי֩ אַחַ֨ת אֶל־אַחַ֜ת לֵאמֹ֗ר נֵלְכָ֤ה הָלוֹךְ֙ לְחַלּוֹת֙ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וּלְבַקֵּ֖שׁ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת אֵלְכָ֖ה גַּם־אָֽנִי׃‬ and the inhabitants of one city will go to another and say, «Let us without fail go to entreat the Lord and seek the Lord of hosts. I too will go.» without fail go: infinitive absolute.

entreat ← weaken the face.
Zech 8:22 ‫וּבָ֨אוּ עַמִּ֤ים רַבִּים֙ וְגוֹיִ֣ם עֲצוּמִ֔ים לְבַקֵּ֛שׁ אֶת־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וּלְחַלּ֖וֹת אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ And many peoples will come, and powerful nations, to seek the Lord of hosts in Jerusalem, and to entreat the Lord.’ entreat: see Zech 8:21.
Zech 8:23 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַר֮ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאוֹת֒ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔מָּה אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַחֲזִ֙יקוּ֙ עֲשָׂרָ֣ה אֲנָשִׁ֔ים מִכֹּ֖ל לְשֹׁנ֣וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְֽהֶחֱזִ֡יקוּ בִּכְנַף֩ אִ֨ישׁ יְהוּדִ֜י לֵאמֹ֗ר נֵֽלְכָה֙ עִמָּכֶ֔ם כִּ֥י שָׁמַ֖עְנוּ אֱלֹהִ֥ים עִמָּכֶֽם׃ ס‬ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘In those days what will happen is that ten men of all the languages of the Gentiles will take hold, namely they will take hold of the hem of the garment of a Jewish man and say, «Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.» ’ ” this is whatthus.

namely: wider use of the vav.

with you (2x): plural.
Zech 9:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֤א דְבַר־יְהוָה֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַדְרָ֔ךְ וְדַמֶּ֖שֶׂק מְנֻחָת֑וֹ כִּ֤י לַֽיהוָה֙ עֵ֣ין אָדָ֔ם וְכֹ֖ל שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬

The burden of the word of the Lord in the land of Hadrach

And Damascus its resting place,

For the Lord has an eye on mankind

And on all the tribes of Israel,

its: i.e. the burden's.

the Lord has an eye on (etc.): AV differs (when the eyes of man ... shall be towards the Lord), also possible.

mankind ← man; Adam. Collective usage.
Zech 9:2 ‫וְגַם־חֲמָ֖ת תִּגְבָּל־בָּ֑הּ צֹ֣ר וְצִיד֔וֹן כִּ֥י חָֽכְמָ֖ה מְאֹֽד׃‬

And Hamath also, which borders on it,

And Tyre, and Sidon,

For it is very wise.

Sidon: see Gen 10:15.
Zech 9:3 ‫וַתִּ֥בֶן צֹ֛ר מָצ֖וֹר לָ֑הּ וַתִּצְבָּר־כֶּ֙סֶף֙ כֶּֽעָפָ֔ר וְחָר֖וּץ כְּטִ֥יט חוּצֽוֹת׃‬

And Tyre built itself a fortification,

And it heaped up silver like dust,

And fine gold like the mud of the streets.

Zech 9:4 ‫הִנֵּ֤ה אֲדֹנָי֙ יֽוֹרִשֶׁ֔נָּה וְהִכָּ֥ה בַיָּ֖ם חֵילָ֑הּ וְהִ֖יא בָּאֵ֥שׁ תֵּאָכֵֽל׃‬

The Lord* will take possession of it

And cast its wealth into the sea,

And it will be consumed by fire.

Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

cast ← strike; push.
Zech 9:5 ‫תֵּרֶ֨א אַשְׁקְל֜וֹן וְתִירָ֗א וְעַזָּה֙ וְתָחִ֣יל מְאֹ֔ד וְעֶקְר֖וֹן כִּֽי־הֹבִ֣ישׁ מֶבָּטָ֑הּ וְאָ֤בַד מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ מֵֽעַזָּ֔ה וְאַשְׁקְל֖וֹן לֹ֥א תֵשֵֽׁב׃‬

And Ashkelon will see and be afraid,

And Gaza will tremble greatly,

And Ekron, for its expectation will be put to shame,

And Gaza will lose its kingship,

And Ashkelon will not be inhabited.

Gaza will lose its kingshipthe king(ship) will perish from Gaza.
Zech 9:6 ‫וְיָשַׁ֥ב מַמְזֵ֖ר בְּאַשְׁדּ֑וֹד וְהִכְרַתִּ֖י גְּא֥וֹן פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃‬

And he who is of mixed race will dwell in Ashdod,

And I will cut off the pride of the Philistines.

of mixed race: [CB], [DB-VPZ] p.295. Others and Talmud: child of adultery or incest, also as AV (bastard). So AV differs.
Zech 9:7 ‫וַהֲסִרֹתִ֨י דָמָ֜יו מִפִּ֗יו וְשִׁקֻּצָיו֙ מִבֵּ֣ין שִׁנָּ֔יו וְנִשְׁאַ֥ר גַּם־ה֖וּא לֵֽאלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וְהָיָה֙ כְּאַלֻּ֣ף בִּֽיהוּדָ֔ה וְעֶקְר֖וֹן כִּיבוּסִֽי׃‬

And I will remove their blood sacrifices from their mouth,

And their abominations from between their teeth,

And he who remains will also belong to our God

And will be like a chief in Judah,

And Ekron will be as the Jebusite.

their (4x)his.
Zech 9:8 ‫וְחָנִ֨יתִי לְבֵיתִ֤י מִצָּבָה֙ מֵעֹבֵ֣ר וּמִשָּׁ֔ב וְלֹֽא־יַעֲבֹ֧ר עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם ע֖וֹד נֹגֵ֑שׂ כִּ֥י עַתָּ֖ה רָאִ֥יתִי בְעֵינָֽי׃ ס‬

And I will encamp my house at its station,

Preventing anyone from passing through or returning,

And the taskmaster will no longer pass through against them,

For now I have seen with my eyes.

at its station: as [AnLx]. AV differs (because of the army).
Zech 9:9 ‫גִּילִ֨י מְאֹ֜ד בַּת־צִיּ֗וֹן הָרִ֙יעִי֙ בַּ֣ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם הִנֵּ֤ה מַלְכֵּךְ֙ יָ֣בוֹא לָ֔ךְ צַדִּ֥יק וְנוֹשָׁ֖ע ה֑וּא עָנִי֙ וְרֹכֵ֣ב עַל־חֲמ֔וֹר וְעַל־עַ֖יִר בֶּן־אֲתֹנֽוֹת׃‬

Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion,

Shout out, O daughter of Jerusalem.

Behold, your king is coming to you;

He is righteous and saved.

He is lowly,

And riding on a donkey,

And on a colt

– The foal of an ass.

Matt 21:5, John 12:15.

and saved: AV differs somewhat (having salvation). Theoretically possibly gerundival use of the participle, and (needing) to be saved, but at the time of the second coming of Christ (equally in view by the prophets), a ↴

ass ← she-asses, i.e. one of the she-asses.
Zech 9:10 ‫וְהִכְרַתִּי־רֶ֣כֶב מֵאֶפְרַ֗יִם וְסוּס֙ מִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְנִכְרְתָה֙ קֶ֣שֶׁת מִלְחָמָ֔ה וְדִבֶּ֥ר שָׁל֖וֹם לַגּוֹיִ֑ם וּמָשְׁלוֹ֙ מִיָּ֣ם עַד־יָ֔ם וּמִנָּהָ֖ר עַד־אַפְסֵי־אָֽרֶץ׃‬

And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim,

And the horse from Jerusalem,

And the bow of war will be cut off.

And he will speak peace to the Gentiles,

And his dominion will be from sea to sea,

And from the river to the ends of the earth.

↳ plain passive past participle is appropriate, saved. See [DB-VPZ] pp.307-308.

his dominion will be (etc.): compare Ps 72:8.

the river: i.e., [DB-VPZ], the Euphrates.
Zech 9:11 ‫גַּם־אַ֣תְּ בְּדַם־בְּרִיתֵ֗ךְ שִׁלַּ֤חְתִּי אֲסִירַ֙יִךְ֙ מִבּ֔וֹר אֵ֥ין מַ֖יִם בּֽוֹ׃‬

As for you too,

By the blood of your covenant,

I have released your captives from the pit

Which had no water in it.

you: feminine singular, so daughter of Jerusalem.

which had no water in it: signifying Israel's captivity, but not death, [DB-VPZ].
Zech 9:12 ‫שׁ֚וּבוּ לְבִצָּר֔וֹן אֲסִירֵ֖י הַתִּקְוָ֑ה גַּם־הַיּ֕וֹם מַגִּ֥יד מִשְׁנֶ֖ה אָשִׁ֥יב לָֽךְ׃‬

O captives of hope,

Return to the fortress,

For this very day I declare

That I will restore double to you.

Zech 9:13 ‫כִּֽי־דָרַ֨כְתִּי לִ֜י יְהוּדָ֗ה קֶ֚שֶׁת מִלֵּ֣אתִי אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְעוֹרַרְתִּ֤י בָנַ֙יִךְ֙ צִיּ֔וֹן עַל־בָּנַ֖יִךְ יָוָ֑ן וְשַׂמְתִּ֖יךְ כְּחֶ֥רֶב גִּבּֽוֹר׃‬

For I have drawn Judah as my bow,

And I have filled it with Ephraim.

And I have awakened your sons, O Zion,

Against your sons, O Greece,

And I have made you like a warrior's sword.

filled it with Ephraim: Ephraim is the arrow, attached to the bow.

Greece: or Javan.
Zech 9:14 ‫וַֽיהוָה֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֣ם יֵֽרָאֶ֔ה וְיָצָ֥א כַבָּרָ֖ק חִצּ֑וֹ וַֽאדֹנָ֤י יְהֹוִה֙ בַּשּׁוֹפָ֣ר יִתְקָ֔ע וְהָלַ֖ךְ בְּסַעֲר֥וֹת תֵּימָֽן׃‬

And the Lord will be seen against them,

And his arrow will go out like lightning,

And my Lord the Lord will sound the ramshorn,

And he will go out in the tempests of the south.

Zech 9:15 ‫יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאוֹת֮ יָגֵ֣ן עֲלֵיהֶם֒ וְאָכְל֗וּ וְכָֽבְשׁוּ֙ אַבְנֵי־קֶ֔לַע וְשָׁת֥וּ הָמ֖וּ כְּמוֹ־יָ֑יִן וּמָֽלְאוּ֙ כַּמִּזְרָ֔ק כְּזָוִיּ֖וֹת מִזְבֵּֽחַ׃‬

The Lord of hosts will protect them,

And they will consume and subdue the sling stones,

And they will drink and be boisterous as with wine,

And they will be full, like a sacrificial bowl

And as the corners of the altar.

the sling stones: direct object, denoting the enemy [DB-VPZ] p.329. AV differs (with sling stones), as if Israel's instrument.
Zech 9:16 ‫וְֽהוֹשִׁיעָ֞ם יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא כְּצֹ֣אן עַמּ֑וֹ כִּ֚י אַבְנֵי־נֵ֔זֶר מִֽתְנוֹסְס֖וֹת עַל־אַדְמָתֽוֹ׃‬

And the Lord their God will save them on that day,

As the flock of his people,

For the gemstones of the diadem will be lifted up,

As an ensign over his land.

Zech 9:17 ‫כִּ֥י מַה־טּוּב֖וֹ וּמַה־יָפְי֑וֹ דָּגָן֙ בַּֽחוּרִ֔ים וְתִיר֖וֹשׁ יְנוֹבֵ֥ב בְּתֻלֽוֹת׃‬

For how great is his goodness and his beauty!

Corn will make the youths flourish,

And new wine the virgins.

Zech 10:1 ‫שַׁאֲל֨וּ מֵיְהוָ֤ה מָטָר֙ בְּעֵ֣ת מַלְק֔וֹשׁ יְהוָ֖ה עֹשֶׂ֣ה חֲזִיזִ֑ים וּמְטַר־גֶּ֙שֶׁם֙ יִתֵּ֣ן לָהֶ֔ם לְאִ֖ישׁ עֵ֥שֶׂב בַּשָּׂדֶֽה׃‬

Ask for rain from the Lord

In the time of the latter rain.

The Lord makes lightning strikes

And appoints them pouring rain

For vegetables in the field for each person.

pouring rain ← downpour of rain.
Zech 10:2 ‫כִּ֧י הַתְּרָפִ֣ים דִּבְּרוּ־אָ֗וֶן וְהַקּֽוֹסְמִים֙ חָ֣זוּ שֶׁ֔קֶר וַֽחֲלֹמוֹת֙ הַשָּׁ֣וא יְדַבֵּ֔רוּ הֶ֖בֶל יְנַֽחֵמ֑וּן עַל־כֵּן֙ נָסְע֣וּ כְמוֹ־צֹ֔אן יַעֲנ֖וּ כִּֽי־אֵ֥ין רֹעֶֽה׃ פ‬

For the household gods speak vanity,

And the diviners see lying visions

And tell false dreams.

They give empty comfort.

That is why they move around like sheep

And are afflicted,

Because there is no shepherd.

household gods ← teraphim. Compare Gen 31:19.
Zech 10:3 ‫עַל־הָֽרֹעִים֙ חָרָ֣ה אַפִּ֔י וְעַל־הָעַתּוּדִ֖ים אֶפְק֑וֹד כִּֽי־פָקַד֩ יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֤וֹת אֶת־עֶדְרוֹ֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֔ה וְשָׂ֣ם אוֹתָ֔ם כְּס֥וּס הוֹד֖וֹ בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה׃‬

“My anger was kindled against the shepherds,

And I will visit the he-goats,

For the Lord of hosts will visit his flock

– The house of Judah –

And he will make them like his majestic horse in war.

his majestic horse ← the horse of his majesty, a Hebraic genitive. A restored people fit for the Lord to ride on [DB-VPZ].
Zech 10:4 ‫מִמֶּ֤נּוּ פִנָּה֙ מִמֶּ֣נּוּ יָתֵ֔ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ קֶ֣שֶׁת מִלְחָמָ֑ה מִמֶּ֛נּוּ יֵצֵ֥א כָל־נוֹגֵ֖שׂ יַחְדָּֽו׃‬

From him comes the cornerstone,

From him comes the peg,

From him comes the bow of war;

From him every role of taskmaster converges together.

the cornerstone: see Isa 28:16.

the peg: see Isa 22:22 - Isa 22:23.

converges ← comes out.
Zech 10:5 ‫וְהָי֨וּ כְגִבֹּרִ֜ים בּוֹסִ֨ים בְּטִ֤יט חוּצוֹת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְנִ֨לְחֲמ֔וּ כִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה עִמָּ֑ם וְהֹבִ֖ישׁוּ רֹכְבֵ֥י סוּסִֽים׃‬

And they will be as warriors,

Treading down in the mire of the streets in war,

And they will fight,

For the Lord will be with them,

And they will put horseriders to shame.

they will put horseriders to shame: AV differs somewhat (the riders on horses shall be confounded), also possible.
Zech 10:6 ‫וְגִבַּרְתִּ֣י ׀ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֗ה וְאֶת־בֵּ֤ית יוֹסֵף֙ אוֹשִׁ֔יעַ וְהֽוֹשְׁבוֹתִים֙ כִּ֣י רִֽחַמְתִּ֔ים וְהָי֖וּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־זְנַחְתִּ֑ים כִּ֗י אֲנִ֛י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֖ם וְאֶעֱנֵֽם׃‬

And I will make the house of Judah strong,

And I will save the house of Joseph,

And I will give them a dwelling place.

For I will have mercy on them,

And they will be as if I had never thrust them away,

For I am the Lord their God,

And I will answer them.

never ← not.
Zech 10:7 ‫וְהָי֤וּ כְגִבּוֹר֙ אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְשָׂמַ֥ח לִבָּ֖ם כְּמוֹ־יָ֑יִן וּבְנֵיהֶם֙ יִרְא֣וּ וְשָׂמֵ֔חוּ יָגֵ֥ל לִבָּ֖ם בַּיהוָֽה׃‬

And Ephraim will be like a warrior,

And their heart will be glad, as with wine,

And their sons will see and be glad;

Their heart will rejoice in the Lord.

Zech 10:8 ‫אֶשְׁרְקָ֥ה לָהֶ֛ם וַאֲקַבְּצֵ֖ם כִּ֣י פְדִיתִ֑ים וְרָב֖וּ כְּמ֥וֹ רָבֽוּ׃‬

And I will whistle to them

And gather them,

For I will redeem them,

And they will increase

As they have previously increased.

whistle: as a shepherd does, to gather his flock [DB-VPZ]. AV differs, to modern ears at least (hiss).
Zech 10:9 ‫וְאֶזְרָעֵם֙ בָּֽעַמִּ֔ים וּבַמֶּרְחַקִּ֖ים יִזְכְּר֑וּנִי וְחָי֥וּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֖ם וָשָֽׁבוּ׃‬

And I will sow them among the nations,

And in remote places they will remember me,

And they will live with their sons,

And they will return.

Zech 10:10 ‫וַהֲשִֽׁיבוֹתִים֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וּמֵֽאַשּׁ֖וּר אֲקַבְּצֵ֑ם וְאֶל־אֶ֨רֶץ גִּלְעָ֤ד וּלְבָנוֹן֙ אֲבִיאֵ֔ם וְלֹ֥א יִמָּצֵ֖א לָהֶֽם׃‬

And I will bring them from the land of Egypt,

And from Assyria I will gather them,

And I will bring them to Gilead and Lebanon,

But the necessary room will not be found for them.

Gilead: see Gen 31:21.
Zech 10:11 ‫וְעָבַ֨ר בַּיָּ֜ם צָרָ֗ה וְהִכָּ֤ה בַיָּם֙ גַּלִּ֔ים וְהֹבִ֕ישׁוּ כֹּ֖ל מְצוּל֣וֹת יְאֹ֑ר וְהוּרַד֙ גְּא֣וֹן אַשּׁ֔וּר וְשֵׁ֥בֶט מִצְרַ֖יִם יָסֽוּר׃‬

And with adversity he will pass over the sea,

And he will strike the waves on the sea,

And all the deep places of the river will become dry,

And the pride of Assyria will be brought down,

And the sceptre of Egypt will depart.

the sea ... the river: i.e. the Red Sea ... the Nile [DB-VPZ].
Zech 10:12 ‫וְגִבַּרְתִּים֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה וּבִשְׁמ֖וֹ יִתְהַלָּ֑כוּ נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬

And I will make them strong in the Lord,

And they will walk about in his name,

Says the Lord.”

Zech 11:1 ‫פְּתַ֥ח לְבָנ֖וֹן דְּלָתֶ֑יךָ וְתֹאכַ֥ל אֵ֖שׁ בַּאֲרָזֶֽיךָ׃‬

Open your doors, O Lebanon,

And let fire devour your cedars.

Zech 11:2 ‫הֵילֵ֤ל בְּרוֹשׁ֙ כִּֽי־נָ֣פַל אֶ֔רֶז אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַדִּרִ֖ים שֻׁדָּ֑דוּ הֵילִ֙ילוּ֙ אַלּוֹנֵ֣י בָשָׁ֔ן כִּ֥י יָרַ֖ד יַ֥עַר *הבצור **הַבָּצִֽיר׃‬

Howl, O cypress tree,

For the cedar has fallen,

For the mighty ones have been spoiled.

Howl, O oaks of Bashan,

For the inaccessible forest has come down.

inaccessible: the ketiv and qeré are similar words with the same meaning. A vav / yod issue.
Zech 11:3 ‫ק֚וֹל יִֽלְלַ֣ת הָרֹעִ֔ים כִּ֥י שֻׁדְּדָ֖ה אַדַּרְתָּ֑ם ק֚וֹל שַׁאֲגַ֣ת כְּפִירִ֔ים כִּ֥י שֻׁדַּ֖ד גְּא֥וֹן הַיַּרְדֵּֽן׃ ס‬

Hear the voice of howling of the shepherds,

For their magnificence has been spoiled.

Hear the voice of roaring of lions,

For the excellency of the Jordan has been spoiled.

spoiled ... spoiled: otiose, but see Gen 12:5.
Zech 11:4 ‫כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑י רְעֵ֖ה אֶת־צֹ֥אן הַהֲרֵגָֽה׃‬ This is what the Lord my God says: “Tend the flock of slaughter, this is whatthus.
Zech 11:5 ‫אֲשֶׁ֨ר קֹנֵיהֶ֤ן יַֽהֲרְגֻן֙ וְלֹ֣א יֶאְשָׁ֔מוּ וּמֹכְרֵיהֶ֣ן יֹאמַ֔ר בָּר֥וּךְ יְהוָ֖ה וַאעְשִׁ֑ר וְרֹ֣עֵיהֶ֔ם לֹ֥א יַחְמ֖וֹל עֲלֵיהֶֽן׃‬ whose owners slaughter them, but they do not bear the guilt. And each of those who sell them says, ‘Blessed is the Lord, for I have gained riches.’ And their shepherds do not have compassion on them. each of: from the singular verb with a plural subject.
Zech 11:6 ‫כִּ֠י לֹ֣א אֶחְמ֥וֹל ע֛וֹד עַל־יֹשְׁבֵ֥י הָאָ֖רֶץ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה וְהִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֜י מַמְצִ֣יא אֶת־הָאָדָ֗ם אִ֤ישׁ בְּיַד־רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ וּבְיַ֣ד מַלְכּ֔וֹ וְכִתְּתוּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְלֹ֥א אַצִּ֖יל מִיָּדָֽם׃‬ For I will no longer have compassion on the inhabitants of the land, says the Lord, and I am about to deliver up each man into the hand of his neighbour, and into the hand of his king. And enemies will strike the land, but I will not save them from their grip. I am about to ← behold, I.

grip ← hand.
Zech 11:7 ‫וָֽאֶרְעֶה֙ אֶת־צֹ֣אן הַֽהֲרֵגָ֔ה לָכֵ֖ן עֲנִיֵּ֣י הַצֹּ֑אן וָאֶקַּֽח־לִ֞י שְׁנֵ֣י מַקְל֗וֹת לְאַחַ֞ד קָרָ֤אתִי נֹ֙עַם֙ וּלְאַחַד֙ קָרָ֣אתִי חֹֽבְלִ֔ים וָאֶרְעֶ֖ה אֶת־הַצֹּֽאן׃‬ And I tended the flock of slaughter, which is why, O oppressed ones of the flock, I took two rods. One I called Beauty, and the other I called Binders, and I tended the flock. took ← got for myself.
Zech 11:8 ‫וָאַכְחִ֛ד אֶת־שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת הָרֹעִ֖ים בְּיֶ֣רַח אֶחָ֑ד וַתִּקְצַ֤ר נַפְשִׁי֙ בָּהֶ֔ם וְגַם־נַפְשָׁ֖ם בָּחֲלָ֥ה בִֽי׃‬ And I obliterated three shepherds in one month, for I was impatient with them, and also their whole being loathed me. I was impatient ← my soul was short.

whole being ← soul.
Zech 11:9 ‫וָאֹמַ֕ר לֹ֥א אֶרְעֶ֖ה אֶתְכֶ֑ם הַמֵּתָ֣ה תָמ֗וּת וְהַנִּכְחֶ֙דֶת֙ תִּכָּחֵ֔ד וְהַ֨נִּשְׁאָר֔וֹת תֹּאכַ֕לְנָה אִשָּׁ֖ה אֶת־בְּשַׂ֥ר רְעוּתָֽהּ׃‬ And I said, ‘I will not tend you. Let her that is dying, die, and her that is being obliterated, be obliterated. And as for those who remain, let them eat each other's flesh.’
Zech 11:10 ‫וָאֶקַּ֤ח אֶת־מַקְלִי֙ אֶת־נֹ֔עַם וָאֶגְדַּ֖ע אֹת֑וֹ לְהָפֵיר֙ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּרַ֖תִּי אֶת־כָּל־הָעַמִּֽים׃‬ And I took my staff, Beauty, and I broke it asunder, to break my covenant which I made with all the nations.
Zech 11:11 ‫וַתֻּפַ֖ר בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיֵּדְע֨וּ כֵ֜ן עֲנִיֵּ֤י הַצֹּאן֙ הַשֹּׁמְרִ֣ים אֹתִ֔י כִּ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה הֽוּא׃‬ And it was broken on that day, and the oppressed of the flock who had regard for me knew this, for it was the word of the Lord. this ← thus.

for it was: or that it (was).
Zech 11:12 ‫וָאֹמַ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם אִם־ט֧וֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶ֛ם הָב֥וּ שְׂכָרִ֖י וְאִם־לֹ֣א ׀ חֲדָ֑לוּ וַיִּשְׁקְל֥וּ אֶת־שְׂכָרִ֖י שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים כָּֽסֶף׃‬ And I said to them, ‘If it is good in your sight, give me my wages, and if not, then decline. And they weighed out my wages: thirty silver coins.’ ” Matt 27:9.
Zech 11:13 ‫וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י הַשְׁלִיכֵ֙הוּ֙ אֶל־הַיּוֹצֵ֔ר אֶ֣דֶר הַיְקָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָקַ֖רְתִּי מֵֽעֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וָֽאֶקְחָה֙ שְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים הַכֶּ֔סֶף וָאַשְׁלִ֥יךְ אֹת֛וֹ בֵּ֥ית יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־הַיּוֹצֵֽר׃‬ And the Lord said to me, “Throw it to the potter, the grand sum of the valuation at which I was valued by them.” So I took the thirty silver coins, and I threw them to the potter in the house of the Lord. Matt 27:9-10.

grand sum ← splendour of price. Ironic. Compensation for (fatal) injury to a servant; see Ex 21:32.
Zech 11:14 ‫וָֽאֶגְדַּע֙ אֶת־מַקְלִ֣י הַשֵּׁנִ֔י אֵ֖ת הַחֹֽבְלִ֑ים לְהָפֵר֙ אֶת־הָֽאַחֲוָ֔ה בֵּ֥ין יְהוּדָ֖ה וּבֵ֥ין יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ס‬ Then I broke my second staff, Binders, to break the brotherhood between Judah and Israel.
Zech 11:15 ‫וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה אֵלָ֑י ע֣וֹד קַח־לְךָ֔ כְּלִ֖י רֹעֶ֥ה אֱוִלִֽי׃‬ And the Lord said to me, “Get yourself a foolish shepherd's implement again.
Zech 11:16 ‫כִּ֣י הִנֵּֽה־אָנֹכִי֩ מֵקִ֨ים רֹעֶ֜ה בָּאָ֗רֶץ הַנִּכְחָד֤וֹת לֹֽא־יִפְקֹד֙ הַנַּ֣עַר לֹֽא־יְבַקֵּ֔שׁ וְהַנִּשְׁבֶּ֖רֶת לֹ֣א יְרַפֵּ֑א הַנִּצָּבָה֙ לֹ֣א יְכַלְכֵּ֔ל וּבְשַׂ֤ר הַבְּרִיאָה֙ יֹאכַ֔ל וּפַרְסֵיהֶ֖ן יְפָרֵֽק׃ ס‬ For I am about to raise up a shepherd in the land. He will not take care of those who are being obliterated, he will not seek out that which has been driven out, he will not heal what is broken, he will not sustain what is still standing, but he will eat the meat of fatted calves and tear their hooves apart. I am about to ← behold, I.

that which has been driven out: AV differs (the young one), taking a homonymous root.

but: adversative use of the vav.

fatted calvesa fatted calf.
Zech 11:17 ‫ה֣וֹי רֹעִ֤י הָֽאֱלִיל֙ עֹזְבִ֣י הַצֹּ֔אן חֶ֥רֶב עַל־זְרוֹע֖וֹ וְעַל־עֵ֣ין יְמִינ֑וֹ זְרֹעוֹ֙ יָב֣וֹשׁ תִּיבָ֔שׁ וְעֵ֥ין יְמִינ֖וֹ כָּהֹ֥ה תִכְהֶֽה׃ ס‬

Woe to the vain shepherd,

Who abandons the flock.

Let a sword be against his arm

And against his right eye.

His arm will completely waste away,

And his right eye will become utterly dim.”

completely waste away ← completely dry up. Infinitive absolute.

become utterly dim: infinitive absolute.
Zech 12:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֥א דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה נֹטֶ֤ה שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְיֹסֵ֣ד אָ֔רֶץ וְיֹצֵ֥ר רֽוּחַ־אָדָ֖ם בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ׃ פ‬ The burden of the word of the Lord concerning Israel, says the Lord, who stretches out the heavens and is the founder of the earth, and who forms the spirit of man inside him.
Zech 12:2 ‫הִנֵּ֣ה אָ֠נֹכִי שָׂ֣ם אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֧ם סַף־רַ֛עַל לְכָל־הָעַמִּ֖ים סָבִ֑יב וְגַ֧ם עַל־יְהוּדָ֛ה יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בַמָּצ֖וֹר עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ I am about to make Jerusalem a cup of reeling to all the various peoples round about, and it will also be so concerning Judah, in the siege against Jerusalem. I am about to ← behold, I.
Zech 12:3 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה בַיּוֹם־הַ֠הוּא אָשִׂ֨ים אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם אֶ֤בֶן מַֽעֲמָסָה֙ לְכָל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים כָּל־עֹמְסֶ֖יהָ שָׂר֣וֹט יִשָּׂרֵ֑טוּ וְנֶאֶסְפ֣וּ עָלֶ֔יהָ כֹּ֖ל גּוֹיֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day that I will make Jerusalem a burdensome stone to all the various peoples. All who lift it will be utterly cut in pieces, even if all the nations of the earth are gathered against it. burdensome stone ← stone of burden, a Hebraic genitive.

utterly cut in pieces: infinitive absolute.

even if: concessive conditional use of the vav.
Zech 12:4 ‫בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה אַכֶּ֤ה כָל־סוּס֙ בַּתִּמָּה֔וֹן וְרֹכְב֖וֹ בַּשִּׁגָּע֑וֹן וְעַל־בֵּ֤ית יְהוּדָה֙ אֶפְקַ֣ח אֶת־עֵינַ֔י וְכֹל֙ ס֣וּס הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אַכֶּ֖ה בַּֽעִוָּרֽוֹן׃‬ On that day, says the Lord, I will strike every horse with astonishment, and its rider with madness, and I will open my eyes on the house of Judah, and I will strike every horse of the Gentiles with blindness. Gentiles ← peoples.
Zech 12:5 ‫וְאָֽמְר֛וּ אַלֻּפֵ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה בְּלִבָּ֑ם אַמְצָ֥ה לִי֙ יֹשְׁבֵ֣י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם בַּיהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽם׃‬ And the governors of Judah will say in their hearts, ‘The inhabitants of Jerusalem are my strength, through the Lord of hosts their God.’ hearts ← heart.
Zech 12:6 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֡וּא אָשִׂים֩ אֶת־אַלֻּפֵ֨י יְהוּדָ֜ה כְּֽכִיּ֧וֹר אֵ֣שׁ בְּעֵצִ֗ים וּכְלַפִּ֥יד אֵשׁ֙ בְּעָמִ֔יר וְאָ֨כְל֜וּ עַל־יָמִ֧ין וְעַל־שְׂמֹ֛אול אֶת־כָּל־הָעַמִּ֖ים סָבִ֑יב וְיָשְׁבָ֨ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֥ם ע֛וֹד תַּחְתֶּ֖יהָ בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ פ‬ On that day I will make the governors of Judah like a brazier of fire with wood, and as a torch of fire in a sheaf, and they will consume to the right and to the left all the various peoples round about, and Jerusalem will yet be inhabited in its place, in Jerusalem.
Zech 12:7 ‫וְהוֹשִׁ֧יעַ יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־אָהֳלֵ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה בָּרִֽאשֹׁנָ֑ה לְמַ֨עַן לֹֽא־תִגְדַּ֜ל תִּפְאֶ֣רֶת בֵּית־דָּוִ֗יד וְתִפְאֶ֛רֶת יֹשֵׁ֥ב יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם עַל־יְהוּדָֽה׃‬ And the Lord will save the tents of Judah first, in order that the splendour of the house of David, and the splendour of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, should not become greater than that of Judah. inhabitants ← inhabitant, i.e. population.
Zech 12:8 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יָגֵ֤ן יְהוָה֙ בְּעַד֙ יוֹשֵׁ֣ב יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְהָיָ֞ה הַנִּכְשָׁ֥ל בָּהֶ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא כְּדָוִ֑יד וּבֵ֤ית דָּוִיד֙ כֵּֽאלֹהִ֔ים כְּמַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהוָ֖ה לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃‬ On that day, the Lord will defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and even he among them who stumbles will be on that day like David, and the house of David will be like God, like the angel of the Lord in front of them. inhabitants: see Zech 12:7.
Zech 12:9 ‫וְהָיָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא אֲבַקֵּ֗שׁ לְהַשְׁמִיד֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם הַבָּאִ֖ים עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day that I will strive to destroy all the nations which come against Jerusalem.
Zech 12:10 ‫וְשָׁפַכְתִּי֩ עַל־בֵּ֨ית דָּוִ֜יד וְעַ֣ל ׀ יוֹשֵׁ֣ב יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם ר֤וּחַ חֵן֙ וְתַ֣חֲנוּנִ֔ים וְהִבִּ֥יטוּ אֵלַ֖י אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־דָּקָ֑רוּ וְסָפְד֣וּ עָלָ֗יו כְּמִסְפֵּד֙ עַל־הַיָּחִ֔יד וְהָמֵ֥ר עָלָ֖יו כְּהָמֵ֥ר עַֽל־הַבְּכֽוֹר׃‬ And I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplications, and they will look on me whom they pierced, and they will mourn for him as the mourning for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over him, as one weeps bitterly for a firstborn son. John 19:37, Rev 1:7.

inhabitants: see Zech 12:7.

they will weep bitterly: infinitive absolute in the role of a finite verb.
Zech 12:11 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִגְדַּ֤ל הַמִּסְפֵּד֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם כְּמִסְפַּ֥ד הֲדַדְ־רִמּ֖וֹן בְּבִקְעַ֥ת מְגִדּֽוֹן׃‬ On that day the mourning in Jerusalem will be great, as the mourning of Hadad-Rimmon, in the Valley of Megiddon. Megiddon: elsewhere the word is Megiddo (מְגִדּוֹ).
Zech 12:12 ‫וְסָפְדָ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ מִשְׁפָּח֥וֹת מִשְׁפָּח֖וֹת לְבָ֑ד מִשְׁפַּ֨חַת בֵּית־דָּוִ֤יד לְבָד֙ וּנְשֵׁיהֶ֣ם לְבָ֔ד מִשְׁפַּ֤חַת בֵּית־נָתָן֙ לְבָ֔ד וּנְשֵׁיהֶ֖ם לְבָֽד׃‬ And the land will mourn, each family apart – the family of the house of David apart, and their wives apart, and the family of the house of Nathan apart, and their wives apart, Matt 24:30.

each family ← families (and) families.

Nathan: see 2 Sam 5:14 and Luke 3:31, representing the royal line.
Zech 12:13 ‫מִשְׁפַּ֤חַת בֵּית־לֵוִי֙ לְבָ֔ד וּנְשֵׁיהֶ֖ם לְבָ֑ד מִשְׁפַּ֤חַת הַשִּׁמְעִי֙ לְבָ֔ד וּנְשֵׁיהֶ֖ם לְבָֽד׃‬ the family of the house of Levi apart, and their wives apart, the family of Shimei apart, and their wives apart, Shimei: see Num 3:18, representing the priestly line.
Zech 12:14 ‫כֹּ֗ל הַמִּשְׁפָּחוֹת֙ הַנִּשְׁאָר֔וֹת מִשְׁפָּחֹ֥ת מִשְׁפָּחֹ֖ת לְבָ֑ד וּנְשֵׁיהֶ֖ם לְבָֽד׃ ס‬ and all the families that remain, each family apart, and their wives apart. each family ← families (and) families.
Zech 13:1 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ מָק֣וֹר נִפְתָּ֔ח לְבֵ֥ית דָּוִ֖יד וּלְיֹשְׁבֵ֣י יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם לְחַטַּ֖את וּלְנִדָּֽה׃‬ On that day a fountain will be opened for the house of David, and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. Alluded to in John 7:38.

for sin and for uncleanness: i.e. as a means for removal of sin and uncleanness [DB-VPZ].
Zech 13:2 ‫וְהָיָה֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא נְאֻ֣ם ׀ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת אַכְרִ֞ית אֶת־שְׁמ֤וֹת הָֽעֲצַבִּים֙ מִן־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְלֹ֥א יִזָּכְר֖וּ ע֑וֹד וְגַ֧ם אֶת־הַנְּבִיאִ֛ים וְאֶת־ר֥וּחַ הַטֻּמְאָ֖ה אַעֲבִ֥יר מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day, says the Lord of hosts, that I will cut off the names of the idols from the land, and they will not be remembered any more. And I will also remove the prophets and the unclean spirit from the land. prophets: i.e. false prophets.

unclean spirit ← spirit of uncleanness, a Hebraic genitive.
Zech 13:3 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כִּֽי־יִנָּבֵ֣א אִישׁ֮ עוֹד֒ וְאָמְר֣וּ אֵ֠לָיו אָבִ֨יו וְאִמּ֤וֹ יֹֽלְדָיו֙ לֹ֣א תִֽחְיֶ֔ה כִּ֛י שֶׁ֥קֶר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֑ה וּדְקָרֻ֜הוּ אָבִ֧יהוּ וְאִמּ֛וֹ יֹלְדָ֖יו בְּהִנָּבְאֽוֹ׃‬ And it will come to pass, if a man still prophesies, that his father and his mother who gave him birth will say to him, ‘You shall not live, because you have spoken falsely in the name of the Lord.’ And his father and his mother who gave him birth will thrust him through when he prophesies. falsely ← falsehood. Adverbial use of the noun.
Zech 13:4 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יֵבֹ֧שׁוּ הַנְּבִיאִ֛ים אִ֥ישׁ מֵחֶזְיֹנ֖וֹ בְּהִנָּֽבְאֹת֑וֹ וְלֹ֧א יִלְבְּשׁ֛וּ אַדֶּ֥רֶת שֵׂעָ֖ר לְמַ֥עַן כַּחֵֽשׁ׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day that the prophets will be put to shame, each one because of his vision when he prophesies, and they will not wear a hairy cloak in order to deceive.
Zech 13:5 ‫וְאָמַ֕ר לֹ֥א נָבִ֖יא אָנֹ֑כִי אִישׁ־עֹבֵ֤ד אֲדָמָה֙ אָנֹ֔כִי כִּ֥י אָדָ֖ם הִקְנַ֥נִי מִנְּעוּרָֽי׃‬ And he will say, ‘I am not a prophet; I am a tiller of the ground, for a man has employed me for this from my youth.’ has employed: perhaps bought, but that is a one-off transaction sitting uncomfortably with from my youth.
Zech 13:6 ‫וְאָמַ֣ר אֵלָ֔יו מָ֧ה הַמַּכּ֛וֹת הָאֵ֖לֶּה בֵּ֣ין יָדֶ֑יךָ וְאָמַ֕ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֻכֵּ֖יתִי בֵּ֥ית מְאַהֲבָֽי׃ ס‬ Now someone will say to him, ‘What are these wounds on your hands?’ And he will say, ‘They are those with which I was struck by the house of my friends.’ wounds: [CB] and AV refer these to the resurrected Christ; [DB-VPZ] considers them self-inflicted or in connection with idolatrous rites. Reference to Christ fits the succeeding verses; reference to idolatrous prophets fits the preceding context.
Zech 13:7 ‫חֶ֗רֶב עוּרִ֤י עַל־רֹעִי֙ וְעַל־גֶּ֣בֶר עֲמִיתִ֔י נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת הַ֤ךְ אֶת־הָֽרֹעֶה֙ וּתְפוּצֶ֣יןָ הַצֹּ֔אן וַהֲשִׁבֹתִ֥י יָדִ֖י עַל־הַצֹּעֲרִֽים׃‬

O sword, awake against my shepherd

And against the man who is my colleague,

Says the Lord of hosts.

Strike the shepherd,

And let the sheep be scattered,

And I will turn my hand to those who are little.

Matt 26:31, Mark 14:27.
Zech 13:8 ‫וְהָיָ֤ה בְכָל־הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה פִּֽי־שְׁנַ֣יִם בָּ֔הּ יִכָּרְת֖וּ יִגְוָ֑עוּ וְהַשְּׁלִשִׁ֖ית יִוָּ֥תֶר בָּֽהּ׃‬

And it will come to pass in the whole land,

Says the Lord,

That two thirds of it will be cut off and die,

And the third part will remain in it.

two thirds ← a mouth of two, an idiom for two parts, and here two thirds.
Zech 13:9 ‫וְהֵבֵאתִ֤י אֶת־הַשְּׁלִשִׁית֙ בָּאֵ֔שׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים֙ כִּצְרֹ֣ף אֶת־הַכֶּ֔סֶף וּבְחַנְתִּ֖ים כִּבְחֹ֣ן אֶת־הַזָּהָ֑ב ה֣וּא ׀ יִקְרָ֣א בִשְׁמִ֗י וַֽאֲנִי֙ אֶעֱנֶ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ עַמִּ֣י ה֔וּא וְה֥וּא יֹאמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהָֽי׃ ס‬

And I will bring the third part into the fire,

And I will refine them as a refiner of silver,

And I will assay them as in assaying gold.

They will call on my name,

And I will answer them.

I will say, ‘They are my people’,

And they will say, ‘The Lord is my God.’

in assaying: gerundial use of the infinitive.

they ... them ... they ... they ← he ...him ... he ... he, referring to the people.
Zech 14:1 ‫הִנֵּ֥ה יֽוֹם־בָּ֖א לַֽיהוָ֑ה וְחֻלַּ֥ק שְׁלָלֵ֖ךְ בְּקִרְבֵּֽךְ׃‬ Behold, the day of the Lord is coming, and your spoil will be divided in your midst. Rev 1:10.

your midst: reference to Jerusalem.
Zech 14:2 ‫וְאָסַפְתִּ֨י אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֥ם ׀ אֶֽל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם֮ לַמִּלְחָמָה֒ וְנִלְכְּדָ֣ה הָעִ֗יר וְנָשַׁ֙סּוּ֙ הַבָּ֣תִּ֔ים וְהַנָּשִׁ֖ים *תשגלנה **תִּשָּׁכַ֑בְנָה וְיָצָ֞א חֲצִ֤י הָעִיר֙ בַּגּוֹלָ֔ה וְיֶ֣תֶר הָעָ֔ם לֹ֥א יִכָּרֵ֖ת מִן־הָעִֽיר׃‬ And I will gather all the nations to Jerusalem to war, and the city will be captured, and the houses will be plundered, and the women raped. And half of the city will be deported, but the rest of the people will not be cut off from the city. raped: the Masoretes considered the ketiv obscene and replaced it by a more polite word, to be lain, an unusual passive (in Hebrew and English) of a normally intransitive verb. Compare Deut 28:30.

be deported ← go into exile.
Zech 14:3 ‫וְיָצָ֣א יְהוָ֔ה וְנִלְחַ֖ם בַּגּוֹיִ֣ם הָהֵ֑ם כְּי֥וֹם הִֽלָּחֲמ֖ו בְּי֥וֹם קְרָֽב׃‬ Then the Lord will go out and fight against those nations, as on the day when he fought – on the day of battle.
Zech 14:4 ‫וְעָמְד֣וּ רַגְלָ֣יו בַּיּוֹם־הַ֠הוּא עַל־הַ֨ר הַזֵּתִ֜ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י יְרוּשָׁלִַם֮ מִקֶּדֶם֒ וְנִבְקַע֩ הַ֨ר הַזֵּיתִ֤ים מֵֽחֶצְיוֹ֙ מִזְרָ֣חָה וָיָ֔מָּה גֵּ֖יא גְּדוֹלָ֣ה מְאֹ֑ד וּמָ֨שׁ חֲצִ֥י הָהָ֛ר צָפ֖וֹנָה וְחֶצְיוֹ־נֶֽגְבָּה׃‬ And on that day his feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem to the east, and the Mount of Olives will be split in half, eastwards and westwards, and there will be a very big valley, and half of the mountain will move northwards, and half of it southwards.
Zech 14:5 ‫וְנַסְתֶּ֣ם גֵּֽיא־הָרַ֗י כִּֽי־יַגִּ֣יעַ גֵּי־הָרִים֮ אֶל־אָצַל֒ וְנַסְתֶּ֗ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר נַסְתֶּם֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י הָרַ֔עַשׁ בִּימֵ֖י עֻזִּיָּ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה וּבָא֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהַ֔י כָּל־קְדֹשִׁ֖ים עִמָּֽךְ׃‬ And you will flee to the valley of my mountains, for the valley of the mountains will reach Azal, and you will flee as you fled from the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and the Lord my God will come. All the holy ones will be with you.
Zech 14:6 ‫וְהָיָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא לֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֣ה א֔וֹר יְקָר֖וֹת *יקפאון **וְקִפָּאֽוֹן׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day that there will be no {K: light; the prized lights will wane} [Q: prized lights or congelation]. wane (ketiv)congeal, freeze. A vav / yod issue. AV differs (not be dark).

prized lights: i.e. the sun, moon, and stars.
Zech 14:7 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה יוֹם־אֶחָ֗ד ה֛וּא יִוָּדַ֥ע לַֽיהוָ֖ה לֹא־י֣וֹם וְלֹא־לָ֑יְלָה וְהָיָ֥ה לְעֵֽת־עֶ֖רֶב יִֽהְיֶה־אֽוֹר׃‬ And it will come to pass on a certain day – it is known to the Lord that there will be no day and no night. Then it will come to pass in the evening that there will be light. Rev 1:10.

a certain ← one.
Zech 14:8 ‫וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יֵצְא֤וּ מַֽיִם־חַיִּים֙ מִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם חֶצְיָ֗ם אֶל־הַיָּם֙ הַקַּדְמוֹנִ֔י וְחֶצְיָ֖ם אֶל־הַיָּ֣ם הָאַחֲר֑וֹן בַּקַּ֥יִץ וּבָחֹ֖רֶף יִֽהְיֶֽה׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day that living water will go out from Jerusalem, half of it to the eastern sea and half of it to the western sea. This will be in summer and in winter. Alluded to in John 7:38, Rev 22:1.

eastern ← early, i.e. the direction of the sun early in the day. The Dead (Sea).

western ← last, i.e. the direction of the sun late in the day. The Mediterranean (Sea).
Zech 14:9 ‫וְהָיָ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִהְיֶ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה אֶחָ֖ד וּשְׁמ֥וֹ אֶחָֽד׃‬ And the Lord will be king over all the earth; on that day, the Lord will be one, and his name one. the Lord will be one: or there will be one Lord.
Zech 14:10 ‫יִסּ֨וֹב כָּל־הָאָ֤רֶץ כָּעֲרָבָה֙ מִגֶּ֣בַע לְרִמּ֔וֹן נֶ֖גֶב יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְֽרָאֲמָה֩ וְיָשְׁבָ֨ה תַחְתֶּ֜יהָ לְמִשַּׁ֣עַר בִּנְיָמִ֗ן עַד־מְק֞וֹם שַׁ֤עַר הָֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ עַד־שַׁ֣עַר הַפִּנִּ֔ים וּמִגְדַּ֣ל חֲנַנְאֵ֔ל עַ֖ד יִקְבֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃‬ All the land will be changed to like the arid tract from Geba to Rimmon, south of Jerusalem. Then it will be lifted up high, and it will be inhabited in its place, from Benjamin's Gate to the place of the first gate – to the Corner Gate – and from the Tower of Hananel to the king's wine vats. the arid tract: according to [DB-VPZ] it is a place, Arabah, a name for the Jordan Valley.

Corner Gate ← Corners Gate.

Hananel: see Jer 31:38.
Zech 14:11 ‫וְיָ֣שְׁבוּ בָ֔הּ וְחֵ֖רֶם לֹ֣א יִֽהְיֶה־ע֑וֹד וְיָשְׁבָ֥ה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם לָבֶֽטַח׃‬ And they will dwell in it, and there will be no more destruction, and Jerusalem will be inhabited securely.
Zech 14:12 ‫וְזֹ֣את ׀ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה הַמַּגֵּפָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִגֹּ֤ף יְהוָה֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר צָבְא֖וּ עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הָמֵ֣ק ׀ בְּשָׂר֗וֹ וְהוּא֙ עֹמֵ֣ד עַל־רַגְלָ֔יו וְעֵינָיו֙ תִּמַּ֣קְנָה בְחֹֽרֵיהֶ֔ן וּלְשׁוֹנ֖וֹ תִּמַּ֥ק בְּפִיהֶֽם׃‬ And this will be the way of striking in which the Lord will strike all the various peoples who made war against Jerusalem: he will cause their flesh to melt away while they are standing on their feet, and their eyes will melt in their sockets, and their tongue will melt away in their mouth. their flesh ... they are standing on their feet ← his flesh ... he is standing on his feet. Also elsewhere in this verse, but finally the Hebrew is their mouth. The use of the singular emphasizes that each one will undergo the fate.
Zech 14:13 ‫וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא תִּֽהְיֶ֧ה מְהֽוּמַת־יְהוָ֛ה רַבָּ֖ה בָּהֶ֑ם וְהֶחֱזִ֗יקוּ אִ֚ישׁ יַ֣ד רֵעֵ֔הוּ וְעָלְתָ֥ה יָד֖וֹ עַל־יַ֥ד רֵעֵֽהוּ׃‬ And it will come to pass on that day that there will be a great commotion among them from the Lord, and each one will seize the hand of his neighbour, and his hand will rise against the hand of his neighbour. from the Lordof the Lord. Wider use of the construct state.
Zech 14:14 ‫וְגַ֨ם־יְהוּדָ֔ה תִּלָּחֵ֖ם בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְאֻסַּף֩ חֵ֨יל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֜ם סָבִ֗יב זָהָ֥ב וָכֶ֛סֶף וּבְגָדִ֖ים לָרֹ֥ב מְאֹֽד׃‬ And Judah will also fight in Jerusalem, and the wealth of all the Gentiles round about will be gathered – gold and silver and clothes, in great abundance.
Zech 14:15 ‫וְכֵ֨ן תִּֽהְיֶ֜ה מַגֵּפַ֣ת הַסּ֗וּס הַפֶּ֙רֶד֙ הַגָּמָ֣ל וְהַחֲמ֔וֹר וְכָ֨ל־הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִהְיֶ֖ה בַּמַּחֲנ֣וֹת הָהֵ֑מָּה כַּמַּגֵּפָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת׃‬ And that is the way that the striking of the horse, the mule, the camel and the donkey, and all cattle will be, which will be in those camps: it will be according to that way of striking. that is the way that ← thus.

that way ofthis (way of).
Zech 14:16 ‫וְהָיָ֗ה כָּל־הַנּוֹתָר֙ מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם הַבָּאִ֖ים עַל־יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וְעָל֞וּ מִדֵּ֧י שָׁנָ֣ה בְשָׁנָ֗ה לְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֺת֙ לְמֶ֙לֶךְ֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וְלָחֹ֖ג אֶת־חַ֥ג הַסֻּכּֽוֹת׃‬ And it will come to pass that all the remainder of all the Gentiles who came against Jerusalem will go up from year to year, to worship the king, the Lord of hosts, and to celebrate the Festival of Tabernacles. came against ← come against (participle), as in Zech 12:9, but just possibly here come to, in a peaceful way after removal of the enemies.
Zech 14:17 ‫וְ֠הָיָה אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־יַעֲלֶ֜ה מֵאֵ֨ת מִשְׁפְּח֤וֹת הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ אֶל־יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם לְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֔ת לְמֶ֖לֶךְ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת וְלֹ֥א עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם יִהְיֶ֥ה הַגָּֽשֶׁם׃‬ And it will come to pass that concerning any representative from the families of the earth who does not go up to Jerusalem to worship the king, the Lord of hosts, there will be no rain on them.
Zech 14:18 ‫וְאִם־מִשְׁפַּ֨חַת מִצְרַ֧יִם לֹֽא־תַעֲלֶ֛ה וְלֹ֥א בָאָ֖ה וְלֹ֣א עֲלֵיהֶ֑ם תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה הַמַּגֵּפָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִגֹּ֤ף יְהוָה֙ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א יַֽעֲל֔וּ לָחֹ֖ג אֶת־חַ֥ג הַסֻּכּֽוֹת׃‬ And if the family of Egypt does not go up, and it does not come, then there will be no rain on them; that will be the way of striking with which the Lord will strike the Gentiles who do not go up to celebrate the Festival of Tabernacles.
Zech 14:19 ‫זֹ֥את תִּהְיֶ֖ה חַטַּ֣את מִצְרָ֑יִם וְחַטַּאת֙ כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א יַֽעֲל֔וּ לָחֹ֖ג אֶת־חַ֥ג הַסֻּכּֽוֹת׃‬ That will be the punishment for the sin of Egypt, and the punishment for the sin of all the Gentiles who do not go up to celebrate the Festival of Tabernacles. that ← this.
Zech 14:20 ‫בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ עַל־מְצִלּ֣וֹת הַסּ֔וּס קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהוָ֑ה וְהָיָ֤ה הַסִּירוֹת֙ בְּבֵ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה כַּמִּזְרָקִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֥י הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ׃‬ On that day there will be written on the bells of a horse, ‘Holiness to the Lord’. And the pans in the house of the Lord will be as basins before the altar. a horse ← the horse. An unexpected definite article. See Gen 22:9.
Zech 14:21 ‫וְ֠הָיָה כָּל־סִ֨יר בִּירוּשָׁלִַ֜ם וּבִֽיהוּדָ֗ה קֹ֚דֶשׁ לַיהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וּבָ֙אוּ֙ כָּל־הַזֹּ֣בְחִ֔ים וְלָקְח֥וּ מֵהֶ֖ם וּבִשְּׁל֣וּ בָהֶ֑ם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶ֨ה כְנַעֲנִ֥י ע֛וֹד בְּבֵית־יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא׃‬ And every pan in Jerusalem and in Judah will be holy to the Lord of hosts, and all those who sacrifice will come and will take some of them, and they will cook in them. And there will not be any Canaanite any longer in the house of the Lord of hosts, on that day.” holy ← holiness.

Canaanite: or merchant.
Mal 1:1 ‫מַשָּׂ֥א דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּיַ֖ד מַלְאָכִֽי׃‬ The burden of the word of the Lord to Israel through the intermediacy of Malachi. intermediacy ← hand.
Mal 1:2 ‫אָהַ֤בְתִּי אֶתְכֶם֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם בַּמָּ֣ה אֲהַבְתָּ֑נוּ הֲלוֹא־אָ֨ח עֵשָׂ֤ו לְיַֽעֲקֹב֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וָאֹהַ֖ב אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹֽב׃‬ “I have loved you, says the Lord, but you say, ‘In what way have you loved us?’ Was not Esau Jacob's brother? says the Lord, and I loved Jacob, Rom 9:13.
Mal 1:3 ‫וְאֶת־עֵשָׂ֖ו שָׂנֵ֑אתִי וָאָשִׂ֤ים אֶת־הָרָיו֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה וְאֶת־נַחֲלָת֖וֹ לְתַנּ֥וֹת מִדְבָּֽר׃‬ but I hated Esau, and I have made his mountains a desolation, and I have given his inheritance to the desert jackals. Rom 9:13.
Mal 1:4 ‫כִּֽי־תֹאמַ֨ר אֱד֜וֹם רֻשַּׁ֗שְׁנוּ וְנָשׁוּב֙ וְנִבְנֶ֣ה חֳרָב֔וֹת כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת הֵ֥מָּה יִבְנ֖וּ וַאֲנִ֣י אֶהֱר֑וֹס וְקָרְא֤וּ לָהֶם֙ גְּב֣וּל רִשְׁעָ֔ה וְהָעָ֛ם אֲשֶׁר־זָעַ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃‬ For Edom says, ‘We have been broken in pieces, but we will build up the waste places again.’ This is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘They may build, but I will pull down, and they will call them the Wicked Territory, and the People with whom the Lord has an Age-abiding Indignation. this is whatthus.

territory ← border.
Mal 1:5 ‫וְעֵינֵיכֶ֖ם תִּרְאֶ֑ינָה וְאַתֶּ֤ם תֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ יִגְדַּ֣ל יְהוָ֔ה מֵעַ֖ל לִגְב֥וּל יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃‬ And your eyes will see, and you will say, «May the Lord be magnified above the territory of Israel.» territory ← border.
Mal 1:6 ‫בֵּ֛ן יְכַבֵּ֥ד אָ֖ב וְעֶ֣בֶד אֲדֹנָ֑יו וְאִם־אָ֣ב אָ֣נִי אַיֵּ֣ה כְבוֹדִ֡י וְאִם־אֲדוֹנִ֣ים אָנִי֩ אַיֵּ֨ה מוֹרָאִ֜י אָמַ֣ר ׀ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת לָכֶם֙ הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ בּוֹזֵ֣י שְׁמִ֔י וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם בַּמֶּ֥ה בָזִ֖ינוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶֽךָ׃‬ A son honours his father, and a servant his master, so if I am a father, where is my honour? And if I am a master, where is my fear? The Lord of hosts says to you, «The priests despise my name.» Yet you say, «In what way do we despise your name?» my fear: an objective genitive (they fear me).
Mal 1:7 ‫מַגִּישִׁ֤ים עַֽל־מִזְבְּחִי֙ לֶ֣חֶם מְגֹאָ֔ל וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם בַּמֶּ֣ה גֵֽאַלְנ֑וּךָ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶ֕ם שֻׁלְחַ֥ן יְהוָ֖ה נִבְזֶ֥ה הֽוּא׃‬ You offer polluted bread on the altar, but you say, «In what way do we pollute you?» In that you say, «The table of the Lord is despicable.»
Mal 1:8 ‫וְכִֽי־תַגִּשׁ֨וּן עִוֵּ֤ר לִזְבֹּ֙חַ֙ אֵ֣ין רָ֔ע וְכִ֥י תַגִּ֛ישׁוּ פִּסֵּ֥חַ וְחֹלֶ֖ה אֵ֣ין רָ֑ע הַקְרִיבֵ֨הוּ נָ֜א לְפֶחָתֶ֗ךָ הֲיִּרְצְךָ֙ א֚וֹ הֲיִשָּׂ֣א פָנֶ֔יךָ אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ And when you offer a blind animal to be sacrificed, is it not wrong? And when you offer a lame or sick animal, is it not wrong? Offer it now to your governor and see if he is pleased with you, or if he commends you, says the Lord of hosts.’ ” to be sacrificed ← to sacrifice (it).

offer it now to your governor: i.e. give it as a live gift.

commends you ← raises your face.
Mal 1:9 ‫וְעַתָּ֛ה חַלּוּ־נָ֥א פְנֵי־אֵ֖ל וִֽיחָנֵ֑נוּ מִיֶּדְכֶם֙ הָ֣יְתָה זֹּ֔את הֲיִשָּׂ֤א מִכֶּם֙ פָּנִ֔ים אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ And now, entreat God, I pray you, that he be gracious to us. This has come about because of your deeds. “Will he commend any of you? says the Lord of hosts. entreat ← weaken the face.

deeds ← hands.

commend ← raise the face.
Mal 1:10 ‫מִ֤י גַם־בָּכֶם֙ וְיִסְגֹּ֣ר דְּלָתַ֔יִם וְלֹֽא־תָאִ֥ירוּ מִזְבְּחִ֖י חִנָּ֑ם אֵֽין־לִ֨י חֵ֜פֶץ בָּכֶ֗ם אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וּמִנְחָ֖ה לֹֽא־אֶרְצֶ֥ה מִיֶּדְכֶֽם׃‬ Who among you would close the doors? And you do not kindle my altar freely. I have no pleasure in you, says the Lord of hosts, and I will not accept an offering from your hands. among you: i.e., [CB], among you priests.

doors: i.e. temple doors, to stop the profaning.

freely: apparently charging customers to offer their sacrifice.
Mal 1:11 ‫כִּ֣י מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁ֜מֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹא֗וֹ גָּד֤וֹל שְׁמִי֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם וּבְכָל־מָק֗וֹם מֻקְטָ֥ר מֻגָּ֛שׁ לִשְׁמִ֖י וּמִנְחָ֣ה טְהוֹרָ֑ה כִּֽי־גָד֤וֹל שְׁמִי֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ For my name is great among the Gentiles from the rising of the sun to where it sets, and in every place incense is burnt and offered to my name, and a pure offering, for my name is great among the Gentiles, says the Lord of hosts. AV differs, supplying the verb to be in the future throughout. That makes sense, but Hebrew normally uses an explicit verbal form for specific future events. We take Mal 1:12 as a contrast to this verse, so also in the present tense (AV differs, past tense).
Mal 1:12 ‫וְאַתֶּ֖ם מְחַלְּלִ֣ים אוֹת֑וֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶ֗ם שֻׁלְחַ֤ן אֲדֹנָי֙ מְגֹאָ֣ל ה֔וּא וְנִיב֖וֹ נִבְזֶ֥ה אָכְלֽוֹ׃‬ But you profane it when you say, ‘The table of the Lord* is polluted, and its produce, its fruit, is despicable.’ Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.

you profane: present participle. AV differs (have profaned); see Mal 1:11.
Mal 1:13 ‫וַאֲמַרְתֶּם֩ הִנֵּ֨ה מַתְּלָאָ֜ה וְהִפַּחְתֶּ֣ם אוֹת֗וֹ אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וַהֲבֵאתֶ֣ם גָּז֗וּל וְאֶת־הַפִּסֵּ֙חַ֙ וְאֶת־הַ֣חוֹלֶ֔ה וַהֲבֵאתֶ֖ם אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֑ה הַאֶרְצֶ֥ה אוֹתָ֛הּ מִיֶּדְכֶ֖ם אָמַ֥ר יְהוָֽה׃ ס‬ And you said, ‘Look how wearisome it is’, and you {P: disparaged me} [M: deprecated it], says the Lord of hosts, and you brought snatched animals, and lame ones, and sick ones, and you brought them as an offering. Should I be pleased with that from your hand? says the Lord. An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB] App. 33, and amend Mal 1:12. P= אוֹתִי. AV differs.

how wearisome ← what weariness.
Mal 1:14 ‫וְאָר֣וּר נוֹכֵ֗ל וְיֵ֤שׁ בְּעֶדְרוֹ֙ זָכָ֔ר וְנֹדֵ֛ר וְזֹבֵ֥חַ מָשְׁחָ֖ת לַֽאדֹנָ֑י כִּי֩ מֶ֨לֶךְ גָּד֜וֹל אָ֗נִי אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וּשְׁמִ֖י נוֹרָ֥א בַגּוֹיִֽם׃‬ But cursed be he who fraudulently withholds, when there is a male in his flock, and he vows, and he sacrifices a spoiled animal to the Lord*, for I am a great king, says the Lord of hosts, and my name is feared among the Gentiles. Lord*: a change by the Sopherim from יהוה, Yhvh, to אֲדֹנָי, Adonai. See Gen 18:3 and [CB] App. 32.
Mal 2:1 ‫וְעַתָּ֗ה אֲלֵיכֶ֛ם הַמִּצְוָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את הַכֹּהֲנִֽים׃‬ And now, this commandment is for you, O priests.
Mal 2:2 ‫אִם־לֹ֣א תִשְׁמְע֡וּ וְאִם־לֹא֩ תָשִׂ֨ימוּ עַל־לֵ֜ב לָתֵ֧ת כָּב֣וֹד לִשְׁמִ֗י אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֤י בָכֶם֙ אֶת־הַמְּאֵרָ֔ה וְאָרוֹתִ֖י אֶת־בִּרְכֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם וְגַם֙ אָרוֹתִ֔יהָ כִּ֥י אֵינְכֶ֖ם שָׂמִ֥ים עַל־לֵֽב׃‬ And if you do not listen, and if you do not lay it to heart, to give honour to my name, says the Lord of hosts, then I will send the curse on you, and I will curse your blessings. And indeed, I have already cursed them, for you are not laying this to heart. the curse: of Deut 28:20.

them ← it.
Mal 2:3 ‫הִנְנִ֨י גֹעֵ֤ר לָכֶם֙ אֶת־הַזֶּ֔רַע וְזֵרִ֤יתִי פֶ֙רֶשׁ֙ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶ֔ם פֶּ֖רֶשׁ חַגֵּיכֶ֑ם וְנָשָׂ֥א אֶתְכֶ֖ם אֵלָֽיו׃‬ I am about to rebuke your seed, and I will spread dung on your faces – the dung of your feasts – and you will be taken away to it. I am about to ← behold me.

rebuke: AV differs (corrupt).

you will be taken away to it ← he / one will take you away to it, i.e. to ↴
Mal 2:4 ‫וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּ֚י שִׁלַּ֣חְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת הַמִּצְוָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את לִֽהְי֤וֹת בְּרִיתִי֙ אֶת־לֵוִ֔י אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ And you will know that I have sent this commandment to you, that my covenant may be with Levi, says the Lord of hosts. ↳ the foul place where animal dung and waste was deposited. Avoidance of the passive.
Mal 2:5 ‫בְּרִיתִ֣י ׀ הָיְתָ֣ה אִתּ֗וֹ הַֽחַיִּים֙ וְהַ֨שָּׁל֔וֹם וָאֶתְּנֵֽם־ל֥וֹ מוֹרָ֖א וַיִּֽירָאֵ֑נִי וּמִפְּנֵ֥י שְׁמִ֖י נִחַ֥ת הֽוּא׃‬ My covenant was with him, life and peace, and I gave them to him as a matter of fear, so that he would fear me, and so that he would be put in awe, on account of my name. him: i.e. Levi.
Mal 2:6 ‫תּוֹרַ֤ת אֱמֶת֙ הָיְתָ֣ה בְּפִ֔יהוּ וְעַוְלָ֖ה לֹא־נִמְצָ֣א בִשְׂפָתָ֑יו בְּשָׁל֤וֹם וּבְמִישׁוֹר֙ הָלַ֣ךְ אִתִּ֔י וְרַבִּ֖ים הֵשִׁ֥יב מֵעָוֺֽן׃‬ There was a law of truth in his mouth, and injustice was not found on his lips. He walked with me in peace and equity, and he recovered many from iniquity.
Mal 2:7 ‫כִּֽי־שִׂפְתֵ֤י כֹהֵן֙ יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַ֔עַת וְתוֹרָ֖ה יְבַקְשׁ֣וּ מִפִּ֑יהוּ כִּ֛י מַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהוָֽה־צְבָא֖וֹת הֽוּא׃‬ For the lips of a priest should guard knowledge, and they should seek the law from his pronouncements, for he is the messenger from the Lord of hosts. pronouncements ← mouth.
Mal 2:8 ‫וְאַתֶּם֙ סַרְתֶּ֣ם מִן־הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ הִכְשַׁלְתֶּ֥ם רַבִּ֖ים בַּתּוֹרָ֑ה שִֽׁחַתֶּם֙ בְּרִ֣ית הַלֵּוִ֔י אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ But you have departed from the way, you have caused many to stumble in the law, and you have perverted the covenant of Levi, says the Lord of hosts.
Mal 2:9 ‫וְגַם־אֲנִ֞י נָתַ֧תִּי אֶתְכֶ֛ם נִבְזִ֥ים וּשְׁפָלִ֖ים לְכָל־הָעָ֑ם כְּפִ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֵֽינְכֶם֙ שֹׁמְרִ֣ים אֶת־דְּרָכַ֔י וְנֹשְׂאִ֥ים פָּנִ֖ים בַּתּוֹרָֽה׃ פ‬ So I too will make you despised and lowly regarded by all the people, according as you do not guard my ways, and you show partiality in administering the law.
Mal 2:10 ‫הֲל֨וֹא אָ֤ב אֶחָד֙ לְכֻלָּ֔נוּ הֲל֛וֹא אֵ֥ל אֶֽחָ֖ד בְּרָאָ֑נוּ מַדּ֗וּעַ נִבְגַּד֙ אִ֣ישׁ בְּאָחִ֔יו לְחַלֵּ֖ל בְּרִ֥ית אֲבֹתֵֽינוּ׃‬ Do we not all have one father? Did not one God create us? Why do we deal faithlessly one to his brother, so violating the covenant of our fathers?
Mal 2:11 ‫בָּגְדָ֣ה יְהוּדָ֔ה וְתוֹעֵבָ֛ה נֶעֶשְׂתָ֥ה בְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וּבִירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם כִּ֣י ׀ חִלֵּ֣ל יְהוּדָ֗ה קֹ֤דֶשׁ יְהוָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָהֵ֔ב וּבָעַ֖ל בַּת־אֵ֥ל נֵכָֽר׃‬ Judah has been treacherous, and an abomination has been perpetrated in Israel and in Jerusalem, for Judah has profaned the Lord's holiness, in that he loved and married the daughter of a strange god. holiness: or sanctuary.

in that he loved: AV differs in word grouping, as does MT (the holiness of the LORD which he loved), also possible.
Mal 2:12 ‫יַכְרֵ֨ת יְהוָ֜ה לָאִ֨ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַעֲשֶׂ֙נָּה֙ עֵ֣ר וְעֹנֶ֔ה מֵאָהֳלֵ֖י יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב וּמַגִּ֣ישׁ מִנְחָ֔ה לַֽיהוָ֖ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ פ‬ May the Lord cut off any man who does this, whether on guard or whether answering a watchword challenge from the tents of Jacob, even if he brings an offering to the Lord of hosts. this ← it.

whether on guard or whether answering a watchword challenge(whether) awake etc. AV differs (master and the scholar), [CB]= wakener and answerer, temple guards. [PC] and others offer the sense of everybody, but [PC] regards the sense we have as the most probable.

if: conditional use of the vav.
Mal 2:13 ‫וְזֹאת֙ שֵׁנִ֣ית תַּֽעֲשׂ֔וּ כַּסּ֤וֹת דִּמְעָה֙ אֶת־מִזְבַּ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה בְּכִ֖י וַֽאֲנָקָ֑ה מֵאֵ֣ין ע֗וֹד פְּנוֹת֙ אֶל־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה וְלָקַ֥חַת רָצ֖וֹן מִיֶּדְכֶֽם׃‬ And this second thing you do (while covering the Lord's altar with tears, with weeping and groaning), so that he no longer respects the offering, to receive it with delight from your hands. covering: infinitive construct in the role of a participle.

respects ← turns to.

hands ← hand.
Mal 2:14 ‫וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם עַל־מָ֑ה עַ֡ל כִּי־יְהוָה֩ הֵעִ֨יד בֵּינְךָ֜ וּבֵ֣ין ׀ אֵ֣שֶׁת נְעוּרֶ֗יךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ בָּגַ֣דְתָּה בָּ֔הּ וְהִ֥יא חֲבֶרְתְּךָ֖ וְאֵ֥שֶׁת בְּרִיתֶֽךָ׃‬ And yet you say, ‘Why?’ Because the Lord testifies the case between you and the wife of your youth, that you dealt treacherously with her, but she was your companion, and your wife by your covenant. your wife by your covenant ← the wife of your covenant.
Mal 2:15 ‫וְלֹא־אֶחָ֣ד עָשָׂ֗ה וּשְׁאָ֥ר ר֙וּחַ֙ ל֔וֹ וּמָה֙ הָֽאֶחָ֔ד מְבַקֵּ֖שׁ זֶ֣רַע אֱלֹהִ֑ים וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ בְּר֣וּחֲכֶ֔ם וּבְאֵ֥שֶׁת נְעוּרֶ֖יךָ אַל־יִבְגֹּֽד׃‬ And did he not make you one? And he has the residue of the spirit. And why one? He is seeking a seed of God, so you must be on guard in your spirit, and do not deal faithlessly with the wife of your youth. he has the residue of the spirit: the text could perhaps better be re-pointed to שְׁאֵר, giving kinship of spirit. We see the verse as a warning against corruption of the seed of God by adultery, by which Nephilimic contamination could enter. See Gen 6:4.
Mal 2:16 ‫כִּֽי־שָׂנֵ֣א שַׁלַּ֗ח אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְכִסָּ֤ה חָמָס֙ עַל־לְבוּשׁ֔וֹ אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּ֥ם בְּרוּחֲכֶ֖ם וְלֹ֥א תִבְגֹּֽדוּ׃ ס‬ For the Lord God of Israel says that he hates divorce, as one covers up violence with one's clothes, says the Lord of hosts, so be on your guard in your spirit, and do not deal faithlessly. divorce: the context is faithless treatment of the wife.
Mal 2:17 ‫הוֹגַעְתֶּ֤ם יְהוָה֙ בְּדִבְרֵיכֶ֔ם וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם בַּמָּ֣ה הוֹגָ֑עְנוּ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶ֗ם כָּל־עֹ֨שֵׂה רָ֜ע ט֣וֹב ׀ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֗ה וּבָהֶם֙ ה֣וּא חָפֵ֔ץ א֥וֹ אַיֵּ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י הַמִּשְׁפָּֽט׃‬ You have wearied the Lord with your words, yet you say, ‘In what way have we wearied him?’ In that you say, ‘Everyone who does wrong is good in the eyes of the Lord, and he is pleased with them’, or, ‘Where is the God of judgment?’
Mal 3:1 ‫הִנְנִ֤י שֹׁלֵחַ֙ מַלְאָכִ֔י וּפִנָּה־דֶ֖רֶךְ לְפָנָ֑י וּפִתְאֹם֩ יָב֨וֹא אֶל־הֵיכָל֜וֹ הָאָד֣וֹן ׀ אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּ֣ם מְבַקְשִׁ֗ים וּמַלְאַ֨ךְ הַבְּרִ֜ית אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּ֤ם חֲפֵצִים֙ הִנֵּה־בָ֔א אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ I am about to send my messenger, and he will prepare a way before me. Then the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to his temple, and the messenger of the covenant in whom you delight. Behold, he is coming, says the Lord of hosts. Matt 11:10, Mark 1:2, Luke 1:17, Luke 7:27.

I am about to ← behold me.

and the messenger: or as (will) the messenger.

whom: or which.
Mal 3:2 ‫וּמִ֤י מְכַלְכֵּל֙ אֶת־י֣וֹם בּוֹא֔וֹ וּמִ֥י הָעֹמֵ֖ד בְּהֵרָֽאוֹת֑וֹ כִּֽי־הוּא֙ כְּאֵ֣שׁ מְצָרֵ֔ף וּכְבֹרִ֖ית מְכַבְּסִֽים׃‬ And

Who can endure the day of his coming?

And who can stand at his appearing?

For he is like a refiner's fire,

And like fullers' lye.

Rev 6:17.

lye: a caustic substance used to make soap, which can be used in fulling.
Mal 3:3 ‫וְיָשַׁ֨ב מְצָרֵ֤ף וּמְטַהֵר֙ כֶּ֔סֶף וְטִהַ֤ר אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־לֵוִי֙ וְזִקַּ֣ק אֹתָ֔ם כַּזָּהָ֖ב וְכַכָּ֑סֶף וְהָיוּ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה מַגִּישֵׁ֥י מִנְחָ֖ה בִּצְדָקָֽה׃‬ And he will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and he will purify the sons of Levi, and he will refine them like gold and silver, and they will become offerers of the meal-offering to the Lord in righteousness.
Mal 3:4 ‫וְעָֽרְבָה֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה מִנְחַ֥ת יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם כִּימֵ֣י עוֹלָ֔ם וּכְשָׁנִ֖ים קַדְמֹנִיּֽוֹת׃‬ And the offering of Judah and Jerusalem will be pleasing to the Lord, as in the days of an age past, and as in former years.
Mal 3:5 ‫וְקָרַבְתִּ֣י אֲלֵיכֶם֮ לַמִּשְׁפָּט֒ וְהָיִ֣יתִי ׀ עֵ֣ד מְמַהֵ֗ר בַּֽמְכַשְּׁפִים֙ וּבַמְנָ֣אֲפִ֔ים וּבַנִּשְׁבָּעִ֖ים לַשָּׁ֑קֶר וּבְעֹשְׁקֵ֣י שְׂכַר־שָׂ֠כִיר אַלְמָנָ֨ה וְיָת֤וֹם וּמַטֵּי־גֵר֙ וְלֹ֣א יְרֵא֔וּנִי אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ And I will draw near to you for justice, and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers and against adulterers, and against those who swear falsely, and against those who defraud the hired labourer of his wages, the widow and the orphan, and those who pervert the case of the foreigner, and who do not fear me, says the Lord of hosts. defraud the hired labourer of his wages ← defraud the wages of the hired labourer.
Mal 3:6 ‫כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה לֹ֣א שָׁנִ֑יתִי וְאַתֶּ֥ם בְּנֵֽי־יַעֲקֹ֖ב לֹ֥א כְלִיתֶֽם׃‬ For I am the Lord; I do not change, and you sons of Jacob have not perished.
Mal 3:7 ‫לְמִימֵ֨י אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֜ם סַרְתֶּ֤ם מֵֽחֻקַּי֙ וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַרְתֶּ֔ם שׁ֤וּבוּ אֵלַי֙ וְאָשׁ֣וּבָה אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם בַּמֶּ֥ה נָשֽׁוּב׃‬ Since the days of your fathers, you have departed from my statutes and have not kept them. Return to me, and I will return to you, says the Lord of hosts. But you say, ‘In what way should we return?’
Mal 3:8 ‫הֲיִקְבַּ֨ע אָדָ֜ם אֱלֹהִ֗ים כִּ֤י אַתֶּם֙ קֹבְעִ֣ים אֹתִ֔י וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם בַּמֶּ֣ה קְבַעֲנ֑וּךָ הַֽמַּעֲשֵׂ֖ר וְהַתְּרוּמָֽה׃‬ Can a man defraud God? For you are defrauding me. But you say, ‘In what way do we defraud you?’ In tithing and in the heave-offering.
Mal 3:9 ‫בַּמְּאֵרָה֙ אַתֶּ֣ם נֵֽאָרִ֔ים וְאֹתִ֖י אַתֶּ֣ם קֹבְעִ֑ים הַגּ֖וֹי כֻּלּֽוֹ׃‬ You {P: curse} [M: are cursed] with a curse, and you are defrauding me – all the nation. An amendment by the Sopherim. We reverse the change. See [CB] App. 33. P= מְאָרִים. AV differs.
Mal 3:10 ‫הָבִ֨יאוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַֽמַּעֲשֵׂ֜ר אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הָאוֹצָ֗ר וִיהִ֥י טֶ֙רֶף֙ בְּבֵיתִ֔י וּבְחָנ֤וּנִי נָא֙ בָּזֹ֔את אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת אִם־לֹ֧א אֶפְתַּ֣ח לָכֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת אֲרֻבּ֣וֹת הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִ֥י לָכֶ֛ם בְּרָכָ֖ה עַד־בְּלִי־דָֽי׃‬ Bring all of the tithe to the treasury, so that there is provision in my house. And test me, please, in this matter, says the Lord of hosts, whether or not I will open for you the windows of heaven and empty out an abundant blessing on you. abundant ← up to without sufficiency, i.e. without (stopping at) just enough, or without sufficient (resources to hold it).
Mal 3:11 ‫וְגָעַרְתִּ֤י לָכֶם֙ בָּֽאֹכֵ֔ל וְלֹֽא־יַשְׁחִ֥ת לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־פְּרִ֣י הָאֲדָמָ֑ה וְלֹא־תְשַׁכֵּ֨ל לָכֶ֤ם הַגֶּ֙פֶן֙ בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ And I will rebuke the consuming locust for you, and it will not ruin your fruit of the ground, and it will not cause the vine in the field to be unfruitful, says the Lord of hosts.
Mal 3:12 ‫וְאִשְּׁר֥וּ אֶתְכֶ֖ם כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם כִּֽי־תִהְי֤וּ אַתֶּם֙ אֶ֣רֶץ חֵ֔פֶץ אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ ס‬ And all the nations will call you blessed, for you will be a delightful land, says the Lord of hosts. delightful land ← land of delight, a Hebraic genitive.
Mal 3:13 ‫חָזְק֥וּ עָלַ֛י דִּבְרֵיכֶ֖ם אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם מַה־נִּדְבַּ֖רְנוּ עָלֶֽיךָ׃‬ Your words have been obstinate against me, says the Lord, yet you say, ‘In what way have we spoken together against you?’
Mal 3:14 ‫אֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם שָׁ֖וְא עֲבֹ֣ד אֱלֹהִ֑ים וּמַה־בֶּ֗צַע כִּ֤י שָׁמַ֙רְנוּ֙ מִשְׁמַרְתּ֔וֹ וְכִ֤י הָלַ֙כְנוּ֙ קְדֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית מִפְּנֵ֖י יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃‬ You say, ‘It is vain to serve God, and what profit is there that we keep his charge, and that we walk mournfully before the Lord of hosts?
Mal 3:15 ‫וְעַתָּ֕ה אֲנַ֖חְנוּ מְאַשְּׁרִ֣ים זֵדִ֑ים גַּם־נִבְנוּ֙ עֹשֵׂ֣י רִשְׁעָ֔ה גַּ֧ם בָּחֲנ֛וּ אֱלֹהִ֖ים וַיִּמָּלֵֽטוּ׃‬ And so now we call those who are presumptuous blessed, and who also claim that those who act wickedly are firmly established, and even that those who put God to the test escape without consequence.’ ” established ← built.
Mal 3:16 ‫אָ֧ז נִדְבְּר֛וּ יִרְאֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֑הוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁ֤ב יְהוָה֙ וַיִּשְׁמָ֔ע וַ֠יִּכָּתֵב סֵ֣פֶר זִכָּר֤וֹן לְפָנָיו֙ לְיִרְאֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וּלְחֹשְׁבֵ֖י שְׁמֽוֹ׃‬ Then those who feared the Lord spoke together, one to another, and the Lord hearkened and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before him, of those who feared the Lord and those who respected his name.
Mal 3:17 ‫וְהָ֣יוּ לִ֗י אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת לַיּ֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י עֹשֶׂ֣ה סְגֻלָּ֑ה וְחָמַלְתִּ֣י עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ יַחְמֹ֣ל אִ֔ישׁ עַל־בְּנ֖וֹ הָעֹבֵ֥ד אֹתֽוֹ׃‬ “And they will be mine, says the Lord of hosts, on the day when I make them a special possession. And I will have compassion on them, as a man has compassion on his son who serves him.
Mal 3:18 ‫וְשַׁבְתֶּם֙ וּרְאִיתֶ֔ם בֵּ֥ין צַדִּ֖יק לְרָשָׁ֑ע בֵּ֚ין עֹבֵ֣ד אֱלֹהִ֔ים לַאֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א עֲבָדֽוֹ׃ ס‬ And you will return, and you will see the difference between the righteous and the wicked, and between him who serves God and him who does not serve him.
Mal 3:19
Mal 4:1AV
‫כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה הַיּוֹם֙ בָּ֔א בֹּעֵ֖ר כַּתַּנּ֑וּר וְהָי֨וּ כָל־זֵדִ֜ים וְכָל־עֹשֵׂ֤ה רִשְׁעָה֙ קַ֔שׁ וְלִהַ֨ט אֹתָ֜ם הַיּ֣וֹם הַבָּ֗א אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יַעֲזֹ֥ב לָהֶ֖ם שֹׁ֥רֶשׁ וְעָנָֽף׃‬ For behold, the day is coming, burning like a furnace, and all the presumptuous, and all those who act wickedly will be like chaff. And that coming day will set them on fire, says the Lord of hosts, who will not leave them root or branch. or: disjunctive use of the vav.
Mal 3:20
Mal 4:2AV
‫וְזָרְחָ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם יִרְאֵ֤י שְׁמִי֙ שֶׁ֣מֶשׁ צְדָקָ֔ה וּמַרְפֵּ֖א בִּכְנָפֶ֑יהָ וִֽיצָאתֶ֥ם וּפִשְׁתֶּ֖ם כְּעֶגְלֵ֥י מַרְבֵּֽק׃‬ And the sun of righteousness will rise on you who fear my name, and healing will be in its wings, and you will go out and thrive like fatted calves of the stall.
Mal 3:21
Mal 4:3AV
‫וְעַסּוֹתֶ֣ם רְשָׁעִ֔ים כִּֽי־יִהְי֣וּ אֵ֔פֶר תַּ֖חַת כַּפּ֣וֹת רַגְלֵיכֶ֑ם בַּיּוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲנִ֣י עֹשֶׂ֔ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת׃ פ‬ And you will tread down the wicked, for they will be as ashes under the soles of your feet, on the day when I do this, says the Lord of hosts.
Mal 3:22
Mal 4:4AV
‫זִכְר֕וּ תּוֹרַ֖ת מֹשֶׁ֣ה עַבְדִּ֑י אֲשֶׁר֩ צִוִּ֨יתִי אוֹת֤וֹ בְחֹרֵב֙ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל חֻקִּ֖ים וּמִשְׁפָּטִֽים׃‬ Remember the law of Moses my servant, whom I commanded at Horeb, concerning all Israel, with statutes and judicature. Horeb: also known as Sinai.

judicature ← judgments.
Mal 3:23
Mal 4:5AV
‫הִנֵּ֤ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ שֹׁלֵ֣חַ לָכֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת אֵלִיָּ֣ה הַנָּבִ֑יא לִפְנֵ֗י בּ֚וֹא י֣וֹם יְהוָ֔ה הַגָּד֖וֹל וְהַנּוֹרָֽא׃‬ Behold, I am going to send you Elijah the prophet, before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord, Luke 1:17, Rev 1:10.

Elijah: compare Mal 3:1.
Mal 3:24
Mal 4:6AV
‫וְהֵשִׁ֤יב לֵב־אָבוֹת֙ עַל־בָּנִ֔ים וְלֵ֥ב בָּנִ֖ים עַל־אֲבוֹתָ֑ם פֶּן־אָב֕וֹא וְהִכֵּיתִ֥י אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ חֵֽרֶם׃‬ and he will turn the hearts of the fathers to the sons, and the hearts of the sons to their fathers, lest I come and strike the earth with sacred destruction.” Luke 1:17.

hearts (2x)heart.